WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma exhaust aftertreatment

  1. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  2. Non-thermal plasma exhaust aftertreatment: Are all plasmas the same?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, J.H.; Hanson, G.R.; Storey, J.M.; Raridon, R.J.; Armfield, J.S.; Bigelow, T.S.; Graves, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe initial experiments employing 5.5 GHz pulsed microwave power, which should result in enhanced chemistry compared to present state-of-the-art plasma aftertreatments by; reducing plasma electric field shielding, increasing availability of atomic nitrogen, exploiting surface charging of dielectrics, avoiding (low field) threshold initiated discharges, and achieving a higher high energy tail on the electron distribution function. As an example, the authors decided to test for NO reduction in N{sub 2}. While this reaction is not a complete description of the exhaust issues by any means, they thought it would demonstrate the technology proposed.

  3. Diesel Exhaust After-Treatment by Silicon Carbide Fiber Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce particulate matter (PM in diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been developed. The thermal durability of existing platinum catalyst-supported DPFs is inadequate. We are focusing on a non-catalytic after-treatment of silicon carbide (SiC fibers with highly thermal durability. In this study, we simulated the processes of soot deposition and oxidation. Results show that even in exhaust gas without soot, a complex flow pattern is observed. The porosity of the filter is not constant along the flow direction, and the pressure gradient varies. The friction factor is slightly larger than the predicted value by the empirical equation in uniform porous media flow. Since the soot deposition occurs inside the filter, the depth filtration by SiC fibers was confirmed. In addition, the effects of filter temperature and oxygen concentration are clearly revealed. That is, comparing the oxidation at 700 °C, the deposited soot amount at 1200 and 1400 °C is decreased by 60% and 92%, respectively. Raising the oxygen concentration from 10% to 20% increases the oxidation efficiency from 42% to 64%. Although more work is needed over a wide range of operating conditions, a combination of these two parameters is important to achieve the non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment.

  4. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  5. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  6. Development of super-clean diesel engine and combustor using nonthermal plasma hybrid aftertreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    One of important and successful environmental applications of atmospheric-pressure corona discharge or plasma is electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which have been widely used for coal- or oil-fired boilers in electric power plants and particulate matter control emitted from industries such as glass melting furnace system, etc. In the ESPs, steady high voltage is usually applied to a pair of electrodes (at least, one of these has sharp edge). Unsteady pulsed high voltage is often applied for the collection of high-resistivity particulate matter (PM) to avoid reverse corona phenomena which reduce the collection efficiency of the ESPs. It was found that unsteady high voltage can treat hazardous gaseous components (NOx, SOx, hydrocarbon, and CO, etc.) in the exhaust gas, and researches were shifted from PM removal to hazardous gases aftertreatment with unsteady corona discharge induced plasmas. In the paper, recent results on diesel engine and industrial boiler emission controls are mainly reviewed among these our research topics.

  7. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  8. Phenomenological methodology for assessing the influence of flow conditions on the acoustic response of exhaust aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A. J.; Arnau, F. J.; Piqueras, P.; Sanchis, E. J.; Tartoussi, H.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing limits of standards on aerosol and gaseous emissions from internal combustion engines have led to the progressive inclusion of different exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS) as a part of the powertrain. Regulated emissions are generally abated making use of devices based on monolithic structures with different chemical functions. As a side effect, wave transmission across the device is affected and so is the boundary at the exhaust line inlet, so that the design of the latter is in turn affected. While some models are available for the prediction of these effects, the geometrical complexity of many devices makes still necessary in many cases to rely on experimental measurements, which cannot cover all the diversity of flow conditions under which these devices operate. To overcome this limitation, a phenomenological methodology is proposed in this work that allows for the sound extrapolation of experimental results to flow conditions different from those used in the measurements. The transfer matrix is obtained from tests in an impulse rig for different excitation amplitudes and mean flows. The experimental coefficients of the transmission matrix of the device are fitted to Fourier series. It allows treating the influence of the flow conditions on the acoustic response, which is manifested on changes in the characteristic periods, separately from the specific properties of every device. In order to provide predictive capabilities to the method, the Fourier series approach is coupled to a gas dynamics model able to account for the sensitivity of propagation velocity to variations in the flow conditions.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  10. Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel; Elementbelastungen von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen durch Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hendrik; Wilharm, Thomas [ASG Analytik-Service Gesellschaft mbH, Neusaess (Germany); Winkler, Markus [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany); Knuth, Hans-Walter

    2012-06-15

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements. These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. (orig.)

  11. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

  12. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  13. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  14. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment systems design. Pt. 1. Spark ignition engine; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. T. 1. Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-02-01

    At the Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece, an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) methodology assisting the design of SI-engine exhaust aftertreatment systems employing the following computational tools was developed: A computer code which models transient exhaust system heat transfer, a tuneable computer code which models the transient operation of a three-way catalytic converter, a database containing chemical kinetics data for a variety of catalyst formulations, and a methodology for ageing assessment calculations. Application of the CAE methodology, which aids the exhaust aftertreatment system design engineer to meet the upcoming, increasingly stringent emission standards, is high-lighted by referring to a number of representative case studies. (orig.) [Deutsch] An der Aristoteles-Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, wurde eine computergestuetzte Methode (CAE) entwickelt, die den Entwurf und die Konstruktion von Abgasnachbehandlungskonzepten unterstuetzt. Die Methode setzt auf die folgenden Rechenmodelle und Datenbanken: Ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs in Motorabgassystemen, ein Rechenmodell zur Abschaetzung des Katalysatorgegendrucks, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Dreiwegekatalysatoren und eine computergestuetzte Prozedur zur Abschaetzung des Alterungsverhaltens von Dreiwegekatalysatoren. Integrierte CAE-Methoden koennen beim Entwurf von modernen Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen angewandt werden, um die Entwicklungszeit und -kosten betraechtlich zu reduzieren. (orig.)

  15. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  16. Mercedes-Benz medium-duty commercial engines. Pt. 1. Engine concept and exhaust aftertreatment; Mittelschwerer NFZ-Motor von Mercedes-Benz. T. 1. Motor- und Abgasreinigungkonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans-Otto; Nielsen, Boerge; Gropp, Christian; Lehmann, Juergen [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Daimler Trucks will launch a generation of fully newly developed Mercedes-Benz diesel engines for medium-duty commercial vehicles with the coming into effect of the Euro VI emissions standard. The new engines, with the model series designation OM 93x, will gradually replace the successful Series 900, which has been on the market for over 15 years. Similar to the previous model series, the new engines are available in four- and six-cylinder versions (OM 934 and OM 936). In the following the concept of the engine and the exhaust aftertreatment are described, the operational strategies and the development process will be dealt with in a second part in MTZ 11. (orig.)

  17. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration

  18. Characterization of diesel particles: effects of fuel reformulation, exhaust aftertreatment, and engine operation on particle carbon composition and volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alander, Timo J A; Leskinen, Ari P; Raunemaa, Taisto M; Rantanen, Leena

    2004-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are the major constituent of urban carbonaceous aerosol being linked to a large range of adverse environmental and health effects. In this work, the effects of fuel reformulation, oxidation catalyst, engine type, and engine operation parameters on diesel particle emission characteristics were investigated. Particle emissions from an indirect injection (IDI) and a direct injection (DI) engine car operating under steady-state conditions with a reformulated low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and a standard-grade fuel were analyzed. Organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles were quantified by a thermal-optical transmission analysis method and particle size distributions measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The particle volatility characteristics were studied with a configuration that consisted of a thermal desorption unit and an SMPS. In addition, the volatility of size-selected particles was determined with a tandem differential mobility analyzer technique. The reformulated fuel was found to produce 10-40% less particulate carbon mass compared to the standard fuel. On the basis of the carbon analysis, the organic carbon contributed 27-61% to the carbon mass of the IDI engine particle emissions, depending on the fuel and engine operation parameters. The fuel reformulation reduced the particulate organic carbon emissions by 10-55%. In the particles of the DI engine, the organic carbon contributed 14-26% to the total carbon emissions, the advanced engine technology, and the oxidation catalyst, thus reducing the OC/EC ratio of particles considerably. A relatively good consistency between the particulate organic fraction quantified with the thermal optical method and the volatile fraction measured with the thermal desorption unit and SMPS was found.

  19. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis

    2016-12-06

    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  20. Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...

  1. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment sytems design. Part 2: Diesel engines; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. Teil 2: Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of diesel engines, there is growing interest in CAE methods for low-emission concepts, as newly developed mathematical models become more and more efficient. The design of diesel exhaust systems must take three general concepts into account: the oxidation catalyst, the particulate filter and the DeNO{sub x} catalyst. A CAE methodology developed at the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece, to aid engineers in designing exhaust systems is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the following computational tools: a transient exhaust system heat transfer code, a transient oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converter code, a catalyst kinetics database for the various types of oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converters and a computational tool for calculating the loading and regeneration of diesel filters with and without catalytic support. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bereich der Dieselmotoren nimmt das Interesse an computergestuetzten CAE-Methoden fuer Niedrigemissionskonzepte zu, da neu entwickelte mathematische Modelle immer leistungsfaehiger werden. Der Entwurf von Dieselabgassystemen muss drei allgemeine Konzepte beruecksichtigen: Oxidationskatalysator, Partikelfilter und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysator. Eine an der Aristoteles Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, entwickelte computergestuetzte Methode, die den Entwurf von Abgassystemen unterstuetzten kann, wird im Folgenden dargestellt. Die Methode basiert auf folgenden Rechenmodellen: ein Modell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs im Abgassystem, ein Rechenmodell zur Bestimmung des Instationaerverhaltens des Oxidations- und des DeNO{sub x}-Katalysators, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Oxidations- und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysatoren sowie ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung der Beladung und Regenerierung von Dieselfiltern mit oder ohne katalytische Unterstuetzung. (orig.)

  2. FreedomCAR - Aftertreatment Subsystem Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa A. Prentiss

    2005-09-30

    The primary objective of this program was to develop generic aftertreatment technologies applicable for LDV and LDT engines ranging from 55 kW to 200kW, to develop an optimized and integrated aftertreatment system for a LDT (Light Duty Truck) type vehicle, and to demonstrate the technology which will enable light duty diesel engines to meet Federal Tier II regulation with minimum impact on fuel economy. Specifically, the development targets for emissions reduction and fuel injection penalty are given below: (1) NOx conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (2) PM conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (3) Fuel penalty over FTP-75 Less than 5%; and (4) Fuel penalty at Cruise condition Less than 3%. Development of cost-effective, highly efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems in combination with very low engine out emission combustion development are essential elements for realization of Federal Tier II emission standards for Light Duty Trucks and Vehicles. Evaluation of several aftertreatment technologies was completed as part of this program. A combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, NOx Adsorbing Catalyst and Catalyzed Soot Filter was found to provide the levels of conversion efficiency required to achieve the emission targets. While early systems required relatively large catalyst volumes, external dosing, sulfur traps, full bypass configurations and high levels of Platinum metals; the final system is a compact, scalable, flow-through, fully-integrated and engine-managed aftertreatment system capable of commercial application for Light Duty Vehicles and Trucks. NOx adsorber/particulate filter technology is particularly attractive for Light Duty applications due to the lower exhaust flow and temperature requirements as compared to Heavy Duty engines. Despite these strong positive aspects, NOx Adsorbers are challenged by their regeneration requirements and susceptibility to sulfur poisoning and thermal degradation. Capability was

  3. Analysis of the Mechanism and the Current Situation of the Plasma Purification Technology for Diesel Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Guo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanism and the current situation of the plasma purification technology for diesel exhaust is introduced. Research indicates that cleaning the diesel exhaust with the plasma produced by corona discharge or dielectric barrier discharge has too high energy consumption to direct use without catalyst. To solve this problem, the study gives some new ways about cleaning diesel exhaust with arc discharge.

  4. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B. (Navistar, Inc.); Derybowski, E. (Navistar, Inc.)

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  5. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  6. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  7. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  8. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  9. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Brian R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 μm in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  10. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  11. LPV gain-scheduled control of SCR aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami-Azad, Mona; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.; Harold, Michael P.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and some of other polluting emissions produced by diesel engines are usually lower than those produced by gasoline engines. While great strides have been made in the exhaust aftertreatment of vehicular pollutants, the elimination of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) from diesel vehicles is still a challenge. The primary reason is that diesel combustion is a fuel-lean process, and hence there is significant unreacted oxygen in the exhaust. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a well-developed technology for power plants and has been recently employed for reducing NO x emissions from automotive sources and in particular, heavy-duty diesel engines. In this article, we develop a linear parameter-varying (LPV) feedforward/feedback control design method for the SCR aftertreatment system to decrease NO x emissions while keeping ammonia slippage to a desired low level downstream the catalyst. The performance of the closed-loop system obtained from the interconnection of the SCR system and the output feedback LPV control strategy is then compared with other control design methods including sliding mode, and observer-based static state-feedback parameter-varying control. To reduce the computational complexity involved in the control design process, the number of LPV parameters in the developed quasi-LPV (qLPV) model is reduced by applying the principal component analysis technique. An LPV feedback/feedforward controller is then designed for the qLPV model with reduced number of scheduling parameters. The designed full-order controller is further simplified to a first-order transfer function with a parameter-varying gain and pole. Finally, simulation results using both a low-order model and a high-fidelity and high-order model of SCR reactions in GT-POWER interfaced with MATLAB/SIMULINK illustrate the high NO x conversion efficiency of the closed-loop SCR system using the proposed parameter-varying control law.

  12. Unfiltered Diesel Engine Exhaust Treatment by Discharge Plasma:Effect of Soot Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. S. Rajanikanth; Subhankar Das; A. D. Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    A cascaded system of electrical discharges (Non-thermal plasma), catalyst and adsorption process was investigated for the removal of oxides of nitrogen (NO x) and carbon monoxide (CO) from a Diesel engine raw exhaust. The three processes were separately studied first, and then the cascaded processes, namely plasma-catalyst and plasma-adsorbent, were investigated. In this paper main emphasis was laid on the effect of carbonaceous soot oxidation on the plasma treatment process. While the cascaded plasma-catalyst process exhibits a higher CO removal, the cascaded plasma-adsorbent process exhibits a higher NO x removal. The experiments were conducted under no-load. The plasma and adsorbent reactors were kept at room temperature throughout the experiment while the catalyst reactor was kept at 200oC / 300oC.

  13. The Technology of Non-thermal Plasma Assisted NH3-SCR Reduce Marine Diesel Emission and Aldehydes Byproducts Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes briefly various after-treatment technologies in marine diesel engines and application difficulties of DPF and SCR are included. An experiment has been conducted using non-thermal plasma generated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD process assisted NH3-SCR catalyst to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx from diesel engine exhaust. The formation mechanism of byproducts-type such as HCHO and CH3CHO in the non-thermal plasma assisted NH3-SCR hybrid system.

  14. Removal of Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel Engine Exhaust by Plasma Assisted Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the studies conducted on removal of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust using electrical discharge plasma combined with adsorbing materials such as molecular sieves. This study is being reported for the first time. The exhaust is taken from a diesel engine of 6 kW under no load conditions. The characteristic behavior of a pulse energized dielectric barrier discharge reactor in the diesel exhaust treatment is reported. The NOx removal was not significant (36%) when the reactor without any packing was used. However, when the reactor was packed with molecular sieves (MS -3A, -4A & -13X), the NOx removal efficiency was increased to 78% particularly at a temperature of 200 o C. The studies were conducted at different temperatures and the results were discussed.

  15. A Cascaded Discharge Plasma-Adsorbent Technique for Engine Exhaust Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cascaded system of electrical discharges (non-thermal plasma) and adsorptionprocess was investigated for the removal of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and total hydrocarbons(THC) from an actual diesel engine exhaust. The non-thermal plasma and adsorption processeswere separately studied first and then the cascaded process was studied. In this study, differenttypes of adsorbents were used. The NOx removal efficiency was higher with plasma-associatedadsorption (cascaded) process compared to the individual processes and the removal efficiencywas found almost invariant in time. When associated by plasma, among the adsorbents studied,activated charcoal and MS-13X were more effective for NOx and THC removal respectively. Theexperiments were conducted at no load and at 50 % load conditions. The plasma reactor was keptat room temperature throughout the experiment, while the temperature of the adsorbent reactorwas varied. A relative comparison of adsorbents was discussed at the end.

  16. A Cascaded Discharge Plasma-Adsorbent Technique for Engine Exhaust Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanikanth, B. S.; Srinivasan, A. D.; Arya, Nandiny B.

    2003-06-01

    A cascaded system of electrical discharges (non-thermal plasma) and adsorption process was investigated for the removal of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and total hydrocarbons (THC) from an actual diesel engine exhaust. The non-thermal plasma and adsorption processes were separately studied first and then the cascaded process was studied. In this study, different types of adsorbents were used. The NOx removal efficiency was higher with plasma-associated adsorption (cascaded) process compared to the individual processes and the removal efficiency was found almost invariant in time. When associated by plasma, among the adsorbents studied, activated charcoal and MS-13X were more effective for NOx and THC removal respectively. The experiments were conducted at no load and at 50% load conditions. The plasma reactor was kept at room temperature throughout the experiment, while the temperature of the adsorbent reactor was varied. A relative comparison of adsorbents was discussed at the end.

  17. Non-Conventional Plasma Assisted Catalysts for Diesel Exhaust Treatment: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the application of pulse discharges along with catalysts in treating the exhaust gas at higher temperatures. In the present work a plasma reactor, filled with catalysts, called as plasma catalytic reactor, is studied for removal of oxides of nitrogen, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experiments are conducted on an actual diesel engine exhaust at no-load and at different temperatures starting from room temperature to 300℃. The removal efficiencies of these pollutants are studied. The experiments are carried out with both conventional and non-conventional catalysts. The idea is to explore the pollutant removal efficiency characteristics by non-conventional catalysts. The efficiency results are compared with that of conventional catalysts. The experiments are carried out at a constant pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. Both pellet and honeycomb type catalysts are used in the study.

  18. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distance from the exhaust manifold flange(s), or turbocharger outlet to any exhaust aftertreatment device shall be the same as in the locomotive configuration unless the manufacturer is able to demonstrate... exhaust manifold or turbocharger outlet to smoke meter exceeds 12 feet (3.7 m) in length, then all ducting...

  19. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  20. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  1. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  2. Non-thermal plasma discharge based NO{sub x} removal system for diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federle, S.P.; Littrell, D.M. [Armament Directorate, Eglin AFB, FL (United States). Wright Lab.; Wander, J. [Environics Directorate, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States). Armstrong Lab.; Rogers, J.W.; Nejezchleb, A.J.; Rolader, G.E. [Science Application International Corp., Shalimar, FL (United States); Canfield, A. [ARA, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent on Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) at several Air Force bases. The problems are particularly acute for Air Force bases in California, such as March, Vandenberg, and McClellan. The most pressing regulatory problem is the emissions of nitrogen oxides from the A/M32A-86 (-86) diesel-powered generator. In response to this problem, the Air Force started the Green AGE program for advanced technology demonstrations. As part of the Green AGE program, the Armstrong Laboratory, Environics Directorate at Tyndall AFB and the Wright Laboratory, Armament Directorate at Eglin AFB were selected to jointly demonstrate that a Non-Thermal Plasma Discharge (NTPD) based system could remove the NO{sub x} from the -86 exhaust. A -86 generator was installed at Site A-15 of Eglin AFB, and a portion of the exhaust diverted to flow through a complete NTPD system. The system is comprised of a particle filter, reactor tube, and conventional wet scrubber. The particle filter removes particulates. The reactor tube oxidizes the nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide and acid compounds, which can be removed by a conventional wet scrubber. Many experiments were performed to optimize the system. It was found that the injection of ethanol upstream of the reactor tube drastically reduced the energy required for nitric oxide oxidation. In addition, using Teflon PFA dielectrics was found to be superior to glass. In this paper, the applicable regulations are summarized; and estimates on the size, weight, and cost of a fieldable system are presented. In addition, the design, construction, and testing of each component from the demonstration program is described and results from the many optimization experiments are reported.

  3. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  4. Commissioning of the catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up facility caprice and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M.; Kraemer, R.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.; Guenther, K.; Besserer, U.; Schaefer, P.; Hellriegel, W. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany); Geissler, H. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fuel clean-up process for all plasma exhaust gases from DT fusion machines, based on catalytic conversion reactions combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through palladium/silver, has been developed. The complete process has already been proven with relevant concentrations of tritium at laboratory scale. On the basis of the results obtained the technical facility `CAPRICE` was designed, and is now under tritium operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The facility is being used to demonstrate the process on a target throughput of 10 mol/h DT and 1 mol/h tritiated and non-tritiated impurities. Full scale experiments with hydrogen and deuterium have been completed to verify the design parameters of the facility and to gain detailed knowledge on the performance of the different subsystems under a variety of experimental conditions. Decontamination factors were obtained from these experiments as well as from first tritium runs employing about 350 Ci (0.5%) tritium in deuterium. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Yu; Yongdong Liang; Shujun Sun; Kai Zhang; Jue Zhang; Jing Fang

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on t...

  6. Astaxanthin Supplementation Delays Physical Exhaustion and Prevents Redox Imbalances in Plasma and Soleus Muscles of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASTA is a pinkish-orange carotenoid commonly found in marine organisms, especially salmon. ASTA is a powerful antioxidant and suggested to provide benefits for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection, and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. Exercise is associated to overproduction of free radicals in muscles and plasma, with pivotal participation of iron ions and glutathione (GSH. Thus, ASTA was studied here as an auxiliary supplement to improve antioxidant defenses in soleus muscles and plasma against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise. Long-term 1 mg ASTA/kg body weight (BW supplementation in Wistar rats (for 45 days significantly delayed time to exhaustion by 29% in a swimming test. ASTA supplementation increased scavenging/iron-chelating capacities (TEAC/FRAP and limited exercise-induced iron overload and its related pro-oxidant effects in plasma of exercising animals. On the other hand, ASTA induced significant mitochondrial Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase antioxidant responses in soleus muscles that, in turn, increased GSH content during exercise, limited oxidative stress, and delayed exhaustion. We also provided significant discussion about a putative “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA based on previous publications and on the positive results found in the highly mitochondrial populated (oxidative-type soleus muscles here.

  7. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  8. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  9. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2000-07-01

    This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

  10. Diesel NO(x) aftertreatment by combined process using temperature swing adsorption, NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma, and NO(x) recirculation: improvement of the recirculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2012-09-15

    NO(x) emitted from a stationary diesel engine generator was treated with a hybrid system comprising NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma (NTP) and temperature swing adsorption (TSA) driven by engine waste heat. TSA produces a low-volume gas mixture of N(2) and highly concentrated NO(x), which is effectively reduced by NTP treatment. Improved treatment performance and efficiency are achieved by re-injecting the NTP-treated gas mixture into the engine intake. The system comprises two switchable adsorption chambers; the operation of this system was simulated by using a one-chamber system. The maximum energy efficiency for NO(x) treatment is 200 g(NO(2))/kWh. The respective contributions of NTP and injection of N(2) and NO(x) to the performance were theoretically analyzed. The analysis predicts that high energy efficiency and high NO(x)-removal efficiency can be simultaneously achieved with this system but miniaturization of the adsorption chambers will be a challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combination of plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst for automobile exhaust treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Lee, Dae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Ok; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    To activate a catalyst efficiently at low temperature by plasma for environmental control, we developed a hybrid reactor that combines plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst in a practical manner. The reactor developed generated stable cold plasma at atmospheric pressure because of the dielectric and conductive nature of the honeycomb catalyst by consuming low amounts of power. In this reactor, the applied voltage and temperature determined the balance between the oxidation and adsorption by the plasma and catalyst. The synergistic reaction of the plasma and catalyst was more effective at low temperatures, resulting in a reduction in a lowered light-off temperature.

  12. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  13. Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei Neek, Leila; Gaeini, Abas Ali; Choobineh, Siroos

    2011-12-01

    Zinc and selenium are essential minerals and have roles for more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how exhaustive exercise affects testosterone levels and plasma lactate in cyclists who were supplemented with oral zinc and selenium for 4 weeks. For this reason, 32 male road cyclists were selected equally to four groups: PL group, placebo; Zn group, zinc supplement (30 mg/day); Se group, selenium supplement (200 μg/day); and Zn-Se group, zinc-selenium supplement. After treatment, free, total testosterone, and lactate levels of subjects were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Resting total, free testosterone, and lactate levels did not differ significantly between groups, and were increased by exercise (P > 0.05). Serum total testosterone levels in Zn group were higher than in Se group after exercise (P  0.05). The results showed that 4-week simultaneous and separately zinc and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on resting testosterone and lactate levels of subjects who consume a zinc and selenium sufficient diet. It might be possible that the effect of zinc supplementation on free testosterone depends on exercise.

  14. Comparison Between Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Ozone Regenerations of Activated Carbon Exhausted with Pentachlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Qu, Dong; Huang, Yimei; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O3) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O3 regeneration. O3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration.

