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Sample records for plasma enhanced chemical

  1. Review: Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Okada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline diamond films have attracted considerable attention because they have a low coefficient of friction and a low electron emission threshold voltage. In this paper, the author reviews the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD of nanocrystalline diamond and mainly focuses on the growth of nanocrystalline diamond by low-pressure PE-CVD. Nanocrystalline diamond particles of 200–700 nm diameter have been prepared in a 13.56 MHz low-pressure inductively coupled CH4/CO/H2 plasma. The bonding state of carbon atoms was investigated by ultraviolet-excited Raman spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy identified sp2-bonded carbons around the 20–50 nm subgrains of nanocrystalline diamond particles. Plasma diagnostics using a Langmuir probe and the comparison with plasma simulation are also reviewed. The electron energy distribution functions are discussed by considering different inelastic interaction channels between electrons and heavy particles in a molecular CH4/H2 plasma.

  2. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Cole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor has been developed to synthesis horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes. The width of the aligning sheath was modelled based on a collisionless, quasi-neutral, Child’s law ion sheath where these estimates were empirically validated by direct Langmuir probe measurements, thereby confirming the proposed reactors ability to extend the existing sheath fields by up to 7 mm. A 7 mbar growth atmosphere combined with a 25 W plasma permitted the concurrent growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes with electric fields of the order of 0.04 V μm−1 with linear packing densities of up to ~5 × 104 cm−1. These results open up the potential for multi-directional in situ alignment of carbon nanotubes providing one viable route to the fabrication of many novel optoelectronic devices.

  3. Tungsten Deposition on Graphite using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Uttam; Chauhan, Sachin S; Sharma, Jayshree; Sanyasi, A K; Ghosh, J; Choudhary, K K; Ghosh, S K

    2016-01-01

    The tokamak concept is the frontrunner for achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction on earth, an environment friendly way to solve future energy crisis. Although much progress has been made in controlling the heated fusion plasmas (temperature ∼ 150 million degrees) in tokamaks, technological issues related to plasma wall interaction topic still need focused attention. In future, reactor grade tokamak operational scenarios, the reactor wall and target plates are expected to experience a heat load of 10 MW/m 2 and even more during the unfortunate events of ELM's and disruptions. Tungsten remains a suitable choice for the wall and target plates. It can withstand high temperatures, its ductile to brittle temperature is fairly low and it has low sputtering yield and low fuel retention capabilities. However, it is difficult to machine tungsten and hence usages of tungsten coated surfaces are mostly desirable. To produce tungsten coated graphite tiles for the above-mentioned purpose, a coating reactor has been designed, developed and made operational at the SVITS, Indore. Tungsten coating on graphite has been attempted and successfully carried out by using radio frequency induced plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (rf -PECVD) for the first time in India. Tungsten hexa-fluoride has been used as a pre-cursor gas. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) clearly showed the presence of tungsten coating on the graphite samples. This paper presents the details of successful operation and achievement of tungsten coating in the reactor at SVITS. (paper)

  4. Plasma effects in aligned carbon nanoflake growth by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Zheng, K. [Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cheng, Q.J., E-mail: qijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ostrikov, K. [Plasma Nanoscience Center Australia (PNCA), Manufacturing Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, PO Box 218, Lindfield 2070, NSW (Australia); Institute for Future Environments and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, QLD (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Plasma-specific effects in the growth of carbon nanoflakes (CNFs) are studied. • Electic field in the plasma sheath promotes separation of CNFs from the substrate. • The orentention of GNFs is related to the combined electic force and growth effects. • The high growth grates of aligned GNFs are plasma-related. - Abstract: Carbon nanofilms are directly grown on silicon substrates by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition in methane environment. It is shown that the nanofilms are composed of aligned carbon nanoflakes by extensive investigation of experimental results of field emission scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In comparison with the graphene-like films grown without plasmas, the carbon nanoflakes grow in an alignment mode and the growth rate of the films is increased. The effects of the plasma on the growth of the carbon nanofilms are studied. The plasma plays three main effects of (1) promoting the separation of the carbon nanoflakes from the silicon substrate, (2) accelerating the motion of hydrocarbon radicals, and (3) enhancing the deposition of hydrocarbon ions onto the substrate surface. Due to these plasma-specific effects, the carbon nanofilms can be formed from the aligned carbon nanoflakes with a high rate. These results advance our knowledge on the synthesis, properties and applications of graphene-based materials.

  5. Substrate Effect on Plasma Clean Efficiency in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ko JangJian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma clean in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system plays an important role to ensure the same chamber condition after numerous film depositions. The periodic and applicable plasma clean in deposition chamber also increases wafer yield due to less defect produced during the deposition process. In this study, the plasma clean rate (PCR of silicon oxide is investigated after the silicon nitride deposited on Cu and silicon oxide substrates by remote plasma system (RPS, respectively. The experimental results show that the PCR drastically decreases with Cu substrate compared to that with silicon oxide substrate after numerous silicon nitride depositions. To understand the substrate effect on PCR, the surface element analysis and bonding configuration are executed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS is used to analyze microelement of metal ions on the surface of shower head in the PECVD chamber. According to Cu substrate, the results show that micro Cu ion and the CuOx bonding can be detected on the surface of shower head. The Cu ion contamination might grab the fluorine radicals produced by NF3 ddissociation in the RPS and that induces the drastic decrease on PCR.

  6. Remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Hemmen, van J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum oxide films were deposited using remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from oxygen/trimethylaluminum mixtures. Initial studies by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry demonstrated that the aluminum oxide films deposited at temperatures

  7. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method is developed and applied for the deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (AlOx) films. The PECVD method combines a continuous plasma with ultrashort precursor injection pulses. We demonstrate that the modulation of the

  8. Study on stability of a-SiCOF films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shijin; Zhang Qingquan; Wang Pengfei; Zhang Wei; Wang Jitao

    2001-01-01

    Low-dielectric-constant a-SiCOF films have been prepared from TEOS, C 4 F 8 and Ar by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. With the aid of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical bonding configuration, thermal stability and resistance to water of the films are explored

  9. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source. This confi......We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source...... effect of single-layer coatings deposited under different reaction conditions was studied. The coating thickness and the carbon content in the coatings were found to be the critical parameters for the barrier property. The novel barrier coating was applied on different polymeric materials...

  10. Liquid assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition with a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, J.; Fricke, K.; Mika, Filip; Pokorná, Zuzana; Zajíčková, L.; Foest, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 630, MAY 30 (2017), s. 71-78 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : plasma jet * liquid assisted plasma enhanced chemical * vapour deposition * silicon oxide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  11. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; Lambeck, Paul; Hilderink, L.T.H.; Linders, Petrus W.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon Oxynitride layers are grown from SiH4/N2, NH3 and N2O by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The process is optimized with respect to deposition of layers with excellent uniformity in the layer thickness, high homogeneity of the refractive index and good reproducibility of the layer

  12. Achieving uniform layer deposition by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woo Seok, E-mail: kang@kimm.re.kr [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min; Lee, Jin Young [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young-Hoon [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-31

    This work investigates the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure for achieving uniform layer formation. Electrical and optical measurements demonstrated that the counterbalance between oxygen and precursors maintained the homogeneous discharge mode, while creating intermediate species for layer deposition. Several steps of the deposition process of the layers, which were processed on a stationary stage, were affected by flow stream and precursor depletion. This study showed that by changing the flow streamlines using substrate stage motion uniform layer deposition under atmospheric pressure can be achieved. - Highlights: • Zirconium oxide was deposited by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • Homogeneous plasma was maintained by counterbalancing between discharge gas and precursors. • Several deposition steps were observed affected by the gas flow stream and precursor depletion. • Thin film layer was uniformly grown when the substrate underwent a sweeping motion.

  13. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for YBCO film fabrication of superconducting fault-current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Chan Joong

    2006-05-15

    Since the high-temperature superconductor of oxide type was founded, many researches and efforts have been performed for finding its application field. The YBCO superconducting film fabricated on economic metal substrate with uniform critical current density is considered as superconducting fault-current limiter (SFCL). There are physical and chemical processes to fabricate superconductor film, and it is understood that the chemical methods are more economic to deposit large area. Among them, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising deposition method in obtaining film uniformity. To solve the problems due to the high deposition temperature of thermal CVD, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is suggested. This report describes the principle and fabrication trend of SFCL, example of YBCO film deposition by PECVD method, and principle of plasma deposition.

  14. One-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) for transparent superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrom, Sukrit; Tirawanichakul, Yutthana; Munsit, Nantakan; Deangngam, Chalongrat

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a rapid and environmental friendly fabrication technique to produce optically clear superhydrophobic surfaces using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a sole coating material. The inert PDMS chain is transformed into a 3-D irregular solid network through microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. Thanks to high electron density in the microwave-activated plasma, coating can be done in just a single step with rapid deposition rate, typically much shorter than 10 s. Deposited layers show excellent superhydrophobic properties with water contact angles of ∼170° and roll-off angles as small as ∼3°. The plasma-deposited films can be ultrathin with thicknesses under 400 nm, greatly diminishing the optical loss. Moreover, with appropriate coating conditions, the coating layer can even enhance the transmission over the entire visible spectrum due to a partial anti-reflection effect.

  15. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  16. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H. [Materials Synthesis Laboratory, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, and Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials (CAPEM), State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiOCH films using tetraethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Yoshizako, Y.; Kato, H.; Tsukiyama, D.; Terai, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOCH) thin films were deposited by room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The deposition rate and composition of the films strongly depended on radio frequency (RF) power. The films deposited at low RF power contained more CH n groups. The SiOCH films showed high etch rate and low refractive index in proportion to the carbon composition. The deposition with low plasma density and low substrate temperature is effective for SiOCH growth by PECVD using TEOS

  18. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  19. Synthesis of electro-active manganese oxide thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Anna R. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States); Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan [Department of Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, Dubois, PA 15801 (United States); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carter, Joshua D. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The good stability, cyclability and high specific capacitance of manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) has recently promoted a growing interest in utilizing MnO{sub x} in asymmetric supercapacitor electrodes. Several literature reports have indicated that thin film geometries of MnO{sub x} provide specific capacitances that are much higher than bulk MnO{sub x} powders. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a versatile technique for the production of metal oxide thin films with high purity and controllable thickness. In this work, MnO{sub x} thin films deposited by PECVD from a methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl precursor are presented and the effect of processing conditions on the quality of MnO{sub x} films is described. The film purity and oxidation state of the MnO{sub x} films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary electrochemical testing of MnO{sub x} films deposited on carbon fiber electrodes in aqueous electrolytes indicates that the PECVD synthesized films are electrochemically active. - Highlights: • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of manganese oxide thin films. • Higher plasma power and chamber pressure increase deposition rate. • Manganese oxide thin films are electrochemically active. • Best electrochemical performance observed for pure film with low stress • Lower capacitance observed at higher scan rates despite thin film geometry.

  20. Carbon nanosheets by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH4-Ar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhipeng; Shoji, Mao; Ogata, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    We employ a new gas mixture of CH 4 -Ar to fabricate carbon nanosheets by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at the growth temperature of less than 500 deg. C. The catalyst-free nanosheets possess flower-like structures with a large amount of sharp edges, which consist of a few layers of graphene sheets according to the observation by transmission electron microscopy. These high-quality carbon nanosheets demonstrated a faster electron transfer between the electrolyte and the nanosheet surface, due to their edge defects and graphene structures.

  1. Polycrystalline AlN films with preferential orientation by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.; Wu, A.; Tristant, P.; Tixier, C.; Soulestin, B.; Desmaison, J.; Bologna Alles, A.

    2008-01-01

    AlN thin films for acoustic wave devices were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition under different process conditions, employing Si (100) and Pt (111)/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The values of the distance between the plasma and the tri-methyl-aluminum precursor injector, the radiofrequency bias potential, and the substrate temperature were central in the development of polycrystalline films. The choice of the chamber total pressure during deposition allowed for the development of two different crystallographic orientations, i.e., or . The film microstructures exhibited in general a column-like growth with rounded tops, an average grain size of about 40 nm, and a surface roughness lower than 20 nm under the best conditions

  2. Hydrogen plasma enhanced alignment on CNT-STM tips grown by liquid catalyst-assisted microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Fa-Kuei; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Ueda, Kazuyuki; Ohira, Yutaka; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are grown directly on a scanning tunneling microscopy tip by liquid catalyst-assisted microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the tip have been investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The unaligned CNTs on the as-grown tip apex have been realigned and reshaped by subsequent hydrogen plasma treatment. The diameter of CNTs is enlarged mainly due to amorphous layers being re-sputtered over their outer shells

  3. Modeling of Sheath Ion-Molecule Reactions in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hash, David B.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plasma simulations, ion-molecule reactions are modeled using ion energy independent reaction rate coefficients that are taken from low temperature selected-ion flow tube experiments. Only exothermic or nearly thermoneutral reactions are considered. This is appropriate for plasma applications such as high-density plasma sources in which sheaths are collisionless and ion temperatures 111 the bulk p!asma do not deviate significantly from the gas temperature. However, for applications at high pressure and large sheath voltages, this assumption does not hold as the sheaths are collisional and ions gain significant energy in the sheaths from Joule heating. Ion temperatures and thus reaction rates vary significantly across the discharge, and endothermic reactions become important in the sheaths. One such application is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes in which dc discharges are struck at pressures between 1-20 Torr with applied voltages in the range of 500-700 V. The present work investigates The importance of the inclusion of ion energy dependent ion-molecule reaction rates and the role of collision induced dissociation in generating radicals from the feedstock used in carbon nanotube growth.

  4. One-step synthesis of chlorinated graphene by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • We developed a simple approach to synthesize the single layer chlorinated graphene. • CuCl{sub 2} on Cu surface is used as Cl source under the plasma treatment. • The formation of covalent C−Cl bond has been investigated by Raman and XPS. • Raman results indicate the p-type doping effect of chlorination. - Abstract: We developed an approach to synthesize the chlorinated single layer graphene (Cl-G) by one-step plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Copper foil was simply treated with hydrochloric acid and then CuCl{sub 2} formed on the surface was used as Cl source under the assistance of plasma treatment. Compared with other two-step methods by post plasma/photochemical treatment of CVD-grown single layer graphene (SLG), one-step Cl-G synthesis approach is quite straightforward and effective. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that ∼2.45 atom% Cl remained in SLG. Compared with the pristine SLG, the obvious blue shifts of G band and 2D band along with the appearance of D’ band and D + G band in the Raman spectra indicate p-type doping of Cl-G.

  5. LiF enhanced nucleation of the low temperature microcrystalline silicon prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Jiří; Ledinský, Martin; Honda, Shinya; Drbohlav, Ivo; Mates, Tomáš; Fejfar, Antonín; Hruška, Karel; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Kočka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 24 (2009), s. 6829-6832 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA1010413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : amorphous hydrogenated silicon * atomic force microscopy * plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, * nucleation * Raman scattering * lithium fluoride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2009

  6. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hao [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States)]. E-mail: hao.jiang@wpafb.af.mil; Hong Lianggou [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States); Venkatasubramanian, N. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Grant, John T. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Eyink, Kurt [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Wiacek, Kevin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Fries-Carr, Sandra [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Enlow, Jesse [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States)

    2007-02-26

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} {sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F {sub b}) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F{sub b} of 610 V/{mu}m, an {epsilon} {sub r} of 3.07, and a tan {delta} of 7.0 x 10{sup -3} at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss.

  7. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hao; Hong Lianggou; Venkatasubramanian, N.; Grant, John T.; Eyink, Kurt; Wiacek, Kevin; Fries-Carr, Sandra; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F b ) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F b of 610 V/μm, an ε r of 3.07, and a tan δ of 7.0 x 10 -3 at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss

  8. Structural and chemical analysis of annealed plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broas, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.broas@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, Perttu; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University. P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was utilized to grow aluminum nitride (AlN) films on Si from trimethylaluminum and N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} plasma at 200 °C. Thermal treatments were then applied on the films which caused changes in their chemical composition and nanostructure. These changes were observed to manifest in the refractive indices and densities of the films. The AlN films were identified to contain light element impurities, namely, H, C, and excess N due to nonideal precursor reactions. Oxygen contamination was also identified in the films. Many of the embedded impurities became volatile in the elevated annealing temperatures. Most notably, high amounts of H were observed to desorb from the AlN films. Furthermore, dinitrogen triple bonds were identified with infrared spectroscopy in the films. The triple bonds broke after annealing at 1000 °C for 1 h which likely caused enhanced hydrolysis of the films. The nanostructure of the films was identified to be amorphous in the as-deposited state and to become nanocrystalline after 1 h of annealing at 1000 °C.

  9. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition growth of carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivan R. Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various input parameters on the production of carbon nanostructures using a simple microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique has been investigated. The technique utilises a conventional microwave oven as the microwave energy source. The developed apparatus is inexpensive and easy to install and is suitable for use as a carbon nanostructure source for potential laboratory-based research of the bulk properties of carbon nanostructures. A result of this investigation is the reproducibility of specific nanostructures with the variation of input parameters, such as carbon-containing precursor and support gas flow rate. It was shown that the yield and quality of the carbon products is directly controlled by input parameters. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the carbon products; these were found to be amorphous, nanotubes and onion-like nanostructures.

  10. High Current Emission from Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linfan; Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Jiao, Tifeng

    2015-12-01

    Vertically, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were successfully fabricated on hexagon patterned Si substrates through radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using gas mixtures of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) with Fe/Al2O3 catalysts. The CNTs were found to be graphitized with multi-walled structures. Different H2/C2H2 gas flow rate ratio was used to investigate the effect on CNT growth, and the field emission properties were optimized. The CNT emitters exhibited excellent field emission performance (the turn-on and threshold fields were 2.1 and 2.4 V/μm, respectively). The largest emission current could reach 70 mA/cm2. The emission current was stable, and no obvious deterioration was observed during the long-term stability test of 50 h. The results were relevant for practical applications based on CNTs.

  11. Stress hysteresis and mechanical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Jeremy; Cook, Robert F.; Kamarajugadda, Mallika; Bozeman, Steven P.; Stearns, Laura C.

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive survey is described of the responses of three plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited dielectric film systems to thermal cycling and indentation contact. All three films—silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon oxy-nitride—exhibited significant nonequilibrium permanent changes in film stress on thermal cycling or annealing. The linear relationship between stress and temperature changed after the films were annealed at 300 °C, representing a structural alteration in the film reflecting a change in coefficient of thermal expansion or biaxial modulus. A double-substrate method was used to deduce both thermoelastic properties before and after the anneal of selected films and the results were compared with the modulus deconvoluted from small-scale depth-sensing indentation experiments (nanoindentation). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and hydrogen forward scattering were used to deduce the composition of the films and it was found that all the films contained significant amounts of hydrogen.