  15. NO{sub x} removal in jet-engine exhaust: Proposed non-thermal plasma systems and economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Chang, J.S.; Urashima, K.; Kim, S.J.; Miziolek, A.W.; Nusca, M.J.; Daniel, R.G.; Huie, R.F.; Herron, J.T.

    1999-07-01

    Incentives for implementing new pollution-control technologies are both regulatory and economic. Given considerable regulatory pressure, e.g., the promulgation of a NESHAPS (National Emissions Standard for hazardous Air Pollutants ) for NO{sub x} emissions in CY 2000, new de-NO{sub x} technologies are being explored. One major reason for this is that conventional de-NO{sub x} methods (like wet scrubbers plus Selective Catalytic Reduction - SCR) will not work effectively for the low NO concentrations (e.g., <50 ppm), high exhaust-gas flow rates ({approximately} 10{sup 6}Nm{sup 3}/h), and low gas temperatures (near ambient) characteristic of Jet Engine Test Cells (JETCs). The project is currently evaluating nonthermal plasma (NTP) technologies for treating jet-engine exhaust and other hazardous air pollutants. In this paper, the authors will present the initial design options for NTP reactor systems for a field-pilot demonstration on small jet engines (e.g., F107 or F112; flow rates {approximately} 10{sup 4} Nm{sup 3}/h). The field-pilot demonstration is necessary to provide further data and operating experience to more fully evaluate economic and performance projections for NTP de-NO{sub x} technology and to design larger systems with confidence. They are presently considering five candidate NTP reactor systems: pulsed corona, dielectric barrier (silent discharge), hybrid NTP reactor-adsorber, plasma-catalytic hybrid, and corona radical shower. Because of the cost and logistics of using an electron-beam NTP reactor (for which some economic data will be given), they have limited the candidate systems to those based on electric-discharge-driven NTP reactors. This paper will discuss the exhaust stream to be addressed, the test setup, candidate reactor systems, and projected operating parameters and specifications for the field-pilot units--as well as initial cost comparisons of three NTP-based de-NO{sub x} systems with two SCR-based systems based on published small

  16. Decomposition of NO in automobile exhaust by plasma-photocatalysis synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Jin, Lisheng; Liu, Yanhua; Guo, Xiurong; Chu, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    The combination of plasma discharge and TiO2 photocatalysis exhibits high performances in the removal of nitrogen monoxide (NO). This article is aimed at elucidating the relationships between NO decomposition efficiency and various experimental parameters, including voltages, humidity and temperature. The experimental results indicate that the efficiency of NO removal by synergic plasma-catalyst coupling is significantly higher than plasma only or photocatalyst only systems. Moreover, the NO removal efficiency improves with the increase of applied voltage. Meanwhile, a higher humidity results in a reduced number of electron-hole pairs at the surface of TiO2 photocatalyst, leading to lower synergic purification efficiencies. Finally, the efficiency of NO removal is raised with the increase of temperature due to the fact that the adsorption of NO and water by nano-TiO2 is affected by environmental temperature.

  17. The snowflake divertor, physics of a new concept for power exhaust of fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, Tilmann; Feng, Yuehe [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); Canal, Gustavo; Reimerdes, Holger [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Fusion reactors based on the tokamak design will have to deal with very high heat loads on the divertor plates. One of the approaches to solve this heat load problem is the so called 'snowflake divertor', a magnetic configuration with two nearby x-points and two additional divertor legs. In this contribution we report on 'EMC3-Eirene' simulations of the plasma- and neutral particle transport in the scrape-off layer of the swiss tokamak TCV of a series of snowflake equilibria with different values of σ, the distance between the x-points normalized to the minor radius of the plasma. The constant anomalous transport coefficients were chosen such that the power- and particle deposition profiles at the primary inner strike point match the Langmuir probe measurements for the σ=0.1 case. At one of the secondary strike points, however, a significantly larger power flux than that predicted by the simulation was measured by the probes, indicating the presence of an enhanced transport across the primary separatrix. We discuss the possible reason for this enhanced transport as well as its scaling with machine size. Another prediction from the simulation is that the density as well as the radiation maximum are moving from the recycling region in front of the plates upwards to the x-point.

  18. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  19. Can real-world diesel exhaust particle size distribution be reproduced in the laboratory? A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2010-10-01

    Real-world particulate emission measurements usually include a fresh nanoparticle mode called the nucleation mode. The formation of the nucleation mode during mixing, dilution, and cooling of diesel exhaust is discussed based on existing experimental and modeling data. The further evolution of the nucleation mode and the local dilution ratio within the vehicle exhaust is reviewed. The nucleation mode forms at low dilution ratios (engine load, engine and aftertreatment technology, as well as fuel and lubricant composition.

  20. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Adelman, Brad [Navistar; Derybowski, Edward [Navistar

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure

  1. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions.

  2. Aftertreatment of Conventional Direct Dyeings of Cotton with a Bis-reactive Cationic Fixing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHARIF Saima; SAEED Ahmad; MUHAMMAD Naeem Khan; MUHAMMAD Fauz-uI-Azeem

    2009-01-01

    A his-reactive cationic fixing agent,ethylenebis[N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride] has been used as an aftertreatment reagent to improve the wash fasmess of direct dyes on cotton.The effects of different pH conditions and concentrations on the effectiveness of this cationic fixing agent have been investigated.The results showed that aftertreatment at pH 11 produced dyeings with higher colour strength and better wash fastness than that at pH 7.In addition,the cationic agent at a low concentration was found to be more effective under both neutral and alkaline conditions.

  3. New Insights into Benzene Hydrocarbon Decomposition from Fuel Exhaust Using Self-Support Ray Polarization Plasma with Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new insight into self-support ray polarization (SSRP of nonthermal plasma for benzene hydrocarbon decomposition in fuel exhaust was put forward. A wire-tube dielectric barrier discharge (DBD AC plasma reactor was used at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The catalyst was made of nano-TiO2 and ceramic raschig rings. Nano-TiO2 was prepared as an active component by ourselves in the laboratory. Ceramic raschig rings were selected for catalyst support materials. Then, the catalyst was packed into nonthermal plasma (NTP reactor. Six aspects, benzene initial concentration, gas flux, electric field strength, removal efficiency, ozone output, and CO2 selectivity on benzene removal efficiency, were investigated. The results showed SSRP can effectively enhance benzene removal efficiency. The removal efficiency of benzene was up to 99% at electric field strength of 12 kV/cm. At the same time, SSRP decreases ozone yield and shows a better selectivity of CO2 than the single technology of nonthermal plasma. The final products were mostly CO, CO2, and H2O. Our research will lay the foundation for SSRP industrial application in the future.

  4. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  5. Integrated energy & emission management for hybrid electric truck with SCR aftertreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Schoot, W.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Energy management in hybrid vehicles typically relates to the vehicle powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in fuel economy and regulated pollutants, the concept of (model-based) Integrated Powertrai

  6. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  7. Analysis of radicals production in plasma reactors for purification of real exhaust gases; Analyse der Radikalenerzeugung in Plasmareaktoren zur Reinigung realer Abgase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiger, M.; Wegst, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Removing toxic impurities from gaseous exhaust by electric gas discharges has been investigated for almost a decade. Cold discharges, i.e. plasmas in which the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with ions and molecules, are a potential method for the conversion of nitric oxides (NO{sub x}=NO, NO{sub 2}) and hydrocarbons (HC) in exhaust gases of cars and trucks. In this work we present modelling results for barrier discharges using both a spatially homogeneous, time-dependent model, and a two-dimensional, time-dependent model. We compare our simulation results obtained by simulation with our experimental data and with measurements from LIF-experiments performed by cooperation partners, to get a better understanding of the discharge. Another aim is to improve the efficiency of removing NO{sub x} using different kinds of barrier reactors with structured electrodes. Our simulations and simulations in cooperation with IWR University of Heidelberg show that the main pathway of NO-removal at atmospheric pressure at practical gap spaces and in the absence of catalytic material, e.g. NH{sub 3}, is oxidation to NO{sub 2}. The latter can be converted to N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using established catalytic methods. (orig.)

  8. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  9. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during

  10. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  11. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chirico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel particulate matter (DPM is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC and the final vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF. The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC<0.5, while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23–0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, primary particles with a mobility diameter above 5 nm were 300±19 cm−3, and only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O

  12. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the third vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA) concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC) with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC < 0.5), while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23-0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O/C) ranging from 0.10 to 0.19. Five hours of oxidation led to a more oxidized OA with an O/C range of 0

  13. Ceramic hot film sensor for exhaust gas mass flow measurements in automotive applications; Keramischer Heissfilmsensor zur Abgasmassenstrommessung in automotiven Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismon, Heinrich; Grimm, Karsten; Toennesmann, Andres; Nigrin, Sven [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany); Wienand, Karlheinz; Muziol, Matthias [Heraeus Sensor Technology GmbH, Kleinostheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Due to increasingly stringent emission standards, a number of internal measures as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have become state-of-the-art technology for passenger car and heavy duty engines. However, the full potential of these measures, for example the cooled external exhaust gas recirculation, can only be utilized if the engine control is adapted adequately well in all engine states. Thus, the requirements for future engine controls become more demanding and consequently the standards for sensors used in the control loop will increase. In this context this article introduces a new exhaust gas mass flow sensor based or the principle of hot film anemometry. The sensor comprising a ceramic sensor element is developed especially for the use in engine exhaust gases providing the exhaust gas mass flow as a direct measurement and control variable. Next to the sensor technology first results of engine tests are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts for meeting future emission requirements; Abgasnachbehandlungs-Konzepte zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Emissionsrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Tobias; Weiskirch, Christian; Behnk, Kai [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Nutzfahrzeuge; Mueller, Raimund [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Technischer Vertrieb Nutzfahrzeuge und Non-road Anwendungen

    2011-02-15

    Proceeding from a modern two-stage supercharged commercial-vehicle engine employing measures inside the engine to satisfy the NO{sub x} limit values for Euro V and EEV as well as a partial-flow particulate filter system for meeting the particulate limit values prescribed under Euro V and EEV, the IAV investigated potential approaches to complying with future emission standards in the on-road and off-road segments. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of exhaust composition after purification in dielectric barrier discharges - Sub-project: Diesel exhaust purification in pulsed plasmas. Final report; Analyse der Abgaszusammensetzung bei Abgasreinigung in stillen Entladungen - Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Diesel engine exhaust purification by dielectric barrier discharges was investigated with varied pulse generators and with a combination of dielectric barrier discharge and catalytic converters and diesel particulate filters. The detailed exhaused analysis served to describe the reactions in the systems and to detect the formation of new and potentially harmful exhaust components. [German] Die Anwendung einer dielektrisch behinderten Entladung zur Reinigung dieselmotorischen Abgases wurde untersucht. Die Wirkung der elektrischen Entladung auf das Abgas wurde durch Variation der verwendeten Pulsgeneratoren sowie durch Kombination der Entladung mit Katalysatoren und Diesel-Partikelfiltern beeinflusst. Die detaillierte Abgasanalyse ermoeglichte die Erklaerung der in den Systemen ablaufenden Reaktionen. Insbesondere diente sie dazu, die moegliche Bildung neuer, moeglicherweise unerwuenschter Abgaskomponenten zu erkennen. (orig.)

  16. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...... in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...

  17. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2017-02-14

    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  18. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2017-02-14

    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  19. Robust, Cost-Optimal and Compliant Engine and Aftertreatment Operation using Air-path Control and Tailpipe Emission Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, S.N.; Hommen, G.; Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Willems, F.; Kupper, F.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitive

  20. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    , they can migrate far away from their source and they can even spread into the blood circulation and the brain. Transition metals on the surface of particles together with carcinogenic compounds found in the PM have been shown to cause cancer. Diesel ultra-fine particles are mainly elemental carbon, organic carbon and sulphuric acid. Sulphur still exists in diesel fuel in certain regions and if the amount of sulphur in the fuel is reduced, particles are reduced as well. Metallic compounds originate mainly from the lubrication oil, but also from the fuel and engine wear. In urban areas the amounts of particles are usually higher than in rural areas. Regulations for air quality in urban areas have been set to protect people living in the cities. Regulations are also becoming stricter in the field of internal combustion engines and particle numbers along with their mass are regulated in the EURO 6 standard. Diesel PM can be reduced by several means. Reformulating the fuel and lubrication oil directly influences PM emissions while different aftertreatment systems can be used to remove PM from the engine exhaust gases. With a well-optimized injection system, burning is more complete and PM emissions are also reduced. Exposure to particles can be decreased by avoiding busy roads where the level of particles is usually high, having a hobby that involves less exertion and decreasing exercise time. Outdoor activities should be reduced when PM concentration in the air is high. (orig.)

  1. Economic assessment of proposed electric-discharge non-thermal plasma field-pilot demonstration units for NO{sub x} removal in jet-engine exhaust: White paper for SERDP Project CP-1038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chang, J.S.; Urashima, Kuniko; Kim, S.J. [McMaster Univ. (Canada); Miziolek, A.W. [Army Research Lab. (United States)

    1999-01-05

    This project is currently evaluating non-thermal plasma (NTP) technologies for treating jet-engine exhaust arising from DoD test facilities. In the past, some economic analyses for NTP de-NO{sub x} have shown that it is not economical, compared to other techniques. The main reasons for this conclusion was that the previous analyses examined stand-alone, or less mature electrical-discharge reactors, or electron-beam based systems that incorporated both chemical additives and quite expensive electron accelerators. Also, in contrast to more recent developments, both the discharge and electron-beam techniques of the past did not extensively incorporate methods to increase the yields of active NO{sub x}-decomposing species. In an earlier White paper and a Project Report, the authors have analyzed the costs of more mature NTP systems incorporating chemical additives and new-concept NTP technologies for jet-engine emissions control and have shown lower exhaust-gas treatment costs for NTP systems compared to baseline standard de-NO{sub x} technologies like Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) combined with a wet scrubber or SCR combined with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In this paper, the authors will examine their most-promising candidate NTP reactor systems for a field-pilot demonstration on jet-engine exhaust and discuss the economic analyses for these hybrid units, which show that the economics of the proposed candidate systems are more favorable than earlier NTP reactor economic-assessment conclusions for NO{sub x} removal.

  2. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed ...

  3. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  4. Effects of gaseous sulphuric acid on diesel exhaust nanoparticle formation and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Topi; Lähde, Tero; Heikkilä, Juha; Pirjola, Liisa; Bauschke, Ulrike; Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Rothe, Dieter; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Keskinen, Jorma

    2013-10-15

    Diesel exhaust gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) concentrations and particle size distributions, concentrations, and volatility were studied at four driving conditions with a heavy duty diesel engine equipped with oxidative exhaust after-treatment. Low sulfur fuel and lubricant oil were used in the study. The concentration of the exhaust GSA was observed to vary depending on the engine driving history and load. The GSA affected the volatile particle fraction at high engine loads; higher GSA mole fraction was followed by an increase in volatile nucleation particle concentration and size as well as increase of size of particles possessing nonvolatile core. The GSA did not affect the number of nonvolatile particles. At low and medium loads, the exhaust GSA concentration was low and any GSA driven changes in particle population were not observed. Results show that during the exhaust cooling and dilution processes, besides critical in volatile nucleation particle formation, GSA can change the characteristics of all nucleation mode particles. Results show the dual nature of the nucleation mode particles so that the nucleation mode can include simultaneously volatile and nonvolatile particles, and fulfill the previous results for the nucleation mode formation, especially related to the role of GSA in formation processes.

  5. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  6. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  7. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  8. Laser diagnostic and plasma technological fundamentals for emissions and fuel consumption reduction in DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: Analysis of chains of effet in plasma purification of real exhaust (analysis of radicals production in plasma reactors for purification of real exhaust gases). Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Analyse der Wirkketten bei der Plasmareinigung realer Abgase (Analyse der Radikalenerzeugung in Plasmareaktoren zur Reinigung realer Abgase). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, R.; Neiger, M.; Russ, H.; Liu, S.

    2001-03-01

    Removing toxic impurities from gaseous exhaust by electric gas discharges has been investigated for almost a decade. Cold discharges, i.e. plasmas in which the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with ions and molecules, are a potential method for the conversion of nitric oxides (NO{sub x}=NO, NO{sub 2}) and hydrocarbons (HC) in exhaust gases of cars and trucks. In this work we present modelling results for barrier discharges using both a spatially homogeneous, time-dependent model, and a two-dimensional, time-dependent model. We compare our simulation results obtained by simulation with our experimental data and with measurements from LIF-experiments performed by cooperation partners, to get a better understanding of the discharge. Another aim is to improve the efficiency of removing NO{sub x} using different kinds of barrier reactors with structured electrodes. Our simulations and simulations in cooperation with IWR University of Heidelberg show that the main pathway of NO-removal at atmospheric pressure at practical gap spaces and in the absence of catalytic material, e.g. NH{sub 3}, is oxidation to NO{sub 2}. The latter can be converted to N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using established catalytic methods. (orig.) [German] Gasentladungen werden seit nahezu 10 Jahren mit dem Ziel untersucht, Schadstoffe aus Gasen zu entfernen. Sogenannte kalte Entladungen, Plasmen in denen die Elektronen nicht in thermischem Gleichgewicht mit Atomen, Molekuelen und Ionen stehen, bieten eine gute Moeglichkeit, Stickoxide (NO{sub x}=NO, NO{sub 2}) und Kohlenwasserstoffe (KW) in Autoabgasen umzusetzen. In dieser Arbeit praesentieren wir sowohl Ergebnisse raeumlich homogener, zeitabhaengiger Simulationen, als auch Ergebnisse zu raeumlich zweidimensionalen zeitabhaengigen Simulationen von Barrieren-Entladungen. Diese werden mit eigenen experimentellen Ergebnissen des LTI als auch mit experimentellen Ergebnissen aus LIF-Messungen von Verbundpartnern verglichen. Ziele sind sowohl ein

  9. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  10. Report on the 4th Europhysics Workshop on the role of electric fields in plasma confinement and exhaust (Funchal, Madeira, 24-25 June 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, G.; Tendler, M.

    2002-08-01

    The 4th Europhysics Workshop was organized in Funchal in Madeira as a Satellite Meeting of the 28th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, and attended by about 45 scientists from 15 countries. It was hosted by the Portuguese Association IST-Euratom, and organized by the Czech Association Euratom/IPP.CR. The scope of the workshop is broad and includes experiments, techniques, theory and modelling pertinent to the effects of electric fields on plasmas. After refereeing, 18 of the 27 (oral) contributions were published in the October 2001 issue of Czechoslovak Journal of Physics.

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Dynamic Aspects of the Standard NH3-SCR Reaction Over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 and Fe-Zeolite Commercial Catalysts for the Aftertreatment of Diesel Engines Exhausts Modélisation cinétique d’aspects dynamiques de la réaction de RCS-NH3 standard sur des catalyseurs commerciaux V2O5-WO3/TiO2 et Fe-zéolite pour le post-traitement de gaz d’échappement de moteurs Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova I.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic kinetic data collected over commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 and Fe-zeolite catalysts analyzing the standard NH3-SCR of NO for the abatement of NOx from vehicle exhausts showed transient effects at low temperatures related to the inhibiting action of excess ammonia. In order to describe such transient effects, a specific rate expression accounting for NH3 inhibition of the standard SCR reaction is needed in mathematical models of real SCR converters. We present herein a dual-site Mars-Ven Krevelen-type rate equation suitable to describe dynamic features associated with ammonia injection and shut-off over both V-based and Fe-zeolite catalysts. Les données cinétiques dynamiques recueillies sur des catalyseurs V2O5-WO3/TiO2 et Fe-zéolite commerciaux en analysant le RCS-NH3 standard du NO pour la réduction des NOx des gaz d’échappement de véhicules ont montré des effets transitoires à basse température, liés à l’action inhibitrice d’ammoniac en excès. Afin de décrire de tels effets transitoires, une expression de la vitesse spécifique prenant en compte l’inhibition par NH3 de la réaction de RCS standard est nécessaire pour des modèles mathématiques de convertisseurs par RCS réels. Nous présentons ici une équation de vitesse de type Mars-Van Krevelen à double site pour décrire les caractéristiques dynamiques associées à l’injection et à l’arrêt de l’ammoniac sur des catalyseurs à la fois à base de V et Fe-zéolite.

  12. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  13. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  14. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  15. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect......This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  16. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  17. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Diagnostics of the exhaust treatment in microwave excited discharges. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Diagnostik des Schadstoffabbaus in Mikrowellenentladungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlbeck, J.; Pasch, E.

    2000-12-01

    There are several concepts for the compliance with exhaust requirements for modern car engines, some of them based on plasma technology. For an efficient use of plasma in the field of exhaust treatment an excellent knowledge of the plasma properties and parameters is essential. Therefore it is the aim of this project to examine the example of the microwave excited plasmajet with wet synthetic and real exhaust. Of special interest is the mixing zone of the plasmajet which is operated in a bypass principle. The investigations are performed with the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), an thermographic camera and thermocouples. For the measurements of the exhaust composition an exhaust gas-analysator is used. The experiments have delivered valuable data for the modelling of the mixing zone. In preliminary experiments it has been shown, that a new concept of exhaust injection into the mixing zone has the possibility to overcome a severe limitation of the plasmajet technique. The technology examined in this project offers interesting and promising concepts for the exhaust treatment of modern car engines. A real application in a car implies further extensive work. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Loesung der Abgasanforderungen, die an moderne Motoren gestellt werden, sind inzwischen einige Konzepte erarbeitet worden, die teilweise auf dem Einsatz eines Plasmas basieren, von denen sich aber z.Z. noch keines durchgesetzt hat. Um ein Plasma zielgerichtet auf eine Abgasreinigung einzusetzen, ist eine genaue Kenntnis der Eigenschaften und Parameter erforderlich. Daher war es Ziel dieses Projektes, speziell am Beispiel des mikrowellenangeregten Plasmajets sowohl angefeuchtetes synthetisches als auch reales Abgas zu untersuchen. Vom besonderen Interesse war hierbei die Mischungszone des im Bypass-Prinzip betriebenen Plasmajets. Zur Untersuchung wurde die kohaerente anti-Stokes Raman Streuung (CARS), eine Thermographie-Kamera und Thermolelemente eingesetzt. Fuer die

  18. Plasma regeneration of mineral adsorbents for the precipitation of formaldehyde from exhaust gases of biogas engines; Plasmaregeneration mineralischer Adsorbentien zur Formaldehydabscheidung aus Abgasen von Biogas-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Siegfried; Saulich, Katja [Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung und Technologie, Greifswald (Germany); Schomburg, Joachim [DURTEC, Neubrandenburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Formaldehyde.is a harmful ambient air pollutant which can be produced by incomplete combustion processes, e.g. in power plants or combustion engines. Adsorbents are widely applied in the area of cleaning as well as enrichment of gas components. In this study, we designed a bench-scale experiment to investigate a gas pollution treatment technique, which integrated the adsorption process and the plasma treatment for formaldehyde removal from gas streams. The mineral granulate used consisted of 80% halloysite and showed a good adsorption capacity for formaldehyde. In the discharge step, the adsorbed formaldehyde molecules were decomposed to CO{sub 2}, CO and hydrocarbons. For the further optimization of the method the influence of the power and the pulse break ratio of sustaining voltage were tested. Further the decomposition performance on adsorbed formaldehyde molecules was studied depending on space-time, a 10% oxygen fraction of the carrier gas, and the influence of temperature. It was shown that with the chosen plasma method the absorber material could be loaded repeatedly and subsequently regenerated at a low input discharge power. (orig.)

  19. SUENTP code simulations of scale-up and economic evaluation of non-thermal plasma technology for exhaust gas emission control of coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J.; Chang, J.-S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1998-07-01

    Computer code (SUENTP) to predict scale up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower process - was developed for a commercialized power plant. This code was written by spread sheet type MS Excel with visual basic for application and comprise data input procedure, scale-up (design) procedure, economic calculation procedure, and output procedure. Data obtained from pilot plant tests are input with general data so that they might be led to the conceptual design data of commercial plants by scale-up procedure. In the next economic evaluation procedure, the total capital investment and the total annual cost. The total capital investment comes into the indirect annual cost as the item of capital recovery. The levelized cost and the levelized busbar cost could be shown in the output table. An example calculation was presented to evaluate the cost of three non-thermal systems and the results were compared with a conventional wet-scrubber/selective catalytic reduction combined system. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the

  1. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the act

  2. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  3. Impact of selective catalytic reduction on exhaust particle formation over excess ammonia events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Bergmann, Alexander; Samaras, Zissis

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment to meet stringent diesel NOx emission standards around the world increases exhaust ammonia. Further to the direct air quality and health implications of ammonia, this may also lead to particle formation in the exhaust. In this study, an ammonia SCR system was examined with respect to its impact on both solid and total exhaust particle number and size distribution, downstream of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Fuel post-injection was conducted in some tests to investigate the effect of ammonia during active DPF regeneration. On average, the post-DPF solid >23 nm and total <23 nm particle number emissions were increased by 129% (range 80-193%) and by 67% (range 26-136%), respectively, when 100 ppm ammonia level was induced downstream of the SCR catalyst. This is a typical level during ammonia overdosing, often practiced for efficient NOx control. Ammonia did not have a significant additional effect on the high particle concentrations measured during DPF regeneration. Based on species availability and formation conditions, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride salts with ammonium are possible sources of the new particles formed. Ammonia-induced particle formation corresponds to an environmental problem which is not adequately addressed by current regulations.

  4. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  5. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p therapy such as Grounding.

  6. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  7. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  8. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-09-01

    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  9. Reduction of low temperature engine pollutants by understanding the exhaust species interactions in a diesel oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, I; Herreros, J M; Tsolakis, A

    2014-02-18

    The interactions between exhaust gas species and their effect (promotion or inhibition) on the light-off and activity of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the removal of pollutants are studied, using actual engine exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel, alternative fuels (rapeseed methyl ester and gas-to-liquid fuel) and diesel/propane dual fuel combustion. The activity of the catalyst was recorded during a heating temperature ramp where carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) light-off curves were obtained. From the catalyst activity tests, it was found that the presence of species including CO, medium-heavy HC, alkenes, alkanes, and NOx and their concentration influence the catalyst ability to reduce CO and total HC emissions before release to the atmosphere. CO could inhibit itself and other species oxidation (e.g., light and medium-heavy hydrocarbons) while suffering from competitive adsorption with NO. Hydrocarbon species were also found to inhibit their own oxidation as well as CO through adsorption competition. On the other hand, NO2 was found to promote low temperature HC oxidation through its partial reduction, forming NO. The understanding of these exhaust species interactions within the DOC could aid the design of an efficient aftertreatment system for the removal of diesel exhaust pollutants.

  10. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Wallensten

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years.Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0, after 12 months (T12 and after 24 months (T24. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0 in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up.The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion.

  11. The influence of after-treatments on dyeability of raw and bleached cotton with curcumin, and visibility of anthotype produced motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkič Nuša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing of raw and bleached cotton fabrics with a natural dye of curcumin was studied to implement the ancient and environmentally friendly technique of developing photos called anthotype. With the aim of achieving diff erent colours of dyed cotton fabrics, several modifi cations were performed, such as extraction of curcumin in hard and soft water, after-treatments of dyed cotton, i.e. with ferrous sulphate, zinc chloride and silver nitrate, aftertreatment in alkaline bath, and aftertreatment with other natural dyes (blueberry and raspberry. The colour values of dyed samples were determined using a refl ectance spectrophotometer. Colour stability to light was determined by the standard method in Xenotest. It was found that the use of various metal salts, natural dyes, alkalinity and hardness of water infl uenced the colour changes of the substrate. Yellow, red, greenish and brownish colours of fabrics were produced by diff erent treatments. Since the use of metal ions improved the stability of curcumin to light, the motifs produced by anthotype technique were hardly visible. It was found that the natural dye of blueberries and raspberries did not infl uence the light stability, therefore a larger colour contrast between exposed and unexposed areas of the fabric was visible, and consequently good visibility of the motifs was achieved.

  12. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  13. I. Textural/Structural tuning and nanoparticle stabilization of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. II. Generation of reducing agents for automotive exhaust gas purification via the processing of hydrocarbons in a PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yu

    This research consists of two parts. The first part deals with the preparation and properties of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. For studies of textural tuning, structural tuning, or material sintering, copper/aluminum and copper/zinc nanocomposites were prepared via various inorganic synthesis methods including conventional coprecipitation methods and a novel urea-gelation/thermal-modification method that produces narrow distributions of pore sizes, high surface areas, and significantly higher specific metal loadings. Solid-solid reaction analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were developed for the determination of the mixing homogeneities of the copper/aluminum nanocomposites. A sintering experiment at 250-600°C for 350 h under methanol-steam reforming conditions was carried out to compare the stability of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The mixing homogeneities of CuO/Al2O3 nanocomposites significantly affected the thermal stability of their reduced Cu0 crystallites. Creation of relatively narrow distributions of pore sizes with relatively small major pore diameters (e.g., 3.5 nm) can also be used for the stabilization of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The supported nanoparticles with a relatively small initial size cannot ensure good thermal stability. A "hereditary" character on the homogeneity of copper/aluminum nanocomposites was revealed. Stepwise reduction and reoxidation were studied for the structural tuning and purification of Cu-Al-O spinels with isotropic and gradual unit-cell contractions. The second part of the research deals with the processing of hydrocarbons. Conversion of a model hydrocarbon (n-hexane or n-octane) in an AC discharge PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor was verified to be an effective method to instantly produce reducing agents (e.g., hydrogen or/and light alkanes and alkenes), at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for automotive exhaust gas purification. Effects of

  14. A New Approach for NOx Soft Sensors for the Aftertreatment of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, S.; Kajiwara, I.; Sato, J.; Hanamura, Y.

    2016-09-01

    To maintain the NOX concentration at an appropriate level, traditionally an air-path control that regulates the intake and exhaust system of diesel engines aims to control the mass air flow and the manifold absolute pressure, which influence the production of NOX. To improve the control accuracy, a more recent approach takes the NOX concentration directly as a controlled output variable, but the sensors monitoring the NOX concentration are slow to respond. Consequently, a direct sensor is inappropriate as a feedback controller. Instead a mechanism called a soft sensor, which computes the NOX concentration from state quantities of diesel engines, is used. Because the prediction accuracy from the sensor model greatly affects the control performance, it is important to improve the model accuracy. However, deviations in the steady state indicate an insufficient model accuracy. This study proposes a method to construct an adaptive NOX soft sensor that corrects the parameters of the sensor model sequentially using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation while comparing the values computed by the software to actual measurements as well as examines the effectiveness of the proposed method experimentally.

  15. Turbine exhaust pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.M. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States); Hernandez, E. [Community Energy Alternatives Inc., Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the dynamic operating environment in the turbine-condenser steam space and the two sensors, basket tips and guideplates, that have been approved by ASME test codes for measurement of the static pressure within that exhaust region. It defines the rigorous geometry and construction requirements of these sensors in order that they be acceptable for guarantee/acceptance testing. The paper also offers a practical alternative to the classical ASME PTC 6 (Turbine Test Code) basket tip design that is easier to fabricate in the typical utility machine shop. The alternative design makes it less expensive, much faster to construct, and facilitates the drainage of any accumulated condensate. Comparative field tests by PSE&G`s Research and Testing Laboratory conducted in 1995 at the 300 MW Mercer Generating Station, Unit 1 will be described which demonstrate the modified basket tip pressure measurements are statistically indistinguishable from those of the PTC 6 design. Noting that basket tip turbine exhaust static pressure sensors are recommended by all the major U.S. turbine manufacturers, the paper also presents the limited available history of the empirical basket tip and the lack of any documented calibration history related to the accuracy of the guideplate. Finally, based on the success of this one basket tip variation, the paper concludes that other even more suitable designs could be developed by further research.

  16. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  17. On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

  18. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  19. An exploratory study into the effect of exhausting bicycle exercise on endocrine and immune responses in post-menopausal women : Relationships between vigour and plasma cortisol concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation following exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G; Bernards, N; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C

    2001-01-01

    It is well-established that bicycle exercise alters the endocrine and immune responses in men, but little information is available for women, especially middle-aged, post-menopausal women. The purpose of our study was to document the endocrine and immune reactivity to exhausting bicycle exercise in

  20. Simulation of the ash exhaust in a fusion engineering reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Ueda, Noriaki; Itoh, Sanae; Sugihara, Masayoshi.

    1988-09-01

    Numerical analysis of the plasmas in the divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) of a fusion engineering reactor (FER) is made by using the two-dimensional time-dependent simulation code. The equation for plasmas in the SOL and divertor regions is solved for the given particle and heat sources from the main plasma, GAMMA/sub out/ and Q/sub T/. For the given size of the pumping duct and the pumping speed, the necessary value of GAMMA/sub out/ for the ash exhaust is discussed. Sufficient ash exhaust is possible under the condition which is consistent with the scaling law of the particle and energy confinement of the main plasma.

  1. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  2. An exploratory study into the effect of exhausting bicycle exercise on endocrine and immune responses in post-menopausal women: relationships between vigour and plasma cortisol concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pompe, G; Bernards, N; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C

    2001-08-01

    It is well-established that bicycle exercise alters the endocrine and immune responses in men, but little information is available for women, especially middle-aged, post-menopausal women. The purpose of our study was to document the endocrine and immune reactivity to exhausting bicycle exercise in post-menopausal women, and to explore whether complaints of fatigue or low vigour are related to these exercise-induced responses. Thirteen healthy post-menopausal women participated in this study. We used a graded exercise protocol to study the kinetics of activation of the endocrine and immune system. We chose to examine hormones related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system such as adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol and hormones related to the pituitary such as prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). With regard to the immune system, we examined the natural killer (NK) cell activity and pokeweed (PWM)-induced lymphocyte proliferation in addition to changes in peripheral blood cell counts. Our results demonstrate that acute physical stress results in a strong release of ACTH, cortisol, GH and PRL. The bicycle test significantly increased the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16/56+ (NK cells) and CD8+ cells in our group of post-menopausal women. Interestingly, NK activity did not increase significantly despite an increase in NK cell numbers. PWM-induced lymphocyte proliferation did not change either. In addition, our data support the hypothesis that low vigour in post-menopausal women interferes with the endocrine and immune responses to exhausting exercise. In women with complaints of low vigour we found lower cortisol responses and higher increments in the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes as compared to those with high vigour scores. NK activity was unrelated to exhaustive mood states. These data indicate that endocrine as well as immune system activity changes in response to exhausting exercise in middle-aged, post-menopausal women. In addition

  3. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  4. The Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fábregas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I revisit the well-known empirical problem of manner of motion verbs with directional complements in Spanish. I present some data that, to my mind, had not received due attention in previous studies and I show that some manner of motion verbs actually allow directionals with the preposition a, while all of them allow them with prepositions like hacia or hasta. I argue that this pattern is due to a principle that states that every syntactic feature must be identified by lexical insertion, the Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle. The crucial problem with directional complements is that the Spanish preposition a is locative, in contrast with English to, and, therefore, unable to identify the Path feature. Some verbs license the directional with a because they can lexicalise Path altogether with the verb; all verbs can combine with hasta or hacia because these prepositions lexicalise Path. When neither the verb nor the preposition lexicalise the Path, the construction is ungrammatical.

  5. Economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabhan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

  6. Exhaust Plume Measurements of the VASIMR VX-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, Benjamin; Bering, Edgar, III; Squire, Jared; Glover, Tim; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Brukardt, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Recent progress is discussed in the development of an advanced RF electric propulsion concept: the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) VX-200 engine, a 200 kW flight-technology prototype. Results from high power Helicon only and Helicon with ICRH experiments are performed on the VX-200 using argon plasma. Recent measurements of axial plasma density and potential profiles, magnetic field-line shaping, charge exchange, and force measurements taken in the plume of the VX-200 exhaust are made within a new 125 cubic meter cryo-pumped vacuum chamber and are presented in the context of RF plasma thruster physics.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  9. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  10. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  11. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia

    2014-05-01

    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

  12. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  13. Corrosion of stainless steels in simulated diesel exhaust environment with urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nockert, J.; Nyborg, L.; Norell, M. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    Laboratory exposures have been performed simulating a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system with urea injection for NO{sub x} reduction in diesel exhaust after-treatment. The corrosion behaviour of three ferritic and one austenitic stainless steel was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Continuous exposure to condensate did not cause any corrosion. Results show that cyclic interaction between high temperature and condensation aggravates the corrosion compared to isothermal exposure at 450 C. All ferritic alloys exhibited more or less the same behaviour, while the austenitic steel performed better. In fact, the presence of urea decreased the corrosion compared to the environment without urea. The cyclic samples exposed with urea displayed iron sulphate on the surface. The sulphate appeared to decrease the oxide thickness. A sulphur enrichment in the form of sulphide also occurred in the inner chromium-rich oxides of all cyclically exposed samples, both with and without urea. Thus, sulphidation is presumed to be involved in the corrosion process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  16. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Kent by Newcastle University and the Terramare Institute. Samples of raw seawater and scrubber washwater were collected at the inlet and discharge of...from Ships. Research Centre Terramare . Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Couple Systems. 2010. Dry EGCS Process Dry Exhaust Gas Cleaning System (http...BP Marine. Research Centre Terramare , Wilhelmshaven, Germany and School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon

  17. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achiev

  18. The physiological response of diploid and triploid brook trout to exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, C A; Kieffer, J D; Benfey, T J

    2003-01-01

    Using triploidy as an experimental model, we examined whether cell size limits the post-exercise recovery process in fish. Because triploids generally possess larger cells, which could affect many physiological and biochemical processes, we hypothesized that triploids would take longer to recover from exhaustive exercise compared to diploids. To test this, we measured plasma lactate, glucose and osmolality, and white muscle energy stores (glycogen, phosphocreatine and ATP) and lactate before and immediately following exhaustive exercise and during recovery at 2 and 4 h post-exercise. In addition, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Overall, diploid and triploid brook trout showed similar metabolic responses exercise, but plasma osmolality, white muscle lactate, white muscle ATP and post-exercise oxygen consumption rates recovered earlier in triploids compared to diploids. The results of this study suggest that the characteristic larger cell size of triploidy does not limit the physiological response to, or recovery from, exhaustive exercise.

  19. MTU series 1600 HCCI engine with extremely low exhaust emissions over the entire engine map; HCCI-Motor der MTU Baureihe 1600 mit extrem niedrigen Abgasemissionen im gesamten Motorkennfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, Christoph; Bergmann, Dirk; Sauer, Christina; Schneemann, Arne [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Eichmeier, Johannes; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). IFKM

    2012-11-01

    The main challenge when developing off-highway engines is to keep emissions within the limits to apply in the future while maintaining low fuel consumption and low CO{sub 2} output. In the USA in particular, diesel engines in the 130 - 560 kW power range are to be subject from 2014 to EPA Tier 4 legislation, which imposes limits of 0.4 g/kWh for NO{sub x} and 0.02 g/kWh for particulate matter. Diesel units can only satisfy those requirements using a combination of in-engine measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems (SCR, particulate filters), which makes them a good deal more complex and expensive. In the face of CO{sub 2} emissions regulations and the growing demand for diesel fuel, greater emphasis is now being placed on alternative fuels. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or 'HCCI' provides an alternative to complex exhaust aftertreatment systems which generates virtually no soot or nitrous oxide emissions. It does, however, present new challenges with respect to combustion control and engine load. Up to the present, it has not been possible to exploit the full potential of this combustion process over the entire engine map, since the high ignition performance of diesel fuel at high loads results in excessively early combustion and inadmissible pressure gradients. The pre-development department of MTU Friedrichshafen worked with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to devise a research prototype for an industrial application which would allow semi-homogenous combustion with controlled self-ignition over the full engine map. The engine is based on a 6-cylinder version of the MTU Series 1600 unit and has a rated output of 300 kW. The fuels - gasoline or ethanol and diesel - are mixed in such a way as to avoid the disadvantages associated with most HCCI processes. Since the use of ethanol also enhances combustion efficiency, it has a two-fold positive effect on the CO{sub 2} situation. With

  20. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  1. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  2. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  3. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  4. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  5. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  6. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance M Hallberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES, in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay, blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay, and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay, across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective.

  7. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  8. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  9. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  10. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  11. Combining GTL fuel, reformed EGR and HC-SCR aftertreatment system to reduce diesel NO{sub x} emissions. A statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Dpto. Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tsolakis, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cracknell, R.F.; Clark, R.H. [Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    An ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and a synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel, besides different types of standard and reformed EGR, were evaluated in a single-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine equipped with hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) aftertreatment system. The results obtained were statistically analysed (at 95% statistical significance) to identify the most significant factors that affect NO{sub x} emissions and to search for the optimum operation conditions in order to minimize these emissions. For that purpose, a fully crossed factorial experimental design was used, including two different engine speeds (1200 and 1500 rpm), two engine loads (25% and 50%), and four EGR/REGR ratios (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) resulting in almost one hundred tests. An optimal combination of fuel type, REGR type and REGR ratio was proved to reduce around 89-95% of the reference NO{sub x} emissions. In general, at 25% engine load GTL fuelling combined with the reformed EGR with the highest hydrogen content was found the most desirable, as the hydrogen sharply increased the NO{sub x} conversion in the SCR catalyst. Differently, at 50% load standard EGR was sufficient to reach high NO{sub x} reductions. These findings may be used for the implementation of a system on-board capable to switch from EGR to REGR, which will help engine manufacturers to meet the future emission regulations. (author)

  12. Thermal barrier coatings for diesel engine exhaust applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The strive to increase the engine efficiency in terms of fuel consumption and lower emissions have lead to higher demands on materials. In this thesis five different thermal barrier coatings applied using air plasma spraying to three materials commonly used for exhaust application are evaluated. This thesis work was done at Scania CV in Södertälje with main focus on evaluation during thermal cycling. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the coatings and correlate their behaviour to their ch...

  13. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-01

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions.

  14. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  15. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  16. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  17. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission constituents. (2) Minimize the number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing and maximize the radius of any unavoidable bend. (3) Use laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing that meets the engine... point, or first point of dilution. If laboratory exhaust tubing consists of several different outside...

  19. High density operation for reactor-relevant power exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    With increasing size of a tokamak device and associated fusion power gain an increasing power flux density towards the divertor needs to be handled. A solution for handling this power flux is crucial for a safe and economic operation. Using purely geometric arguments in an ITER-like divertor this power flux can be reduced by approximately a factor 100. Based on a conservative extrapolation of current technology for an integrated engineering approach to remove power deposited on plasma facing components a further reduction of the power flux density via volumetric processes in the plasma by up to a factor of 50 is required. Our current ability to interpret existing power exhaust scenarios using numerical transport codes is analyzed and an operational scenario as a potential solution for ITER like divertors under high density and highly radiating reactor-relevant conditions is presented. Alternative concepts for risk mitigation as well as strategies for moving forward are outlined.

  20. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  1. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity.

  2. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeePhD, John [Aramco Services Company; TzanetakisPhD, Tom [Aramco Services Company; Travers, Michael [Aramco Services Company; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.

  3. Combustion driven ammonia generation strategies for passive ammonia SCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Joel G.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Najt, Paul M.

    2016-12-06

    A method for controlling ammonia generation in an exhaust gas feedstream output from an internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system including a first aftertreatment device includes executing an ammonia generation cycle to generate ammonia on the first aftertreatment device. A desired air-fuel ratio output from the engine and entering the exhaust aftertreatment system conducive for generating ammonia on the first aftertreatment device is determined. Operation of a selected combination of a plurality of cylinders of the engine is selectively altered to achieve the desired air-fuel ratio entering the exhaust aftertreatment system.

  4. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: Fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: Purification of diesel exhaust in pulsed plasma. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Birckigt, R.

    2000-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction using ammonia based reducing agents is known to reduce the NOx-emissions from Diesel cars. However, it does not work efficiently under cold starting and urban driving conditions, because efficient reduction requires catalyst temperatures above 170 C. Without additional measures, pulsed plasma treatment does not cause reduction but mainly oxidation of nitric oxides preferably emitted as NO. By the combination of pulsed DBD-plasma treatment with selective catalytic reduction efficient NOx-reduction was obtained at catalyst temperatures below 170 C. It could be shown, that this low temperature reduction is a synergistic effect caused by plasma induced oxidation of some fraction of the NO. Based on this knowledge of the reaction mechanism plasma- and SCR-reactors were built, which were tested on a test bench equipped with a modern cars Diesel engine. Under cold starting and urban driving conditions by application of average plasma powers below 300 W the NOx-emissions were reduced for about 60%, the maximum degree of NOx-reduction was 85%. The plasma induced removal of hydrocarbons and particles, as well as the formation of by-products and the influence of hydrocarbons on the plasma induced selective catalytic reduction processes were investigated. No disadvantageous by-products could be found. (orig.) [German] Die selektive katalytische Reduktion mit Ammoniak als Reduktionsmittel ist ein bekanntes Verfahren zur Reduktion der Stickoxidemissionen von Diesel-Pkw, arbeitet aber erst ab Katalysatortemperaturen oberhalb 170 C und ist damit unter Kaltstart- und Stadtverkehrsbedingungen wenig wirksam. Gepulste Plasmen bewirken ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen keine ausreichende chemische Reduktion sondern ueberwiegend Oxidation der als NO emittierten Stickoxide. Durch Kombination von DBE-Plasmen mit der selektiven katalytischen Reduktion hingegen konnte auch bei Katalysatortemperaturen unter 170 C wirkungsvolle NOx-Reduktion erzielt werden. Es konnte

  5. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters.

  6. Exhaustivity and intonation: a unified theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents a precise, unified and explanatory theory of human conversation, centered on two broad phenomena: exhaustivity implications and intonational meaning. In a nutshell: (i) speakers have two types of communicative intentions, namely information sharing and attention sharing, (

  7. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  8. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  9. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  10. Sorption dehumidification of natural gas exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    The calorific value of natural gas can be fully utilized only if the water vapour in the exhaust gases is condensed. This can be achieved in condensing boilers. Another possibility is to dry the exhaust before discharge by sorption dehumidification. The sorbent can be regenerated directly by the boiler. The vapour developed in the regenerator can be condensed in a condenser with useful effect. Simulations given an efficiency higher than 97% with respect to the Gross Calorific value. (author).

  11. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  12. Substitution among exhaustible resources and intergenerational equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1978-06-01

    Hartwick (American Econ. Rev., 66 (Dec. 1977)) showed that implicit in R.M. Solow's model of intergenerational equity and exhaustible resources (Rev. Econ. Studies (Symposium, 1974) 29-46) was the savings-investment rule: society should invest in reproducible capital precisely the current returns from the use of flows of exhaustible resources in order to maintain per capita consumption constant. Population was assumed to remain constant. Solow and Hartwick assumed that there was only one exhaustible resource. Beckmann (American Econ. Rev., 65, 695-99 (Sept 1975)) investigated optimal growth in models with many exhaustible resources. In this paper the case of many exhaustible resources is considered and results are derived on substitution among resources and on the nature of paths of development. One of Beckmann's results on substitution is analyzed. The approach is first to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of general savings functions and then to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of the special savings function referred to above. Results indicate the Solow's existence theorem remains valid for the case of many exhaustible resources and some light is shed on the existence of paths for production functions not of the Cobb-Douglas form. 12 references.

  13. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  14. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection must be provided in compliance... in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a steel... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or...

  18. MDCT after-treatment to assess the hypopharyngeal carcinoma%多层螺旋CT后处理技术对下咽癌评估的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉海; 丁海霞; 彭洪娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨多层螺旋CT后处理技术对下咽癌诊断及周围组织侵犯的评估价值.方法 回顾性分析23例经病理证实的下咽癌CT横轴住图像及其多平面重建(MPR)和透明化容积重组技术(VRT)重建图像的病历资料,对下咽癌的浸润范围进行评估.结果 23例轴位图像下咽部均可见异常软组织影,其中8例可见喉软骨破坏,13例可见颈部淋巴结转移,MPR和透明化VRT重建显示17例梨状窝扭曲、变窄甚至消失.结论 CT轴位图像结合MPR和透明化VRT重建图像能更加准确、直观地显示下咽癌的浸润范围,更准确的评估下咽癌.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of MDCT after-treatment technology in the evaluation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma and its invasibility. Methods Twenty-three patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma confirmed by pathology underwent CT scans. Images of axial, multiplaner reconstruction (MPR) and transparent 3D volume rendering technique (VRT) of all patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of 23 cases, there was abnormal soft tissue shown in axial images, including 8 cases of visible laryngeal cartilage destruction and 13 cases of visible cervical lymph node metastases. Also, MPR and transparent VRT reconstruction demonstrated 17 cases of distorted, narrowed,or even an absent piriform sinus. Conclusion CT axial images combining MPR and transparent VRT reconstruction can accurately and directly show infiltrations of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

  19. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  20. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  1. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  2. Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frollini Anelena B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran supplementation on time to exhaustion, glycogen stores and cytokines in rats submitted to training. The animals were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control group (C, an exercise group that received a control chow (EX and an exercise group that received a chow supplemented with oat bran (EX-O. Exercised groups were submitted to an eight weeks swimming training protocol. In the last training session, the animals performed exercise to exhaustion, (e.g. incapable to continue the exercise. After the euthanasia of the animals, blood, muscle and hepatic tissue were collected. Plasma cytokines and corticosterone were evaluated. Glycogen concentrations was measured in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and liver. Glycogen synthetase-α gene expression was evaluated in the soleus muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial ANOVA. Time to exhaustion of the EX-O group was 20% higher (515 ± 3 minutes when compared with EX group (425 ± 3 minutes (p = 0.034. For hepatic glycogen, the EX-O group had a 67% higher concentrations when compared with EX (p = 0.022. In the soleus muscle, EX-O group presented a 59.4% higher glycogen concentrations when compared with EX group (p = 0.021. TNF-α was decreased, IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone increased after exercise, and EX-O presented lower levels of IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone levels in comparison with EX group. It was concluded that the chow rich in oat bran increase muscle and hepatic glycogen concentrations. The higher glycogen storage may improve endurance performance during training and competitions, and a lower post-exercise inflammatory response can accelerate recovery.