  12. Stress hysteresis during thermal cycling of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Jeremy; Cook, Robert F.

    2002-02-01

    The mechanical response of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiO2 to thermal cycling is examined by substrate curvature measurement and depth-sensing indentation. Film properties of deposition stress and stress hysteresis that accompanied thermal cycling are elucidated, as well as modulus, hardness, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Thermal cycling is shown to result in major plastic deformation of the film and a switch from a compressive to a tensile state of stress; both athermal and thermal components of the net stress alter in different ways during cycling. A mechanism of hydrogen incorporation and release from as-deposited silanol groups is proposed that accounts for the change in film properties and state of stress.

  13. Structured nanocarbon on various metal foils by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rius, G; Yoshimura, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a versatile process for the engineering of nanostructures made of crystalline carbon on metal foils. The single step process by microwave plasma-enhance chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated for various substrate materials, such as Ni or Cu. Either carbon nanotubes (CNT) or carbon nanowalls (CNW) are obtained under same growth conditions and without the need of additional catalyst. The use of spacer and insulator implies a certain control over the kind of allotropes that are obtained. High density and large surface area are morphological characteristics of the thus obtained C products. The possibility of application on many metals, and in the alloy composition, on as-delivered commercially available foils indicates that this strategy can be adapted to a bunch of specific applications, while the production of C nanostructures is of remarkable simplicity.

  14. Preparation of carbon nanotubes with different morphology by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi av., 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ibragimov Street 11, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansurov, Zulkhair [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi av., 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmoldin, S.Zh. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ibragimov Street 11, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2010-04-15

    In this work we present a part of our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly, carbon nanosheets, coiled carbon sheets and carbon microcoils have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as the growth temperature, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. The yield of the carbon microcoils was high when the growth temperature was 700 C. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. Our samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  16. Controlled surface diffusion in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, W C; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the growth of GaN nanowires by controlling the surface diffusion of Ga species on sapphire in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, Ga has a tendency to adsorb on the substrate surface diffusing to nanowires to contribute to their growth. The significance of surface diffusion on the growth of nanowires is dependent on the environment of the nanowire on the substrate surface as well as the gas phase species and compositions. Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the growth rate is strongly dependent on the surface diffusion of gallium, but the addition of 5% hydrogen in nitrogen plasma instantly diminishes the surface diffusion effect. Gallium desorbs easily from the surface by reaction with hydrogen. On the other hand, under gallium-rich growth conditions, nanowire growth is shown to be dominated by the gas phase deposition, with negligible contribution from surface diffusion. This is the first study reporting the inhibition of surface diffusion effects by hydrogen addition, which can be useful in tailoring the growth and characteristics of nanowires. Without any evidence of direct deposition on the nanowire surface, gallium and nitrogen are shown to dissolve into the catalyst for growing the nanowires at 900 deg. C.

  17. Raman enhancement on ultra-clean graphene quantum dots produced by quasi-equilibrium plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donghua; Chen, Xiaosong; Hu, Yibin; Sun, Tai; Song, Zhibo; Zheng, Yujie; Cao, Yongbin; Cai, Zhi; Cao, Min; Peng, Lan; Huang, Yuli; Du, Lei; Yang, Wuli; Chen, Gang; Wei, Dapeng; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Wei, Dacheng

    2018-01-15

    Graphene is regarded as a potential surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. However, the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has had limited success due to material quality. Here, we develop a quasi-equilibrium plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method to produce high-quality ultra-clean GQDs with sizes down to 2 nm directly on SiO 2 /Si, which are used as SERS substrates. The enhancement factor, which depends on the GQD size, is higher than conventional graphene sheets with sensitivity down to 1 × 10 -9  mol L -1 rhodamine. This is attributed to the high-quality GQDs with atomically clean surfaces and large number of edges, as well as the enhanced charge transfer between molecules and GQDs with appropriate diameters due to the existence of Van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states. This work demonstrates a sensitive SERS substrate, and is valuable for applications of GQDs in graphene-based photonics and optoelectronics.

  18. Controlling the resistivity gradient in aluminum-doped zinc oxide grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarev, M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Keuning, W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) generally exhibit a major drawback, i.e., a gradient in resistivity extending over a large range of film thickness. The present contribution addresses the plasma-enhanced CVD deposition of ZnO:Al layers by focusing on the control

  19. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; Buters, F.; Dohnalova, K.; Wosinski, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO2. Optical characterization

  20. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films for optical waveguide bridges for use in mechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Leistiko, Otto

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the influence of RF power, ammonia flow, annealing temperature, and annealing time on the optical and mechanical properties of plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films, is presented. A low refractive index (1.47 to 1.48) film having tensile stress has been...

  1. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  2. Optimization of silicon oxynitrides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for an interferometric biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Sung Joong; Lee, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sang-Myung; Park, Jung Ho; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, silicon oxynitride layers deposited with different plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) conditions were fabricated and optimized, in order to make an interferometric sensor for detecting biochemical reactions. For the optimization of PECVD silicon oxynitride layers, the influence of the N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio was investigated. RF power in the PEVCD process was also adjusted under the optimized N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio. The optimized silicon oxynitride layer was deposited with 15 W in chamber under 25/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow rates. The clad layer was deposited with 20 W in chamber under 400/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow condition. An integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor based on optical waveguide technology was fabricated under the optimized PECVD conditions. The adsorption reaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the silicon oxynitride surface was performed and verified with this device.

  3. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  4. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  5. Electrical transport properties of graphene nanowalls grown at low temperature using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Ahktar, Meysam; Alruqi, Adel; Dharmasena, Ruchira; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Thantirige, Rukshan M.; Sumanasekera, Gamini U.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we report the electrical transport properties of uniform and vertically oriented graphene (graphene nanowalls) directly synthesized on multiple substrates including glass, Si/SiO2 wafers, and copper foils using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with methane (CH4) as the precursor at relatively low temperatures. The temperature for optimum growth was established with the aid of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. This approach offers means for low-cost graphene nanowalls growth on an arbitrary substrate with the added advantage of transfer-free device fabrication. The temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties (resistivity and thermopower) were studied in the temperature range, 30-300 K and analyzed with a combination of 2D-variable range hopping (VRH) and thermally activated (TA) conduction mechanisms. An anomalous temperature dependence of the thermopower was observed for all the samples and explained with a combination of a diffusion term having a linear temperature dependence plus a term with an inverse temperature dependence.

  6. Preparation and structure of porous dielectrics by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S. M.; Neumayer, D. A.; Sherwood, M. H.; Grill, A.; Wang, X.; Sankarapandian, M.

    2007-01-01

    The preparation of ultralow dielectric constant porous silicon, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen alloy dielectrics, called 'pSiCOH', using a production 200 mm plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition tool and a thermal treatment is reported here. The effect of deposition temperature on the pSiCOH film is examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dielectric constant (k), and film shrinkage measurements. For all deposition temperatures, carbon in the final porous film is shown to be predominantly Si-CH 3 species, and lower k is shown to correlate with increased concentration of Si-CH 3 . NMR and FTIR spectroscopies clearly detect the loss of a removable, unstable, hydrocarbon (CH x ) phase during the thermal treatment. Also detected are increased cross-linking of the Si-O skeleton, and concentration changes for three distinct structures of carbon. In the as deposited films, deposition temperature also affects the hydrocarbon (CH x ) content and the presence of C=O and C=C functional groups

  7. Characterisation of silicon carbide films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Chen Bangtao; Wei Jiashen; Pang, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a characterisation of amorphous silicon carbide films deposited in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) reactors for MEMS applications. The main parameter was optimised in order to achieve a low stress and high deposition rate. We noticed that the high frequency mode (13.56 MHz) gives a low stress value which can be tuned from tensile to compressive by selecting the correct power. The low frequency mode (380 kHz) generates high compressive stress (around 500 MPa) due to ion bombardment and, as a result, densification of the layer achieved. Temperature can decrease the compressive value of the stress (due to annealing effect). A low etching rate of the amorphous silicon carbide layer was noticed for wet etching in KOH 30% at 80 o C (around 13 A/min) while in HF 49% the layer is practically inert. A very slow etching rate of amorphous silicon carbide layer in XeF 2 -7 A/min- was observed. The paper presents an example of this application: PECVD-amorphous silicon carbide cantilevers fabricated using surface micromachining by dry-released technique in XeF 2

  8. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide and aluminum zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kyle W.; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Sailer, Robert A.; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited via atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A second-generation precursor, bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)(N,N′-diethylethylenediamine) zinc, exhibited significant vapor pressure and good stability at one atmosphere where a vaporization temperature of 110 °C gave flux ∼ 7 μmol/min. Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed that addition of H 2 O to the carrier gas stream mitigated F contamination giving nearly 1:1 metal:oxide stoichiometries for both ZnO and AZO with little precursor-derived C contamination. ZnO and AZO thin film resistivities ranged from 14 to 28 Ω·cm for the former and 1.1 to 2.7 Ω·cm for the latter. - Highlights: • A second generation precursor was utilized for atmospheric pressure film growth. • Addition of water vapor to the carrier gas stream led to a marked reduction of ZnF 2 . • Carbonaceous contamination from the precursor was minimal

  9. Room temperature synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Quero, Ángel; Cotrino Bautista, José; Yubero Valencia, Francisco; Espinós, J. P.; Rodríguez González-Elipe, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films in room temperature was carried out using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave reactor with a downstream configuration.The gas adsorption properties and the type of porosity of the SiO2 thin films were assessed by adsorption isotherms of toluene at room temperature.The method could also permit the tailoring synthesis of thin films when both composition and porosity can be simultaneously and independent...

  10. Plasma diagnostics and device properties of AlGaN/GaN HEMT passivated with SiN deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M F; Sanz, M M; Munoz, E [ISOM-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM). ETSIT, Madrid (Spain); Tanarro, I [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A, E-mail: itanarro@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Departamento Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this work, silicon nitride thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on both silicon samples and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) grown on sapphire substrates. Commercial parallel-plate RF plasma equipment has been used. During depositions, the dissociation rates of SiH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} precursors and the formation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} have been analysed by mass spectrometry as a function of the NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} flow ratio and the RF power applied to the plasma reactor. Afterwards, the properties of the films and the HEMT electrical characteristics have been studied. Plasma composition has been correlated with the SiN deposition rate, refractive index, H content and the final electric characteristics of the passivated transistors.

  11. The structure and growth mechanism of Si nanoneedles prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Ledinský, Martin; Stuchlík, Jiří; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Hruška, Karel; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 41 (2010), 415604/1-415604/7 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nanoneedles * nanowires * silicon * plasma * chemical vapor deposition * crystal structure * growth * phonon * SEM * Raman Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  12. Comparative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and micro pressure chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus silicate glass layers after rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshkov, G.; Krastev, V.; Gogova, D.; Talik, E.; Adamies, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the bonding state of Phosphorus Silicate Glass (PSG) layers obtained by two different technological approaches, i.e. in two types of reactors: Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Micro Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) are investigated employing XPS and AES. The PSG layers are deposited at 380 0 C and 420 0 C in corresponding reactors. XPS and AES analyses show that Si2p peak recorded from PECVD layers are not as expected at their position characteristics of silicon dioxide but instead they are at the characteristic of elemental silicon. Plasma enhancement during deposition leads to less oxidized and more inhomogeneous layer. After rapid thermal annealing the Si2p peak is situated at position characteristic of silicon dioxide. (authors)

  13. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Woehrl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO2 substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm2. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  14. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  15. Role of chlorine in the nanocrystalline silicon film formation by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of chlorinated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the disorder-induced low-temperature crystallization in the nanocrystalline silicon film growth by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of H 2 -diluted SiH 2 Cl 2 and SiCl 4 . The combination of the chemical reactivity of SiCld (d: dangling bond) and SiHCl complexes and the release of the disorder-induced stress near the growing surface tightly correlate with the phase transitionity of SiCld and SiHCl complexes near the growing surface with the aid of atomic hydrogen, which induce higher degree of disorder in the a-Si network. These features are most prominent in the SiCl 4 compared with those of SiH 2 Cl 2 and SiH 4 , which preferentially enhance the nanocrystalline Si formation

  16. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  17. Characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te films prepared by cyclic pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung-Suk; Jung, Ha-Na; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2010-05-01

    Ge-Sb-Te (GST) thin films were deposited on TiN, SiO2, and Si substrates by cyclic-pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using Ge{N(CH3)(C2H5)}, Sb(C3H7)3, Te(C3H7)3 as precursors in a vertical flow reactor. Plasma activated H2 was used as the reducing agent. The growth behavior was strongly dependent on the type of substrate. GST grew as a continuous film on TiN regardless of the substrate temperature. However, GST formed only small crystalline aggregates on Si and SiO2 substrates, not a continuous film, at substrate temperatures > or = 200 degrees C. The effects of the deposition temperature on the surface morphology, roughness, resistivity, crystallinity, and composition of the GST films were examined.

  18. Nanostructure and optical properties of CeO{sub 2} thin films obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, D.; Bruno, G.; Gasparotto, A.; Losurdo, M.; Tondello, E

    2003-12-15

    In the present study, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) is used to investigate the interrelations between nanostructure and optical properties of CeO{sub 2} thin films deposited by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD). The layers were synthesized in Ar and Ar-O{sub 2} plasmas on Si(100) substrates at temperatures lower than 300 deg. C. Both the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions and, subsequently, the optical constants of the films are derived up to 6.0 eV photon energy. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of synthesis conditions and sample properties on the optical response, taking into account the effects of surface roughness and SiO{sub 2} interface layer on Si.

  19. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J.; Nelson, N.

    2016-10-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp2/sp3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions.

  20. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B J; Nelson, N

    2016-01-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp 2 /sp 3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp 2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions. (paper)

  1. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Germanium-on-Silicon Using Ultrahigh-Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition with RF Plasma Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Bader; Grant, Joshua M.; Dou, Wei; Grant, Perry C.; Mosleh, Aboozar; Du, Wei; Mortazavi, Mansour; Li, Baohua; Naseem, Hameed; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Germanium (Ge) films have been grown on silicon (Si) substrate by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition with plasma enhancement (PE). Argon plasma was generated using high-power radiofrequency (50 W) to assist in germane decomposition at low temperature. The growth temperature was varied in the low range of 250°C to 450°C to make this growth process compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The material and optical properties of the grown Ge films were investigated. The material quality was determined by Raman and x-ray diffraction techniques, revealing growth of crystalline films in the temperature range of 350°C to 450°C. Photoluminescence spectra revealed improved optical quality at growth temperatures of 400°C and 450°C. Furthermore, material quality study using transmission electron microscopy revealed existence of defects in the Ge layer grown at 400°C. Based on the etch pit density, the average threading dislocation density in the Ge layer obtained at this growth temperature was measured to be 4.5 × 108 cm-2. This result was achieved without any material improvement steps such as use of graded buffer or thermal annealing. Comparison between PE and non-plasma-enhanced growth, in the same machine at otherwise the same growth conditions, indicated increased growth rate and improved material and optical qualities for PE growth.

  2. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S., E-mail: veronica@niic.nsc.ru [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A. [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, Valerii G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirienko, Viktor V. [Laboratory of Nonequilibrium Semiconductors Systems, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-02

    Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9.

  3. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S.; Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A.; Kesler, Valerii G.; Kirienko, Viktor V.

    2014-01-01

    Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9

  4. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  5. Effect of oxygen plasma on field emission characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Harsh [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush-reslab@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2014-02-28

    Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm{sup 2} at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O{sub 2}) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O{sub 2} plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm{sup 2} at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/μm. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O{sub 2} plasma treatment and the findings are being reported in this paper.

  6. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Juan, Hu; Fen-Yan, Xie; Qiang, Chen; Jing, Weng

    2008-01-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films

  7. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Juan; Xie, Fen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Weng, Jing

    2008-10-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  8. Effect of plasma composition on nanocrystalline diamond layers deposited by a microwave linear antenna plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Andrew; Ashcheulov, Petr; Čada, Martin; Fekete, Ladislav; Hubík, Pavel; Klimša, Ladislav; Olejníček, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Jirka, Ivan; Janíček, P.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Mistrík, J.; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), s. 2418-2423 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : diamond * electrical conductivity * nanocrystalline materials * optical emission spectroscopy * plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition * SiC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  9. Characteristics of SiOx-containing hard film prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisilazane or vinyltrimethylsilane and post oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yi-Syuan; Liu, Wan-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Ming [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Cech, Vladimir [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    This study, monomers of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSZ) and vinyltrimethylsilane (VTMS) were respectively used to deposit on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Oxygen plasma treatment follows the HMDSZ and VTMS deposition to produce a hydrophilic surface film on the deposited surface. Time for HMDSZ and VTMS plasma deposition was changed to investigate its influences on water contact angle, deposited film thickness, refractive index, and friction coefficient properties. The surface morphologies of the processed samples were observed by scanning electron microscope and their chemical compositions were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 550 nm wavelength, the optical transmittance of PET after the HMDSZ treatment decreases from 89% to 83%, but increases from 89% to 95% for the VTMS treatment. With increase in HMDSZ and VTMS deposition times, the film thickness increases and the refractive index decreases. Result revealed by XPS, SiO{sub 2} film is formed on the sample surface after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The film adhesion capability by the HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} treatment was stronger than that by the HMDSZ and VTMS treatment only. The SiOx films produced by HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} treatment can increase the film hardness and improve light transmittance. - Highlights: • With increase in HMDSZ and VTMS deposition times, the film thickness increases and the refractive index decreases. • The optical transmittance of PET after the VTMS treatment increases from 89% to 95%. • The SiO{sub 2} films deposited by HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} plasma can increase the film hardness and improve light transmittance. • It is expected that they can be applied to the optical transmittance protective film on plastic substrate in the future.