  3. Mitochondrial nutrients stimulate performance and mitochondrial biogenesis in exhaustively exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Qian, F; Shen, W; Tian, C; Hao, J; Sun, L; Liu, J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combination of nutrients on physical performance, oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise. Rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), exhaustive exercise (EC) and exhaustive exercise with nutrient supplementation (EN). The nutrients include (mg/kg/day): R-α-lipoic acid 50, acetyl-L-carnitine 100, biotin 0.1, nicotinamide 15, riboflavin 6, pyridoxine 6, creatine 50, CoQ10 5, resveratrol 5 and taurine 100. Examination of running distances over the 4-week period revealed that EN rats ran significantly longer throughout the entire duration of the exhaustive exercise period compared with the EC rats. Nutrient supplementation significantly inhibited the increase in activities of alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, reversed increases in malondialdehyde, inhibited decreases in glutathione S-transferase and total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes. Nutrient supplementation increased the protein expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II and III, mtDNA number and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that mitochondrial nutrient supplementation can reduce exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus leading to enhancement of physical performance and of fatigue recovery.

  4. Characterization and analysis of diesel exhaust odor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, P.A.; Shala, F.J.; Cernansky, N.P.; Suffet, I.H.

    1987-04-01

    An analytical method was developed to determine which compound or compounds in the oxygenated fraction of diesel exhaust were changing in intensity and number with respect to the odor correlation between human sensory panels and diesel exhaust samples as developed at Arthur D. Little, Inc. A sample fractionation with silica Sep-Pak cartridges and gas chromatography analysis procedures were developed to analyze exhaust odor samples. By use of a chromatographic computer profiling method, correlations were developed indicating a linear relation between log (odor intensity) and log (concentration) of specific character impact peaks (which may or may not be odorous themselves). Excellent correlations were obtained with the character impact peaks identified as benzaldehyde and a methylbenzaldehyde isomer in this study. Correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.90, respectively, were obtained for the sample set. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Monitoring of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, P.

    1994-12-01

    In Chapter 1 the origin and toxicity of incomplete combustion products of diesel fuel are discussed. Chapter 2 deals with methods that can be used for the identification and quantitation of airborne diesel exhaust-derived contaminants in the working place (environmental monitoring). Chemical substances may be used as indicators for source apportionment or markers for toxicity. A short-term in vitro bioassay may be used for (semi)quantitative determination of the mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust-derived airborne contaminants. Results are presented that support the use of 1-nitropyrene as a marker for the mutagenic activity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts. In Chapter 3 the development of methods for the determination of diesel exhaust-derived metabolites in biological samples is described. The application of new Salmonella typhimurium strains for the detection of urinary metabolites of nitroarenes is investigated. An immunoassay is presented as a method that may be used to track down persons with high occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. The possibilities for measurement of early biological effects are explored in Chapter 4. A method for the determination of hemoglobin adducts was used to investigate the role of the intestinal micro flora in the formation of such adducts derived from diesel exhaust constituents in rats equipped with a human micro flora. The formation of hemoglobin adducts is compared to the formation of DNA adducts in rats treated with two model compounds, in the presence or absence of a micro flora. The applicability of the described methods is discussed in Chapter 5. Prospects and recommendations for future research are given. 23 figs., 41 tabs., 660 refs., 4 appendices

  6. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  7. Dexamethasone stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood indicates glucocorticoid-receptor hypersensitivity in job-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Gerber, Markus; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Beck, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Work-related stress can lead to various health problems ranging from job-related exhaustion to psychiatric and somatic diseases. Biomarkers of job-related exhaustion could help to improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms and might be useful to guide prevention and treatment strategies. The present study included 12 male cases suffering from job-related exhaustion and 12 matched healthy controls. Severity of exhaustion was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Whole genome expression profiles derived from whole blood cells (baseline and following glucocorticoid-receptor (GR) stimulation with 1.5mg dexamethasone p.o.) and corresponding plasma cortisol levels were analyzed. All cases participated in regular aerobic exercise for 12 consecutive weeks and were then re-assessed at follow-up for exhaustion symptoms as well as for cortisol levels and gene expression profiles. At baseline, we found increased basal cortisol levels and an enhanced suppression of plasma cortisol concentrations following dexamethasone in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1.6-fold more transcripts were significantly regulated by dexamethasone in cases as compared to controls. At follow-up after 12 weeks of regular exercise training which was accompanied by significantly improved exhaustion severity scores, cortisol levels and gene expression profiles of cases normalized to the levels observed in controls. In conclusion, we detected GR-induced neuroendocrine and gene expression changes in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion which are in line with an increased sensitivity of GR function. This GR dysregulation normalized with symptom recovery.

  8. Exhaust gas system for space heating equipment. Abgassystem fuer Raumheizgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.; Kramp, A.

    1980-11-06

    The invention concerns an exhaust gas system for space heating equipment, particularly for equipment operated by liquid gas and used in caravans and similar vehicles. According to the invention, the exhaust gas system consists of a double walled pipe and a damming valve. This exhaust gas system makes it possible to cool the exhaust gas and therefore prevents too much heating at the outlet of the exhaust chimney and the penetration through the appropriate roof. If the outlet opening of the exhaust chimney should be blocked, the exhaust gases are taken to the outside through the space between the double-walled pipe via the damming valve. The usual non-return valve only operates if there is direct return flow in the exhaust chimney and therefore in the inner exhaust gas pipe of the double-walled pipe. This considerably increases the working safety of the whole system of space hating.

  9. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Kumar Agrawal; Shrawan Kumar Singh; Shailendra Sinha; Mritunjay Kumar Shukla

    2004-06-01

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission of a diesel engine is by late injection of fuel into the combustion chamber. This technique is effective but increases fuel consumption by 10–15%, which necessitates the use of more effective NOx reduction techniques like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx, but appreciable particulate emissions are observed at high loads, hence there is a trade-off between NOx and smoke emission. To get maximum benefit from this trade-off, a particulate trap may be used to reduce the amount of unburnt particulates in EGR, which in turn reduce the particulate emission also. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust opacity. The experimental setup for the proposed experiments was developed on a two-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled, compression ignition engine. A matrix of experiments was conducted for observing the effect of different quantities of EGR on exhaust gas temperatures and opacity.

  10. Enhancement of helium exhaust by resonant magnetic perturbation fields at LHD and TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Ida, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Bader, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Evans, T. E.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Mitarai, O.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Nicolai, D.; Samm, U.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Xu, Y.; TEXTOR, the; LHD Experiment Groups

    2016-10-01

    The ability to exhaust helium as the fusion born plasma impurity is a critical requirement for burning plasmas. We demonstrate in this paper that resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields can be used to actively manipulate helium exhaust characteristics. We present results from puff/pump studies at TEXTOR as example for a tokamak with a pumped limiter and from the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the closed helical divertor as example for a heliotron/stellarator device. For LHD, the effective helium confinement time τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is a factor of 7-8 higher in the low and high density regimes explored when compared to TEXTOR discharges. This is attributed to ion root impurity transport which is one particular impurity transport regime assessed experimentally at LHD and which facilitates helium penetration to the plasma core. However, when an edge magnetic island is induced by externally applied RMP fields, τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is decreased by up to 30% and hence τ p,\\text{He}\\ast values closer to those of TEXTOR can be established. The combination of TEXTOR and LHD results suggest that a magnetic island induced by the RMP field in the plasma source region is an important ingredient for improving helium exhaust. The reduction in τ p,\\text{He}\\ast seen is caused by a combination of improved helium exhaust due to an enhanced coupling to the pumping systems, increased outward transport and a reduced fueling efficiency for the helium injected and recycling from the wall elements.

  11. Analysis of impulse electric field effect on organic exhaust gas decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The technique of organic exhaust gas decomposition with impulse corono-dischrge plasma has been investigated in this study. It has been discovered that the impulse electric fieldaffected the decomposition efficiency with the secondary electron emission coefficient (δ of the corona electrode as an intermediate: when W was fixed the corona electrode material with higher δcould induce higher decomposition efficiency. In these experiments,wolfram electrode which has the highest δhas really induced the highest decomposition efficiency.

  12. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  13. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  14. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  15. Infrared spectroradiometer for rocket exhaust analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, W. F.

    1968-01-01

    Infrared spectroradiometer measures high-resolution spectral absorption, emission, temperature, and concentration of chemical species in radically symmetric zones of the exhaust plumes of large rocket engines undergoing static firing tests. Measurements are made along predetermined lines of sight through the plume.

  16. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  18. DeNOx Study in Diesel Engine Exhaust Using Barrier Discharge Corona Assisted by V2O5/TiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. S. Rajanikanth; V. Ravi

    2004-01-01

    A plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was used to remove nitrogen oxides (Nox) from diesel engine exhaust operated under different load conditions. Initial studies were focused on plasma reactor (a dielectric barrier discharge reactor) treatment of diesel exhaust at various temperatures. The nitric oxide (NO) removal efficiency was lowered when high temperature exhaust was treated using plasma reactor. Also, NO removal efficiency decreased when 45% load exhaust was treated. Studies were then made with plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor consisting of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, V2O5/TiO2. Ammonia was used as a reducing agent for SCR process in a ratio of 1:1 to Nox. The studies were focused on temperatures of the SCR catalytic reactor below 200 ℃. The plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was operated well to remove Nox under no-load and load conditions. For an energy input of 96 J/l, the Nox removal efficiencies obtained under no-load and load conditions were 90% and 72% respectively at an exhaust temperature of 100 ℃.

  19. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  20. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  2. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia,...

  4. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as... of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe cooling water system must comply with the requirements of...

  5. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202... Standards § 202.22 Visual exhaust system inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable unless the exhaust system...

  6. Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    and J. J. Brooks. Development of a portable miniature collection system for the exposure as- sessment within the microenvironment for carcinogens ...65 A-2. Recovery of acrylonitrile from standard sample generation system ...... ............. 66 B-I. Jet engine exhaust sampling and analysis...7 n-Butane 0.16 2.6 minutes 8 Propylene oxide 3.14 52 minutes 9 Acrylonitrile 9.35 2.6 hours 10 Phenanthrene 1.9 x 106 61 years 11 4-Bromodiphenyl

  7. Operational test report, 500 CFM portable exhauster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-05-15

    A 500 cubic foot per minute (CFM) portable exhauster system was fabricated for use on 241-A-101 [a Hydrogen Watch List tank] during saltwell pumping activities. An operational test was performed on this unit during 9/20/96 through 1O/14/96 in the 241-A Tank Farm. This operational test was done in accordance with OTP-060-001 Rev 0 (See Appendix A of this report). The test was performed with exceptions.

  8. Anisotropic Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. [Physics Department, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for Nano-Science, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, 80333 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: kiselev@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kikoin, K. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: kikoin@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2006-05-01

    The properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in z direction are studied. Each spin possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres' exhaustion problem does not arise. The excitation spectrum is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. Possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.

  9. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  10. Ageing characterization of exhaust flexible couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanical strength of automotive exhaust flexible couplings subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue and corrosion. Five different types of flexible coupling have been considered, realised by four different king of materials: three stainless steels (AISI 309, AISI 321, AISI 321 Ti) and a nickel alloy (Incoloy 825). These components have been tested by a dedicated procedure consisting of different cycles of fatigue, heating and corrosion. Performances ...

  11. Low temperature operation and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient temperature has the greatest effect on the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines during the initial cold star and before the engine is fully warmed-up. Fuel evaporation is poor in a cold engine and the fuel-air mixture must be made richer to ensure that the engine weill start and be driveable. However, the combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture is incomplete because of the lack of oxygen, and the exhaust gases will contain an excessive amount of carbon monoxide (CO). The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in a combustion engine is tied to high temperatures and oxygen concentrations. The conditions in a non-warmed engine using a rich fuel-air mixture are unfavourable for the formation of NO/sub x/ and the emission of NO/sub x/ may even diminish with falling ambient temperature. When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature the exhaust emissions are usually independent of the ambient temperature if the engine is equipped with intake air preheating that is sufficiently powerful. The reduction efficiency of a catalytic converter mainly depends on its operation temperature. Continuous operation at low temperatures may cause rapid poisoning of the converter. At low temperatures, carbon and other particles that do not burn collect on the active surface of the converter reducing its effectiveness.

  12. Exhaustivity in questions with non-factives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the conditions under which a person can be said to have told someone or predicted (the answer to a question like 'who sang'. It is standardly claimed that while (i the true answer must be completely specified, it is not necessary that (ii it be specified *as being* the complete answer. Here the non-factive verbs 'tell' and 'predict' are said to differ from the factive verb 'know', which typically does impose the *strong exhaustivity* requirement in (ii. We argue for an intermediate reading of 'tell' and 'predict' that requires more than (i but less than (ii. To account for this reading we claim that the exhaustivity requirement (ii imposed by 'know' is due to an operator than can apply non-locally. Applying the operator above a non-factive verb derives the intermediate reading, whereas doing so is vacuous in the case of factives. Thus, we derive the intermediate reading, and differences in the exhaustivity requirements imposed by factives and non-factives, without lexical stipulation. doi:10.3765/sp.4.2 BibTeX info

  13. Automated magnetic divertor design for optimal power exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blommaert, Maarten

    2017-07-01

    The so-called divertor is the standard particle and power exhaust system of nuclear fusion tokamaks. In essence, the magnetic configuration hereby 'diverts' the plasma to a specific divertor structure. The design of this divertor is still a key issue to be resolved to evolve from experimental fusion tokamaks to commercial power plants. The focus of this dissertation is on one particular design requirement: avoiding excessive heat loads on the divertor structure. The divertor design process is assisted by plasma edge transport codes that simulate the plasma and neutral particle transport in the edge of the reactor. These codes are computationally extremely demanding, not in the least due to the complex collisional processes between plasma and neutrals that lead to strong radiation sinks and macroscopic heat convection near the vessel walls. One way of improving the heat exhaust is by modifying the magnetic confinement that governs the plasma flow. In this dissertation, automated design of the magnetic configuration is pursued using adjoint based optimization methods. A simple and fast perturbation model is used to compute the magnetic field in the vacuum vessel. A stable optimal design method of the nested type is then elaborated that strictly accounts for several nonlinear design constraints and code limitations. Using appropriate cost function definitions, the heat is spread more uniformly over the high-heat load plasma-facing components in a practical design example. Furthermore, practical in-parts adjoint sensitivity calculations are presented that provide a way to an efficient optimization procedure. Results are elaborated for a fictituous JET (Joint European Torus) case. The heat load is strongly reduced by exploiting an expansion of the magnetic flux towards the solid divertor structure. Subsequently, shortcomings of the perturbation model for magnetic field calculations are discussed in comparison to a free boundary equilibrium (FBE) simulation

  14. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  15. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  16. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  17. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  18. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  19. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  20. Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K.; Kiselev, M. N.; Materials Science Division; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev; Ludwig-Maximilians Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in the z direction. Each spin in this model possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres exhaustion problem does not occur. The high-temperature perturbational description is matched to exact low-T Bethe-ansatz solution. The excitation spectrum of the model is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. The disordered phases and possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.

  1. Note on the economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazian, V.A.; Callen, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    The nature of a firm's structure and its production policies are shown to be a factor in whether the company achieves an optimal resource extraction rate. A Cournot oligopoly model is used to illustrate the divergence between the oligopolist and the monopolist response to competition in resource extraction. A decreasing sensitivity to resource exhaustion is evident with a corresponding increase in competition. Social welfare, from the point of view of resource conservation, will be enhanced by the monopolistic structure. 6 references.

  2. Scaling of the power exhaust channel in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Reinke, M. L.; Cziegler, I.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Irby, J.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Ma, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Rowan, W. L.; Tsujii, N.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Wurden, G.; Team, Alcator C-Mod

    2011-05-01

    Parametric dependences of the heat flux footprint on the outer divertor target plate are explored in EDA H-mode and ohmic L-mode plasmas over a wide range of parameters with attached plasma conditions. Heat flux profile shapes are found to be independent of toroidal field strength, independent of power flow along magnetic field lines and insensitive to x-point topology (single-null versus double-null). The magnitudes and widths closely follow that of the "upstream" pressure profile, which are correlated to plasma thermal energy content and plasma current. Heat flux decay lengths near the strike-point in H- and L-mode plasmas scale approximately with the inverse of plasma current, with a diminished dependence at high collisionality in L-mode. Consistent with previous studies, pressure gradients in the boundary scale with plasma current squared, holding the magnetohydrodynamic ballooning parameter approximately invariant at fixed collisionality—strong evidence that critical-gradient transport physics plays a key role in setting the power exhaust channel.

  3. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  4. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapsinskaite, Agne; Razon, Selen; Balagué Serre, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE) values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  5. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  6. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  7. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  8. Protective effects of L-arginine on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses during exhaustive exercise in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-teng LIN; Suh-ching YANG; Kung-tung CHEN; Chi-chang HUANG; Ning-yuean LEE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in rats after exhaustive exercise. Methods:Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary control with L-Arg treatment (SC+Arg), exhaustive exercise with control diet (E)and exhaustive exercise with L-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received a 2% L-Arg diet. Rats in groups E and E+Arg underwent an exhaustive running test on a motorized treadmill. Pulmonary oxidative stress indices [xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and antioxidant defense systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH)] were investigated in this study. Results: L-Arg supplementation significantly reduced exercise-induced elevations of XO and MPO activities in lung. LArg reversed the exercise-induced increase in SOD and GR activities, but increased CAT and GPX activities. L-Arg administration also significantly increased the GSH levels in plasma. Conclusion: L-Arg supplementation can prevent elevations of XO and MPO activities in the lung and favorably influence pulmonary antioxidant defense systems after exhaustive exercise.

  9. Study of Vehicle Exhaust Variation with Test Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays harmful gas in vehicle exhaust has pollute d air heavily. To prevent the environment from polluting, the request of emissions control legislation becomes more stringent. New legislation prescribes not only the emissions limitation of vehicles, but also testing instruments and methods. Test car must be operated on the chassis dynamometer and data must be collect ed and analyzed with prescriptive exhaust analysis system as well. The mass of harmful exhaust gas, containing the concentration an...

  10. Method for the removal of dust from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzmann, H.; Wohlfarth, J.P.

    1976-11-02

    A stream of raw material is passed through a preheater to a furnace and a stream of exhaust gases from the furnace is passed through the preheater to preheat the raw material. Dust is electrostatically precipitated from the exhaust gases leaving the preheater, and the temperature of such exhaust gases is controllably raised to improve the efficiency of the dust removal by bypassing a controlled proportion of at least one of the streams around at least a portion of the preheater.

  11. High temperature UF6 RF plasma experiments applicable to uranium plasma core reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using a 1.2 MW RF induction heater facility to aid in developing the technology necessary for designing a self critical fissioning uranium plasma core reactor. Pure, high temperature uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was injected into an argon fluid mechanically confined, steady state, RF heated plasma while employing different exhaust systems and diagnostic techniques to simulate and investigate some potential characteristics of uranium plasma core nuclear reactors. The development of techniques and equipment for fluid mechanical confinement of RF heated uranium plasmas with a high density of uranium vapor within the plasma, while simultaneously minimizing deposition of uranium and uranium compounds on the test chamber peripheral wall, endwall surfaces, and primary exhaust ducts, is discussed. The material tests and handling techniques suitable for use with high temperature, high pressure, gaseous UF6 are described and the development of complementary diagnostic instrumentation and measurement techniques to characterize the uranium plasma, effluent exhaust gases, and residue deposited on the test chamber and exhaust system components is reported.

  12. Emotional exhaustion and job performance: the mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Bowler, Wm Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The literature concerning the relationship between emotional exhaustion and performance led researchers to raise questions about the extent to which the variables are related. In 2 time-lagged samples, the authors found that motivation mediates the emotional exhaustion-job performance relationship. Moreover, the authors found that participants appear to target their investment of resources in response to emotional exhaustion to develop social support through social exchange; specifically, emotional exhaustion was associated with communion striving resources that were manifest in the form of organizational citizenship behaviors targeted at individuals. Implications of this relationship for theories of burnout and for management practice are discussed.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  14. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  15. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  16. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  17. Global positive polarity items and obligatory exhaustivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Spector

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a distinction between two types of positive polarity items (PPIs which has not been recognized so far. While for some PPIs, anti-licensing is a strictly local phenomenon, for other PPIs anti-licensing should be stated as a global condition. I aim to contribute to a principled explanation for the distribution of a significant subset of global PPIs, by relating it to specific semantic properties of the relevant items. More specifically, I argue that PPIs such as soit ... soit ..., quelques and almost trigger obligatory exhaustivity effects and scalar inferences, and that independently motivated constraints regarding the generation of such inferences can account for their distribution. The paper also briefly addresses the case of other global PPIs, e.g., at least, for which a similar account is not straightforwardly available. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.11 BibTeX info

  18. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...

  19. Lidar measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Phan D.; Curtis, David; Farley, Robert; Soletsky, Philip; Davidson, Gilbert; Gelbwachs, Jerry A.

    1997-10-01

    The Mobile Lidar Trailer (MLT) was developed and operated to characterize launch vehicle exhaust plume and its effects on the environment. Two recent applications of this facility are discussed in this paper. In the first application, the MLT was used to characterize plumes in the stratosphere up to 45 km in support of the Air Force Space and Missile Center's Rocket Impact on Stratospheric Ozone program. Solid rocket motors used by Titan IV and other heavy launch vehicles release large quantities of gaseous hydrochloric acid in the exhaust and cause concerns about a possible depletion of the ozone layer. The MLT was deployed to Cape Canaveral Air Station since October 1995 to monitor ozone and to investigate plume dynamics and properties. Six campaigns have been conducted and more are planned to provide unique data with the objective of addressing the environmental issues. The plume was observed to disperse rapidly into horizontally extended yet surprisingly thin layer with thickness recorded in over 700 lidar profiles to be less than 250 meters. MLT operates with the laser wavelengths of 532, 355 and 308 nm and a scanning receiving telescope. Data on particle backscattering at the three wavelengths suggest a consistent growth of particle size in the 2-3 hour observation sessions following the launch. In the second type of application, the MLT was used as a remote sensor of nitrogen dioxide, a caustic gaseous by-product of common liquid propellant oxidizer. Two campaigns were conducted at the Sol Se Mete Canyon test site in New Mexico in December 1996 an January 1997 to study the dispersion of nitrogen dioxide and rocket plume.

  20. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (plevels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (plevels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  1. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a)...

  3. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash K Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  5. Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer in miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evalu

  6. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  7. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  8. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1509 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a) The exhaust gas sampling system shall transport...

  10. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  11. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analysis system. 86.1511 Section 86.1511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Procedures § 86.1511 Exhaust gas analysis system. (a) Analyzers used for this subpart shall meet the...

  12. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent deformation or deterioration. (b) Exhaust flame arrester. (1) The exhaust system of the engine shall be provided with a flame arrester to prevent propagation of flame or discharge of heated particles to a surrounding flammable mixture. The flame arrester shall be so positioned that only...

  13. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  14. Altered Nitric Oxide Bioavailability Contributes to Diesel Exhaust Inhalation‐Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P.; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny; Barath, Stefan; Muala, Ala; Blackwell, Scott; Söderberg, Stefan; Pourazar, Jamshid; Megson, Ian L.; Treweeke, Andrew; Sandström, Thomas; Newby, David E.; Blomberg, Anders; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust inhalation causes cardiovascular dysfunction including impaired vascular reactivity, increased blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in mediating these effects. Methods and Results In 2 randomized double‐blind crossover studies, healthy nonsmokers were exposed to diesel exhaust or filtered air. Study 1: Bilateral forearm blood flow was measured during intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh; 5 to 20 μg/min) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 to 8 μg/min) in the presence of the NO clamp (NO synthase inhibitor NG‐monomethyl‐l‐arginine (l‐NMMA) 8 μg/min coinfused with the NO donor SNP at 90 to 540 ng/min to restore basal blood flow). Study 2: Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and cardiac output were measured during systemic NO synthase inhibition with intravenous l‐NMMA (3 mg/kg). Following diesel exhaust inhalation, plasma nitrite concentrations were increased (68±48 versus 41±32 nmol/L; P=0.006) despite similar l‐NMMA–induced reductions in basal blood flow (−20.6±14.7% versus −21.1±14.6%; P=0.559) compared to air. In the presence of the NO clamp, ACh and SNP caused dose‐dependent vasodilatation that was not affected by diesel exhaust inhalation (P>0.05 for both). Following exposure to diesel exhaust, l‐NMMA caused a greater increase in blood pressure (P=0.048) and central arterial stiffness (P=0.007), but reductions in cardiac output and increases in systemic vascular resistance (P>0.05 for both) were similar to those seen with filtered air. Conclusions Diesel exhaust inhalation disturbs normal vascular homeostasis with enhanced NO generation unable to compensate for excess consumption. We suggest the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution are, in part, mediated through reduced NO bioavailability. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00845767 and NCT01060930. PMID:23525434

  15. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  16. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  17. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  18. Hotelling's economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levhari, D.; Liviatan, N.