  10. Structural and photoluminescence investigation on the hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Su Kong; Goh, Boon Tong; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Nguyen, Hong-Quan; Do, Hien; Ahmad, Ishaq; Aspanut, Zarina; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Dee, Chang Fu; Rahman, Saadah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    High density of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were synthesized by a hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The structural and optical properties of the as-grown SiNWs prepared at different rf power of 40 and 80 W were analyzed in this study. The SiNWs prepared at rf power of 40 W exhibited highly crystalline structure with a high crystal volume fraction, X C of ∼82% and are surrounded by a thin layer of SiO x . The NWs show high absorption in the high energy region (E>1.8 eV) and strong photoluminescence at 1.73 to 2.05 eV (red–orange region) with a weak shoulder at 1.65 to 1.73 eV (near IR region). An increase in rf power to 80 W reduced the X C to ∼65% and led to the formation of nanocrystalline Si structures with a crystallite size of <4 nm within the SiNWs. These NWs are covered by a mixture of uncatalyzed amorphous Si layer. The SiNWs prepared at 80 W exhibited a high optical absorption ability above 99% in the broadband range between 220 and ∼1500 nm and red emission between 1.65 and 1.95 eV. The interesting light absorption and photoluminescence properties from both SiNWs are discussed in the text. - Highlights: ► Growth of random oriented silicon nanowires using hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. ► Increase in rf power reduces the crystallinity of silicon nanowires. ► High density and nanocrystalline structure in silicon nanowires significant enhance the near IR light absorption. ► Oxide defects and silicon nanocrystallites in silicon nanowires reveal photoluminescence in red–orange and red regions.

  11. Atomic force microscopy indentation of fluorocarbon thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical deposition at low radio frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L.; Ruiz, A.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation technique is used for characterization of mechanical properties of fluorocarbon (CF x ) thin films obtained from C 4 F 8 gas by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low r.f. power (5-30 W) and d.c. bias potential (10-80 V). This particular deposition method renders films with good hydrophobic property and high plastic compliance. Commercially available AFM probes with stiff cantilevers (10-20 N/m) and silicon sharpened tips (tip radius < 10 nm) are used for indentations and imaging of the resulted indentation imprints. Force depth curves and imprint characteristics are used for determination of film hardness, elasticity modulus and plasticity index. The measurements show that the decrease of the discharge power results in deposition of films with decreased hardness and stiffness and increased plasticity index. Nanolithography based on AFM indentation is demonstrated on thin films (thickness of 40 nm) with good plastic compliance.

  12. Synthesis and growth mechanism of Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jun; Feng Tao; Cheng Xinhong; Dai Lijuan; Cao Gongbai; Jiang Bingyao; Wang Xi; Liu Xianghuai; Zou Shichang

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was used to grow Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanotubes had a uniform diameter in the range of about 10-20 nm. A base growth mode was responsible for the CNTs growth using a mixture of H 2 (60 sccm) and C 2 H 2 (15 sccm). For a mixture of H 2 (100 sccm) and C 2 H 2 (25 sccm), a complicated growth mechanism took place involving both the base growth and the tip growth. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the grown CNTs contained C-H covalent bonds and Fe-C bonds located at the interface between them and the substrates. The factors determining the growth mechanism of CNTs are discussed and their growth mechanisms with the different gas ratios are suggested

  13. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Saba; Buters, Frank; Dohnalova, Katerina; Wosinski, Lech; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2014-10-10

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO(2).Optical characterization reveals two prominent emission bands centered around 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV, and tunable by excitation energy. In addition, the lower energy band shows an excitation power-dependent blue shift of up to 0.3 eV. Decay dynamics of the observed emission contains fast (nanosecond) and slow (microseconds) components, indicating contributions of several relaxation channels. Based on these material characteristics, a possible microscopic origin of the individual emission bands is discussed.

  14. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO3 via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, D.; Henderson, P.B.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Jensen, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO 3 thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO 3 for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF 6 , sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation

  15. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  16. Si Nano wires Produced by Very High Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) via VLS Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussof Wahab; Yussof Wahab; Habib Hamidinezhad; Habib Hamidinezhad

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nano wires (SiNWs) with diameter of about a few nanometers and length of 3 μm on silicon wafers were synthesized by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that the silicon nano wires were grown randomly and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicates that the nano wires have the composition of Si, Au and O elements. The SiNWs were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. SEM micrographs displayed SiNWs that are needle-like with a diameter ranged from 30 nm at the top to 100 nm at the bottom of the wire and have length a few of micrometers. In addition, HRTEM showed that SiNWs consist of crystalline silicon core and amorphous silica layer. (author)

  17. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO{sub 3} via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States); Henderson, P.B. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States)]. E-mail: henderpb@airproducts.co; Hollingsworth, R.E. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States); Jensen, D.G. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO{sub 3} thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO{sub 3} for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF{sub 6}, sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation.

  18. Characterization of thin TiO2 films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for optical and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk-Guzenda, A.; Gazicki-Lipman, M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kowalski, J.; Wojciechowski, P.; Halamus, T.; Tracz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited using a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. Their optical properties and thickness were determined by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Films of the optical parameters very close to those of titanium dioxide have been obtained at the high RF power input. Their optical quality is high enough to allow for their use in a construction of stack interference optical filters. At the same time, these materials exhibit strong photocatalytic effects. The results of structural analysis, carried out by Raman Shift Spectroscopy, show that the coatings posses amorphous structure. However, Raman spectra of the same films subjected to thermal annealing at 450 o C disclose an appearance of a crystalline form, namely that of anatase. Surface morphology of the films has also been characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing granular, broccoli-like topography of the films.

  19. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K.; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans

  20. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuanyong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Ding Chuanxian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter <1 0 0> silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans.

  1. Transport properties of field effect transistors with randomly networked single walled carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Wanjun

    2009-01-01

    The transport properties of randomly networked single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors with different channel lengths of L c = 2-10 μm were investigated. Randomly networked SWNTs were directly grown for the two different densities of ρ ∼ 25 μm -2 and ρ ∼ 50 μm -2 by water plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The field effect transport is governed mainly by formation of the current paths that is related to the nanotube density. On the other hand, the off-state conductivity deviates from linear dependence for both nanotube density and channel length. The field effect mobility of holes is estimated as 4-13 cm 2 V -1 s -1 for the nanotube transistors based on the simple MOS theory. The mobility is increased for the higher density without meaningful dependence on the channel lengths.

  2. The growth of axially modulated p–n GaN nanowires by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tung-Hsien; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the n-type characteristics of intrinsic gallium nitride, p-type gallium nitride (GaN) is more difficult to synthesize than n-type gallium nitride in forming the p–n junctions for optoelectronic applications. For the growth of the p-type gallium nitride, magnesium is used as the dopant. The Mg-doped GaN nanowires (NWs) have been synthesized on (111)-oriented n + -silicon substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the GaN NWs were bent at high Mg doping levels, and the transmission electron microscope characterization indicated that single-crystalline GaN NWs grew along < 0001 > orientation. As shown by energy dispersive spectroscopy, the Mg doping levels in GaN NWs increased with increasing partial pressure of magnesium nitride, which was employed as the dopant precursor for p-GaN NW growth. Photoluminescence measurements suggested the presence of both p- and n‐type GaN NWs. Furthermore, the GaN NWs with axial p–n junctions were aligned between either two-Ni or two-Al electrodes by applying alternating current voltages. The current–voltage characteristics have confirmed the formation of axial p–n junctions in GaN nanowires. - Highlights: ► Grow axially modulated GaN nanowires by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition ► Control the Mg concentration of GaN nanowires by tuning Mg 3 N 2 temperature ► Align the GaN nanowires by applying alternating current voltages between electrodes

  3. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  4. Preparation of Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Frameworks via Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Perfluoroalkanes for the Removal of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of perfluoroalkanes has long been studied for tuning the wetting properties of surfaces. For high surface area microporous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), unique challenges present themselves for PECVD treatments. Herein the protocol for development of a MOF that was previously unstable to humid conditions is presented. The protocol describes the synthesis of Cu-BTC (also known as HKUST-1), the treatment of Cu-BTC with PECVD of perfluoroalkanes, the aging of materials under humid conditions, and the subsequent ammonia microbreakthrough experiments on milligram quantities of microporous materials. Cu-BTC has an extremely high surface area (~1,800 m2/g) when compared to most materials or surfaces that have been previously treated by PECVD methods. Parameters such as chamber pressure and treatment time are extremely important to ensure the perfluoroalkane plasma penetrates to and reacts with the inner MOF surfaces. Furthermore, the protocol for ammonia microbreakthrough experiments set forth here can be utilized for a variety of test gases and microporous materials. PMID:24145623

  5. Method of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond using methanol-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Briefly described, methods of forming diamond are described. A representative method, among others, includes: providing a substrate in a reaction chamber in a non-magnetic-field microwave plasma system; introducing, in the absence of a gas stream, a liquid precursor substantially free of water and containing methanol and at least one carbon and oxygen containing compound having a carbon to oxygen ratio greater than one, into an inlet of the reaction chamber; vaporizing the liquid precursor; and subjecting the vaporized precursor, in the absence of a carrier gas and in the absence in a reactive gas, to a plasma under conditions effective to disassociate the vaporized precursor and promote diamond growth on the substrate in a pressure range from about 70 to 130 Torr.

  6. Ultralow k films by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition porogen approach: Study of the precursor reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castex, A.; Jousseaume, V.; Deval, J.; Bruat, J.; Favennec, L.; Passemard, G.

    2008-01-01

    As interconnects are scaled down, much effort is made to achieve ultralow k material with a dielectric constant lower than 2.5. Thus, many new precursors are investigated in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This is particularly true with the porogen approach where two molecules are used: an organosilicon to create the silicon matrix and an organic molecule ''porogen'' that creates material porosity during a post-treatment such as annealing. In this article, the influence of the organosilicon molecular structure is investigated. Two ''matrix precursors'' with different structures are therefore compared. The first one, referred to as D5, has a ring structure (decamethyl pentacyclosiloxane); the second one, referred to as DEOMS, has a star structure (diethoxymethyl silane). The porogen organic molecule, referred to as CHO, is cyclohexen oxide. The fragmentation paths of the precursor molecules in the plasma are investigated by quadrupole mass spectroscopy and the film structure is studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mass spectroscopy analysis shows that the fragmentation in plasma is highest for DEOMS, intermediate for CHO, and lowest for D5 in comparable process conditions. At the maximum plasma power setting, the loss rate, which yields molecule consumption, is 43%-81% for the D5-CHO mixture, respectively, and 73%-37% for the DEOMS-CHO mixture, respectively. This is related to higher bond-dissociation energy for the siloxane (Si-O-Si) link in D5 than silane (Si-H), silylethoxyde (Si-OC 2 H 5 ) in DEOMS, or C-C and epoxy cycle in CHO. Indeed, a higher electron-energy relative threshold for dissociation under electron impact is measured for D5 (around 7 eV) than for DEOMS and CHO (around 4 eV). Moreover, the fragment structures differ from one precursor to another. Methyl groups are abstracted from D5 and a few polysiloxane chains are produced from pentacycle opening and fragmentation. In the case of DEOMS, many single silicon

  7. Ge-rich islands grown on patterned Si substrates by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollani, M; Fedorov, A; Chrastina, D; Sordan, R; Picco, A; Bonera, E

    2010-01-01

    Si 1-x Ge x islands grown on Si patterned substrates have received considerable attention during the last decade for potential applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. In this work we propose a new methodology to grow Ge-rich islands using a chemical vapour deposition technique. Electron-beam lithography is used to pre-pattern Si substrates, creating material traps. Epitaxial deposition of thin Ge films by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition then leads to the formation of Ge-rich Si 1-x Ge x islands (x > 0.8) with a homogeneous size distribution, precisely positioned with respect to the substrate pattern. The island morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy, and the Ge content and strain in the islands was studied by μRaman spectroscopy. This characterization indicates a uniform distribution of islands with high Ge content and low strain: this suggests that the relatively high growth rate (0.1 nm s -1 ) and low temperature (650 deg. C) used is able to limit Si intermixing, while maintaining a long enough adatom diffusion length to prevent nucleation of islands outside pits. This offers the novel possibility of using these Ge-rich islands to induce strain in a Si cap.

  8. Ge-rich islands grown on patterned Si substrates by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollani, M; Chrastina, D; Fedorov, A; Sordan, R; Picco, A; Bonera, E

    2010-11-26

    Si(1-x)Ge(x) islands grown on Si patterned substrates have received considerable attention during the last decade for potential applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. In this work we propose a new methodology to grow Ge-rich islands using a chemical vapour deposition technique. Electron-beam lithography is used to pre-pattern Si substrates, creating material traps. Epitaxial deposition of thin Ge films by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition then leads to the formation of Ge-rich Si(1-x)Ge(x) islands (x > 0.8) with a homogeneous size distribution, precisely positioned with respect to the substrate pattern. The island morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy, and the Ge content and strain in the islands was studied by μRaman spectroscopy. This characterization indicates a uniform distribution of islands with high Ge content and low strain: this suggests that the relatively high growth rate (0.1 nm s(-1)) and low temperature (650 °C) used is able to limit Si intermixing, while maintaining a long enough adatom diffusion length to prevent nucleation of islands outside pits. This offers the novel possibility of using these Ge-rich islands to induce strain in a Si cap.

  9. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  10. Growth and characterization of stoichiometric BCN films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannan, Md. Abdul, E-mail: amannan75@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, Hideyuki; Kida, Tetsuya; Nagano, Masamitsu [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-05-31

    Hexagonal boron carbonitride (h-BCN) hybrid films have been synthesized on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using tris-(dimethylamino)borane as a single-source molecular precursor. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopic measurements. XPS measurement showed that the B atoms were bonded to C and N atoms to form the sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid chemical environment. The atomic composition estimated from the XPS of the typical sample was found to be almost B{sub 1}C{sub 1}N{sub 1}. NEXAFS spectra of the B K-edge and the N K-edge had the peaks due to the {pi}* and {sigma}* resonances of sp{sup 2} hybrid orbitals implying the existence of the sp{sup 2} hybrid configurations of h-BCN around the B atoms. The G band at 1592 and D band at 1352 cm{sup -1} in the Raman spectra also suggested the presence of the graphite-like sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid bonds. The films consisted of micrometer scale crystalline structure of around 10 {mu}m thick has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  12. Sensing performance of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiC-SiO2-SiC horizontal slot waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandraud, G.; Margallo-Balbas, E.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied, for the first time, the sensing capabilities of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiC-SiO2-SiC horizontal slot waveguides. Optical propagation losses were measured to be 23.9 dB?cm for the quasi-transverse magnetic mode. To assess the potential of this device as a

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of diamond films by photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Mayuri, E-mail: kawata@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Ojiro, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Okano, Ken [International Christian University, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka 181-8585 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PA-PECVD), a process in which photoelectrons emitted from a substrate irradiated with ultraviolet light are utilized as a trigger for DC discharge, was investigated in this study; specifically, the DC discharge characteristics of PA-PECVD were examined for an Si substrate deposited in advance through hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a nitrogen-doped diamond layer of thickness ∼1 μm. Using a commercially available Xe excimer lamp (hν = 7.2 eV) to illuminate the diamond surface with and without hydrogen termination, the photocurrents were found to be 3.17 × 10{sup 12} and 2.11 × 10{sup 11} electrons/cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The 15-fold increase in photocurrent was ascribed to negative electron affinity (NEA) caused by hydrogen termination on the diamond surfaces. The DC discharge characteristics revealed that a transition bias voltage from a Townsend-to-glow discharge was considerably decreased because of NEA (from 490 to 373 V for H{sub 2} gas and from 330 to 200 V for Ar gas), enabling a reduction in electric power consumption needed to synthesize diamond films through PA-PECVD. In fact, the authors have succeeded in growing high-quality diamond films of area 2.0 cm{sup 2} at 540 °C with a discharge power of only 1.8 W, plasma voltage of 156.4 V, and discharge current of 11.7 mA under the glow discharge of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gases. In addition to having only negligible amounts of graphite and amorphous carbon, the diamond films exhibit a relatively high diamond growth rate of 0.5 μm/h at temperatures as low as 540 °C, which is attributed to Ar{sup +} ions impinging on the diamond surface, and causing the removal of hydrogen atoms from the surface through sputtering. This process leads to enhanced CH{sub x} radical adsorption, because the sample was applied with a negative potential to accelerate photoelectrons in PA-PECVD.

  14. A comparative study of nitrogen plasma effect on field emission characteristics of single wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Zulfequar, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Harsh [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been successfully grown on nickel (Ni) deposited silicon substrate. • The diameter distribution of the grown (SWCNTs) is in the range 1–2 nm. • A current density of 25.0 mA/cm{sup 2} at 1.9 V/μm of the grown SWCNTs is observed with a high turn-on field (E{sub to}) of 1.3 V/μm. • After N{sub 2} nitrogen plasma treatment, huge current density of 81.5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 2.0 V/μm was recorded with low E{sub to} of 1.2 V/μm. • The comparison of these two typical results indicates a drastic enhancement in the field emission properties after plasma treatments. - Abstract: Vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with large scale control of diameter, length and alignment have successfully been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The nickel (Ni) as catalyst deposited on silicon (Si) substrate was used to grow the SWCNTs. Field emission (FE) characteristics of the as grown SWCNTs were measured using indigenously designed setup in which a diode is configured in such a way that by applying negative voltage on the copper plate (cathode) with respect to stainless steel anode plate, current density can be recorded. To measure the FE characteristics, SWCNTs film pasted on the copper plate with silver epoxy was used as electron emitter source. The effective area of anode was ∼78.5 mm{sup 2} for field emission measurements. The emission measurements were carried out under high vacuum pressure of the order of 10{sup −6} Torr to minimize the electron scattering and degradation of the emitters. The distance between anode and cathode was kept 500 μm (constant) during entire field emission studies. The grown SWCNTs are excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 25 mA/cm{sup 2} at turn-on field 1.3 V/μm. In order to enhance the field emission characteristics, the as grown SWCNTs have been treated under nitrogen (N{sub 2

  15. Obtention of selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankovic, P.; Demarquette, N.R.; Silva, M.L.P. da

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of obtaining selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or double layers of HMDS and n-hexane on porous substrates using a capacitive plasma reactor was investigated. The porous substrates used were paper filter, diatomite and polyester textiles. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The membranes obtained were characterized by the Cobb test. Their efficiency to separate hydrocarbon compounds from water was evaluated through filtration experiments and Karl-Fischer titration tests. The reagents used in the filtration experiments were: chloroform, n-hexane, n-heptane, ethyl ether, benzene and diesel. XPS analysis showed that Si, N, C and O were present at the surface of the film. C peak was dominant in the double layer film spectra. C-H n , CH 2 , Si-H, Si-CH 3 , N-H, Si-CH 2 -Si, Si-N-Si and Si-C bonds were identified in both types of the films by ATR-FTIR. The relative intensities of the corresponding peaks in the two spectra were different. The XPS and FTIR results indicated that C was most likely present in a CH n form at the surface of double layer film. The average contact angles formed by drops of water on the film surface ranged from 135 deg. to 155 deg. . Water adsorption measured by Cobb test decreased from average values ranging from 300 to 9000 g m -2 (for nonmodified surfaces) to values ranging from 0 to 20 g m -2 (for treated surfaces). The Karl-Fischer titration indicated that between 90 and 1000 ppm (depending on the reagent used) of water remained in the hydrocarbon compound after filtration

  16. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidin, M.A.R.; Ismail, A.F.; Sanip, S.M.; Goh, P.S.; Aziz, M.; Tanemura, M.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest I D /I G value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  17. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidin, M.A.R. [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ismail, A.F., E-mail: afauzi@utm.my [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Sanip, S.M.; Goh, P.S.; Aziz, M. [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Material, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2012-01-31

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest I{sub D}/I{sub G} value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  18. Effects of Pretreatment on the Electronic Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Hetero-Epitaxial Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Chang; Shi, Zhi-Wen; Yang, Rong; Huang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Quasi-monolayer graphene is successfully grown by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition heteroepitaxial method we reported previously. To measure its electrical properties, the prepared graphene is fabricated into Hall ball shaped devices by the routine micro-fabrication method. However, impurity molecules adsorbed onto the graphene surface will impose considerable doping effects on the one-atom-thick film material. Our experiment demonstrates that pretreatment of the device by heat radiation baking and electrical annealing can dramatically influence the doping state of the graphene and consequently modify the electrical properties. While graphene in the as-fabricated device is highly p-doped, as confirmed by the position of the Dirac point at far more than +60 V, baking treatment at temperatures around 180°C can significantly lower the doping level and reduce the conductivity. The following electrical annealing is much more efficient to desorb the extrinsic molecules, as confirmed by the in situ measurement, and as a result, further modify the doping state and electrical properties of the graphene, causing a considerable drop of the conductivity and a shifting of Dirac point from beyond +60 V to 0 V.

  19. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M. H.; Viana, G. A.; de Lima, M. M.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Marques, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH4) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  20. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M. H. Jr.; Viana, G. A.; Marques, F. C.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH 4 ) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  1. Comparative Study of Furnace and Flash Lamp Annealed Silicon Thin Films Grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar Shrestha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature growth of microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si is attractive for many optoelectronic device applications. This paper reports a detailed comparison of optical properties, microstructure, and morphology of amorphous silicon (a-Si thin films crystallized by furnace annealing and flash lamp annealing (FLA at temperatures below the softening point of glass substrate. The initial a-Si films were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Reflectance measurement indicated characteristic peak in the UV region ~280 nm for the furnace annealed (>550 °C and flash lamp annealed films, which provided evidence of crystallization. The film surface roughness increased with increasing the annealing temperature as well as after the flash lamp annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement indicated that the as-deposited samples were purely amorphous and after furnace crystallization, the crystallites tended to align in one single direction (202 with uniform size that increased with the annealing temperature. On the other hand, the flash lamp crystalized films had randomly oriented crystallites with different sizes. Raman spectroscopy showed the crystalline volume fraction of 23.5%, 47.3%, and 61.3% for the samples annealed at 550 °C, 650 °C, and with flash lamp, respectively. The flash lamp annealed film was better crystallized with rougher surface compared to furnace annealed ones.

  2. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kim, Tae-Gyu [Department of Nano System and Process Engineering, Pusan National University, 50 Cheonghak-ri, Samrangjin-eup, Miryang, Gyeongnam, Pusan 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yonekura, Daisuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Joag, Dilip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/{mu}m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of {approx}1 {mu}A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  3. Electrochemical properties of N-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon films fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yoriko; Furuta, Masahiro; Kuriyama, Koichi; Kuwabara, Ryosuke; Katsuki, Yukiko [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Advanced Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1, Sakato, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Honda, Kensuke, E-mail: khonda@yamaguchi-u.ac.j [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-C:N:H, N-doped DLC) were synthesized with microwave-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition widely used for DLC coating such as the inner surface of PET bottles. The electrochemical properties of N-doped DLC surfaces that can be useful in the application as an electrochemical sensor were investigated. N-doped DLC was easily fabricated using the vapor of nitrogen contained hydrocarbon as carbon and nitrogen source. A N/C ratio of resulting N-doped DLC films was 0.08 and atomic ratio of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2}-bonded carbons was 25/75. The electrical resistivity and optical gap were 0.695 {Omega} cm and 0.38 eV, respectively. N-doped DLC thin film was found to be an ideal polarizable electrode material with physical stability and chemical inertness. The film has a wide working potential range over 3 V, low double-layer capacitance, and high resistance to electrochemically induced corrosion in strong acid media, which were the same level as those for boron-doped diamond (BDD). The charge transfer rates for the inorganic redox species, Fe{sup 2+/3+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-/3-} at N-doped DLC were sufficiently high. The redox reaction of Ce{sup 2+/3+} with standard potential higher than H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} were observed due to the wider potential window. At N-doped DLC, the change of the kinetics of Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} by surface oxidation is different from that at BDD. The rate of Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} was not varied before and after oxidative treatment on N-doped DLC includes sp{sup 2} carbons, which indicates high durability of the electrochemical activity against surface oxidation.

  4. Effect of growth interruptions on TiO{sub 2} films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D., E-mail: dyli@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225127 (China); Goullet, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322, Nantes (France); Carette, M. [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré, 59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Granier, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322, Nantes (France); Landesman, J.P. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042, Rennes (France)

    2016-10-01

    TiO{sub 2} films of ∼300 nm were deposited at low temperature (<140 °C) and pressure (0.4 Pa) using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at the floating potential (V{sub f}) or the substrate self-bias voltage (V{sub b}) of −50 V. The impact of growth interruptions on the morphology, microstructure and optical properties of the films was investigated. The interruptions were carried out by stopping the plasma generation and gas injection once the increase of the layer thickness during each deposition step was about ∼100 nm. In one case of V{sub f}, the films of ∼300 nm exhibit a columnar morphology consisting of a bottom dense layer, an intermediate gradient layer and a top roughness layer. But the growth interruptions result in an increase of the dense layer thickness and a decrease of surface roughness. The film inhomogeneity has been identified by the in-situ real-time evolution of the kinetic ellipsometry (KE) parameters and the modeling process of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The discrepancy of the refractive index measured by SE between bottom and upper layers can be reduced by growth interruptions. In the other case of V{sub b} = −50 V, the films exhibit a more compact arrangement which is homogeneous along the growth direction as confirmed by KE and SE. Both of Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction illustrate a phase transformation from anatase to rutile with the bias of −50 V, and also evidenced on the evolution of the refractive index dispersion curves. And a greatly increase of the refractive indice in the transparent range can be identified. However, the growth interruptions seem to have no influence on the morphology and optical properties in this case. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films deposited by plasma processes at low temperature and pressure. • Influence of growth interruptions on structural and optical properties. • In-situ real-time ellipsometry measurements on film properties. • Structural and

  5. Optical, mechanical and surface properties of amorphous carbonaceous thin films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Rafael G.; Santos, Ricardo M.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; da Cruz, Nilson C.; Bortoleto, José R. R.; Dias da Silva, José H.; Antonio, César Augusto; Durrant, Steven F.

    2013-09-01

    Diverse amorphous hydrogenated carbon-based films (a-C:H, a-C:H:F, a-C:H:N, a-C:H:Cl and a-C:H:Si:O) were obtained by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). The same precursors were used in the production of each pair of each type of film, such as a-C:H, using both PECVD and PIIID. Optical properties, namely the refractive index, n, absorption coefficient, α, and optical gap, ETauc, of these films were obtained via transmission spectra in the ultraviolet-visible near-infrared range (wavelengths from 300 to 3300 nm). Film hardness, elastic modulus and stiffness were obtained as a function of depth using nano-indentation. Surface energy values were calculated from liquid drop contact angle data. Film roughness and morphology were assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PIIID films were usually thinner and possessed higher refractive indices than the PECVD films. Determined refractive indices are consistent with literature values for similar types of films. Values of ETauc were increased in the PIIID films compared to the PECVD films. An exception was the a-C:H:Si:O films, for which that obtained by PIIID was thicker and exhibited a decreased ETauc. The mechanical properties - hardness, elastic modulus and stiffness - of films produced by PECVD and PIIID generally present small differences. An interesting effect is the increase in the hardness of a-C:H:Cl films from 1.0 to 3.0 GPa when ion implantation is employed. Surface energy correlates well with surface roughness. The implanted films are usually smoother than those obtained by PECVD.

  6. Optical, mechanical and surface properties of amorphous carbonaceous thin films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Rafael G.; Santos, Ricardo M.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. da; Bortoleto, José R.R.; Dias da Silva, José H.; Antonio, César Augusto; Durrant, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse amorphous hydrogenated carbon-based films (a-C:H, a-C:H:F, a-C:H:N, a-C:H:Cl and a-C:H:Si:O) were obtained by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). The same precursors were used in the production of each pair of each type of film, such as a-C:H, using both PECVD and PIIID. Optical properties, namely the refractive index, n, absorption coefficient, α, and optical gap, E Tauc , of these films were obtained via transmission spectra in the ultraviolet–visible near-infrared range (wavelengths from 300 to 3300 nm). Film hardness, elastic modulus and stiffness were obtained as a function of depth using nano-indentation. Surface energy values were calculated from liquid drop contact angle data. Film roughness and morphology were assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PIIID films were usually thinner and possessed higher refractive indices than the PECVD films. Determined refractive indices are consistent with literature values for similar types of films. Values of E Tauc were increased in the PIIID films compared to the PECVD films. An exception was the a-C:H:Si:O films, for which that obtained by PIIID was thicker and exhibited a decreased E Tauc . The mechanical properties – hardness, elastic modulus and stiffness – of films produced by PECVD and PIIID generally present small differences. An interesting effect is the increase in the hardness of a-C:H:Cl films from 1.0 to 3.0 GPa when ion implantation is employed. Surface energy correlates well with surface roughness. The implanted films are usually smoother than those obtained by PECVD.

  7. Spectroscopic properties of nitrogen doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon films grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Yu, G.; Rahman, M. M.; Krishna, K. M.; Soga, T.; Jimbo, T.; Umeno, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films have been deposited by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH 4 as the source of carbon and with different nitrogen flow rates (N 2 /CH 4 gas ratios between 0 and 3), at 300 K. The dependence modifications of the optical and the structural properties on nitrogen incorporation were investigated using different spectroscopic techniques, such as, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR), photoluminescence (PL) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Raman spectroscopy and IR absorption reveal an increase in sp 2 -bonded carbon or a change in sp 2 domain size with increasing nitrogen flow rate. It is found that the configuration of nitrogen atoms incorporated into an amorphous carbon network gradually changes from nitrogen atoms surrounded by three (σ bonded) to two (π bonded) neighboring carbons with increasing nitrogen flow rate. Tauc optical gap is reduced from 2.6 to 2.0 eV, and the ESR spin density and the peak-to-peak linewidth increase sharply with increasing nitrogen flow rate. Excellent agreement has been found between the measured SE data and modeled spectra, in which an empirical dielectric function of amorphous materials and a linear void distribution along the thickness have been assumed. The influence of nitrogen on the electronic density of states is explained based on the optical properties measured by UV-VIS and PL including nitrogen lone pair band. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  8. The Performance Improvement of N2 Plasma Treatment on ZrO2 Gate Dielectric Thin-Film Transistors with Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition IGZO Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hung; Huang, Bo-Wen; Chang, Kow-Ming; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Jian-Hong; Hsu, Jui-Mei

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the N2 plasma treatment for high-κ ZrO2 gate dielectric stack (30 nm) with indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Experimental results reveal that a suitable incorporation of nitrogen atoms could enhance the device performance by eliminating the oxygen vacancies and provide an amorphous surface with better surface roughness. With N2 plasma treated ZrO2 gate, IGZO channel is fabricated by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique. The best performance of the AP-PECVD IGZO TFTs are obtained with 20 W-90 sec N2 plasma treatment with field-effect mobility (μ(FET)) of 22.5 cm2/V-s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 155 mV/dec, and on/off current ratio (I(on)/I(off)) of 1.49 x 10(7).

  9. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meiying; Yu, Daquan; Liu, Yijun; Wan, Lixi; Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei; Xue, Kai; Jing, Xiangmeng; Guidotti, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO 2 films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity

  10. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meiying, E-mail: sumeiying@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Yu, Daquan, E-mail: yudaquan@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jiangsu R and D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214135 (China); Liu, Yijun [Piotech Co. Ltd, Shenyang 110179 (China); Wan, Lixi [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Xue, Kai [National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jing, Xiangmeng [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Guidotti, Daniel [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO{sub 2} films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity.

  11. Quantification of monosialogangliosides in human plasma through chemical derivatization for signal enhancement in LC–ESI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qianyang; Liu, Danting [Clinical Chemistry Program, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Xin, Baozhong; Cechner, Karen [DDC Clinic, Center for Special Needs Children, 14567 Madison Road, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); Zhou, Xiang [Clinical Chemistry Program, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Wang, Heng, E-mail: Wang@ddcclinic.org [DDC Clinic, Center for Special Needs Children, 14567 Madison Road, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); Zhou, Aimin, E-mail: a.zhou@csuohio.edu [Clinical Chemistry Program, Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Diseases, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Gangliosides are found in abundance in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Their metabolic disruption and dysfunction are associated with various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In order to improve our understanding of the etiology of these diseases, analytical ganglioside assays with sufficient specificity and sensitivity in relevant biological matrices are required. In the present work we have developed and validated a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determining monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 present in human plasma. Compared with our previous method, this method enhanced, by 15 fold, MS responses of the analytes by employing 2-(2-Pyridilamino)-ethylamine (PAEA) & 4-(4, 6-Dimethoxy-1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM)-based derivatization. The analytes and internal standards were derivatized with PAEA&DMTMM after extraction from plasma using a protein precipitation procedure. They were then purified using liquid–liquid partitioning. When the samples were then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we achieved superior sensitivity and specificity. This method was evaluated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, accuracy, and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). The validated method was successfully applied to monitor monosialoganglioside levels in the plasma from patients with GM3 synthase deficiency. With significantly increased sensitivity, we have, for the first time, detected a significant amount of GM3 in the affected patients. - Highlights: • A UPLC/MS/MS method for analyzing monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 in human plasma was developed and validated. • PAEA&DMTMM-based derivatization greatly improved the sensitivity. • The method was applied to measure GM1, GM2, and GM3 in the plasma from the patients with GM3 synthase

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamondfilms prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Fekete, Ladislav; Jäger, Aleš; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 571, č. 1 (2014), s. 230-237 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant - others: COST Nano TP(XE) MP0901; OP VK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0306 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * thin films * microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition * pulsed plasma * low deposition temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  13. Direct Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes STM Tips by Liquid Catalyst-Assisted Microwave Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Kuei Tung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct and facile method to make carbon nanotube (CNT tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM is presented. Cobalt (Co particles, as catalysts, are electrochemically deposited on the apex of tungsten (W STM tip for CNT growth. It is found that the quantity of Co particles is well controlled by applied DC voltage, concentration of catalyst solution, and deposition time. Using optimum growth condition, CNTs are successfully synthesized on the tip apex by catalyst-assisted microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CA-MPECVD. A HOPG surface is clearly observed at an atomic scale using the present CNT-STM tip.

  14. Synthesis of few-layer graphene on a Ni substrate by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-01-01

    In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG) was successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni a large scale by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC PE-CVD), which may serve as an alternative route in large-scale graphene synthesis. The synthesis time had an effect on the quality of the graphene produced. The applied DC voltage, on the other hand, influenced the minimization of the defect densities in the graphene grown. We also present a method of producing a free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/graphene membrane on a FeCl 3(aq) solution, which could then be transferred to the desired substrate.

  15. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  16. Morphologic and Chemical Properties of PMMA/ATH Layers with Enhanced Abrasion Resistance Realised by Cold Plasma Spraying at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wallenhorst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphologic and chemical properties of coatings based on PMMA/ATH powder and deposited by cold plasma spraying on wood and glass. Since the deposition of pure PMMA/ATH powder with air as process gas yielded coatings with insufficient abrasion resistance, two modifications of the basic process were investigated. Previous studies showed that replacing air as process gas with forming gas did not enhance the abrasion resistance, but the addition of a phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF succeeded in stabilising the particle coatings. In this work, results from morphologic and chemical analysis suggested an encasement of the PMMA/ATH particles by plasma-modified PF and thus a fusion of individual particles, explaining the enhanced bonding. Moreover, adhesion tests confirmed an outstanding bonding between the coating and wood as well as glass, which is assumed to result from interactions between the PF’s hydroxyl groups and functional groups on the substrates’ surfaces. Studies on the wettability revealed a hydrophobic character of such coatings, therefore generally indicating a possible application, for example, to reduce water uptake by wooden materials.