    1977-05-01

    This paper provides some extensions of Hotelling's fundamental paper (Journal of Political Economy, 39: 137-75 (1931)) on the economic theory of exhaustible resources. One of the main modifications introduced concerns the assumption of complete versus incomplete exhaustion of the resource. Under complete exhaustion the concept of 'full marginal cost' must include a term that reflects the alternative cost of producing an extra unit at the terminal time; under incomplete exhaustion this term vanishes. To derive these results, the authors present a formula for the ''full marginal cost'' of extracting exhaustible resources. The principle that marginal profit has to increase over time exponentially at a rate equal to the rate of interest (r percent rule) is shown to be valid only under special conditions. The modifications to this rule are discussed.

  19. Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial cell activation following exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans: Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model**

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

  20. Distinct characteristics of asymmetric magnetic reconnections: Observational results from the exhaust region at the dayside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the conversion of magnetic energy into the thermal and kinetic energy of plasma. On either side of the diffusion region in space plasma, the conditions for the occurrence of reconnections are usually not symmetric. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that reconnections under asymmetric conditions will bear different features compared with those of symmetric reconnections, and numerical simulations have verified these distinct features. However, to date, the features of asymmetric reconnections have not been thoroughly investigated using in situ observations; thus, some results from theoretical studies and simulations have not been tested with observations sufficiently well. Here, spacecraft observations are used in a statistical investigation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection exhaust at the dayside magnetopause. The resulting observational features are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The results presented here advance our understanding of the development of reconnections under asymmetric conditions. PMID:27270685

  1. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  2. Experimental study into plasma-assisted PM removal for diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Creyghton, Y.; Gulijk, C. van; Oonk, H; Maisuls, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-assisted PM removal is examined in a packed-bed plasma system. This study focuses on the effect of plasma power, space velocity and exhaust gas composition on PM filtration. Experiments are done on an engine dynamometer with a VW 1.2l TDI engine. During these experiments, the airflow is throt

  3. Experimental study into plasma-assisted PM removal for diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Creyghton, Y.; Gulijk, C. van; Oonk, H; Maisuls, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-assisted PM removal is examined in a packed-bed plasma system. This study focuses on the effect of plasma power, space velocity and exhaust gas composition on PM filtration. Experiments are done on an engine dynamometer with a VW 1.2l TDI engine. During these experiments, the airflow is

  4. Plasma promoted manufacturing of hydrogen and vehicular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Plasmas can be used for promoting reformation of fuels. Plasma-based reformers developed at MIT use a low temperature, low power, low current electrical discharge to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The very fuel rich mixture is hard to ignite, and the plasmatron provides a volume-ignition. To minimize erosion and to simplify the power supply, a low current high voltage discharge is used, with wide area electrodes. The plasmatron fuel reformer operates at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. The plasma-based reformer technology provides the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels. These advantages enable use of hydrogen-manufacturing reformation technology in cars using available fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. This plasma-based reformer technology can provide substantial throughputs even without the use of a catalyst. The electrical power consumption of the device is minimized by design and operational characteristics (less than 500 W peak and 200 W average). The product from these plasma reactors is a hydrogen rich mixture that can be used for combustion enhancement and emissions aftertreatment in vehicular applications. By converting a small fraction of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas, in-cylinder combustion can be improved. With minor modification of the engine, use of hydrogen rich gas results in increased fuel efficiency and decreased emissions of smog producing gases. The status of plasma based reformer technology and its application to vehicles will be described.

  5. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  6. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  7. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today’s opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  8. Electromagnetic Exhaust Valve Event Optimization for Enhancing Gasoline Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable exhaust valve events have the potential to further improve the engine power output, fuel economy and decrease the NOX emissions. Based on the moving coil electromagnetic valve train applied to engine exhaust system, effects of variable exhaust valve events are analyzed in detail and the optimization approaches are carried out. Also with the fully variable intake and exhaust valve train, different internal EGR strategies can be achieved and the contrastive analyses are carried out between combustion chamber recirculation and exhaust port recirculation strategies at same operational condition. Results show that, the optimal exhaust valve opening motion can strengthen both power performance and fuel economy at engine part loads. And two principal EGR strategies are applied in a good combination under variable engine loads. At the engine speed of 2000 r/min, BMEP is about 0.3 MPa and with 30%~35% exhaust port recirculation rate, the BSFC and NOX emissions have decrease over 10% and 85% respectively compare with initial condition.

  9. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  10. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-15

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  12. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  13. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  14. Diaphragmatic energetics during prolonged exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, M; Hassan, A S

    1991-08-01

    The present study was carried out to examine diaphragmatic O2 extraction and lactate and ammonia production during prolonged exhaustive exercise. Experiments were performed on nine healthy exercise-conditioned ponies in which catheters had been implanted in the phrenic vein previously. Blood-gas variables and lactate and ammonia concentrations were determined on simultaneously obtained arterial and phrenic-venous blood samples at rest and during 30 min of exertion at 15 mph + 7% grade (heart rate, 200 beats/min; approximately 90% of maximum). Arterial O2 tension and saturation were maintained near resting value but CO2 tension decreased markedly with exercise, and because of increased hemoglobin concentration, arterial O2 content rose. Concomitantly, phrenic venous O2 tension, saturation and content decreased markedly (23.6 +/- 1 mm Hg, 24.5 +/- 2%, 5.2 +/- 0.3 ml/dl at 3 min of exertion) and significant fluctuations did not occur as exercise duration progressed to 30 min. Diaphragmatic arteriovenous O2 content difference and O2 extraction rose from 4 +/- 0.3 to 16 +/- 0.5 ml/dl and from 30 +/- 3 to 75 +/- 1% at 3 min of exercise, and significant deviations did not occur as exercise duration progressed. Arterial lactate and ammonia levels increased during exercise, indicating their release from working limb muscles. Phrenic-venous values of lactate and ammonia did not exceed arterial values. Ponies sweated profusely and were unable to keep up with the belt speed in the last 4 to 5 min of exercise. Constancy of phrenic arteriovenous O2 content difference in exercise indicated ability to adjust perfusion in diaphragm so as to adequately meet its O2 needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  16. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  17. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  18. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  19. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  20. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  1. Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

  2. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  3. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  4. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122 recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL and CD4 T cell count and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy. To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of 'exhaustion' or 'immune checkpoint' markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches.

  5. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  6. Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

  7. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  8. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  9. Soot filter for the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.

    1980-06-19

    In the previously known soot filters, the exhaust gas flows through the cylindrical filter radially from the outside to the inside. The exhaust gas touches a relatively large area of the filter housing and therefore loses a large part of the thermal energy required for post-combustion. According to the invention, these disadvantages are avoided in the new filter, where the filter material forms hollow spaces at the internal wall of the filter, which take the exhaust gas after it has flowed through the filter and carry it in an axial direction of the filter housing to the exhaust. Due to this design of the filter and the saving in heat, the areas on which the exhaust gas impinges can be kept appreciably smaller and better use can be made of the heat in the exhaust gas. The ceramic filter material can consist of an outer layer of loose ceramic fibres and an inner woven ceramic fibre mat. In order to increase the effectiveness of the filter, the soot filter can be used as a fine filter after a coarse filter.

  10. The Optimal Depletion of Exhaustible Resource under Different Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wei; Wu Kangping

    2012-01-01

    There are few papers in the literature focusing on the issue of the optimal depletion of exhaustible resources in the framework of variable time preference. This paper attempts to analyze the pure consumption of exhaustible resource under hy- perbolic time preference, and to discuss the optimal depletion rate and the effect of the protection of the exhaustible resource under different commitment abilities. The results of model show that the case of the hyperbolic discount with the full commitment of the govemment is equivalent to the case of constant discount of the social planner problem. In that case, the optimal depletion rate and the initial consumption of exhaustible resource are the slowest. On the contrary, they are the highest and the myopic behaviors lead to excessive consumption of exhaustible resources inevitably without commitment. Otherwise, in the case of partial commit- ment, the results are between the cases of full commitment and of no commitment. Therefore, with the hyperbolic time preference, the optimal depletion rate of resource depends on the commitment ability. Higher commitment ability leads to lower effective rate of time preference, and consequently, lower depletion rate and lower initial depletion value. The improvement of commitment ability can decrease the impatience and myopia behaviors, and contribute to the protection of the exhaustible resources.

  11. Analysis of exhaustive limited service for token ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Jeffery H.

    1990-01-01

    Token ring operation is well-understood in the cases of exhaustive, gated, gated limited, and ordinary cyclic service. There is no current data, however, on queueing models for the exhaustive limited service type. This service type differs from the others in that there is a preset maximum (omega) on the number of packets which may be transmitted per token reception, and packets which arrive after token reception may still be transmitted if the preset packet limit has not been reached. Exhaustive limited service is important since it closely approximates a timed token service discipline (the approximation becomes exact if packet lengths are constant). A method for deriving the z-transforms of the distributions of the number of packets present at both token departure and token arrival for a system using exhaustive limited service is presented. This allows for the derivation of a formula for mean queueing delay and queue lengths. The method is theoretically applicable to any omega. Fortunately, as the value of omega becomes large (typically values on the order of omega = 8 are considered large), the exhaustive limited service discipline closely approximates an exhaustive service discipline.

  12. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  13. Plasma Induced Physicochemical Changes and Reactive Dyeing of Wool Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Udakhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma treatment on physical and chemical properties of wool fabric and its relation to exhaustion of Drimalan Navy Blue FBI reactive dye. AFM analysis of plasma treated wool fabric has shown partial removal of epicuticle and thus reduced scale height. FD spectroscopy has shown improvement in hydrophilicity by many folds after plasma treatment. ATR graphs depict the removal of hydrophobic layer of 18-MEA and introduction of hydrophilic groups like cysteic acid after plasma treatment. Alkali solubility of wool fabric increases with increasing plasma treatment time. Wetting time for plasma treated fabric reduces drastically when compared to untreated wool fabric. It is found that plasma treated fabric takes much lesser time to reach maximum dye exhaustion than untreated fabric. Substantivity of the dye increases significantly after plasma treatment. Colour fastness properties improve with increase in plasma treatment time. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of spent dyebath liquor is found to reduce with increase in plasma treatment time. Biological oxygen demand (BOD is found to be higher for plasma treated samples, while ratio of COD/BOD has reduced with increase in the plasma treatment time.

  14. A statistical survey of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind based on the Riemannian decay of current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasunov, Yu. L.; Semenov, V. S.; Heyn, M. F.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kubyshkin, I. V.; Slivka, K. Yu.; Korovinskiy, D. B.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    We present a statistical study of the magnetic reconnection exhausts in solar wind. Observational data are compared with the analytical model based on the Riemann analysis of tangential discontinuity decay forced by finite X-line reconnection of skewed magnetic fields. Statistical analysis is based on 51 events of the solar wind reconnection listed in Phan et al. (2009). The best agreement of the observed and analytically predicted values is achieved for the rotational angle of the tangential magnetic field component with correlation coefficient reaching the value of 0.97. The lowest correlation coefficient of 0.87 is obtained for the exhaust flow plasma temperature. It is found that proton temperature increases at the exhaust boundary while electron temperature stays unchanged. This may indicate that heating and acceleration processes operate on the proton scale. Exhaust boundaries are identified as tangential discontinuities, except one particular event, where Alfvén discontinuity and slow shock were detected instead. Hence, the impulsive reconnection may be supposed in that case rather than steady state one. Exhaust regions extending up to 690RE, registered in some observations, do not necessarily imply X-lines of similar length. They could be explained alternatively by reconnection of skewed magnetic fields. The numerical modeling of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) propagating in the solar wind reveals that the resistance force, impeding the ICME motion, may be reduced significantly (three times in our simulations) by means of the magnetic reconnection at the leading edge. Thus, reconnection may substantially increase ICME velocity and travel distance.

  15. Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Joeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS, cell energy production (ATP and cell lysosome integrity (NRU. The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549 and liver (HepG2 derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more

  16. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  17. Protective role of L-carnitine supplementation against exhaustive exercise induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síktar, Elif; Ekinci, Deniz; Síktar, Erdinç; Beydemir, Sükrü; Gülçin, Ilhami; Günay, Mehmet

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate temperature dependent effects of oral l-carnitine supplementation on exhaustive exercise induced oxidative damage in rats. 42 male Spraque Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven experimental groups. These groups were formed as three non-carnitine exercise groups, three carnitine-exercise groups and a sedentary group. l-carnitine was given intraperitoneally to the carnitine-exercise groups 1h before the exercise in 100mg/kg. Blood was collected to measure paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol concentrations. These biomarkers were measured in venous blood samples collected before and after the rats swam in pools at different water temperatures (18°C, 28°C and 38°C). In the non-carnitine group, exercise caused a significant decrease in PON1 activity and a significant elevation in MDA concentration at 28°C compared to the sedentary group. No significant alterations were evidenced in LDL and cholesterol concentrations upon exercise. The decrease in PON1 activity became higher with increasing temperature whereas the elevation in MDA levels increased at 18°C. In the l-carnitine supplementation group, recovery in PON1 activity was observed significant at 28°C and very significant at 38°C. MDA concentration was almost the same with that of the non-carnitine group at 18 and 38°C, but it significantly decreased at 28°C. Considering the recovery in PON1 and MDA levels at 28°C, which is the temperature of the sedentary group; our results suggest that l-carnitine supplementation has a protective role on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Findings of this study also demonstrate influences of thermal stress on these parameters during exhaustive exercise.

  18. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  19. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang

    2011-01-01

    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  20. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  1. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  2. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  3. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  4. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyticalsensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust ofShanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its correspondingx-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There arc manykinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harnful to people,such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. We found that the lead concentration was 6820μg/g andthe bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leadedgasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. We havealso detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its contentvaries from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highestreached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while theleaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to thehuman beings.

  5. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  6. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  7. Exhaust gas side corrosion of oil fired central heating boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-09-01

    While Swiss boiler producers aim primarily at achieving low exhaust gas temperatures, in our northern neighbouring country, lower boiler water temperatures are being set as favourite objectives to be met. The first method aims at reducing the exhaust gas losses, i.e. of the heat content of the exhaust gases; the second one aims at reducing service life losses (= losses in the off-air of the boiler). Flue-gas caused corrosion, however, sets practical limits to the energy-saving reduction of the exhaust gas and boiler water temperatures. To be able to define this practical limit more exactly is the main goal of this project which is supported by NEFF and which is carried out in cooperation with the Institute for Energy Engineering of the ETHZ (Professor P. Suter). In addition to this, however, the author also head to find out about sill inexplained cases of corrosion in boilers which are being operated correctly, i.e. with comparably high boiler water and exhaust gas temperatures.

  8. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Michael B.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Sloane, Thompson M.; Hilden, David L.; Mulawa, Patricia A.; Lee, Jong H.; Cheng, Shi-Wai S.

    2012-05-29

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  9. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  10. Investigation of SCR After-Treatment Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel to Meet the Emission Regulations above Euro 5%重型柴油机满足欧吁、欧遇排放法规的SCR后处理技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莹; 付海燕; 于红胜; 仲蕾; 程秀围; 任庆霜; 董江峰

    2014-01-01

    The technical roadmaps of emission regulations of foreign heavy duty diesel are investigated. The technical characteristics of SCR system are analyzed. SCR after-treatment technologies meeting the emission regulations above Euro V are discussed. It's pointed out that the design conception of SCR has been renewed,the temperature window of SCR has been enlarged,and the volume of SCR has been reduced continuously. The operating cost of engine and after-treatment is being optimized constantly.%研究了国外重型柴油机排放法规的技术路线,分析了SCR系统的技术特点,并在此基础上探讨了满足欧吁以上排放法规的SCR后处理技术。指出SCR的设计理念在不断地更新换代,SCR的温度窗口不断扩大,SCR的体积不断缩小。发动机及后处理系统运行成本也在不断优化。

  11. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, J; Sutherland, D; Stone, S N; Duncan, L M; Behnke, R

    1980-10-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10/sup 31/ H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10/sup 29/ exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0/sup +/ ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail.

  12. Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J N B; Honour, S L; Power, S A

    2011-01-01

    Very few investigations have examined the direct impacts of vehicle exhausts on plants and attempted to separate out the key pollutants responsible for observed effects. This paper describes a multi-phase investigation into this topic, using 12 herbaceous species typical of urban areas and representing different functional groups. Fumigations were conducted in solardomes with diesel exhaust pollutants at concentrations designed to simulate those close to a major highway in inner London. A wide range of effects were detected, including growth stimulation and inhibition, changes in gas exchange and premature leaf senescence. This was complemented by controlled fumigations with NO, NO(2) and their mixture, as well as a transect study away from a busy inner London road. All evidence suggested that NO(x) was the key phytotoxic component of exhaust emissions, and highlights the potential for detrimental effects of vehicle emissions on urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exhaust gas emission from a two-stroke engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippitsch, H.H.; Eichlseder, H.

    1986-01-01

    According to present day ideas, carbon monoxide CO, hydrocarbons HC and nitrogen oxide NO are regarded as harmful substances in the exhaust gas and are therefore limited by law in some countries. After a survey of the regulations in Europe and the USA, the origin of these substances in a two-stroke engine is briefly described. The effect of the type of engine is then shown by results from various engines. It was found that emission can be drastically reduced by new engine designs. The introduction of exhaust gas regulations in Austria has caused the firm of Bombadier-Rotax to intensify their development work in this field. The state of exhaust gas emission of present day mass-produced engines was compared with previous engines at this opportunity.

  14. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  15. Radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1959-07-13

    The 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust is continuously sampled for the purpose of estimating the amount of radioactive (alpha emitting) material discharged to the atmosphere. Although a record is kept of the gross amount of radioactive material discharged, few data are available concerning the size and kind of active particles in the exhaust air. Knowledge of the particle size permits: (1) an estimate of the validity of samples drawn through the sampling system, (2) a better knowledge of what the active particle ground deposition pattern might be, and (3) may provide information relating to filter performance. The kind of radioactive material discharged is important in determining relative health hazards. The object of this work was to determine the size and kind of radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust. A secondary objective was to review present routine sampling of the stream with particular regard to the particulates to be sampled.

  16. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF FILLING AND EXHAUSTING PROCESS IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The filling and exhausting processes in a pneumatic system are involved with many factors,and numerical solutions of many partial differential equations are always adapted in the study of those processes, which have been proved to be troublesome and less intuitive. Analytical solutions based on loss-less tube model and average friction tube model are found respectively by using fluid net theory,and they fit the experimental results well. The research work shows that: Fluid net theory can be used to solve the analytical solution of filling and exhausting processes of pneumatic system, and the result of loss-less tube model is close to that of average friction model, so loss-less tube model is recommended since it is simpler, and the difference between filling time and exhausting time is determined by initial and final pressures, the volume of container and the section area of tube, and has nothing to do with the length of the tube.

  17. Diesel Engine Exhaust Initiates a Sequence of Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg M. Kooter

    2010-01-01

    This in vivo inhalation study showed a pulmonary anti-oxidant response (an increased activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and an increase in heme oxygenase-1 protein, heme oxygenase activity, and uric acid which precedes the inflammatory response (an increase in IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, increased plasma thrombogenicity and immediate anti-oxidant defense gene expression in aorta tissue shortly after the exposure might suggest direct translocation of diesel engine exhaust components to the vasculature but mediation by other pathways cannot be ruled out. This study therefore shows that different stages in oxidative stress are not only affected by dose increments but are also time dependent.

  18. Impaired counterregulatory hormonal and metabolic response to exhaustive exercise in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettor, R; Macor, C; Rossi, E; Piemonte, G; Federspil, G

    1997-08-01

    A reduction of postprandial thermogenesis has been described in obesity; insulin resistance and/or decreased sympathetic nervous system activity seem to play the major role in its pathogenesis. On the other hand, a normal energy expenditure during exercise has been reported. At present, the response and the role of catecholamines in energy metabolism during exercise in obesity have not been well clarified yet. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic and hormonal changes caused by intense exercise in obesity. Nine obese subjects and ten normal weight controls were submitted to exhaustive exercise on a cycloergometer. Blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, lactate, beta-OH-butyrate, insulin, glucagon, plasma growth hormone (HGH), catecholamine plasma levels were assayed before and at the end of exercise, and after a recovery period. The energy cost of exercise was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. In our experiment muscular exercise did not provoke any change in blood glucose and FFA plasma levels in either of our groups. In the obese subjects the insulin plasma levels were higher than in the controls. Glucagon plasma levels did not change. The exercise responses of norepinephrine (NE) (4.28 +/- 0.74 vs 8.81 +/- 1.35 nmol/l; P exercise, the thermic effect of exercise did not differ between obese and control subjects (0.335 +/- 0.038 vs 0.425 +/- 0.040 kJ/min x kg fat-free mass. Our findings indicate that an impaired counterregulatory hormone response to exercise exists in obese subjects. The thermic effect of exercise does not seem to be affected by either the reduced catecholamine response nor insulin resistance.

  19. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  20. Integration of the Smart NOx-Sensor in the exhaust line of a gasoline high pressure direct injection system; Integration eines Smart NOx-Sensors im Abgasstrang fuer die Benzindirekteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hong; Pfleger, C.; Lemire, B. [Siemens AG Automobiltechnik, Regensburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    For further reduction of fuel consumption of Gasoline engines the High Pressure Direct Injection is the most suitable way. For the exhaust gas aftertreatment NOx storage catalysts are used, which stores the NOx emission in lean burn phases and reduce it in short phases with rich mixture. To trigger the start of the regeneration phases suitable models can be used. The optimum start of the regeneration phase concerning emission and consumption is only possible with the use of a NOx-Sensor, so that further stringent emission regulation and OBD II requirements will force the use of the NOx-Sensor. Siemens Automotive in cooperation with NGK Insulators are developping in cooperation the 'Smart' NOx-Sensor, which can be integrated in the ECU. With this configuration all requirements concerning emission, fuel consumption and diagnosis can be fulfilled. (orig.) [German] Die Benzindirekteinspritzung bietet ein hohes Potential fuer die Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs. Fuer die Abgasnachbehandlung werden NOx-Speicherkatalysatoren eingesetzt, die in den mageren Motorbetriebsphasen die entstehenden Stickoxide speichern und in kurzen Motorbetriebsphasen mit fettem Gemisch diese regenerieren. Fuer die Einleitung der Regenerationsphasen bieten sich geeignete Modelle an. Die sowohl emissions- wie auch verbrauchsoptimale Einleitung der Regenerationsphase ist jedoch nur mit dem Einsatz eines NOx-Sensors moeglich, wobei die zunehmend strenger werdenden Emissions- und Diagnosevorschriften der emissionsbeeinflussenden Bauteile den Einsatz des NOx-Sensors erfordern werden. Siemens Automobiltechnik entwickelt in Zusammenarbeit mit NGK Insulator einen NOx-Sensor, der in die Motorsteuerung eingebunden werden kann. Mit dieser Konfiguration lassen sich alle Anforderungen an das Motorsteuergeraet und die Abgasnachbehandlung bezueglich Kraftstoffverbrauch, Emissionen und Diagnose erfuellen. (orig.)

  1. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Reconstruction of a large-scale reconnection exhaust structure in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-L. Teh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We recover two-dimensional (2-D magnetic field and flow field configurations from three spacecraft encounters with a single large-scale reconnection exhaust structure in the solar wind, using a new reconstruction method (Sonnerup and Teh, 2008 based on the ideal single-fluid MHD equations in a steady-state, 2-D geometry. The reconstruction is performed in the rest frame of the X-line, where the flow into, and the plasma jetting within, the exhaust region are clearly visible. The event was first identified by Phan et al. (2006 in the ACE, Cluster, and Wind data sets; they argued that quasi-steady reconnection persisted for over 2 h at a long (390 RE X-line. The reconnection exhaust is sandwiched between two discontinuities, both of which contain elements of intermediate- and slow-mode behavior; these elements are co-located rather than being spatially separated. These composite discontinuities do not satisfy the coplanarity condition or the standard MHD jump conditions. For all three spacecraft, the Walén regression line slope was positive (negative for the leading (trailing discontinuity. Our MHD reconstruction shows that: (1 the X-line orientation was close to the bisector of the overall magnetic shear angle and exhibited a slow rotating motion toward the Sun-Earth line; (2 the X-line moved earthward, dawnward, and southward; (3 the reconnection electric field was small (~0.02 mV/m on average and gradually decreased from the first crossing (ACE to the last (Wind. The magnetic field and flow field configurations recovered from ACE and Cluster are similar while those recovered from Wind also include a magnetic island and an associated vortex. Reconnection persisted for at least 2.4 h involving inflow into the exhaust region from its two sides. Time-dependence in the reconnection electric fields seen by ACE and Wind indicates local temporal variations in the field configuration. In addition to the reconstruction results, we

  3. Activated carbon use in treating diesel engine exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Babyak, R.A. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several active carbon materials were observed to be particularly effective in processes for the removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases. This paper describes the application of active carbon materials to two diesel engine exhaust gases at McClellan AFB in California. More specifically, one application involved a large diesel engine that supplies emergency power at the Base, and the second involved a mobile diesel-fueled generator that provides auxiliary power to aircraft. The designs of systems to control emissions for each application are discussed, and the results of tests on laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale systems are presented.