  17. Effects of boron addition on a-Si90Ge10:H films obtained by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Arllene M; Renero, Francisco J; Zuniga, Carlos; Torres, Alfonso; Santiago, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    Optical, structural and electric properties of (a-(Si 90 Ge 10 ) 1-y B y :H) thin film alloys, deposited by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, are presented. The chemical bonding structure has been studied by IR spectroscopy, while the composition was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A discussion about boron doping effects, in the composition and bonding of samples, is presented. Transport of carriers has been studied by measurement of the conductivity dependence on temperature, which increases from 10 -3 to 10 1 Ω -1 cm -1 when the boron content varies from 0 to 50%. Similarly, the activation energy is between 0.62 and 0.19 eV when the doping increases from 0 to 83%. The optical properties have been determined from the film's optical transmission, using Swanepoel's method. It is shown that the optical gap varies from 1.3 to 0.99 eV

  18. Ge/Si (100) heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from material grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, Johann; Isella, Giovanni; Chrastina, Daniel; Kaufmann, Rolf; Kaenel, Hans von

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated a series of p-i-n Ge/Si heterojunction photodetectors with different thicknesses of the intrinsic Ge layer, different doping levels of the p and n layers and different diode diameters. Epitaxial Ge was deposited on Si(100) using low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD (LEPECVD) followed by cyclic annealing. Dark current values as low as 0.04 mA/cm 2 were achieved for 1 μm thick p-i-n photodiodes on lightly doped substrates at - 1 V bias, and external quantum efficiencies of 56% at 1.30 μm and 44% at 1.55 μm for 3 μm thick p + -i-n + photodiodes on highly doped substrates under 0.5 V reverse bias. For a 30 μm diameter diode a RC frequency of 21 GHz is obtained at a reverse bias of 1 V. With such characteristics, these diodes are attractive for telecommunication and optoelectronic applications

  19. Effect of Radio-Frequency and Low-Frequency Bias Voltage on the Formation of Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manis-Levy, Hadar; Mintz, Moshe H.; Livneh, Tsachi; Zukerman Ido; Raveh, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of radio-frequency (RF) or low-frequency (LF) bias voltage on the formation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films was studied on silicon substrates with a low methane (CH 4 ) concentration (2–10 vol.%) in CH 4 +Ar mixtures. The bias substrate was applied either by RF (13.56 MHz) or by LF (150 kHz) power supply. The highest hardness values (∼18–22 GPa) with lower hydrogen content in the films (∼20 at.%) deposited at 10 vol.% CH 4 , was achieved by using the RF bias. However, the films deposited using the LF bias, under similar RF plasma generation power and CH 4 concentration (50 W and 10 vol.%, respectively), displayed lower hardness (∼6–12 GPa) with high hydrogen content (∼40 at.%). The structures analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman scattering measurements provide an indication of trans-polyacetylene structure formation. However, its excessive formation in the films deposited by the LF bias method is consistent with its higher bonded hydrogen concentration and low level of hardness, as compared to the film prepared by the RF bias method. It was found that the effect of RF bias on the film structure and properties is stronger than the effect of the low-frequency (LF) bias under identical radio-frequency (RF) powered electrode and identical PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) system configuration. (plasma technology)

  20. Synthesis and analysis of silicon nanowire below Si-Au eutectic temperatures using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidinezhad, Habib; Wahab, Yussof; Othaman, Zulkafli; Ismail, Abd Khamim

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were synthesized from pure silane precursor gas and Au nanoparticles catalyst at below Au-Si eutectic temperature. The SiNWs were grown onto Si (1 1 1) substrates using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition via a vapor-solid-solid mechanism at temperatures ranging from 363 to 230 deg. C. The morphology of the synthesized SiNWs was characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscope. Results demonstrated that the SiNWs can be grown at the temperature as low as 250 deg. C. In addition, it was revealed that the grown wires were silicon-crystallized.

  1. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth of few-walled carbon nanotubes using catalyst derived from an iron-containing block copolymer precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Lu, Jennifer; Zhou, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method is now commonly used for directional and conformal growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on supporting substrates. One of the shortcomings of the current process is the lack of control of the diameter and diameter distribution of the CNTs due to difficulties in synthesizing well-dispersed catalysts. Recently, block copolymer derived catalysts have been developed which offer the potential of fine control of both the size of and the spacing between the metal clusters. In this paper we report the successful growth of CNTs with narrow diameter distribution using polystyrene-block-polyferrocenylethylmethylsilane (PS-b-PFEMS) as the catalyst precursor. The study shows that higher growth pressure leads to better CNT growth. Besides the pressure, the effects on the growth of CNTs of the growth parameters, such as temperature and precursor gas ratio, are also studied

  2. Effects of the gate dielectric on the subthreshold transport of carbon nanotube network transistors grown by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Geun; Park, Wan Jun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the subthreshold slope of random network carbon nanotube transistors with different geometries and passivations. Single-wall carbon nanotubes with lengths of 1-2 m were grown by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to form the transistor channels. A critical channel length, where the subthreshold slope was saturated, of 7 μm was obtained. This was due to the percolational behavior of the nanotube random networks. With the dielectric passivation, the subthreshold slope was dramatically reduced from 9 V/decade to 0.9 V/decade by reducing interfacial trap sites, which then reduced the interface capacitance between the nanotube network and the gate dielectric.

  3. Tensile test of a silicon microstructure fully coated with submicrometer-thick diamond like carbon film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Uesugi, Akio; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the tensile properties of single-crystal silicon (SCS) microstructures fully coated with sub-micrometer thick diamond like carbon (DLC) film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). To minimize the deformations or damages caused by non-uniform coating of DLC, which has high compression residual stress, released SCS specimens with the dimensions of 120 µm long, 4 µm wide, and 5 µm thick were coated from the top and bottom side simultaneously. The thickness of DLC coating is around 150 nm and three different bias voltages were used for deposition. The tensile strength improved from 13.4 to 53.5% with the increasing of negative bias voltage. In addition, the deviation in strength also reduced significantly compared to bare SCS sample.

  4. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrib, M., E-mail: mondherghrib@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Salam, M. [L3M, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  5. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, M.; Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N.; Ben Salam, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  6. Lipon thin films grown by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-Ar gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meda, Lamartine, E-mail: LMeda@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA, 70125 (United States); Maxie, Eleston E. [Excellatron Solid State LLC, 263 Decatur Street, Atlanta, GA 30312 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin films have been deposited by a plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. Lipon thin films were deposited on approximately 0.2 {mu}m thick Au-coated alumina substrates in a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-Ar plasma at 13.56 MHz, a power of 150 W, and at 180 Degree-Sign C using triethyl phosphate [(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}] and lithium tert-butoxide [(LiOC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] precursors. Lipon growth rates ranged from 10 to 42 nm/min and thicknesses varied from 1 to 2.5 {mu}m. X-ray powder diffraction showed that the films were amorphous, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed approximately 4 at.% N in the films. The ionic conductivity of Lipon was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to be approximately 1.02 {mu}S/cm, which is consistent with the ionic conductivity of Lipon deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} targets in either mixed Ar-N{sub 2} or pure N{sub 2} atmosphere. Attempts to deposit Lipon in a N{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-Ar plasma resulted in the growth of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films. The XPS analysis shows no C and N atom peaks. Due to the high impedance of these films, reliable conductivity measurements could not be obtained for films grown in N{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-Ar plasma.

  7. Enhancing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  8. Synhesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in an atmospheric-pressure microwave torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíčková, L.; Jašek, O.; Eliáš, M.; Synek, P.; Lazar, L.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Hanzlíková, Renáta

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 6 (2010), s. 1259-1272 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : carbon * nanotubes * synthesis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.128, year: 2010

  9. Organosilicon thin films deposited by plasma enhanced CVD:Thermal changes of chemical structure and mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíčková, L.; Buršíková, V.; Kučerová, Z.; Franclová, J.; Siahel, P.; Peřina, Vratislav; Macková, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, 5-6 (2007), s. 1255-1259 ISSN 0022-3697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/1669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : hin films * organometallic compounds * plasma deposition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.899, year: 2007

  10. Performance Improvement of Microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si Thin Film Solar Cells by Using Laser-Assisted Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si thin film solar cells treated with hydrogen plasma were fabricated at low temperature using a CO2 laser-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD system. According to the micro-Raman results, the i-Si films shifted from 482 cm−1 to 512 cm−1 as the assisting laser power increased from 0 W to 80 W, which indicated a gradual transformation from amorphous to crystalline Si. From X-ray diffraction (XRD results, the microcrystalline i-Si films with (111, (220, and (311 diffraction were obtained. Compared with the Si-based thin film solar cells deposited without laser assistance, the short-circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with assisting laser power of 80 W were improved from 14.38 mA/cm2 to 18.16 mA/cm2 and from 6.89% to 8.58%, respectively.

  11. Metal/Carbon Hybrid Nanostructures Produced from Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition over Nafion-Supported Electrochemically Deposited Cobalt Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report development of hybrid nanostructures of metal nanoparticles (NP and carbon nanostructures with strong potential for catalysis, sensing, and energy applications. First, the etched silicon wafer substrates were passivated for subsequent electrochemical (EC processing through grafting of nitro phenyl groups using para-nitrobenzene diazonium (PNBT. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS and atomic force microscope (AFM studies confirmed presence of few layers. Cobalt-based nanoparticles were produced over dip or spin coated Nafion films under different EC reduction conditions, namely CoSO4 salt concentration (0.1 M, 1 mM, reduction time (5, 20 s, and indirect or direct EC reduction route. Extensive AFM examination revealed NP formation with different attributes (size, distribution depending on electrochemistry conditions. While relatively large NP with >100 nm size and bimodal distribution were obtained after 20 s EC reduction in H3BO3 following Co2+ ion uptake, ultrafine NP (<10 nm could be produced from EC reduction in CoSO4 and H3BO3 mixed solution with some tendency to form oxides. Different carbon nanostructures including few-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT and carbon nanosheets were grown in a C2H2/NH3 plasma using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The devised processing routes enable size controlled synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles and metal/carbon hybrid nanostructures with unique microstructural features.

  12. Remote plasma enhanced chemical deposition of non-crystalline GeO2 on Ge and Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Non-crystalline GeO2 films remote were plasma deposited at 300 degrees C onto Ge substrates after a final rinse in NH4OH. The reactant precursors gas were: (i) down-stream injected 2% GeH4 in He as the Ge precursor, and (ii) up-stream, plasma excited O2-He mixtures as the O precursor. Films annealed at 400 degrees C displayed no evidence for loss of O resulting in Ge sub-oxide formation, and for a 5-6 eV mid-gap absorption associated with formation of GeOx suboxide bonding, x deposited on Ge and annealed at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C display spectra indicative of loss of O-atoms, accompanied with a 5.5 eV absorption. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and many-electron theory are combined to describe symmetries and degeneracies for O-vacancy bonding defects. These include comparisons with remote plasma-deposited non-crystalline SiO2 on Si substrates with SiON interfacial layers. Three different properties of remote plasma GeO2 films are addressed comparisons between (i) conduction band and band edge states of GeO2 and SiO2, and (ii) electronic structure of O-atom vacancy defects in GeO2 and SiO2, and differences between (iii) annealing of GeO2 films on Ge substrates, and Si substrates passivated with SiON interfacial transition regions important for device applications.

  13. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  14. Effects of boron addition on a-Si(90)Ge(10):H films obtained by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Arllene M; Renero, Francisco J; Zúñiga, Carlos; Torres, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2005-06-29

    Optical, structural and electric properties of (a-(Si(90)Ge(10))(1-y)B(y):H) thin film alloys, deposited by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, are presented. The chemical bonding structure has been studied by IR spectroscopy, while the composition was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A discussion about boron doping effects, in the composition and bonding of samples, is presented. Transport of carriers has been studied by measurement of the conductivity dependence on temperature, which increases from 10(-3) to 10(1) Ω(-1) cm(-1) when the boron content varies from 0 to 50%. Similarly, the activation energy is between 0.62 and 0.19 eV when the doping increases from 0 to 83%. The optical properties have been determined from the film's optical transmission, using Swanepoel's method. It is shown that the optical gap varies from 1.3 to 0.99 eV.

  15. Effect of nickel oxide seed layers on annealed-amorphous titanium oxide thin films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Hong, Shao-Chyang; Hwang, Fu-Tsai; Lai, Li-Wen; Lin, Tan-Wei; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a nickel oxide (NiO x ) seed layer on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of the sequentially plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited amorphous titanium oxide (TiO x ) thin film processed by a post-annealing process was investigated. The evolution of the crystalline structures, chemical bond configurations, and surface/cross-sectional morphologies of the annealed TiO x films, with and without a NiO x seed layer, was examined using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope measurements. Thermo- and photo-induced hydrophilicity was determined by measuring the contact angle of water droplet. Photocatalytic activity after UV light irradiation was evaluated from the decolorization of a methylene blue solution. The crystallization temperature of the TiO x film, deposited on a NiO x seed layer, was found to be lower than that of a pure TiO x film, further improving the thermo- and photo-induced surface super-hydrophilicity. The TiO x film deposited onto the NiO x seed layer, resulting in significant cluster boundaries, showed a rough surface morphology and proved to alleviate the anatase crystal growth by increasing the post-annealing temperature, which yielded a more active surface area and prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The photocatalytic activity of the NiO x /TiO x system with such a textured surface therefore was enhanced and optimized through an adequate post-annealing process.

  16. Effect of nickel oxide seed layers on annealed-amorphous titanium oxide thin films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Hong, Shao-Chyang [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Fu-Tsai [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li, 36003, Taiwan (China); Lai, Li-Wen [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Liujia, Tainan, 73445, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tan-Wei [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Day-Shan, E-mail: dsliu@sunws.nfu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-31

    The effect of a nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) seed layer on the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of the sequentially plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited amorphous titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) thin film processed by a post-annealing process was investigated. The evolution of the crystalline structures, chemical bond configurations, and surface/cross-sectional morphologies of the annealed TiO{sub x} films, with and without a NiO{sub x} seed layer, was examined using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope measurements. Thermo- and photo-induced hydrophilicity was determined by measuring the contact angle of water droplet. Photocatalytic activity after UV light irradiation was evaluated from the decolorization of a methylene blue solution. The crystallization temperature of the TiO{sub x} film, deposited on a NiO{sub x} seed layer, was found to be lower than that of a pure TiO{sub x} film, further improving the thermo- and photo-induced surface super-hydrophilicity. The TiO{sub x} film deposited onto the NiO{sub x} seed layer, resulting in significant cluster boundaries, showed a rough surface morphology and proved to alleviate the anatase crystal growth by increasing the post-annealing temperature, which yielded a more active surface area and prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The photocatalytic activity of the NiO{sub x}/TiO{sub x} system with such a textured surface therefore was enhanced and optimized through an adequate post-annealing process.

  17. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy study of AsS chalcogenide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Dorosz, Dominik; Kudryashov, Mikhail; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Gogova, Daniela; Zelentsov, Sergey; Boryakov, Aleksey; Mashin, Alexandr

    2018-03-15

    AsS chalcogenide films, where As content is 60-40at.%, have been prepared via a RF non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma discharge, using volatile As and S as the precursors. Optical properties of the films were studied in UV-visible-NIR region in the range from 0.2 to 2.5μm. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the elucidation of the molecular structure of the newly developed material. It was established that PECVD films possess a higher degree of transparency (up to 80%) and a wider transparency window (>20μm) in comparison with the "usual" AsS thin films, prepared by different thermal methods, which is highly advantageous for certain applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen

    2008-07-01

    Within this thesis, several important subjects related to the use of amorphous silicon nitride made by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition as an anti-reflective coating on silicon solar cells are presented. The first part of the thesis covers optical simulations to optimise single and double layer anti-reflective coatings with respect to optical performance when situated on a silicon solar cell. The second part investigates the relationship between important physical properties of silicon nitride films when deposited under different conditions. The optical simulations were either based on minimising the reflectance off a silicon nitride/silicon wafer stack or maximising the transmittance through the silicon nitride into the silicon wafer. The former method allowed consideration of the reflectance off the back surface of the wafer, which occurs typically at wavelengths above 1000 nm due to the transparency of silicon at these wavelengths. However, this method does not take into consideration the absorption occurring in the silicon nitride, which is negligible at low refractive indexes but quite significant when the refractive index increases above 2.1. For high-index silicon nitride films, the latter method is more accurate as it considers both reflectance and absorbance in the film to calculate the transmittance into the Si wafer. Both methods reach similar values for film thickness and refractive index for optimised single layer anti-reflective coatings, due to the negligible absorption occurring in these films. For double layer coatings, though, the reflectance based simulations overestimated the optimum refractive index for the bottom layer, which would have lead to excessive absorption if applied to real anti-reflective coatings. The experimental study on physical properties for silicon nitride films deposited under varying conditions concentrated on the estimation of properties important for its applications, such as optical properties, passivation

  19. Process control by optical emission spectroscopy during growth of a-C:H from a CH4 plasma by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barholm-Hansen, C; Bentzon, MD; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    1994-01-01

    During the growth of a-C:H thin films for tribological applications, the characteristic optical emission from a CH4 plasma was used to estimate growth conditions such as the degree of dissociation of the feed gas, the deposition rate and the presence of impurities. Films were fabricated with vari...

  20. Formation and characterization of the MgO protecting layer deposited by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, M S; Byun, J C; Kim, D S; Choi, C K; Lee, J Y; Kim, K H

    1999-01-01

    MgO films were prepared on Si(100) and soda-lime glass substrates by using plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Various ratios of the O sub 2 /CH sub 3 MgO sup t Bu gas mixture and various gas flow rates were tested for the film fabrications. Highly (100)-oriented MgO films with good crystallinity were obtained with a 10 sccm CH sub 3 MgO sup t Bu flow without an O sub 2 gas flow. About 5 % carbon was contained in all the MgO films. The refractive index and the secondary electron emission coefficient for the best quality film were 1.43 and 0.45, respectively. The sputtering rate was about 0.2 nm/min for 10 sup 1 sup 1 cm sup - sup 3 Ar sup + ion density. Annealing at 500 .deg. C in an Ar ambient promoted the grain size without inducing a phase transition.

  1. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of hard fluorinated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Costa, M. E. H.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Radke, C.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Zamora, R. R. M.; Freire, F. L.

    2004-11-01

    Hard amorphous fluorinated carbon films (a-C:F) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were annealed in vacuum for 30 min in the temperature range of 200-600 °C. The structural and compositional modifications were followed by several analytical techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Nanoidentation measurements and lateral force microscopy experiments were carried out in order to provide the film hardness and the friction coefficient, respectively. The internal stress and contact angle were also measured. RBS, ERDA, and XPS results indicate that both fluorine and hydrogen losses occur for annealing temperatures higher than 300 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows a progressive graphitization upon annealing, while the surface became slightly more hydrophobic as revealed by the increase of the contact angle. Following the surface wettability reduction, a decrease of the friction coefficient was observed. These results highlight the influence of the capillary condensation on the nanoscale friction. The film hardness and the internal stress are constant up to 300 °C and decrease for higher annealing temperatures, showing a direct correlation with the atomic density of the films. Since the thickness variation is negligible, the mass loss upon thermal treatment results in amorphous structures with a lower degree of cross-linking, explaining the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the a-C:F films.

  2. Thermal expansion coefficient and thermomechanical properties of SiN(x) thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Chuen-Lin; Lin, Tsai-Wei

    2012-10-20

    We present a new method based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) for evaluating the thermal expansion coefficient and thermomechanical properties of thin films. The silicon nitride thin films deposited on Corning glass and Si wafers were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in this study. The anisotropic residual stress and thermomechanical properties of silicon nitride thin films were studied. Residual stresses in thin films were measured by a modified Michelson interferometer associated with the FFT method under different heating temperatures. We found that the average residual-stress value increases when the temperature increases from room temperature to 100°C. Increased substrate temperature causes the residual stress in SiN(x) film deposited on Si wafers to be more compressive, but the residual stress in SiN(x) film on Corning glass becomes more tensile. The residual-stress versus substrate-temperature relation is a linear correlation after heating. A double substrate technique is used to determine the thermal expansion coefficients of the thin films. The experimental results show that the thermal expansion coefficient of the silicon nitride thin films is 3.27×10(-6)°C(-1). The biaxial modulus is 1125 GPa for SiN(x) film.

  3. Heteroepitaxial growth of Ba1 - xSrxTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7 - x by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, C. S.; Liang, S.; Shi, Z. Q.; Yoon, S.; Safari, A.; Lu, P.; Kear, B. H.; Goodreau, B. H.; Marks, T. J.; Hou, S. Y.

    1994-06-01

    Epitaxial Ba1-xSrxTiO3(BST)/YBa2Cu3O7-x heterostructures with superior electrical and dielectric properties have been fabricated by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD). Data of x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that oriented Ba1-xSrxTiO3 layers were epitaxially deposited on epitaxial (001) YBa2Cu3O7-x layers. The leakage current density through the Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films was about 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 V (about 2×105 V/cm) operation. Moreover, the results of capacitance-temperature measurements showed that the PE-MOCVD Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films had Curie temperatures of about 30 °C and a peak dielectric constant of 600 at zero bias voltage. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction results showed that the BST film composition was controlled between Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 and Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3. The structural and electrical properties of the Ba1-xSrxTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-x heterostructure indicated that conductive oxide materials with close lattice to Ba1-xSrxTiO3 can be good candidates for the bottom electrode.

  4. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on Ir-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Chul; Lee, Won-Jong

    2002-01-01

    Structural and electrical characteristics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films deposited on various Ir-based electrodes (Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt/IrO 2 ) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. On the Ir electrode, stoichiometric PZT films with pure perovskite phase could be obtained over a very wide range of processing conditions. However, PZT films prepared on the IrO 2 electrode contain a large amount of PbO x phases and exhibited high Pb-excess composition. The deposition characteristics were dependent on the behavior of PbO molecules on the electrode surface. The PZT thin film capacitors prepared on the Ir bottom electrode showed different electrical properties depending on top electrode materials. The PZT capacitors with Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt top electrodes showed good leakage current characteristics, whereas those with the Ru top electrode showed a very high leakage current density. The PZT capacitor exhibited the best fatigue endurance with an IrO 2 top electrode. An Ir top electrode provided better fatigue endurance than a Pt top electrode. The PZT capacitor with an Ir-based electrode is thought to be attractive for the application to ferroelectric random access memory devices because of its wide processing window for a high-quality ferroelectric film and good polarization, fatigue, and leakage current characteristics

  5. Effect of the hydrogen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Sana; Dimassi, Wissem; Ali Tebai, Mohamed; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Photovoltaic Laboratory Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films were deposited from pure silane (SiH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas mixture by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method at low temperature (400 C) using high rf power (60 W). The structural and optical properties of these films are systematically investigated as a function of the flow rate of hydrogen (F{sub H2}).The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization of these films with low angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallite size in the films tends to decrease with increase in (F{sub H2}). The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showed that at low values of (F{sub H2}),the hydrogen bonding in Si:H films shifts from di-hydrogen (Si-H{sub 2}) and (Si-H{sub 2})n complexes to the mono-hydrogen (Si-H) bonding configuration. Finally, for these optimized conditions, the deposition rate decreases with increasing (F{sub H2}). (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. New fabrication technique using side-wall-type plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition for a floating gate memory with a Si nanodot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kazunori; Punchaipetch, Prakaipetch; Yano, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Tomoaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Fuyuki, Takashi [Nara Institute of Science and Techonology, Ikoma, Nara (Japan); Tomyo, Atsushi; Takahashi, Eiji; Hayashi, Tsukasa; Ogata, Kiyoshi [Nissin Electric Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    We have used side-wall-type plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD)to fabricate a floating gate memory using a Si nano-crystal dot on thermal SiO{sub 2} at a low temperature of 430 .deg. C. Atomic and radical hydrogen plays an important role in the low-temperature formation of the dot. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed that the average dot size and density were approximately 5 nm and 8.5 X 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The electronic properties were investigated with metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) by embedding the nanocrystal dots into SiO{sub 2} fabricated using CVD. Electron charging and discharging were clearly confirmed at room temperature by the transient behavior of the capacitance and the transfer curve. The number of electrons confined in a single dot was approximately one. Furthermore, we evaluated the electronic behavior by varying the bias condition or the operating temperature. The critical charge density could be confirmed to be independent of the injection condition.

  7. Silicon nitride films fabricated by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for coatings of the laser interferometer gravitational wave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Huang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yun; Juang, Yu-Hang; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Wen, Ting Ting; Chao, Shiuh

    2018-01-01

    Silicon is a potential substrate material for the large-areal-size mirrors of the next-generation laser interferometer gravitational wave detector operated in cryogenics. Silicon nitride thin films uniformly deposited by a chemical vapor deposition method on large-size silicon wafers is a common practice in the silicon integrated circuit industry. We used plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to deposit silicon nitride films on silicon and studied the physical properties of the films that are pertinent to application of mirror coatings for laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors. We measured and analyzed the structure, optical properties, stress, Young's modulus, and mechanical loss of the films, at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Optical extinction coefficients of the films were in the 10-5 range at 1550-nm wavelength. Room-temperature mechanical loss of the films varied in the range from low 10-4 to low 10-5 within the frequency range of interest. The existence of a cryogenic mechanical loss peak depended on the composition of the films. We measured the bond concentrations of N - H , Si - H , Si - N , and Si - Si bonds in the films and analyzed the correlations between bond concentrations and cryogenic mechanical losses. We proposed three possible two-level systems associated with the N - H , Si - H , and Si - N bonds in the film. We inferred that the dominant source of the cryogenic mechanical loss for the silicon nitride films is the two-level system of exchanging position between a H+ and electron lone pair associated with the N - H bond. Under our deposition conditions, superior properties in terms of high refractive index with a large adjustable range, low optical absorption, and low mechanical loss were achieved for films with lower nitrogen content and lower N - H bond concentration. Possible pairing of the silicon nitride films with other materials in the quarter-wave stack is discussed.

  8. Plasma-chemical processes and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro B, J.

    1987-01-01

    The direct applications of plasma technology on chemistry and metallurgy are presented. The physical fundaments of chemically active non-equilibrium plasma, the reaction kinetics, and the physical chemical transformations occuring in the electrical discharges, which are applied in the industry, are analysed. Some plasma chemical systems and processes related to the energy of hydrogen, with the chemical technology and with the metallurgy are described. Emphasis is given to the optimization of the energy effectiveness of these processes to obtain reducers and artificial energetic carriers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Gas diffusion ultrabarriers on polymer substrates using Al2O3 atomic layer deposition and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcia, P. F.; McLean, R. S.; Groner, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; George, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films grown by Al 2 O 3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been tested as gas diffusion barriers either individually or as bilayers on polymer substrates. Single films of Al 2 O 3 ALD with thicknesses of ≥10 nm had a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% relative humidity (RH), as measured by the Ca test. This WVTR value was limited by H 2 O permeability through the epoxy seal, as determined by the Ca test for the glass lid control. In comparison, SiN PECVD films with a thickness of 100 nm had a WVTR of ∼7x10 -3 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. Significant improvements resulted when the SiN PECVD film was coated with an Al 2 O 3 ALD film. An Al 2 O 3 ALD film with a thickness of only 5 nm on a SiN PECVD film with a thickness of 100 nm reduced the WVTR from ∼7x10 -3 to ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. The reduction in the permeability for Al 2 O 3 ALD on the SiN PECVD films was attributed to either Al 2 O 3 ALD sealing defects in the SiN PECVD film or improved nucleation of Al 2 O 3 ALD on SiN.

  10. Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7 - x heterostructures by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.; Chern, C. S.; Shi, Z. Q.; Lu, P.; Safari, A.; Lu, Y.; Kear, B. H.; Hou, S. Y.

    1994-06-01

    We report heteroepitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on YBa2Cu3O7-x/LaAlO3 substrates by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction results indicated that SrTiO3 films were epitaxially grown on a (001) YBa2Cu3O7-x surface with [100] orientation perpendicular to the surface. The film composition, with Sr/Ti molar ratio in the range of 0.9 to 1.1, was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The thickness of the SrTiO3 films is 0.1-0.2 μm. The epitaxial growth was further evidenced by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction. Atomically abrupt SrTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-x interface and epitaxial growth with [100]SrTiO3∥[001]YBa2Cu3O7-x were observed in this study. The superconducting transition temperature of the bottom YBa2Cu3O7-x layer, as measured by ac susceptometer, did not significantly degrade after the growth of overlayer SrTiO3. The capacitance-voltage measurements showed that the dielectric constant of the SrTiO3 films was as high as 315 at a signal frequency of 100 KHz. The leakage current density through the SrTiO3 films is about 1×10-6 A/cm2 at 2-V operation. Data analysis on the current-voltage characteristic indicated that the conduction process is related to bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel emission.

  11. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead η to decrease. In contrast, η was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp 2 phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  12. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  13. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  14. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  15. Effects of gas residence time of CH4/H2 on sp2 fraction of amorphous carbon films and dissociated methyl density during radical-injection plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hirotsugu; Jia, Lingyun; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Quadruple mass spectrometric measurements of CH3 density during radical-injection plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to consider the sp2 fraction of amorphous carbon (a-C) films were performed. The sp2 fraction of the a-C films reached a minimum of 46%, where the CH3 density was maximum for a residence time of 6 ms. The sp2 fraction of the a-C films was tailored with the gaseous phase CH3 density during the deposition. This knowledge is useful for understanding the formation mechanism of bonding structures in the a-C films, which enables the precise control of their electronic properties.

  16. Epitaxial growth of GaN by radical-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (REMOCVD) in the downflow of a very high frequency (VHF) N2/H2 excited plasma - effect of TMG flow rate and VHF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Oda, Osamu; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Amano, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films have been grown by using our newly developed Radical-Enhanced Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (REMOCVD) system. This system has three features: (1) application of very high frequency (60 MHz) power in order to increase the plasma density, (2) introduction of H2 gas together with N2 gas in the plasma discharge region to generate not only nitrogen radicals but also active NHx molecules, and (3) radical supply under remote plasma arrangement with suppression of charged ions and photons by employing a Faraday cage. Using this new system, we have studied the effect of the trimethylgallium (TMG) source flow rate and of the plasma generation power on the GaN crystal quality by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and double crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that this REMOCVD allowed the growth of epitaxial GaN films of the wurtzite structure of (0001) orientation on sapphire substrates with a high growth rate of 0.42 μm/h at a low temperature of 800 °C. The present REMOCVD is a promising method for GaN growth at relatively low temperature and without using costly ammonia gas.

  17. Chemical analysis of refractories by plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrometry has been, since the last two or three decades, the traditional procedure for the chemical analysis of refractories, due to its high degree of accuracy and speed to produce analytical results. An interesting alternative to X-ray fluorescence is provided by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry technique, for those laboratories where wet chemistry facilities are already available or process control is not required at high speed, or investiment costs have to be low. This paper presents results obtained by plasma spectroscopy for the analysis of silico - aluminous refractories, showing calibration curves, precion and detection limits. Considerations and comparisons with X-ray fluorescence are also made. (author) [pt

  18. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  19. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  20. Using KrF ELA to Improve Gate-Stacked LaAlO₃/ZrO₂ Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Shui-Jinn

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique and KrF excimer laser annealing (ELA) were employed for the fabrication of indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO-TFTs). Device with a 150 mJ/cm2 laser annealing densities demonstrated excellent electrical characteristics with improved on/off current ratio of 4.7×107, high channel mobility of 10 cm2/V-s, and low subthreshold swing of 0.15 V/dec. The improvements are attributed to the adjustment of oxygen vacancies in the IGZO channel to an appropriate range of around 28.3% and the reduction of traps at the high-k/IGZO interface.

  1. Long-term stable water vapor permeation barrier properties of SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at extremely low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the water vapor permeation barrier properties of 30-nm-thick SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayer structures grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 7 mTorr. The derived water vapor transmission rate was 1.12 × 10 −6 g/(m 2 day) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity, and this value was maintained up to 15 000 h of aging time. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the nanolaminated film was composed of an amorphous phase. A mixed phase was observed upon performing high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, which indicated that a thermodynamically stable structure was formed. It was revealed amorphous SiN/SiCN/SiN multilayer structures that are free from intermixed interface defects effectively block water vapor permeation into active layer

  2. Ellipsometric investigation of nitrogen doped diamond thin films grown in microwave CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficek, Mateusz, E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Haenen, Ken [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Ryl, Jacek; Darowicki, Kazimierz [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Bogdanowicz, Robert [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lin, I-Nan [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-13

    The influence of N{sub 2} concentration (1%–8%) in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma on structure and optical properties of nitrogen doped diamond (NDD) films was investigated. Thickness, roughness, and optical properties of the NDD films in the VIS–NIR range were investigated on the silicon substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples exhibited relatively high refractive index (2.6 ± 0.25 at 550 nm) and extinction coefficient (0.05 ± 0.02 at 550 nm) with a transmittance of 60%. The optical investigation was supported by the molecular and atomic data delivered by Raman studies, bright field transmission electron microscopy imaging, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy diagnostics. Those results revealed that while the films grown in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma contained micron-sized diamond grains, the films grown using CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/(4%)N{sub 2} plasma exhibited ultranano-sized diamond grains along with n-diamond and i-carbon clusters, which were surrounded by amorphous carbon grain boundaries.

  3. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  4. Structure and gas-barrier properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on inner walls of cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of radio-frequency (RF) power on the structure and gas permeation through amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples is investigated. The results show that a higher radio-frequency power leads to a smaller sp 3 /sp 2 value but produces fewer defects with smaller size. The permeability of PET samples decreases significantly after a-C:H deposition and the RF only exerts a small influence. However, the coating uniformity, color, and wettability of the surface are affected by the RF power. A higher RF power results in to better uniformity and it may be attributed to the combination of the high-density plasma and sample heating.

  5. Enhancement of EAST plasma control capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bingjia, E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yuan, Qiping; Luo, Zhengping; Huang, Yao; Liu, Lei; Guo, Yong; Pei, Xiaofang; Chen, Shuliang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mueller, Dennis [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Calabró, G.; Crisanti, F. [ENEA UnitàTecnicaFusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federicao II, Università di Cassino and Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Claudio 19, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Parallel plasma equilibrium reconstruction using GPU for real-time control on EAST. • Vertical control using Bang-bang + PID method to improve the response and minimize the oscillation caused by the latency. • Quasi-snow flake divertor plasma configuration has been demonstrated on EAST. - Abstract: In order to improve the plasma control performance and enhance the capability for advanced plasma control, new algorithms such as PEFIT/ISOFLUX plasma shape feedback control, quasi-snowflake plasma shape development and vertical control under new vertical control power supply, have been implemented and experimentally tested and verified in EAST 2014 campaign. P-EFIT is a rewritten version of EFIT aiming at fast real-time equilibrium reconstruction by using GPU for parallelized computation. Successful control using PEFIT/ISOFLUX was established in dedicated experiment. Snowfldivertor plasma shape has the advantage of spreading heat over the divertor target and a quasi-snowflake (QSF) configuration was achieved in discharges with I{sub p} = 0.25 MA and B{sub t} = 1.8T, κ∼1.9, by plasma position feedback control. The shape feedback control to achieve QSF shape has been preliminary implemented by using PEFIT and the initial experimental test has been done. For more robust vertical instability control, the inner coil (IC) and its power supply have been upgraded. A new control algorithm with the combination of Bang-bang and PID controllers has been developed. It is shown that new vertical control power supply together with the new control algorithms results in higher vertical controllability.

  6. Chemical modeling of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma reactor containing silane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Boogaard, A.; Brunets, I.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    We carried out the modeling of chemical reactions in a silane-containing remote Inductively Coupled Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ICPECVD) system, intended for deposition of silicon, silicon oxide, and silicon nitride layers. The required electron densities and Electron Energy

  7. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  8. Effects of argon and oxygen flow rate on water vapor barrier properties of silicon oxide coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Ryong; Choudhury, Moinul Haque; Kim, Won-Ho; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Plasma polymer coatings were deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates while varying the operating conditions, such as the Ar and O 2 flow rates, at a fixed radio frequency power of 300 W. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the untreated PET was 54.56 g/m 2 /day and was decreased after depositing the silicon oxide (SiO x ) coatings. The minimum WVTR, 0.47 g/m 2 /day, was observed at Ar and O 2 flow rates of 4 and 20 sccm, respectively, with a coating thickness of 415.44 nm. The intensity of the peaks for the Si-O-Si bending at 800-820 cm -1 and Si-O-Si stretching at 1000-1150 cm -1 varied depending on the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The contact angle of the SiO x coated PET increased as the Ar flow rate was increased from 2 to 8 sccm at a fixed O 2 flow rate of 20 sccm. It decreased gradually as the oxygen flow rate increased from 12 to 28 sccm at a fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate. The examination by atomic force microscopy revealed a correlation of the SiO x morphology and the water vapor barrier performance with the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The roughness of the deposited coatings increased when either the O 2 or Ar flow rate was increased.

  9. Effect of the substrate surface topology and temperature on the structural properties of ZnO layers obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitova, S; Danev, G, E-mail: skitova@clf.bas.b [Acad. J .Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    In this work thin ZnO layers were grown by metal-organic PECVD (RF 13.56 MHz) on Si wafers. Zn acetylacetonate was used as a precursor and oxygen as oxidant. A system for dosed injection of the precursor and oxidant into the plasma reactor was developed. The influence of the substrate surface topology and temperature on the structural properties of the deposited layers was studied. ZnO and graphite powder dispersions were used to modify the silicon wafers before starting the deposition process of the layers. Some of the ZnO layers were deposited on the back, unpolished, side of Si wafers. Depositions at 400 {sup 0}C were performed to examine the effect of the substrate temperatures on the layer growth. The film structure was examined by XRD and SEM. The results show that all layers are crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallites are preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. ZnO layers deposited on thin ZnO seed films and clean Si surface exhibit well-developed grain structures and more c-axis preferred phase with better crystal quality than that of the layers deposited on graphite seed layer or rough, unpolished Si wafer.