  4. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt;

    2013-01-01

    induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...... origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...

  5. Active Noise Control for Vehicle Exhaust Noise Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克强; 杨殿阁; 郑四发; 连小珉; 田中丈晴

    2003-01-01

    An active noise control (ANC) method was developed for exhaust noise reduction for medium-duty diesel trucks. A modified variable step size least mean squares (LMS) algorithm was used for the controller in a variable environment that considered the vehicle's acceleration characteristics. The variable step size time-based synchronized filtered-x LMS method (SFX-TB) used an adaptive algorithm that was more efficient than the conventional filtered-x LMS algorithm. The simulation and the experimental tests show that the control trackability and stability provided by the algorithm during acceleration enable the ANC system to effectively reduce the vehicle exhaust noise.

  6. Dynamics of aircraft exhaust plumes in the jet-regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    Full Text Available A computational model describing the two-dimensional, turbulent mixing of a single jet of exhaust gas from aircraft engines with the ambient atmosphere is presented. The underlying assumptions and governing equations are examined and supplemented by a discussion of analytical solutions. As an application, the jet dynamics of a B747-400 aircraft engine in cruise and its dependence on key parameters is investigated in detail. The computer code for this dynamical model is computationally fast and can easily be coupled to complex chemical and microphysical models in order to perform comprehensive studies of atmospheric effects from aircraft exhaust emissions in the jet regime.

  7. Optimal depletion of exhaustible resources: existence and characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, T.

    1980-09-01

    A model of intertemporal allocation is considered in which there is a produced good (which can be used for consumption or for further production), and an exhaustible resource (which is essential for production), the total initial stock of which is given. The use of the resource over the (infinite) planning horizon must not exceed this available stock. A planner is assumed to evaluate consumption in each period, in terms of a utility function, and to maximize the undiscounted sum of these one-period utilities, to obtain, simultaneously, the optimal depletion of the exhaustible resource, and the optimal investment pattern. 20 references.

  8. Plasma system requirements and performance data base for the Starlite/Demo fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mau, T.K.; Lee, B.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Fusion Energy Research Program; Ehst, D.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    General plasma system requirements for the US Demo fusion power plant have been identified, taking into account factors of economics, operability and reliability. Required extrapolations from the present plasma performance database have been assessed for the Demo options in five areas of tokamak operation, namely, stability, current drive, energy confinement, heat exhaust, and ash removal, for which figures of merit have been identified.

  9. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragle, Christie Susan [Havana, IL; Silver, Ronald G [Peoria, IL; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna [Edelstein, IL; Eckstein, Colleen J [Metamora, IL

    2011-12-06

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  10. Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

  11. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065.330 Section 1065.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... installing a flow meter with an off-site calibration, we recommend that you consider the effects of...

  13. Effects of diesel exhaust on influenza-induced nasal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title: Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Influenza-Induced Nasal Inflammation T L Noah, MD1,2, K Horvath, BS3, C Robinette, RN2, 0 Diaz Sanchez, PhD4 and I Jaspers, PhD1,2. 1UNC Dept. of Pediatrics, United States; 2UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, ...

  14. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken ho

  15. Stratospheric aluminum oxide. [possibly from solid-fuel rocket exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Tomandl, D.; Ferry, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    Balloons and U-2 aircraft were used to collect micrometer-sized stratospheric aerosols. It was discovered that for the past 6 years at least, aluminum oxide spheres have been the major stratospheric particulate in the size range from 3 to 8 micrometers. The most probable source of the spheres is the exhaust from solid-fuel rockets.

  16. 34 CFR 110.39 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 110.39 Section 110.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  17. Characterization of Soy Biodiesel Exhaust and Toxicological Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biofuel use across the world is increasing, very little is known about possible health effects resulting from biofuel exhaust (BE) from this relatively new source of transportation fuel. The U.S. EPA has instigated an in vivo screening approach in rodents to examine whet...

  18. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  19. Exhaustion and Technological Development: a macro-dynamic policy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractThe main components of the problem complex posed by the Club of Rome are what the joint effect will be, and how it can be influenced, of (i) population growth, (ii) increase of pollution, (iii) the exhaustion of material resources and (iv) technological development. From the discussions

  20. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  1. Herpes viruses, cytokines, and altered hemostasis in vital exhaustion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Diest, R. van; Hamulyak, K.; Maes, M.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Appels, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections with herpes viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that vital exhaustion (VE) is associated with multiple herpesvirus infections, such as herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus

  2. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boarding seas; (iv) They are constructed of corrosion resisting material at the hull penetration; and (v... reduction in normal water flow in the exhaust cooling system. (6) A suitable hull strainer must be installed... systems built in accordance with the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council (ABCY) P-1...

  3. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exhaust gas dilution function at the motorcycle tailpipe exit. (3) Positive displacement pump. The Positive Displacement Pump-Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS), Figure F90-1 satisfies the first condition by... the revolutions made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional samples...

  4. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  5. Neuropsychological sequelae of work-stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Skogsliden, Sofia; Karlson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess long-term cognitive performance after substantial recovery from work-stress-related exhaustion, in relation to subjective cognitive complaints and return to active work. In total, 54 patients previously diagnosed with work-stress-related exhaustion participated in a neuropsychological examination ∼2 years after initial sick leave. Most participants were substantially recovered at follow-up, with only 13% still meeting the criteria for exhaustion disorder suggested by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. When participants' scores on 14 neuropsychological tests were compared to a matched group of 50 controls, the former patient group showed lower performance mainly on attention tests of the reaction time type, but also slightly lower scores on visuo-spatial constructional ability. However, the former patient group performed better than controls on two memory tests and, in part, on a test of simultaneous capacity. Self-ratings of everyday cognitive problems remained significantly higher in the former patient group than among controls, but the extent of self-rated cognitive problems was generally unrelated to performance on the neuropsychological tests. No relationship between performance on these tests and the extent of work resumption was observed. In summary, persons with previous work-stress-related exhaustion showed persistent signs of a minor attention deficit, despite considerable general recovery and return to work.

  6. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  7. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  8. A Preliminary Model of Infrared Image Generation for Exhaust Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the irradiance calculation of all pixels on the focal plane array, a preliminary infrared imaging prediction model of exhaust plume that have considered the geometrical and the thermal resolution of the camera was developed to understanding the infrared characteristics of exhaust plume. In order to compute the irradiance incident on each pixel, the gas radiation transfer path in the plume for the instantaneous field of view corresponds to the pixel was solved by the simultaneous equation of a enclosure cylinder which covers the exhaust plume and the line of sight. Radiance of the transfer path was calculated by radiation transfer equation for nonscattering gas. The radiative properties of combustion needed in the equation was provided by employing Malkmus model with EM2C narrow band database(25cm-1. The pressure, species concentration along the path was determination by CFD analysis. The relative irradiance intensity of each pixel was converted to color in the display according to gray map coding and hot map coding. Infrared image of the exhaust plumes from a subsonic axisymmetric nozzle with different relative position of camera and the plume was predicted with the model. By changing the parameters, such as FOV and space resolution, the image of different imaging system can be predicted.

  9. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using analytic

  10. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  11. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  12. A tandem mirror plasma source for a hybrid plume plasma propulsion concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Miller, R. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Krueger, W. A.; Chang, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a tandem mirror magnetic plasma confinement device to be considered as a hot plasma source for the hybrid plume rocket concept. The hot plasma from this device is injected into an exhaust duct, which will interact with an annular layer of hypersonic neutral gas. Such a device can be used to study the dynamics of the hybrid plume and to experimentally verify the numerical predictions obtained with computer codes. The basic system design is also geared toward being lightweight and compact, as well as having high power density (i.e., several kW/sq cm) at the exhaust. This feature is aimed toward the feasibility of 'space testing'. The plasma is heated by microwaves. A 50 percent heating efficiency can be obtained by using two half-circle antennas. The preliminary Monte Carlo modeling of test particles result reported here indicates that interaction does take place in the exhaust duct. Neutrals gain energy from the ion, which confirms the hybrid plume concept.

  13. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, P.Y.; Boies, A.M.; Calder, S.A.; Girshick, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by injecting ferrocene vapor and oxygen into an argon/helium DC thermal plasma. Size distributions of particles in the reactor exhaust were measured online using an aerosol extraction probe interfaced to a scanning mobility particle sizer,

  14. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  15. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  16. Circulating factors induce coronary endothelial ceIl activation foIlowing exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide in humans :Evidence from a novel translational in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen di...

  17. A STUDY OF EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION OF PROFESSIONAL COACHES ATHLETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TATLICI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to bring up whether the athletics trainers’ burnout levels differentiate depending on some variables. It was examined whether there was a remarkable difference among the average points for emotional exhaustion, desensitization and success of the athletics trainers in both gender according to marital status, age, duration in work, education level, satisfaction from profession and socio economical situation. In that study Maslach Burnout lnventory (Maslach, Jackson, 1981 was applied to get data.The inventory was assigned to the athletics trainers who work at the Directorship of Youth and Sports in seven randomly selected cities of Turkey: İstanbul, Ankara, Konya, İzmir, Mersin, Bursa, Burdur. The sample of the study consists of 82 trainers; 21 of them are female and 61 are male. In the analysis of data, Independent Samples T-tes was used to detect the levels of professional exhaustion and to explain them related to gender. It was found that the level of burnout is low in the respect of the sub-dimensions of emotional exhaustion and desensitization in both gender according to marital status. In fact, it was detected that perception of self-success is high, and thus, the burnout level is low in the respect of the sub-dimension of the feeling of dimishing in personal accomplishment in both gender according to marital staus. Another result is that the levels of sub-dimensions of emotional exhaustion and desensitization in trainers were pointed out as low or mid in relation to age, duration in work, location of work, financial and educational situation whereas self-success perception is high connected with the given features.As a final result, it was explored that there isn’t a meaningful statistical difference in both gender when they are compared in terms of averages of sub-scales of burnout level - emotional exhaustion, desensitization and the feeling of personal accomplishment.

  18. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  19. CFD analysis of a transfer matrix of exhaust muffler with mean flow and prediction of exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-yun LIU; Zhi-yong HAO; Chi LIU

    2012-01-01

    A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was proposed in this study aiming to calculate the transfer matrix of an engine exhaust muffler in the conditions with and without mean flow.The CFD model of the muffler with absorptive material defined as porous zone was calibrated with the measured noise reduction without mean flow,and was further employed to study the effect of the mean flow on the acoustic performance of the muffler.Furthermore,the exhaust acoustical source was derived from the calculated transfer matrices of six different additional acoustic loads obtained by the proposed CFD approach as well as the measured tail noise based on a multiload least squares method.Finally,the exhaust noise was predicted based on Thevenin's theorem.The proposed CFD approach was suggested to be able to predict the acoustic performance of a complex muffler considering mean flow (without and with mean flow) and heat transfer,and provide reasonable results of the exhaust noise.

  20. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  1. Development of experimental methods to investigate non-exhaust particle emissions from a light duty vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mathissen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle related non-exhaust particle emissions resulting from the abrasion of brakes, tires, road and the resuspension of road dust may contribute considerably to ambient air pollution. While exhaust particulate matter emissions are expected to decrease, non-exhaust emissions will rise due to higher traffic volume and the absence of legal regulations. However, there is still limited scientific knowledge of non-exhaust emissions, especially for the climate conditions found in central Europe...

  2. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes and plume impingement environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of experimental nozzle, exhaust plume, and exhaust plume impingement data is presented. The data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with propellant Al loadings of 2, 10 and 15% exhausting to simulated altitudes of 50,000, 100,000 and 112,000 ft. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase method of characteristics numerical solution and a technique for defining thermal and pressure environments experienced by bodies immersed in two-phase exhaust plumes.

  3. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine\\ud exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the ...

  4. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...... during a repeated high-intensity exercise lasting 1/2-2 min....

  5. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.412 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, switches, and so forth, may be employed to provide... transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC analyzer and the NOX analyzer must be heated...

  6. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand...

  7. Exhaust emission characteristics of various types of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xing Peng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the growing demand for sustainable energy is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. In the Kyoto conference on global climate change, numerous nations committed to large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Reduced greenhouse gas emissions are a major advantage of using biodiesel on diesel engines. The test uses three biodiesels (soybean oil, palm oil, and waste edible oil in the engine, comparing engine performance and exhaust emissions with the baseline (pure petrodiesel case. The results indicated that the use of biodiesel produces decreased smoke opacity but increased fuel consumption up to 7.38% compared with petrodiesel. Exhaust emissions, such as CO and HC, were reduced using biodiesel in fuels, primarily because of the effect of complete combustion of the oxygen contained in biodiesel.

  8. Changes in mechanical work during severe exhausting running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogadro, Patrick; Dolenec, Ales; Belli, Alain

    2003-09-01

    The possible contribution of muscular work to the increase in oxygen uptake ( VO(2)) over time during running was investigated on 11 adult males who were asked to run until exhaustion at 90 (3)% [mean (SD)] of their maximal aerobic velocity on a treadmill ergometer. Ground reaction forces, expired gases and EMG from leg muscles were collected for 30 s at min 3 and during the last minute of the run. Subjects ran for 829 (165) s and showed an increase in VO(2 )of 179 (93) ml.min(-1) between min 3 and exhaustion. Increased ventilation explained 41 (27)% of the increase in VO(2). Stride frequency slightly decreased but no significant differences were found in the mechanical work or in integrated EMG. It was concluded that, in running, the increase in VO(2 )could not be related to a drift in muscle work.

  9. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    to suck the human bio-effluents at the area of the body where they are generated before they spread in the room. The air polluted with released bio-effluents is exhausted into the mattress near the body and is either cleaned and released back in the room or is removed from the room by connecting......-bed hospital patient room (1.3 air changes per hour (ACH)) and double-bed patient room (1.6 ACH) was assessed by means of dynamic computer simulations. The estimated annual energy consumption for the rooms using the VM combined with CAV was compared to the annual energy consumption when the CAV ventilation...... the mattress to the exhaust of the room background ventilation system. Comprehensive research reveals that the method is highly efficient for removal of bio-effluents. The energy saving potential of the VM combined with constant air volume (CAV) ventilation operating at reduced ventilation rate in a single...

  10. Eye and respiratory irritants in jet engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y

    1986-11-01

    It has been noted that eye and respiratory irritation frequently occurred in the ground crews and pilots working on the field behind an aircraft with a low smoke combustor (LSC) engine. This study was attempted to analyze the exhaust sampled at about 50 m behind the LSC J79 engines at idle power setting by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Nine kinds of lower aliphatic carbonyl compound (seven aldehydes and two ketones) were identified. The concentration of formaldehyde was the highest among them, showing the value above the threshold reported by previous investigators. Concentration of NOx was simultaneously measured by a gas detector tube in the same sample. The exhaust of a conventional J79 engine, which has rarely caused irritation, was also analyzed by the same technique and the results were compared. It was concluded that formaldehyde plays a major role in causing irritation.

  11. Social support and emotional exhaustion among hospital nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª J. Albar Marín

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of three sources of social support (family as kin, co-workers as insiders, and supervisors as outsiders on the emotional exhaustion were analyzed in a sample of 210 nurses at a general hospital in Seville, a city in the south of Spain. They were given an adaptation of the Nursing Stress Scale, (Gray-Toff & Anderson 1981, the Multidimensional Support Scale (Winefield, Winefield, Tiggemann 1992, previously adapted in a sample of nurses and the emotional exhaustion scale of the Spanish version of Maslach's Burnout Inventory (1997. After applying a hierarchical multiple regression analysis to the data, the results confirm the main effect of the three sources and the buffering effect in the case of outsiders and kin. It suggests the need to perform studies with wider samples, which allow the analysis of professionals' psychosocial characteristics and types of support, as well as demands in nursing job tasks.

  12. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  13. Chemical gas sensors for car exhaust and cabin air monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, E.-L.; Winquist, F. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Linkoeping University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rudell, B. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Centre of Public Health Sciences, Linkoeping, Gothenburg (Sweden); Loefvendahl, A. [Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wass, U. [Volvo Technological Development Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    A combination of charcoal and particle filters has previously been shown to reduce effectively the smell of diesel exhaust. In this paper it is shown that the smell of diesel exhaust can successfully be predicted by the concentration of total volatile organic compounds and the concentration of certain carbonyl compounds. Projection to latent structures was utilised for model building. An electronic nose consisting of MOFSET and MOS sensors could less successfully predict the smell, but identified the same filter combination as being most efficient. The car cabin during urban driving was also monitored, both by the means of MOFSET sensors and by chemiluminescence. The pollution level inside the car is shown to be elevated by about 30% compared to outside the car. A combination filter together with an air inlet sensor switch is shown to reduce the NO{sub x} levels inside te car by 30% compared to outside, with the ability to significantly decrease the peak levels. (author)

  14. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650 and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen oxide (NO. Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  15. Pollutant monitoring of aircraft exhaust with multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-10-01

    Communities surrounding local airports are becoming increasingly concerned about the aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle, and their potential for negative health effects. Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston and London have all recently been featured in the news regarding concerns over the amount of airport pollution being emitted on a daily basis, and several studies have been published on the increased risks of cancer for those living near airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors that can monitor the spatial and temporal nature of jet engine exhaust plumes. In this work we seek to design a multispectral imaging system that is capable of tracking exhaust plumes during the engine idle phase, with a specific focus on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. UHCs are especially potent to local air quality, and their strong absorption features allow them to act as a spatial and temporal plume tracer. Using a Gaussian plume to radiometrically model jet engine exhaust, we have begun designing an inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive imaging system to monitor the relative amount of pollutants emitted by aircraft in the idle phase. The LWIR system will use two broadband filters to detect emitted UHCs. This paper presents the spatial and temporal radiometric models of the exhaust plume from a typical jet engine used on 737s. We also select filters for plume tracking, and propose an imaging system layout for optimal detectibility. In terms of feasibility, a multispectral imaging system will be two orders of magnitude cheaper than current unobtrusive methods (PTR-MS) used to monitor jet engine emissions. Large-scale impacts of this work will include increased capabilities to monitor local airport pollution, and the potential for better-informed decision-making regarding future developments to airports.

  16. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  17. Gaschromatographic evaluation of the odor intensity of Diesel exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, H.W.; Oelert, H.H.; Zajontz, J.

    1977-03-01

    To establish an absolute method for the odor evaluation of Diesel exhausts olfactometric threshhold data are correlated with gaschromatographic results from a two column operation providing a high number of chemical informations. Single and multiple linear regression calculations for the experiments on two Diesel engines give several satisfying correlations especially for the overall paraffin distribution that could also be obtained by more simple analytical procedures.

  18. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  19. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  20. Turbine Engine Exhaust Hydrocarbon Analysis. Task 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    exhausts. 2. to determine the effect of these hydrocarbons on atmospheric photochemical processes,using an outdoor smog chamber. This program is to be...other than phthalate esters (plasticizers) which were presumably present as contaminants . The direct-acting mutagens , nitro PAHs, were not detected in...Applicable to Genetic Bioassavs," in Genotoxic Effects of Airborne Agents, R. R. Tice, D. L. Costa, and K. M. Schaich, ed., Plenum Press, 1982. 74

  1. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  2. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.U. Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1 or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s (p<0.05. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  3. Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilbaş, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

    2013-02-15

    The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  6. Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B K; Cronn, D R

    1986-02-01

    The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for tests conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels.

  7. Exhaust Nozzle Materials Development for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has embarked on a national effort to develop the technology necessary to produce a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entry into service by the year 2005. The viability of this aircraft is contingent upon its meeting both economic and environmental requirements. Two engine components have been identified as critical to the environmental acceptability of the HSCT. These include a combustor with significantly lower emissions than are feasible with current technology, and a lightweight exhaust nozzle that meets community noise standards. The Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program will develop the advanced structural materials, materials fabrication processes, structural analysis and life prediction tools for the HSCT combustor and low noise exhaust nozzle. This is being accomplished through the coordinated efforts of the NASA Lewis Research Center, General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney. The mission of the EPM Exhaust Nozzle Team is to develop and demonstrate this technology by the year 1999 to enable its timely incorporation into HSCT propulsion systems.

  8. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  9. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  10. Schlieren imaging of microthruster exhausts for qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekholm, Ville; Palmer, Kristoffer; Thornell, Greger

    2012-08-01

    Schlieren imaging is a method used to visualize differences in refractive index within a medium. It is a powerful and straightforward tool for sensitive and high-resolution visualization of, e.g., gas flows. Here, heated cold gas microthrusters were studied with this technique. The thrusters are manufactured using microelectromechanical systems technology and measure 22 × 22 × 0.85 mm3. The nozzles are approximately 20 µm wide at the throat and 350 µm wide at the exit. Through these studies, verification of the functionality of the thrusters and direct visualization of the thruster exhausts were possible. At atmospheric pressure, slipping of the exhaust was observed, due to severe overexpansion of the nozzle. In vacuum (3 kPa), the exhaust was imaged while feed pressure was varied from 100 to 450 kPa. The nozzle was overexpanded, and the flow was seen to be supersonic. The shock cell period, ranging from 320 to 610 µm, was linearly dependent on feed pressure. With activated heaters, the shock cell separation increased. The effect of the heaters was more prominent at low feed pressure, and an increase in specific impulse of 20% was calculated. It was also shown that schlieren imaging can be used to detect leaks, making it a valuable, safe and noninvasive aid in quality control of the thrusters.

  11. Dislocation Starvation and Exhaustion Hardening in Mo-alloy Nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Claire [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Lowry, M. B. [University of California, Berkeley; Oh, Jason [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Asif, S.A. Syed [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Warren, O. [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Shan, Zhiwei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China & Hysitron, Inc., MN; George, Easo P [ORNL; Minor, Andrew [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of defects in Mo alloy nanofibers with initial dislocation densities ranging from 0 to 1.6 1014 m2 were studied using an in situ push-to-pull device in conjunction with a nanoindenter in a transmission electron microscope. Digital image correlation was used to determine stress and strain in local areas of deformation. When they had no initial dislocations the Mo alloy nanofibers suffered sudden catastrophic elongation following elastic deformation to ultrahigh stresses. At the other extreme fibers with a high dislocation density underwent sustained homogeneous deformation after yielding at much lower stresses. Between these two extremes nanofibers with intermediate dislocation densities demonstrated a clear exhaustion hardening behavior, where the progressive exhaustion of dislocations and dislocation sources increases the stress required to drive plasticity. This is consistent with the idea that mechanical size effects ( smaller is stronger ) are due to the fact that nanostructures usually have fewer defects that can operate at lower stresses. By monitoring the evolution of stress locally we find that exhaustion hardening causes the stress in the nanofibers to surpass the critical stress predicted for self-multiplication, supporting a plasticity mechanism that has been hypothesized to account for the rapid strain softening observed in nanoscale bcc materials at high stresses.

  12. Oxides of nitrogen measurement at exhaust gases of combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prietsch, W.; Alter, C.; Naumann, M.

    1975-01-01

    Chemical and physical methods available for the determination of nitrogen oxides were tested and compared with respect to their suitability for spark-ignition and diesel engine exhaust oxides of nitrogen analysis. Of all methods tested (Saltzmans method, phenoldisulfonic acid method, as well as non-dispersive infrared, ultraviolet absorption, and chemiluminescence methods), the chemiluminescence method was best for the determination of the total nitrogen oxides concentration in vehicle exhaust, even though the nitrogen dioxide conversion is still problematic, and the NO/sub 2/ concentrations lie within the dispersion limits of the nitric oxide analyzer. Measurement of NO is possible by the NDIR method provided the cross-sensitivity for water is simultaneously measured, and adequate correction is used. The Saltzman method is preferable to the phenoldisulfonic acid method under stationary analytical conditions due to its simplicity and reliability. For a concentration range of 100 to 1000 ppM, a Saltzman factor of 0.72 is best for exhaust nitrogen oxides analysis.

  13. Leg stiffness modulation during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, S; Kyröläinen, H; Avela, J; Komi, P V

    2007-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of muscle activity modulation on leg stiffness during an exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise in eight male subjects. Reaction force, electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (Sol), gastrocnemius (Ga) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles and sledge seat position were recorded during the SSC exercise, consisting of 100 maximal intermittent drop jumps followed by a continuous submaximal jumping until exhaustion, on a sledge apparatus. Metabolic loading was determined by measuring blood lactate (La). No change was found in leg stiffness during the maximal jumps, whereas the subsequent submaximal jumping induced a significant reduction by 27+/-12% (PEMG ratio between the braking and push-off phases in Sol (r=0.81, PEMG ratio at the end of the submaximal jumping in Sol (r=-0.88, Pmodulation between the braking and push-off phases in the triceps surae muscle, particularly in Ga, plays an important role in leg stiffness adjustments during fatiguing SSC exercise. It is suggested that efficient activity modulation (i.e. high EMG ratio) of the triceps surae muscle during an intensive fatiguing SSC exercise may postpone the exhaustion and development of metabolic fatigue.