  10. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  11. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  12. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian Xiubo [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-12-15

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  13. Simulation and Experimental Study of Photogeneration and Recombination in Amorphous-Like Silicon Thin Films Deposited by 27.12 MHz Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsun Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous-like silicon (a-Si:H-like thin films are prepared by 27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The films are applied to p-i-n single junction thin film solar cells with varying i-layer thickness to observe the effects on the short-circuit current density, as well as the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency. The most significant experimental result is that Jsc has two different behaviors with increasing the i-layer thickness, which can be related to carrier collection efficiency in the long wavelength region. Furthermore, technology computer-aided design simulation software is used to gain better insight into carrier generation and recombination of the solar cells, showing that for the i-layer thickness of 200 to 300 nm the generation dominates the carrier density and thus Jsc, whereas for the i-layer thickness of 300 to 400 nm the recombination becomes the leading factor. The simulation results of cell performances are in good agreement with experimental data, indicating that our simulation has great reliability. In addition, the a-Si:H-like solar cells have low light-induced degradation, which in turn can have a great potential to be used for stable and high-efficiency solar cells.

  14. On the chemical enhancement in SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lasse

    2012-12-01

    In Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), the Raman signal of a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface is enhanced by many orders of magnitude. This provides a "finger-print" of molecules which can be used in ultrasensitive sensing devises. Here we present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the molecule-surface chemical coupling in SERS. A systematic study of the chemical enhancement (CHEM) of meta-and para-substituted pyridines interacting with a small silver cluster (Ag20) is presented. We find that the magnitude of chemical enhancement is governed to a large extent by the energy difference between the highest occupied energy level (HOMO) of the metal and the lowest unoccupied energy level (LUMO) of the molecule. A two-state approximation shows that the enhancement scales roughly as (ωX/ω¯e)4, where accent="true">ω¯e is an average excitation energy between the HOMO of the metal and the LUMO of the molecule and wX the HOMO-LUMO gap of the free molecule. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the CHEM enhancement by switching a dithienylethene photoswitch from its closed form to its open form. The open form of the photoswitch is found to be the strongest Raman scatterer when adsorbed on the surface whereas the opposite is found for the free molecule. This trend is explained using the simple two-state approximation.

  15. Strangeness Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; MA Yu-Gang; MA Guo-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the strangeness of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density based on the and will accelerate with the change of the initial system from a chemically non-equilibrated to an equilibrated system. We also find that the calculated strangeness is very different from the one in the thermodynamic equilibrium system. This study may be helpful to understand the formation of quark-gluon plasma via a chemically non-equilibrated evolution framework.

  16. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  17. A Method to Construct Plasma with Nonlinear Density Enhancement Effect in Multiple Internal Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhipeng; Li Hong; Liu Qiuyan; Luo Chen; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed to built up plasma based on a nonlinear enhancement phenomenon of plasma density with discharge by multiple internal antennas simultaneously. It turns out that the plasma density under multiple sources is higher than the linear summation of the density under each source. This effect is helpful to reduce the fast exponential decay of plasma density in single internal inductively coupled plasma source and generating a larger-area plasma with multiple internal inductively coupled plasma sources. After a careful study on the balance between the enhancement and the decay of plasma density in experiments, a plasma is built up by four sources, which proves the feasibility of this method. According to the method, more sources and more intensive enhancement effect can be employed to further build up a high-density, large-area plasma for different applications. (low temperature plasma)

  18. Experimental and theoretical rationalization of the growth mechanism of silicon quantum dots in non-stoichiometric SiN x : role of chlorine in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Pérez, E; Salazar, J; Ramos, E; Salazar, J Santoyo; Suárez, A López; Dutt, A; Santana, G; Monroy, B Marel

    2016-11-11

    Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in an insulator matrix are important from a technological and application point of view. Thus, being able to synthesize them in situ during the matrix growth process is technologically advantageous. The use of SiH 2 Cl 2 as the silicon precursor in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process allows us to obtain Si-QDs without post-thermal annealing. Foremost in this work, is a theoretical rationalization of the mechanism responsible for Si-QD generation in a film including an analysis of the energy released by the extraction of HCl and the insertion of silylene species into the terminal surface bonds. From the results obtained using density functional theory (DFT), we propose an explanation of the mechanism responsible for the formation of Si-QDs in non-stoichiometric SiN x starting from chlorinated precursors in a PECVD system. Micrograph images obtained through transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Si-QDs, even in nitrogen-rich (N-rich) samples. The film stoichiometry was controlled by varying the growth parameters, in particular the NH 3 /SiH 2 Cl 2 ratio and hydrogen dilution. Experimental and theoretical results together show that using a PECVD system, along with chlorinated precursors it is possible to obtain Si-QDs at a low substrate temperature without annealing treatment. The optical property studies carried out in the present work highlight the prospects of these thin films for down shifting and as an antireflection coating in silicon solar cells.

  19. Experimental and theoretical rationalization of the growth mechanism of silicon quantum dots in non-stoichiometric SiN x : role of chlorine in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Pérez, E.; Salazar, J.; Ramos, E.; Santoyo Salazar, J.; López Suárez, A.; Dutt, A.; Santana, G.; Marel Monroy, B.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in an insulator matrix are important from a technological and application point of view. Thus, being able to synthesize them in situ during the matrix growth process is technologically advantageous. The use of SiH2Cl2 as the silicon precursor in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process allows us to obtain Si-QDs without post-thermal annealing. Foremost in this work, is a theoretical rationalization of the mechanism responsible for Si-QD generation in a film including an analysis of the energy released by the extraction of HCl and the insertion of silylene species into the terminal surface bonds. From the results obtained using density functional theory (DFT), we propose an explanation of the mechanism responsible for the formation of Si-QDs in non-stoichiometric SiN x starting from chlorinated precursors in a PECVD system. Micrograph images obtained through transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Si-QDs, even in nitrogen-rich (N-rich) samples. The film stoichiometry was controlled by varying the growth parameters, in particular the NH3/SiH2Cl2 ratio and hydrogen dilution. Experimental and theoretical results together show that using a PECVD system, along with chlorinated precursors it is possible to obtain Si-QDs at a low substrate temperature without annealing treatment. The optical property studies carried out in the present work highlight the prospects of these thin films for down shifting and as an antireflection coating in silicon solar cells.

  20. Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.-M.; Baum, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma is studied. The plasma is infinite and without external fields. The chemical reactions are assumed to result from the ionization and recombination processes. When the gas is near equilibrium, the dominant role describing the evolution of a reacting plasma is played by the global conservation equations. These equations are first derived and then used to study the small amplitude wave motion for a near-equilibrium situation. Nontrivial damping effects have been obtained by including the conduction current terms.

  1. Interaction of heavy ion beams with a hydrogen plasma: plasma lens effect and stopping power enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Dumail, M.; Kubica, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Servajean, A.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1988-01-01

    By coupling a hydrogen plasma to a Tandem accelerator, transmission and energy losses of 2 MeV/u carbon and sulfur beams passing through a plasma target have been investigated. Fluctuations in beam transmission have been observed and attributed to a plasma lens effect. Moreover, energy loss measurements indicate an enhanced stopping power of the plasma relative to its cold matter equivalent

  2. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  3. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  4. Role of hydrogen in Sb film deposition and characterization of Sb and GexSby films deposited by cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using metal-organic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Keun; Jung, Jin Hwan; Choi, Doo Jin

    2012-01-01

    To meet increasing demands for chemical vapor deposition methods for high performance phase-change memory, cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Sb and Ge x Sb y phase-change films and characterization of their properties were performed. Two cycle sequences were designed to investigate the role of hydrogen gas as a reduction gas during Sb film deposition. Hydrogen gas was not introduced into the reaction chamber during the purge step in cycle sequence A and was introduced during the purge step for cycle sequence B. The role of hydrogen gas was investigated by comparing the results obtained from these two cycle sequences and was concluded to exert an effect by a combination of precursor decomposition, surface maintenance as a hydrogen termination agent, and surface etching. These roles of hydrogen gas are discussed through consideration of changes in deposition rates, the oxygen concentration on the surface of the Sb film, and observations of film surface morphology. Based on these results, Ge x Sb y phase-change films were deposited with an adequate flow rate of hydrogen gas. The Ge and Sb composition of the film was controlled with the designed cycle sequences. A strong oxygen affinity for Ge was observed during the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of Sb 3d, Sb 4d, and Ge 3d orbitals. Based on the XPS results, the ratios of Ge to Sb were calculated to be Ge 0.32 Sb 0.68 , Ge 0.38 Sb 0.62 , Ge 0.44 Sb 0.56 , Ge 0.51 Sb 0.49 and Ge 0.67 Sb 0.33 for the G1S7, G1S3, G1S2, G1S1, and G2S1 cycles, respectively. Crystal structures of Sb, Ge, and the GeSb metastable phase were observed with various Ge x Sb y film compositions. Sb crystallinity decreased with respect to Ge crystallinity by increasing the Ge fraction. A current–voltage curve was introduced, and an electro-switching phenomenon was clearly generated at a typical voltage, V th . V th values increased in conjunction with an increased proportion of Ge. The Sb crystallinity decrease and V

  5. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  6. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prysiazhnyi, V.; Slavíček, P.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Klíma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 430-437 ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : atmospheric pressure plasma * plasma jet * aluminium * surface treatment * surface processing * chemical precleaning Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2016

  7. Characteristics of nanosized zirconia prepared by plasma and chemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, L.; Grabis, J.; Heidemane, G.

    2003-01-01

    The studied preparation method of zirconia using the plasma technique, azeotropic distillation and glycine routes ensure obtaining of nano sized powders with close average particle size but different crystallite size and phase composition. The sinterability of nano sized zirconia particles prepared by plasma technique or wet-chemical methods is similar and depends on the green density of pressed powders, improvement of with can be achieved by using of granulated precursors. (authors)

  8. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C W; Lam, Y L; Yuen, C W M; Luximon, A; Lau, K W; Chen, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  9. On improved understanding of plasma-chemical processes in complex low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpcke, Jürgen; Loffhagen, Detlef; von Wahl, Eric; Nave, Andy S. C.; Hamann, Stephan; van Helden, Jean-Piere H.; Lang, Norbert; Kersten, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Over the last years, chemical sensing using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with methods of mid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (MIR-LAS) in the molecular fingerprint region from 3 to 20 μm, which contains strong rotational-vibrational absorption bands of a large variety of gaseous species. This optical approach established powerful in situ diagnostic tools to study plasma-chemical processes of complex low-temperature plasmas. The methods of MIR-LAS enable to detect stable and transient molecular species in ground and excited states and to measure the concentrations and temperatures of reactive species in plasmas. Since kinetic processes are inherent to discharges ignited in molecular gases, high time resolution on sub-second timescales is frequently desired for fundamental studies as well as for process monitoring in applied research and industry. In addition to high sensitivity and good temporal resolution, the capacity for broad spectral coverage enabling multicomponent detection is further expanding the use of OES and MIR-LAS techniques. Based on selected examples, this paper reports on recent achievements in the understanding of complex low-temperature plasmas. Recently, a link with chemical modeling of the plasma has been provided, which is the ultimate objective for a better understanding of the chemical and reaction kinetic processes occurring in the plasma. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  10. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  11. Plasma characterization using terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence emission from excited atoms or molecules can be employed in the characterization of laser-induced gas plasmas. The electron relaxation time and plasma density were deduced through applying the electron impact excitation/ionization and electron-ion recombination processes to the measured time-dependent enhanced fluorescence. The electron collision dynamics of nitrogen plasma excited at different gas pressures and laser pulse energies have been systematically investigated. This plasma characterization method provides picosecond temporal resolution and enables omnidirectional optical signal collection.

  12. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Slavicek, Pavel; Klima, Milos; Mikmekova, Eliska

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O 2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure. (paper)

  13. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadym, Prysiazhnyi; Pavel, Slavicek; Eliska, Mikmekova; Milos, Klima

    2016-04-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure.

  14. Comparative enhancing effects of electret with chemical enhancers on transdermal delivery of meloxicam in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L L; Hou, X M; Li, G D; Jiang, J; Liang, Y Y; Xin, X

    2008-01-01

    Electret offers enhancing effect in transdermal drug delivery for altering of the arrangement of lipid molecules in the stratum corneum, forming many transient permeable apertures and enhancing the transdermal drug delivery. In this paper, meloxicam patch formulations were developed to make the comparative study of transdermal drug delivery between electret and chemical enhancers. Patches were made into control, electret, chemical enhancer and electret with chemical enhancer ones, according to the preparation procedure. The electret combined with chemical enhancer patch was designed to probe the incorporation between electret and chemical enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. The meloxicam release from the patch was found to increase in order of blank, chemical enhancer, electret and electret with chemical enhancer patch, in general.

  15. Enhanced laser beam coupling to a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, A.D.; Woods, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    Density perturbations are induced in a heated plasma by means of a pair of oppositely directed, polarized laser beams of the same frequency. The wavelength of the density perturbations is equal to one half the wavelength of the laser beams. A third laser beam is linearly polarized and directed at the perturbed plasma along a line that is perpendicular to the direction of the two opposed beams. The electric field of the third beam is oriented to lie in the plane containing the three beams. The frequency of the third beam is chosen to cause it to interact resonantly with the plasma density perturbations, thereby efficiently coupling the energy of the third beam to the plasma. 10 claims, 2 figures

  16. Chemical Applications for Enhanced World Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibman, Christopher Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-19

    The purpose of this project is to reduce complexity of chemical analysis by combining chemical and physical processing steps into on package; develop instrumentation that cost less and is easy to use in a field laboratory by non-experts; and develop this "chemical application" so uranium enrichment can be measured onsite, eliminating the need for radioactive sample transport.

  17. Enhancement of plasma generation in catalyst pores with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    Plasma generation inside catalyst pores is of utmost importance for plasma catalysis, as the existence of plasma species inside the pores affects the active surface area of the catalyst available to the plasma species for catalytic reactions. In this paper, the electric field enhancement, and thus the plasma production inside catalyst pores with different pore shapes is studied with a two-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the electric field will be significantly enhanced near tip-like structures. In a conical pore with small opening, the strongest electric field appears at the opening and bottom corners of the pore, giving rise to a prominent ionization rate throughout the pore. For a cylindrical pore, the electric field is only enhanced at the bottom corners of the pore, with lower absolute value, and thus the ionization rate inside the pore is only slightly enhanced. Finally, in a conical pore with large opening, the electric field is characterized by a maximum at the bottom of the pore, yielding a similar behavior for the ionization rate. These results demonstrate that the shape of the pore has a significantly influence on the electric field enhancement, and thus modifies the plasma properties.

  18. Applying chemical engineering concepts to non-thermal plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro AFFONSO, NOBREGA; Alain, GAUNAND; Vandad, ROHANI; François, CAUNEAU; Laurent, FULCHERI

    2018-06-01

    Process scale-up remains a considerable challenge for environmental applications of non-thermal plasmas. Undersanding the impact of reactor hydrodynamics in the performance of the process is a key step to overcome this challenge. In this work, we apply chemical engineering concepts to analyse the impact that different non-thermal plasma reactor configurations and regimes, such as laminar or plug flow, may have on the reactor performance. We do this in the particular context of the removal of pollutants by non-thermal plasmas, for which a simplified model is available. We generalise this model to different reactor configurations and, under certain hypotheses, we show that a reactor in the laminar regime may have a behaviour significantly different from one in the plug flow regime, often assumed in the non-thermal plasma literature. On the other hand, we show that a packed-bed reactor behaves very similarly to one in the plug flow regime. Beyond those results, the reader will find in this work a quick introduction to chemical reaction engineering concepts.

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Induced Sterilization and Chemical Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Eusebio; Evans, Kirk; Gornostaeva, Olga; Alexeff, Igor; Lock Kang, Weng; Wood, Thomas K.

    1998-11-01

    We are studying chemical neutralization and surface decontamination using atmospheric pressure plasma discharges. The plasma is produced by corona discharge from an array of pins and a ground plane. The array is constructed so that various gases, like argon or helium, can be flowed past the pins where the discharge is initiated. The pin array can be biased using either DC, AC or pulsed discharges. Results indicate that the atmospheric plasma is effective in sterilizing surfaces with biological contaminants like E-coli and bacillus subtilus cells. Exposure times of less than four minutes in an air plasma result in a decrease in live colony counts by six orders of magnitude. Greater exposure times result in a decrease of live colony counts of up to ten orders of magnitude. The atmospheric pressure discharge is also effective in decomposing organic phosphate compounds that are simulants for chemical warfare agents. Details of the decomposition chemistry, by-product formation, and electrical energy consumption of the system will be discussed.

  20. Typical parameters of the plasma chemical similarity in non-isothermal reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundermann, S.; Jacobs, H.; Miethke, F.; Rutsher, A.; Wagner, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The substance of physical similarity principles is contained in parameters which govern the comparison of different realizations of a model device. Because similarity parameters for non-isothermal plasma chemical reactors are unknown to a great extent, an analysis of relevant equations is given together with some experimental results. Modelling of the reactor and experimental results for the ozone synthesis are presented

  1. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique; Etude et realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements a base de films de diamant polycristallin elabores par depot chimique en phase vapeur assiste par plasma micro-onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jany, Ch

    1998-10-29

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead {eta} to decrease. In contrast, {eta} was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp{sup 2} phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  2. Enhanced nuclear level decay in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.