  14. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  15. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  16. Intentional thought dynamics during exercise performed until volitional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; Garcia, Sergi; Aragonés, Daniel; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Using a non-linear approach, intentional dynamics of thoughts were examined during constant cycling performed until volitional exhaustion. Participants (n = 12) completed two sessions at 80% Wmax. Their (1) intrinsic thought dynamics (i.e., no-imposed thoughts condition) and (2) intentional thought dynamics (i.e., imposed task-unrelated thoughts condition; TUT) were recorded and then classified into four categories: internal and external TUT (TUT-I, TUT-E) and external and internal task-related thoughts (TRT-E, TRT-I). The probability estimates for maintaining each thought category stable, the rate of switching from one category to another, and the entropy dynamics along the testing procedure were assessed and compared through time phase. Friedman ANOVA tests revealed a significant effect of effort increase on thought contents only in the imposed TUT test. While TUT-I probabilities decreased significantly (P < .001) as effort increased, TRT-I probabilities increased (P < .05). Moreover, the entropy to the entire thought dynamics increased at the outset of task performance and decreased upon approaching volitional exhaustion (P < .001). As time spent in constant effort increased, and volitional exhaustion approached, task relatedness (TUT, TRT), direction (internal, external), and entropy of thought contents changed unintentionally providing further evidence for a nonlinear dynamics of attention focus.

  17. Plasma cladding of Stellite 6 powder on Ni76Cr19AlTi exhausting valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yuan-zhi; YIN Zhi-min; TENG Hao

    2007-01-01

    Heavy duty engine valve head was prepared by Ni76Cr19AlTi alloy. It was coated by cobalt-base alloy on the surface to promote its wear-resistance. Hardness tester, metallograph, scanning microscopy, energy spectrum and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the mechanical properties, the microstructure of the welds and the coated layer of cobalt-base alloy. The results show that the grains are obviously coasened in the side of Ni76Cr19AlTi alloy in the welds and it contains a typical dentritic structure in the side cobalt-base alloy. It is found that micro-strain in weld is stronger than that in heat-effected-zone. Micro-strain in nickel-base alloy is stronger than that cobalt-base alloy. There are not obvious imperfects in the weld. Hardness in cobalt-base alloy is more than 390HV and the major carbides in cobalt-base alloy are Cr7C3 and W2C.

  18. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  19. Using engine exhaust gas as energy source for an absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzela, Andre Aleixo [PETROBRAS, Exploration and Production, Av. Rui Barbosa, 1940 - 3 andar, 27915-012 - Macae - RJ (Brazil); Hanriot, Sergio Morais; Cabezas-Gomez, Luben; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar, 500, 30535-610 - Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents an experimental study of an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system using the exhaust of an internal combustion engine as energy source. The exhaust gas energy availability and the impact of the absorption refrigeration system on engine performance, exhaust emissions, and power economy are evaluated. A production automotive engine was tested in a bench test dynamometer, with the absorption refrigeration system adapted to the exhaust pipe. The engine was tested for 25%, 50%, 75% and wide-open throttle valve. The refrigerator reached a steady state temperature between 4 and 13 C about 3 h after system start up, depending on engine throttle valve opening. The calculated exhaust gas energy availability suggests the cooling capacity can be highly improved for a dedicated system. Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions were higher when the refrigeration system was installed in the engine exhaust, but carbon monoxide emissions were reduced, while carbon dioxide concentration remained practically unaltered. (author)

  20. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  1. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  2. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  3. Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gigliotti, Andrew; Miller, Rodney A; Seilkop, Steve; Mauderly, Joe L; Seagrave, JeanClare; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . . will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used . . . although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis is being tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay, measuring indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats after 1, 3, 12, and 24-30 months of exposure (final time point depends on the survival of animals), and measuring similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity in mice after 1 and 3 months of exposure. This report provides results of exposures through 3 months in rats and mice. Emissions from a 2007-compliant, 500-horsepower-class engine and aftertreatment system operated on a variable-duty cycle were used to generate the animal inhalation test atmospheres. Four treatment groups were exposed to one of three concentrations (dilutions) of exhaust combined with crankcase emissions, or to clean air as a negative control. Dilutions of exhaust were set to yield average integrated concentrations of 4.2, 0.8, and 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure atmospheres were analyzed by daily measurements of key components and periodic detailed physical-chemical characterizations. Exposures were conducted 16 hr/dy (overnight), 5 dy/wk. Rats were evaluated for hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung cell proliferation, and histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same

  4. Associations between exhaust and non-exhaust particulate matter and stroke incidence by stroke subtype in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Siobhan; Barratt, Benjamin; Spiridou, Anastassia; Hoang, Uy; Liang, Shao Fen; Kovalchuk, Yevgeniya; Beevers, Sean D; Kelly, Frank J; Delaney, Brendan; Wolfe, Charles DA

    2016-10-15

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) consists of particles from diverse sources, including vehicle exhausts. Associations between short-term PM changes and stroke incidence have been shown. Cumulative exposures over several months, or years, are less well studied; few studies examined ischaemic subtypes or PM source. This study combines a high resolution urban air quality model with a population-based stroke register to explore associations between long-term exposure to PM and stroke incidence. Data from the South London Stroke Register from 2005-2012 were included. Poisson regression explored association between stroke incidence and long-term (averaged across the study period) exposure to PM2.5(PM<2.5μm diameter) and PM10(PM<10μm), nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone, at the output area level (average population=309). Estimates were standardised for age and sex and adjusted for socio-economic deprivation. Models were stratified for ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and further broken down by Oxford Community Stroke Project classification and Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. 1800 strokes were recorded (incidence=42.6/100,000 person-years). No associations were observed between PM and overall ischaemic or haemorrhagic incidence. For an interquartile range increase in PM2.5, there was a 23% increase in incidence (Incidence rate ratio=1.23 (95%CI: 1.03-1.44)) of total anterior circulation infarcts (TACI) and 20% increase for PM2.5 from exhausts (1.20(1.01-1.41)). There were similar associations with PM10, overall (1.21(1.01-1.44)) and from exhausts (1.20(1.01-1.41)). TACI incidence was not associated with non-exhaust sources. There were no associations with other stroke subtypes or pollutants. Outdoor air pollution, particularly that arising from vehicle exhausts, may increase risk of TACI but not other stroke subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DTT: a divertor tokamak test facility for the study of the power exhaust issues in view of DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, R.; WPDTT2 Team; DTT Project Proposal Contributors, the

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with the programme to optimize the operation with a conventional divertor based on detached conditions to be tested on the ITER device, a project has been launched to investigate alternative power exhaust solutions for DEMO, aimed at the definition and the design of a divertor tokamak test facility (DTT). The DTT project proposal refers to a set of parameters selected so as to have edge conditions as close as possible to DEMO, while remaining compatible with DEMO bulk plasma performance in terms of dimensionless parameters and given constraints. The paper illustrates the DTT project proposal, referring to a 6 MA plasma with a major radius of 2.15 m, an aspect ratio of about 3, an elongation of 1.6-1.8, and a toroidal field of 6 T. This selection will guarantee sufficient flexibility to test a wide set of divertor concepts and techniques to cope with large heat loads, including conventional tungsten divertors; liquid metal divertors; both conventional and advanced magnetic configurations (including single null, snow flake, quasi snow flake, X divertor, double null); internal coils for strike point sweeping and control of the width of the scrape-off layer in the divertor region; and radiation control. The Poloidal Field system is planned to provide a total flux swing of more than 35 Vs, compatible with a pulse length of more than 100 s. This is compatible with the mission of studying the power exhaust problem and is obtained using superconducting coils. Particular attention is dedicated to diagnostics and control issues, especially those relevant for plasma control in the divertor region, designed to be as compatible as possible with a DEMO-like environment. The construction is expected to last about seven years, and the selection of an Italian site would be compatible with a budget of 500 M€.

  6. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  7. Carbohydrate mouth rinse enhances time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cindy; Velasques, Bruna; Koch, Alexander J; Machado, Marco; Paulucio, Dailson; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia

    2017-01-01

    Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded. Blood samples were taken to assess glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac), as well as the perceived exertion (RPE). Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were collected during all trials. Subjects ran longer (P = 0·038) in both the MR (2583 ± 686 s) and ING (2625 ± 804 s) trials, compared to PLA (1935 ± 809 s), covering a greater distance (MR 9685 ± 3511·62 m; ING 9855 ± 4118·62; PLA 7295 ± 3727 m). RER was significantly higher in both ING and MR versus PLA. No difference among trials was observed for other metabolic or cardiovascular variables (VO2 , Lac, Glu, HR), nor for RPE. Endurance capacity, based on time to exhaustion on a treadmill, was improved when either mouth rinsing or ingesting a CHO solution, compared to PLA.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  9. Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

    2012-12-01

    Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

  10. Macrophage depletion by clodronate liposome attenuates muscle injury and inflammation following exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kawanishi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise promotes muscle injury, including myofiber lesions; however, its exact mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that macrophage depletion by pretreatment with clodronate liposomes alters muscle injury and inflammation following exhaustive exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: rest plus control liposome (n=8, rest plus clodronate liposome (n=8, exhaustive exercise plus control liposome (n=8, and exhaustive exercise plus clodronate liposome (n=8. Mice were treated with clodronate liposome or control liposome for 48 h before undergoing exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed for histological and PCR analyses. Exhaustive exercise increased the number of macrophages in the muscle; however, clodronate liposome treatment reduced this infiltration. Although exhaustive exercise resulted in an increase in injured myofibers, clodronate liposome treatment following exhaustive exercise reduced the injured myofibers. Clodronate liposome treatment also decreased the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise. These results suggest that macrophages play a critical role in increasing muscle injury by regulating inflammation.

  11. Exhaustive search system and method using space-filling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-10-21

    A search system and method for one agent or for multiple agents using a space-filling curve provides a way to control one or more agents to cover an area of any space of any dimensionality using an exhaustive search pattern. An example of the space-filling curve is a Hilbert curve. The search area can be a physical geography, a cyberspace search area, or an area searchable by computing resources. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace.

  12. Solving liveness problem for marked nets by exhaustive coverability trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that a coverability tree of a Petri net cannot solve reaehability and liveness problems of the net because using symbol ω (infinity.) may lose some information. A solution to this problem is presented for a special kind of Petri net, marked net. With the combination of o and the increasing/decreasing information of token number, a new kind of coverability tree of marked nets, called exhaustive coverability tree (ECT), is proposed. It is shown with an example that an ECT can be used to detect deadlock.

  13. Effect of nozzle geometry on the resistojet exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyley, Loranell; Serafini, John S.; Hoffman, David J.; Zana, Lynette M.

    1987-01-01

    Five nozzle configurations were used to study the effect of geometry on the plume structure of a resistojet exhausting into a vacuum. Mass flux data in the forward and back flux regions were obtained with a cryogenically cooled quartz crystal microbalance. The propellant used was CO2 at 300 K and a mass flow rate of 0.2 g/s. The data reveal that the percent of mass flow contained within half angles of 10, 30, and 40 deg varied by less than 12 percent from a standard 20 deg half-angle cone nozzle.

  14. Extraction of an exhaustible resource by a monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavian, M.; Samuelson, L.

    1984-06-01

    Hotelling's r-percent rule does not hold for monopoly extractors of durable exhaustible resources. An example with a nondurable resource in which the rule also fails to hold is presented. An economy with a fixed average propensity to save is modelled. The monopoly extractor recognizes that resource extraction, by affecting output and hence capital accumulation, affects future demand. The firm exploits this effect by causing the marginal profitability of extraction to grow faster or slower than the rate of interest, depending upon initial conditions. Conditions are developed under which the growth rate will be less than the interest rate.

  15. Extraction of an exhaustible resource by a monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavian, M.; Samuelson, L.

    1984-06-01

    Hotelling's r-percent rule does not hold for monopoly extractors of durable exhaustible resources. An example with a nondurable resource in which the rule also fails to hold is presented. An economy with a fixed average propensity to save is modelled. The monopoly extractor recognizes that resource extraction, by affecting output and hence capital accumulation, affects future demand. The firm exploits this effect by causing the marginal profitability of extraction to grow faster or slower than the rate of interest, depending upon initial conditions. Conditions are developed under which the growth rate will be less than the interest rate. 10 references.

  16. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Nan-qi; SU Hua; LIU Jun

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple.Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer).The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually..

  17. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).

  18. Infrared Studies on the Jet Exhaust of a Turbojet Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ray

    1971-10-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to evaluate the effective Infrared radiant energy from a conical jet exhaust of a jet aircraft, infrared emission characteristics have been worked out with special reference to guidance and decoy purpose.Suitable infrared absorbing materials used for shielding the infrared emitting skin of the radiating part have also been discussed.attempts have also been made to evaluate the effective radiation on a detecting system after allowing for allowing for the solar radiant heat and also atmospheric absorption.

  19. Accounting price of an exhaustible resource: response and extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk; Ruta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Wei (Environ Resour Econ 60:579–581, 2015) presents a novel derivation of the accounting price for an exhaustible resource in a non-optimal economy subject to an allocation mechanism. We show that Wei (2015) and Hamilton and Ruta (Environ Resour Econ 42:53–64, 2009) are in fact employing different and mutually exclusive allocation mechanisms for the economy, and this explains the differences between the respective accounting prices. Because accounting prices must be defined subject to the all...

  20. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  1. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation of solid propellant exhaust plume flow fields is addressed. Two major areas covered are: (1) the applicability of empirical data currently available to define particle drag coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, mean particle size and particle size distributions, and (2) thermochemical modeling of the gaseous phase of the flow field. Comparisons of experimentally measured and analytically predicted data are made. The experimental data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with aluminum loadings of 2, 10 and 15%. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase numerical solution. Data comparisons will be presented for radial distributions at plume axial stations of 5, 12, 16 and 20 diameters.

  2. Exhaustive Verification of Weak Reconstruction For Self Complementary Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S K; Khandelwal, Akash; Tiwari, Apurv; Srilekha,

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an exhaustive approach for verification of the weak reconstruction of Self Complementary Graphs up to 17 vertices. It describes the general problem of the Reconstruction Conjecture, explaining the complexity involved in checking deck-isomorphism between two graphs. In order to improve the computation time, various pruning techniques have been employed to reduce the number of graph-isomorphism comparisons. These techniques offer great help in proceeding with a reconstructive approach. An analysis of the numbers involved is provided, along with the various limitations of this approach. A list enumerating the number of SC graphs up till 101 vertices is also appended.

  3. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed...... background air distribution at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. The use of the device showed a great potential in reducing the concentration of exhaled air in the room to the level measured under mixing ventilation alone at 12 ACH. The high potential to capture exhaled air, makes the wearable PV applicable as an efficient...

  4. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m...... dialysate content of carnosine was elevated by exercise, but low-intensity exercise resulted in higher dialysate carnosine concentrations than subsequent intense exercise. Furthermore, no relationship was found between carnosine concentrations and [K+]i. Thus the present data suggest...

  5. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Per I; Sailer, Manuela; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Jeppesen, Per B; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; pintake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance.

  6. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  7. Reducing secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Presto, Albert A; Gordon, Timothy D; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-07-03

    On-road gasoline vehicles are a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. We investigated SOA formation by oxidizing dilute, ambient-level exhaust concentrations from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles in a smog chamber. We measured less SOA formation from newer vehicles meeting more stringent emissions standards. This suggests that the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones that meet more stringent emissions standards should reduce SOA levels in urban environments. However, SOA production depends on both precursor concentrations (emissions) and atmospheric chemistry (SOA yields). We found a strongly nonlinear relationship between SOA formation and the ratio of nonmethane organic gas to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (NMOG:NOx), which affects the fate of peroxy radicals. For example, changing the NMOG:NOx from 4 to 10 ppbC/ppbNOx increased the SOA yield from dilute gasoline vehicle exhaust by a factor of 8. We investigated the implications of this relationship for the Los Angeles area. Although organic gas emissions from gasoline vehicles in Los Angeles are expected to fall by almost 80% over the next two decades, we predict no reduction in SOA production from these emissions due to the effects of rising NMOG:NOx on SOA yields. This highlights the importance of integrated emission control policies for NOx and organic gases.

  8. Influence of rotating wakes on separation in turbine exhaust diffusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olaf Sieker; Joerg R. Seume

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient turbine exhaust diffuser cannot be designed without taking into account the unsteady interactions with the last rotating row of the turbine. Former investigations described in the literature show a very high potential compared to that of other parts of turbomachines for improving the diffuser. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is investigated experimentally. To investigate the influence of rotating wakes, measuremerits without a spoke wheel as well as measurements with a variable-speed rotating cylindrical spoke wheel with 2 mm- or 10 mm-spekes simulating turbine rotor wakes were made. Miniaturized 3-hole pneumatic probes as well as a 2D-Laser-Doppler-Velocimeter (LDV) were used to investigate velocity profiles. 122 static pressure tapings were used to measure several axial and circumferential static pressure distributions. Without a spoke-wheel the annular diffuser separates at the shroud for all swirl configurations. For the measurements with the 2 mm spoke wheel, the separating diffuser was unstable while keeping the test rig operating parameters constant. For a non-rotating 10mm spoke wheel and at rotational speeds less than 1,000 rpm, the annular diffuser separated at the shroud. Increasing the rotational speed of the 10mm spoke wheel, flow did not separate at the shroud and much higher pressure recovery than without spoke wheel has achieved.

  9. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  10. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  11. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  12. Precious metal-support interaction in automotive exhaust catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婷婷; 何俊俊; 赵云昆; 夏文正; 何洁丽

    2014-01-01

    Precious metal-support interaction plays an important role in thermal stability and catalytic performance of the automotive exhaust catalysts. The support is not only a carrier for active compounds in catalysts but also can improve the dispersion of precious metals and suppress the sintering of precious metals at high temperature;meanwhile, noble metals can also enhance the redox per-formance and oxygen storage capacity of support. The mechanism of metal-support interactions mainly includes electronic interaction, formation of alloy and inward diffusion of metal into the support or covered by support. The form and degree of precious metal-sup-port interaction depend on many factors, including the content of precious metal, the species of support and metal, and preparation methods. The research results about strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) gave a theory support for developing a kind of new cata-lyst with excellent performance. This paper reviewed the interaction phenomenon and mechanism of precious metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) and support such as Al2O3, CeO2, and CeO2-based oxides in automotive exhaust catalysts. The factors that affect SMSI and the catalysts developed by SMSI were also discussed.

  13. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; hide

    1997-01-01

    A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

  14. From T cell "exhaustion" to anti-cancer immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeil, Grégory; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Murray, Timothy; Speiser, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    The immune system has the potential to protect from malignant diseases for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, spontaneous immune responses are often inefficient. Significant effort is required to develop reliable, broadly applicable immunotherapies for cancer patients. A major innovation was transplantation with hematopoietic stem cells from genetically distinct donors for patients with hematologic malignancies. In this setting, donor T cells induce long-term remission by keeping cancer cells in check through powerful allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effects. More recently, a long awaited breakthrough for patients with solid tissue cancers was achieved, by means of therapeutic blockade of T cell inhibitory receptors. In untreated cancer patients, T cells are dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell "exhaustion". Nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, indicating that many T cells are not entirely and irreversibly exhausted but can be mobilized to become highly functional. Novel antibody therapies that block inhibitory receptors can lead to strong activation of anti-tumor T cells, mediating clinically significant anti-cancer immunity for many years. Here we review these new treatments and the current knowledge on tumor antigen-specific T cells.

  15. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  16. Bipropellant rocket exhaust plume analysis on the Galileo spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernsey, C. S.; Mcgregor, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to quantify the contaminant flow field produced by 10 N thrust bipropellant rocket engines used on the Galileo spacecraft. The prediction of the composition of the rocket exhaust by conventional techniques is found to be inadequate to explain experimental observations of contaminant deposition on moderately cold (200 K) surfaces. It is hypothesized that low volatility contaminants are formed by chemical reactions which occur on the surfaces. The flow field calculations performed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method give the expected result that the use of line-of-sight plume shields may have very little effect on the flux of vapor phase contaminant species to a surface, especially if the plume shields are located so close to the engine that the interaction of the plume with the shield is in the transition flow regime. It is shown that significant variations in the exhaust plume composition caused by nonequilibrium effects in the flow field lead to very low concentrations of species which have high molecular weights in the more rarefied regions of the flow field. Recommendations for the design of spacecraft plume shields and further work are made.

  17. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  18. Comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the extracts of methanol and gasoline engine exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zunzhen; Che, Wangjun; Liang, Ying; Wu, Mei; Li, Na; Shu, Ya; Liu, Fang; Wu, Desheng

    2007-09-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered a major source of air pollution in China, and methanol is considered as a potential substitute for gasoline fuel. In this study, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of organic extracts of condensate, particulate matters (PM) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) of gasoline and absolute methanol engine exhaust were examined by using MTT assay, micronucleus assay, comet assay and Ames test. The results have showed that gasoline engine exhaust exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cell) than methanol engine exhaust. Furthermore, gasoline engine exhaust increased micronucleus formation, induced DNA damage in A549 cells and increased TA98 revertants in the presence of metabolic activating enzymes in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, methanol engine exhaust failed to exhibit these adverse effects. The results suggest methanol may be used as a cleaner fuel for automobile.

  19. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  20. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products: Description of sampling and analysis methods for rocket exhaust characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.

    1990-06-07

    A systematic approach has been developed and experimentally validated for the sampling and chemical characterization of the rocket motor exhaust generated from the firing of scaled down test motors at the US Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The overall strategy was to sample and analyze major exhaust constituents in near real time, while performing off-site analyses of samples collected for the determination of trace constituents of the particulate and vapor phases. Initial interference studies were performed using atmospheric pressure burns of 1 g quantities of propellants in small chambers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined using non-dispersive infrared instrumentation. Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and ammonia determinations were made using ion selective electrode technology. Oxides of nitrogen were determined using chemiluminescence instrumentation. Airborne particulate mass concentration was determined using infrared forward scattering measurements and a tapered element oscillating microbalance, as well as conventional gravimetry. Particulate phase metals were determined by collection on Teflon membrane filters, followed by inductively coupled plasma and atomic absorption analysis. Particulate phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were collected using high volume sampling on a two stage filter. Target species were extracted, and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vapor phase species were collected on multi-sorbent resin traps, and subjected to thermal desorption GC/MS for analysis. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-Pipe Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-12-01

    exhaust fromthe mhmst frcunthe exhaust fromthe exhaust *8 to theeklxmstpipe gasto theexhmst pipe p@e to thecoolingaiz l)y w w yipeto theshroudby thermal...thesimplificationf thefinalresults. Equations for designtemperatures.- hot gasto a cold@s canbe re~esented where ii mean ;-mean heat~tranefer Q . b“S... gasto theexhaustpipebyIthermalrqdlation.If flapsor “ ejectorpumpsqreused,andthe pooling-airexitpressureis thw decreasedfromatmospheti.c,theapplicationof

  2. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively...

  3. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vermaak, P.V.; Deall, C.E.; McArdle, C; Burge, T.

    2016-01-01

    Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient dem...

  4. Planned Operation of Tritium Recovery System Based on Investigation of LHD Exhaust System

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKURA, Yamato; Suzuki, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    o understand the conditions of exhaust gas treatment at the transition point between the Large Helical Device (LHD) vacuum pumping system and the exhaust gas tritium recovery system, the gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration were measured. Simultaneous measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration was made possible by applying two types of hydrogen monitors: a thermal conductivity sensor and a combustible gas sensor. The obtained results have led to remodeling of the ...

  5. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size.

  6. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  7. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  8. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  9. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  11. Long-term exposure to auto exhaust and other pollutant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.E.; Moorman, W.J.; Yang, Y.; Stara, J.F.

    1974-08-01

    Research report:beagles were exposed 16 hr daily for 61 months to raw and photochemically reacted auto exhaust, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur, alone and in combination. exposure to nitrogen oxides reduced diffusion capacity and peak expiratory flow. raw exhaust and raw exhaust plus sulfur oxides produced pulmonary hyperinflation. irradiated auto exhaust also impaired ventilatory distribution. lung volumes, compliances, and maximal breathing capacity were not impaired by the experimental atmospheres. such chronic pulmonary changes resulting from long-term, low-level exposure to ubiquitous urban air pollutants denote potential, serious health hazards. (l diagram, 16 references, 3 tables)

  12.   Exhaustion of Rights and Common Principles of European Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    of Market Integration. On the basis of case law on the concept of "consent" from the Trade Marks-Directive a Common Principle is then established. According to this, the legal framework for understanding the exhaustion rules is IPR and not national contract law. The Principle would seem to have horizontal......This article discusses whether or not Common Principles exist in EU law regarding exhaustion of rights ("first sale"). Traditionally, the law of the EU-countries conceptualized exhaustion in two different ways: Either "Contract" (e.g. UK law) or "Principle of exhaustion" (e.g. German law).  Whereas...

  13. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees’ emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees’ emotional exhaustion.

  14. Medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise induces neural cell apoptosis in the rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanni Li; Jin Liu; Hengmei Yan

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise.

  15. Effluent Scrubbing of Engine Exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project identified specific knowledge and expertise in radioactive hydrogen effluent filter technology, so that internal resources on NTP engine exhaust...

  16. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Petridou, Eugenia; Krouklidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees’ emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees’ emotional exhaustion. PMID:27247681

  17. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees' Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Petridou, Eugenia; Krouklidou, Theodora

    2015-11-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees' emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees' emotional exhaustion.

  18. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    of oxidized amino acids (gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde), DNA strand breaks, and 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the lung. Bulky DNA ad- ducts were not significantly elevated in the lung. The antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione reductase was increased in the lung of DEP-exposed guinea pigs......The health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to involve oxidative damage. We have investigated the effect of intratracheal DEP instillation to guinea pigs in three groups of 12 animals each given 0, 0.7, or 2.1 mg. Five days later guinea pigs exposed to DEP had increased levels......, whereas glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities were unaltered. There was no difference in DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes or urinary excretion of 8-oxodG at the two doses tested. Protein oxidations in plasma and in erythrocytes were not altered by DEP exposure...

  19. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    The health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to involve oxidative damage. We have investigated the effect of intratracheal DEP instillation to guinea pigs in three groups of 12 animals each given 0, 0.7, or 2.1 mg. Five days later guinea pigs exposed to DEP had increased level...... for the study of oxidative damage induced by particulate matter. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved........ The concentrations of ascorbate in liver, lung, and plasma were unaltered by the DEP exposure. The results indicate that in guinea pigs DEP causes oxidative DNA damage rather than bulky DNA adducts in the lung. Guinea pigs, which are similar to humans with respect to vitamin C metabolism, may serve as a new model...

  20. Ion-ion Recombination and Chemiion Concentrations In Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    Jet aircraft emit large quantities of ultrafine volatile aerosols, as well as soot parti- cles, into the environment. To determine the long-term effects of these emissions, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control particle formation and evolution is needed, including the number and size dispersion. A recent explanation for aerosol nucleation in a jet wake involves the condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, and cer- tain organic compounds, onto charged molecular clusters (chemiions) generated in the engine combustors (Yu and Turco, 1997). Massive charged aggregates, along with sulfuric acid and organic precursor vapors, have been detected in jet plumes under cruise conditions. In developing the chemiion nucleation theory, Yu and Turco noted that ion-ion recombination in the engine train and jet core should limit the chemiion emission index to 1017/kg-fuel. This value is consistent with ion-ion recombination coefficients of 1×10-7 cm3/s over time scales of 10-2 s. However, the evolution of the ions through the engine has not been adequately studied. The conditions at the combustor exit are extreme-temperatures approach 1500 K, and pressures can reach 30 atmospheres. In this presentation, we show that as the combustion gases expand and cool, two- and three-body ion-ion recombination processes control the chemiion concentration. The concepts of mutual neutralization and Thomson recombination are first summarized, and appropriate temperature and pressure dependent recombination rate coefficients are derived for the aircraft problem. A model for ion losses in jet exhaust is then formulated using an "invariance" principle discussed by Turco and Yu (1997) in the context of a coagulating aerosol in an expanding plume. This recombina- tion model is applied to estimate chemiion emission indices for a range of operational engine conditions. The predicted ion emission rates are found to be consistent with observations. We discuss the sources of variance in chemiion

  1. Throughput Enhancement of Car Exhaust Fabrication Line by Applying MOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanash, E. A. H.; Karim, A. N. M.; Tanjong Tuan, Saravanan; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.

    2017-03-01

    In the fiercely competitive world market of today, manufacturers are facing increasingly tougher challenges and are compelled to find ways for productivity enhancement wherever possible in the whole supply chain. Nevertheless there are many facets in business process which can be explored for possible improvement, an immediate focus goes for the involved processes to re-engineer the activities in different workstations for an efficient and balanced assembly or fabrication line. In this paper an industrial case on fabrication line of a car exhaust system is presented to illustrate the scope of improvement by applying the MOST (Maynard’s Operation Sequence Technique) in streamlining the activities followed by assembly line balancing (ALB). The whole process of conducting various tasks is investigated to find out the lapses or wastes, to search for better option and to set the standard times for the tasks. Then individual workstation time is worked out by summing up the standard times of the involved tasks or activities and the concept of ALB is attempted to balance the fabrication line. So by possible reduction or elimination of the identified wastes or lapses workstation times including the bottleneck station are lowered. As a result the throughput of car exhaust systems is enhanced. According to the current practice, the Takt time is set at 3 minutes. However, upon an analysis through use of the MOST, the bottleneck station time is found to be as low as 1.27 minutes. Thus an opportunity of meeting the current level of demand with significantly lower workforce (with 2 operators instead of 5) is revealed. Alternatively, if necessary, an increased workload can be assigned for the current level of workforce. Moreover, with proper distribution of activities among the workstations using the concept of ALB, the line efficiency is found to be improved. So the line balance loss in the current setup of production line is also possible to be largely reduced. Thus daily

  2. Reactive plasma synthesis of nanocrystalline ceramic oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, K. P.; Vijay, M.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Krishnan, K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.

    2010-02-01

    Reactive plasma synthesis is an attractive route to synthesize nanocrystalline materials. A 40 kW DC non-transferred arc plasma reactor has been designed and developed in our laboratory for synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. The main components of the plasma reactor include a 40 kW DC plasma generator or plasma torch, water-cooled reactor segment, product collection facility, DC power supply, cooling-water system and exhaust gas vent. The system has been used to synthesize nano-crystalline oxides of aluminium, titanium and zirconium. Aluminium metal powder was used as the starting material to synthesize alumina. The hydrides of Ti and Zr were used as the precursor for synthesis of nanocrystalline titania and zirconia respectively. The precursor powders were injected into the thermal plasma jet and were allowed to react with oxygen injected downstream the jet. The precursor powder particles were oxidized 'in-flight' to form nano-sized powder of the respective metal, which deposited on the walls of the reactor and collector assembly. Various analytical tools were used to characterized the products.

  3. Effects of the platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in young monkeys: Radiological and hystologycal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-reach plasma (PRP is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75% group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%. Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests.

  4. Induction of the imbalance of helper T-cell functions in mice exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimaki, H.; Ushio, H.; Nohara, K. [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305 Ibaraki (Japan); Ui, N. [The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minatoku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-04-10

    Administration of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) increases antigen-specific IgE production and IgE-secreting cells, and induces Th2-type cytokine profiles in the airway in mice and humans. To determine the early effects of diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation on the cytokine production profile, BALB/c mice were exposed to 0 (controls) and 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} DE inhalation for 4 weeks. Intraperitoneal sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) was conducted immediately before DE inhalation. Mice were treated with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb 1 day before and after the sensitization. On day 21, these mice were boosted with OVA and blood; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and spleens were collected on day 28. In BAL fluid, both TNF{alpha} and IL-10 production in DE-exposed and control mice remained basically the same. IL-6 production in the anti-CD4 treatment group of DE-exposed mice, however, significantly increased compared with that of the controls. In vitro antigen-stimulated interleukin-4 (IL-4) and -10 (IL-10) production in spleen cells of exposed mice were not affected by low-dose DE inhalation. In vitro interferon (IFN)-{gamma} production in the anti-CD4 treated group of exposed mice decreased markedly. Although anti-OVA IgE production in the plasma of sham-treated mice exposed to DE was the same level as for controls, anti-CD4 mAb treatment in DE-exposed mice significantly reduced IgE production compared to controls. In anti-OVA IgG1 production, anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAb treatment in DE-exposed groups also significantly reduced. Anti-OVA IgG2a production was reduced by treatment with anti-CD4 mAb, but increased by anti-CD8 mAb treatment in DE-exposed mice. Low dose DE inhalation is thus shown to adversely affect the cytokine and antibody production in mice by altering CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell functions.

  5. Dynamic regulation of circulating microRNA during acute exhaustive exercise and sustained aerobic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Aaron L; Hale, Andrew; Weiner, Rory B; Lewis, Gregory D; Systrom, David; Wang, Francis; Wang, Thomas J; Chan, Stephen Y

    2011-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are intracellular mediators of essential biological functions. Recently, plasma-based ‘circulating’ miRNAs (c-miRNAs) have been shown to control cellular processes, but the c-miRNA response to human exercise remains unknown. We sought to determine whether c-miRNAs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive cycling exercise and sustained rowing exercise training using a longitudinal, repeated measures study design. Specifically, c-miRNAs involved in angiogenesis (miR-20a, miR-210, miR-221, miR-222, miR-328), inflammation (miR-21, miR-146a), skeletal and cardiac muscle contractility (miR-21, miR-133a), and hypoxia/ischaemia adaptation (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210) were measured at rest and immediately following acute exhaustive cycling exercise in competitive male rowers (n = 10, age = 19.1 ± 0.6 years) before and after a 90 day period of rowing training. Distinct patterns of c-miRNA response to exercise were observed and adhered to four major profiles: (1) c-miRNA up-regulated by acute exercise before and after sustained training (miR-146a and miR-222), (2) c-miRNA responsive to acute exercise before but not after sustained training (miR-21 and miR-221), (3) c-miRNA responsive only to sustained training (miR-20a), and (4) non-responsive c-miRNA (miR-133a, miR-210, miR-328). Linear correlations were observed between peak exercise levels of miR-146a and (r = 0.63, P = 0.003) and between changes in resting miR-20a and changes in (pre-training vs. post-training, r = 0.73; P = 0.02). Although future work is required, these results suggest the potential value of c-miRNAs as exercise biomarkers and their possible roles as physiological mediators of exercise-induced cardiovascular adaptation. PMID:21690193

  6. Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thirumalai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in the skeletal muscle of male albino rats subjected to strenuous exercise programme. Methods: Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise programme daily for a period of five days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exercised animals. Results: The elevated levels of TBARS and conjugated dienes indicated the oxidative stress in the gastrocemius muscle of the exercised animals. The depleted activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the exercise animals indicated the increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidative defense system in the muscle. Conclusions: The study suggests that prolonged strenuous exercise programme can induce oxidative stress and therefore an optimal level of exercise schedule should be advocated to obtain the maximum benefit of exercise programme.

  7. Exhaustive Database Searching for Amino Acid Mutations in Proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid mutations in proteins can be found by searching tandem mass spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments against protein sequences predicted from genomes. Traditionally, unconstrained searches for amino acid mutations have been accomplished by using a sequence tagging approach that combines de novo sequencing with database searching. However, this approach is limited by the performance of de novo sequencing. The Sipros algorithm v2.0 was developed to perform unconstrained database searching using high-resolution tandem mass spectra by exhaustively enumerating all single non-isobaric mutations for every residue in a protein database. The performance of Sipros for amino acid mutation identification exceeded that of an established sequence tagging algorithm, Inspect, based on benchmarking results from a Rhodopseudomonas palustris proteomics dataset. To demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for meta-proteomics, Sipros was used to identify amino acid mutations in a natural microbial community in acid mine drainage.

  8. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  9. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T.; Gerz, T.; Doernbrack, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  10. Exhaustive Search for Fuzzy Gene Networks from Microarray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, B A; Fitch, J P; Quong, J N; Quong, A A

    2003-07-07

    Recent technological advances in high-throughput data collection allow for the study of increasingly complex systems on the scale of the whole cellular genome and proteome. Gene network models are required to interpret large and complex data sets. Rationally designed system perturbations (e.g. gene knock-outs, metabolite removal, etc) can be used to iteratively refine hypothetical models, leading to a modeling-experiment cycle for high-throughput biological system analysis. We use fuzzy logic gene network models because they have greater resolution than Boolean logic models and do not require the precise parameter measurement needed for chemical kinetics-based modeling. The fuzzy gene network approach is tested by exhaustive search for network models describing cyclin gene interactions in yeast cell cycle microarray data, with preliminary success in recovering interactions predicted by previous biological knowledge and other analysis techniques. Our goal is to further develop this method in combination with experiments we are performing on bacterial regulatory networks.

  11. Econometrics of exhaustible resource supply: a theory and an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, D.

    1983-01-01

    This report takes a major step toward developing a fruitful approach to empirical analysis of resource supply. It is the first empirical application of resource theory that has successfully integrated the effects of depletion of nonrenewable resources with the effects of uncertainty about future costs and prices on supply behavior. Thus, the model is a major improvement over traditional engineering-optimization models that assume complete certainty, and over traditional econometrics models that are only implicitly related to the theory of resource supply. The model is used to test hypotheses about interdependence of oil and natural gas discoveries, depletion, ultimate recovery, and the role of price expectations. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using exhaustible resource theory in the development of empirically testable models. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. HHsenser: exhaustive transitive profile search using HMM–HMM comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söding, Johannes; Remmert, Michael; Biegert, Andreas; Lupas, Andrei N.

    2006-01-01

    HHsenser is the first server to offer exhaustive intermediate profile searches, which it combines with pairwise comparison of hidden Markov models. Starting from a single protein sequence or a multiple alignment, it can iteratively explore whole superfamilies, producing few or no false positives. The output is a multiple alignment of all detected homologs. HHsenser's sensitivity should make it a useful tool for evolutionary studies. It may also aid applications that rely on diverse multiple sequence alignments as input, such as homology-based structure and function prediction, or the determination of functional residues by conservation scoring and functional subtyping. HHsenser can be accessed at . It has also been integrated into our structure and function prediction server HHpred () to improve predictions for near-singleton sequences. PMID:16845029

  13. HHsenser: exhaustive transitive profile search using HMM-HMM comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söding, Johannes; Remmert, Michael; Biegert, Andreas; Lupas, Andrei N

    2006-07-01

    HHsenser is the first server to offer exhaustive intermediate profile searches, which it combines with pairwise comparison of hidden Markov models. Starting from a single protein sequence or a multiple alignment, it can iteratively explore whole superfamilies, producing few or no false positives. The output is a multiple alignment of all detected homologs. HHsenser's sensitivity should make it a useful tool for evolutionary studies. It may also aid applications that rely on diverse multiple sequence alignments as input, such as homology-based structure and function prediction, or the determination of functional residues by conservation scoring and functional subtyping.HHsenser can be accessed at http://hhsenser.tuebingen.mpg.de/. It has also been integrated into our structure and function prediction server HHpred (http://hhpred.tuebingen.mpg.de/) to improve predictions for near-singleton sequences.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  15. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... Filter (DPF) which filters PM, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst which removes NO and NO2 through reaction with NH3, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) which removes excess ammonia (NH3) before the gases are released to the atmosphere. SCR is a widely used technology to reduce NOx to N2......-off for different urea dosing con-trollers was developed, and applied to P, PI, PD, and PID controllers, both with and without Ammonia-NOx-Ratio (ANR) based feedforward. Simulation results showed that the PI controller with feedforward had the best NOx-NH3 trade-off, and that feedforward coupled with feedback...

  16. Exhaust gas provides alternative gas source for cyclic EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeppelwerth, G.P.

    1993-04-26

    Injected exhaust gas from a natural gas or propane engine enhanced oil recovery from several Nebraska and Kansas wells. The gas, containing nitrogen and carbon dioxide, is processed through a catalytic converted and neutralized as necessary before being injected in a cyclic (huff and puff) operation. The process equipment is skid or trailer mounted. The engine in these units drives the gas-injection compressor. The gas after passing through the converter and neutralizers is approximately 13% CO[sub 2] and 87% N[sub 2]. The pH is above 6.0 and dew point is near 0 F at atmospheric pressure. Water content is 0.0078 gal/Mscf. This composition is less corrosive than pure CO[sub 2] and reduces oil viscosity by 30% at 1,500 psi. The nitrogen supplies reservoir energy and occupies pore space. The paper describes gas permeability, applications, and field examples.

  17. [Passive detection of aeroengine exhaust based on Fourier transform infrared system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-cheng; Zuo, Hong-fu; Xia, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Since the composition and concentration of aeroengine exhaust can reflect the combustion efficiency, they can provide the basis for condition based maintenance, and also the basis for the analysis of environment pollution caused by aeroengine exhaust. So the importance of aeroengine exhaust detection is evident. Up to now, the measurement of aeroengine exhaust is based on sampling analysis which is not convenient and can't meet the detection requirements when an aeroplane is flying-off or flying in the sky. Hence, new methods of exhaust detection must be studied. The passive measurement technology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to the measurement of aeroengine exhaust in the present paper. At first, the principle of passive measurement based on FTIR was introduced in detail. On this basis, a model algorithm for gas concentration calculation was deduced based on the principle of infrared transmission. Then the feasibility of aeroengine exhaust measurement based on passive FTIR was analyzed, and the passive measurement method of aeroengine exhaust based on FTIR was given. In the end, an experiment of aeroengine exhaust passive measurement was carried out by a FTIR with the type of Tensor 27 produced by BRUKER. Good quality spectra of the exhaust and the background were measured. Based on the model algo rithm of passive measurement, the absorbance spectra of CO and NO were obtained respectively, and the concentrations of CO and NO were figured out. To check up the veracity of this method, a comparison was made with another apparatus. There were only little differences between the results of the two experiments, showing that the passive measurement technology based on FTIR could meet the requirements of aeroengine exhaust detection.

  18. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  19. Ozone enhances the airway inflammation initiated by diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jenny; Pourazar, Jamshid; Forsberg, Bertil; Adelroth, Ellinor; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders

    2007-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, with particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O(3)) both indicated to be of considerable importance. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) and O(3) generate substantial inflammatory effects in the airways. However, as yet it has not been determined whether a subsequent O(3) exposure would add to the diesel-induced airway inflammatory effects. Healthy subjects underwent two separate exposure series: A 1-h DE exposure at a PM-concentration of 300 microg/m(3), followed after 5h by a 2-h exposure to filtered air and 0.2 ppm O(3), respectively. Induced sputum was collected 18 h after the second exposure. A significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils (PMN) and concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was seen in sputum post DE+O(3) vs. DE+air (p<0.05 and <0.05, respectively). Significant associations were observed between the responses in MPO concentration and total PMN cells (p=0.001), and also between MPO and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (p<0.001). The significant increase of PMN and MPO after the DE+O(3) exposures, compared to DE+air, denotes an O(3)-induced magnification of the DE-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the correlation between responses in MPO and number of PMNs and MMP-9 illustrate that the PMNs are activated, resulting in a more potent inflammatory response. The present study indicates that O(3) exposure adds significantly to the inflammatory response that is established by diesel exhaust. This interaction between exposure to particulate pollution and O(3) in sequence should be taken into consideration when health effects of air pollution are considered.

  20. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  1. Cognitive impairment in patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, I H; Nordlund, A; Ellbin, S; Ljung, T; Glise, K; Währborg, P; Wallin, A

    2013-03-01

    Patients who seek medical care for stress-related mental health problems frequently report cognitive impairments as the most pronounced symptom. The purpose of the present study was to compare cognitive function in patients with stress-related exhaustion with that in healthy controls, using a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests. We also explored whether neuropsychological findings were related to severity of illness measured using the Shirom-Melamed burnout questionnaire and hospital anxiety and depression scale. Thirty-three patients (15 males) and 37 healthy controls (11 males), mean age 46 years [standard deviation (SD) 3.9] and 47 years (SD 4.3), respectively, were included in the final analysis. Five cognitive domains were assessed: (1) speed, attention and working memory, (2) learning and episodic memory, (3) executive functions, (4) visuospatial functions and (5) language. The most pronounced difference between patients and controls was seen on executive function, when tested with a multidimensional test, including aspects of speed, control and working memory. The patients also performed poorer on Digit span, measuring attention span and working memory as well as on learning and episodic memory, when measured as delayed recall and the difference between immediate and delayed recall. Delayed recall was the only test that was significantly related to severity of burnout symptoms among the patients. This could reflect poor cognitive sustainability in the patients with the highest burnout scores, as this particular test was the last one performed during the test session. This study clearly shows that cognitive impairment should be considered when evaluating and treating patients who seek medical care for stress-related exhaustion.

  2. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  3. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  4. Plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, A.; Leipold, F.; Kusano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar/NH3 (0.1 - 10%) mixtures with a parallel plate electrode geometry was studied. The plasma was investigated by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the UV spectral range. Discharge current and voltage were measured as well. UV...... absorption spectroscopy was also employed for the detection of stable products in the exhaust gas. To clarify the different processes for ammonia decomposition, N-2(2 - 10%) was added to the plasma. Modeling of the chemical kinetics in an Ar/NH3 plasma was performed as well. The dominant stable products...... of an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 DBD are H-2, N-2 and N2H4. The hydrazine (N2H4) concentration in the plasma and in the exhaust gases at various ammonia concentrations and different discharge powers was measured. Thermal N2H4 decomposition into NH2 radicals may be used for NOx reduction processes....

  5. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Pulsed Inductive Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters can su er from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA)[4], shown in Fig. 1 is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that is able to operate at lower pulse energies by partially ionizing propellant with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge inside a conical inductive coil whose geometry serves to potentially increase propellant and plasma plume containment relative to at coil geometries. The ECR plasma is created with the use of permanent mag- nets arranged to produce a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation and, in turn, current sheet formation to areas of high magnetic coupling to the driving coil.

  6. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  7. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  8. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  9. 40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. 91.103 Section 91.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  10. Idealism, Altruism, Career Orientation, and Emotional Exhaustion among Social Work Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the genesis of emotional exhaustion among undergraduate social work students in Hong Kong. Of particular concern are the relationships among key factors, including the student's idealism, altruism and career orientation, and emotional exhaustion. To investigate this, the study employed survey data collected from 165…

  11. Development of Exhaust Leak Detector Device for Automotive Service Industry: A Prototype Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eida Nadirah Roslin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust system plays a vital role in removing the gaseous emissions that is being produced within the combustion chamber during fuel-air mixture activities. The exhaust system is defined as a series of chambers and pipes that starts at the engine and ends at the back of the car with the tail pipe. However if there are any leaks in the exhaust system, it provide a direct path for the emission gaseous including carbon monoxide to enter can be very dangerous as it provides a direct path for carbon monoxide and other dangerous gaseous emissions to enter the cowl vent at the base of the windshield and directly to the passenger compartment. The risk of exposure to these hazardous gaseous is also high especially during vehicle maintenance services in suspected cases of leakages to the exhaust system.  The inspection of the exhaust system is done manually in most of the automotive services workshops. In this paper, accidental risks of performing these inspection jobs on a vehicle’s exhaust system, performed by a technician are discussed. In order to minimize the risks to technicians or mechanics, a prototype device to detect exhaust leakage was developed using a gas sensor module and a web camera. This device was successfully operated in detecting possible leakages of the exhaust system.

  12. Genotoxic damage in mine workers exposed to diesel exhaust, and the effects of glutathione transferase genotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, L.E.; Gaskell, M.; Martin, E.A.; Poole, J.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Jensen, A.; Autrup, H.; Farmer, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed in an Estonian shale-oil mine with the purpose to develop and apply a number of biomarkers for occupational diesel-exhaust exposure monitoring. Increased breathing-zone exposures to exhaust from operators of diesel-powered trucks in the mine was confirmed in the

  13. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure.

  14. Annual Report of Air Exhaust Center for Radioactive Gas in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Guang-fei; XU; De-chun; ZHAO; Da-peng; YAN; Hong-xia; DU; Hong-ming

    2015-01-01

    The new air exhaust center for radioactive work area 111-2#,which replaced original workshop 111#,111-1#and 144-2#,was put into trial operation in December,2012.It was in charge of air exhaust of the radiochemistry experimental facilities in 301 area,the radioactive

  15. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deflections or voltage output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel...

  17. Idealism, Altruism, Career Orientation, and Emotional Exhaustion among Social Work Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the genesis of emotional exhaustion among undergraduate social work students in Hong Kong. Of particular concern are the relationships among key factors, including the student's idealism, altruism and career orientation, and emotional exhaustion. To investigate this, the study employed survey data collected from 165…

  18. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  19. 重型柴油机SCR后处理系统在线故障诊断功能的开发%Development of the On-board Diagnostics Function of SCR After-treatment System for Heavy-duty Diesel Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张人选; 张云龙; 帅石金

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of national regulation HJ 437-2008 on the on-board diagnostics ( OBD) of emissions for heavy-duty vehicle, the OBD functions of selective catalytic reduction after-treatment system based on both NO, and Adblue tests are developed for heavy-duty diesel engine, and verified by the hardware-in the-loop simulation test with its communication mode confirming to SAE J1939 standard.%根据国家法规HJ 437-2008中对重型车排放在线故障诊断(OBD)的要求,为重型柴油机分别开发了基于NOx检测和Adblue检测的尿素选择催化还原(SCR)后处理系统的OBD功能,并得到硬件在环仿真试验的验证,其通信模式符合SAE J1939标准.

  20. Fast-acting calorimeter measures heat output of plasma gun accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefson, R.; Larson, A. V.; Liebing, L.

    1967-01-01

    Calorimeter measures the exhaust energy from a shot of a pulsed plasma gun accelerator. It has a fast response time and requires only one measurement to determine the total energy. It uses a long ribbon of copper foil wound around a glass frame to form a reentrant cavity.