    2004-01-01

    A model of nuclear level decay in a plasma environment is described. Nuclear excitation and decay by photon processes, nuclear excitation by electron capture, and decay by internal conversion are taken into account. The electrons in the plasma are described by a relativistic average atom model for the bound electrons and by a relativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for the free electrons. Nuclear decay of isomeric level may be enhanced through an intermediate level lying above the isomer. An enhanced nuclear decay rate may occur for temperatures far below the excitation energy of the transition to the intermediate level. In most cases, the enhancement factor may reach several decades

  3. Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F.; Tardy, Blaise L.; Dagastine, Raymond; Orbell, John D.; Schutz, Jürg A.; Duke, Mikel C.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membranes has been significantly enhanced by rapid and facile, low pressure, argon plasma activation. Pressure driven water desalination tests showed that at low power density, flux was improved by 22% without compromising salt rejection. Various plasma durations and excitation powers have been systematically evaluated to assess the impact of plasma glow reactions on the physico-chemical properties of these materials associated with permeability. With increasing power density, plasma treatment enhanced the hydrophilicity of the surfaces, where water contact angles decreasing by 70% were strongly correlated with increased negative charge and smooth uniform surface morphology. These results highlight a versatile chemical modification technique for post-treatment of commercial membrane products that provides uniform morphology and chemically altered surface properties. PMID:27363670

  4. Enhanced noise and Raman scattering in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Short, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    Observations of Raman scattering from laser-produced plasma have shown a number of puzzling features. These can be explained by assuming the presence of a bump-on-tail electron distribution created by pulses of fast electrons arising from instabilities at the critical (n/sub c/) or the quarter-critical (n/sub c//4) surface. Experiments using thin foils, in which the target density drops below n/sub c/ and even n/sub c//4 early in the laser pulse, have continued to show the same agreement as is seen for thick targets between the observed Raman spectrum and the predictions of this theory. This raises the issue of the time scale on which such directed pulses of fast electrons can continue to exist in the plasma after their source at n/sub c/ or n/sub c//4 disappears. We show that the classical degradation process is quite slow (of the order of 100 ps or more). Collective processes would appear to broaden and flatten the beam on a faster time scale. However, inclusion of finite spatial size strongly reduces the effect. Furthermore, we will show that broadening of the beam has little effect on the predicted spectrum

  5. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  6. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  7. Chemical and physical reactions under thermal plasmas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.; Coudert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Basic understanding of the involved phenomena lags far behind industrial development that requires now a better knowledge of the phenomena to achieve a better control of the process allowing to improve the quality of the products. Thus the authors try to precise what is their actual knowledge in the fields of: plasma generators design; plasma flow models with the following key points: laminar or turbulent flow, heat transfer to walls, 2D or 3D models, non equilibrium effects, mixing problems when chemical reactions are to be taken into account with very fast kinetics, electrode regions, data for transport properties and kinetic rates; nucleation problems; plasma flow characteristics measurements: temperature or temperatures and population of excited states (automatized emission spectroscopy, LIF, CARS) as well as flow velocity (LDA with small particles, Doppler effects...); plasma and particles momentum and heat transfer either with models taking into account particles size and injection velocity distributions, heat propagation, vaporization, Kundsen effect, turbulences ... or with measurements: particles velocity and flux distributions (Laser Anemometry) as well as surface temperature distributions (two colour pyrometry in flight statistical or not)

  8. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  9. Nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Voevodin, A.A.; Paul, R.; Altfeder, I.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zakharov, D.N.; Fisher, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of nitrogen-doped, few-layer graphene films on Cu foil is achieved by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The films are doped during synthesis by introduction of nitrogen gas in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal crystal structure and chemical characteristics. Nitrogen concentrations up to 2 at.% are observed, and the limit is linked to the rigidity of graphene films on copper surfaces that impedes further nitrogen substitutions of carbon atoms. The entire growth process requires only a few minutes without supplemental substrate heating and offers a promising path toward large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene films. - Highlights: ► Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped few layer graphene on Cu foil. ► Defect density increment on 2% nitrogen doping. ► Nitrogen doped graphene is a good protection to the copper metallic surface

  10. Nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A., E-mail: kumar50@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, A.A. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Paul, R. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Altfeder, I. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Zemlyanov, D.; Zakharov, D.N. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fisher, T.S., E-mail: tsfisher@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of nitrogen-doped, few-layer graphene films on Cu foil is achieved by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The films are doped during synthesis by introduction of nitrogen gas in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal crystal structure and chemical characteristics. Nitrogen concentrations up to 2 at.% are observed, and the limit is linked to the rigidity of graphene films on copper surfaces that impedes further nitrogen substitutions of carbon atoms. The entire growth process requires only a few minutes without supplemental substrate heating and offers a promising path toward large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene films. - Highlights: ► Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped few layer graphene on Cu foil. ► Defect density increment on 2% nitrogen doping. ► Nitrogen doped graphene is a good protection to the copper metallic surface.

  11. Strangeness chemical equilibration in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2007-01-01

    We study, in the dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma (QGP) fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the growth of strangeness yield toward and beyond the chemical equilibrium. We account for the contribution of the direct strangeness production and evaluate the thermal-QCD strangeness production mechanisms. The specific yield of strangeness per entropy, s/S, is the primary target variable. We explore the effect of collision impact parameter, i.e., fireball size, on kinetic strangeness chemical equilibration in QGP. Insights gained in studying the RHIC data with regard to the dynamics of the fireball are applied to the study of strangeness production at the LHC. We use these results and consider the strange hadron relative particle yields at RHIC and LHC in a systematic fashion. We consider both the dependence on s/S and the direct dependence on the participant number

  12. Terahertz-Radiation-Enhanced Emission of Fluorescence from Gas Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the study of femtosecond laser-induced air plasma fluorescence under the illumination of terahertz (THz) pulses. Semiclassical modeling and experimental verification indicate that time-resolved THz radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence is dominated by the electron kinetics and the electron-impact excitation of gas molecules or ions. We demonstrate that the temporal waveform of the THz field could be retrieved from the transient enhanced fluorescence, making omnidirectional, coherent detection available for THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  13. Plasma surface interactions in Q-enhanced mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to enhancement of the Q (energy gain) factor of mirror systems are under study at Livermore. These include the Tandem Mirror and the Field Reversed Mirror. Both of these new ideas preserve features of conventional mirror systems as far as plasma-wall interactions are concerned. Specifically in both approaches field lines exit from the ends of the system and impinge on walls located at a distance from the confinement chamber. It is possible to predict some aspects of the plasma/surface interactions of TM and FRM systems from experience obtained in the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. In particular, as observed in 2XIIB, effective isolation of the plasma from thermal contact with the ends owing to the development of sheath-like regions is to be expected. Studies presently underway directed toward still further enhancing the decoupling of the plasma from the effects of plasma surface interactions at the walls will be discussed, with particular reference to the problem of minimizing the effects of refluxing secondary electrons produced by plasma impact on the end walls

  14. Enhanced field emission from carbon nanotubes by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, C.Y.; Bai, X.D.; Wang, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The field emission capability of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been improved by hydrogen plasma treatment, and the enhanced emission mechanism has been studied systematically using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen concentration in the samples increases with increasing plasma treatment duration. A C δ- -H δ+ dipole layer may form on CNTs' surface and a high density of defects results from the plasma treatment, which is likely to make the external surface of CNTs more active to emit electrons after treatment. In addition, the sharp edge of CNTs' top, after removal of the catalyst particles, may increase the local electronic field more effectively. The present study suggests that hydrogen plasma treatment is a useful method for improving the field electron emission property of CNTs

  15. Enhanced Detection of Human Plasma Proteins on Nanostructured Silver Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Orságová Králová

    2013-08-01

    enhancement factor of 3.6×102 was achieved for a band with a Raman shift of 2104cm‐1 for globulin deposited onto silver nanostructured film on unpolished stainless steel substrate. The detection limit was 400g/mL. Plasma or serum could present a preferable material for non‐ invasive cancer disease diagnosis using the SERS method.

  16. Microstructural changes leading to chemically enhanced drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Minder Pascal; Puzrin Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    The hydration state of clay mineral surfaces is a key influence factor on the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of clays. Small changes of the cation occupancy of these surfaces can lead to pronounced changes in macroscopic material parameters. The sensitivity of the material response allows for designing chemical soil improvement by selectively exchanging the cations. In this study we explore the effect of a targeted cation exchange in smectite clays to modify soil properties in situ. The h...

  17. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, J.F.; Tournerie, N.; Maillard, H.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m 2 to 70 mJ/m 2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic C-O and C=O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  18. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  19. Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, David P.; Sundaramurthy, Arvind; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Schuck, P. James; Kino, Gordon S.; Moerner, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Single metallic bowtie nanoantennas provide a controllable environment for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of adsorbed molecules. Bowties have experimentally measured electromagnetic enhancements, enabling estimation of chemical enhancement for both the bulk and the few-molecule regime. Strong fluctuations of selected Raman lines imply that a small number of p-mercaptoaniline molecules on a single bowtie show chemical enhancement >10 7 , much larger than previously believed, likely due to charge transfer between the Au surface and the molecule. This chemical sensitivity of SERS has significant implications for ultra-sensitive detection of single molecules

  20. Controlled density of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in a triode plasma chemical vapor deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Park, Kyu Chang; Moon, Jong Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Pribat, Didier; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Jang, Jin

    2006-01-01

    We report on the growth mechanism and density control of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a triode plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The deposition reactor was designed in order to allow the intermediate mesh electrode to be biased independently from the ground and power electrodes. The CNTs grown with a mesh bias of + 300 V show a density of ∼ 1.5 μm -2 and a height of ∼ 5 μm. However, CNTs do not grow when the mesh electrode is biased to - 300 V. The growth of CNTs can be controlled by the mesh electrode bias which in turn controls the plasma density and ion flux on the sample

  1. Enhancing Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Efficiency for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoqian

    To improve efficiency and safety of anti-cancer therapies the researchers and clinicians alike are prompted to develop targeted combined therapies that especially minimize damage to healthy tissues while eradicating the body of cancerous tissues. Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that cold plasma induced cell death. In this study, we seek to integrate the medical application of CAP. We proposed and implemented 3 novel ideas to enhance efficacy and selectivity of cancer therapy. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. We determined a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of CAP, including output voltage, treatment time, and gas flow-rate. We varied the characteristics of the cold plasma in order to obtain different major species (such as O, OH, N2+, and N2 lines). "plasma dosage" D ~ Q * V * t. is defined, where D is the entire "plasma dosage"; Q is the flow rate of feeding gas; V is output voltage; t is treatment time. The proper CAP dosage caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the normal human astrocytes E6/E7 cells. We demonstrated there is a synergy between AuNPS and CAP in cancer therapy. Specifically, the concentration of AuNPs plays an important role on plasma therapy. At an optimal concentration, gold nanoparticles can significantly induce U87 cell death up to a 30% overall increase compared to the control group with the same plasma dosage but no AuNPs applied. The ROS intensity of the corresponding conditions has a reversed trend compared to cell viability. This matches with the theory that intracellular ROS accumulation results in oxidative stress, which further changes the intracellular pathways, causing damage to the proteins, lipids and DNA. Our results show that this synergy has great potential in improving the

  2. Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, S.S.; Goswami, D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that affect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was determined. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO 2 had no deleterious effect on the bacteria. However, several common bacteria on solar exposure in the presence of TiO 2 were killed in just a few minutes, whereas without TiO 2 it took over an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01% TiO 2 was most effective in killing bacteria and 10-fold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. Alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO 2 particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO 2 , indicating that TiO 2 served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves show that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn't greatly increase the rate of kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased

  3. Quasi-equilibria and plasma chemical similarity in non-isothermal reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miethke, F.; Rutscher, A.; Wagner, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    With regard to the output of stable products the mode of operation of non-isothermal plasma chemical reactors shows physical and chemical well defined states, which represent limiting cases and may be interpreted as quasi-equilibrium states. The occurrence and the characteristics of these states, meanwhile more than once observed and described, are demonstrated by an instructive model reaction. Within the frame of the so-called Macroscopic Kinetics a central parameter is dominating the reactor operation. This result may be generalized and is linked up to the application of similarity principles for the reactor operation. After the general formulation of such principles, starting from the balance equations of particles and energy, a dimensionless similarity parameter is formulated, characterizing the composition of the effluent gas of the reactor. The applicability of this parameter is demonstrated by experimental examples. (Authors)

  4. Chemical characterization of materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-11-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was procured for trace elemental determination in diverse samples. Since its installation a number of analytical measurements have been carried out on different sample matrices. These include chemical quality control measurements of nuclear fuel and other materials such as uranium metal. Uranium peroxide, ADU, ThO 2 , UO 2 ; isotopic composition of B, Li; chemical characterization of simulated ThO 2 + 2%UO 2 fuel; sodium zirconium phosphate and trace metallic elements in zirconium; Antarctica rock samples and wet phosphoric acid. Necessary separation methodologies required for effective removal of matrix were indigenously developed. In addition, a rigorous analytical protocol, which includes various calibration methodologies such as mass calibration, response calibration, detector cross calibration and linearity check over the entire dynamic range of 109 required for quantitative determination of elements at trace and ultra trace level,, has been standardized. This report summarizes efforts of RACD that have been put in this direction for the application of ICP-MS for analytical measurements. (author)

  5. Chemical Evolution of Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    At very initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions a wave of quark-gluon matter is produced from the break-up of the strong color electric field and then thermalizes at a short time scale (~1 fm/c). However, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) system is far out of chemical equilibrium, especially for the heavy quarks which are supposed to reach chemical equilibrium much late. In this paper a continuing quark production picture for strongly interacting QGP system is derived, using the quark number susceptibilities and the equation of state; both of them are from the results calculated by the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration. We find that the densities of light quarks increase by 75% from the temperature T=400 MeV to T=150 MeV, while the density of strange quark annihilates by 18% in the temperature region. We also offer a discussion on how this late production of quarks affects the final charge-charge correlations

  6. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Cheng, Q.J. [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chen, X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ostrikov, K., E-mail: kostya.ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-22

    Highlights: > A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. > The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. > The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. > A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/{mu}m) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  7. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.B.; Cheng, Q.J.; Chen, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. → The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. → The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. → A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 μA/cm 2 ) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/μm) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  8. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  9. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  10. EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bill

    2010-01-01

    King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: (1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); (2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; (3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); (4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; (5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

  11. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazmeev, A Kh; Tazmeeva, R N

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed. (paper)

  12. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazmeev, A. Kh; Tazmeeva, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed.

  13. Enhanced photoluminescence from porous silicon by hydrogen-plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Gu, C.Z.; Li, J.J.; Wang, Z.L.; Shi, C.Y.; Xu, P.; Zhu, K.; Liu, Y.L.

    2005-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) was etched by hydrogen plasma. On the surface a large number of silicon nanocone arrays and nanocrystallites were formed. It is found that the photoluminescence of the H-etched porous silicon is highly enhanced. Correspondingly, three emission centers including red, green, and blue emissions are shown to contribute to the enhanced photoluminescence of the H-etched PS, which originate from the recombination of trapped electrons with free holes due to Si=O bonding at the surface of the silicon nanocrystallites, the quantum size confinement effect, and oxygen vacancy in the surface SiO 2 layer, respectively. In particular, the increase of SiO x (x<2) formed on the surface of the H-etched porous silicon plays a very important role in enhancing the photoluminescence properties

  14. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  15. Titanium nitride plasma-chemical synthesis with titanium tetrachloride raw material in the DC plasma-arc reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichev, D. E.; Sinaiskiy, M. A.; Samokhin, A. V.; Alexeev, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of plasmochemical synthesis of titanium nitride is demonstrated in the paper. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of TiCl4 - H2 - N2 system are presented; key parameters of TiN synthesis process are calculated. The influence of parameters of plasma-chemical titanium nitride synthesis process in the reactor with an arc plasmatron on characteristics on the produced powders is experimentally investigated. Structure, chemical composition and morphology dependencies on plasma jet enthalpy, stoichiometric excess of hydrogen and nitrogen in a plasma jet are determined.

  16. Modeling of magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources: Ar discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources use transverse static magnetic fields to modify the performance of low pressure radio frequency discharges. Magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) sources typically use magnetic fields of tens to hundreds of Gauss parallel to the substrate to increase the plasma density at a given pressure or to lower the operating pressure. In this article results from a two-dimensional hybrid-fluid computational investigation of MERIE reactors with plasmas sustained in argon are discussed for an industrially relevant geometry. The reduction in electron cross field mobility as the magnetic field increases produces a systematic decrease in the dc bias (becoming more positive). This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in the energy and increase in angular spread of the ion flux to the substrate. Similar trends are observed when decreasing pressure for a constant magnetic field. Although for constant power the magnitudes of ion fluxes to the substrate increase with moderate magnetic fields, the fluxes decreased at larger magnetic fields. These trends are due, in part, to a reduction in the contributions of more efficient multistep ionization

  17. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  18. Graphene Synthesis by Plasma-Enhanced CVD Growth with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, T.; Cotto, M.; Márquez, F.; Elizalde, E.; Morant, C.

    2016-01-01

    A modified route to synthesize graphene flakes is proposed using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique, by using copper substrates as supports. The carbon source used was ethanol, the synthesis temperature was 950°C and the pressure was controlled along the whole process. In this CVD synthesis process the incorporation of the carbon source was produced at low pressure and 950°C inducing the appearance of a plasma blue flash inside the quartz tube. Apparently, the presence of this plas...

  19. Numerical simulation of Trichel pulses of negative DC corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Lan, Lei; Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Yu; Wen, Xishan; Du, Xinyu; He, Wangling

    2017-10-01

    A numerical simulation method of negative direct current (DC) corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model is presented, and a coaxial cylindrical gap is adopted. There were 15 particle species and 61 kinds of collision reactions electrons involved, and 22 kinds of reactions between ions are considered in plasma chemical reactions. Based on this method, continuous Trichel pulses are calculated on about a 100 us timescale, and microcosmic physicochemical process of negative DC corona discharge in three different periods is discussed. The obtained results show that the amplitude of Trichel pulses is between 1-2 mA, and that pulse interval is in the order of 10-5 s. The positive ions produced by avalanche ionization enhanced the electric field near the cathode at the beginning of the pulse, then disappeared from the surface of cathode. The electric field decreases and the pulse ceases to develop. The negative ions produced by attachment slowly move away from the cathode, and the electric field increases gradually until the next pulse begins to develop. The positive and negative ions with the highest density during the corona discharge process are O4+ and O3- , respectively.

  20. Effects of the oxygen fraction and substrate bias power on the electrical and optical properties of silicon oxide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition using TMOS/O2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, S B; Chung, T H; Kim, Y; Kang, M S; Kim, J K

    2004-01-01

    Thin oxide films are deposited from tetramethoxysilane in an inductively coupled oxygen glow discharge supplied with radio frequency power. The chemical bonding states of deposited films are analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The deposition rate and optical properties are determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry. Capacitance-voltage measurements are performed in MOS capacitors to obtain the electrical properties of the deposited films. With these tools, the effects of the substrate bias power and the oxygen mole fraction in the gas on the properties of the film are investigated. The refractive index first decreases with an increase in the oxygen mole fraction, and then increases again, showing a behaviour opposite to that of the deposition rate. The deposition rate increases with increasing substrate bias power and then saturates, while the refractive index increases slightly with an increase in the substrate bias power. The fixed oxide charge density decreases with increasing oxygen fraction and with increasing substrate bias power, while the interface trap density increases with increasing oxygen fraction and with increasing substrate bias power

  1. Transport analysis of pellet-enhanced ICRH plasma in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammett, G.W.; Colestock, P.L.; Granetz, R.S.; McCune, D.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Schmidt, G.L.; Smithe, D.N.; Kupschus, P.

    1989-01-01

    Performance of JET ICRH heated discharges has been significantly enhanced by using pellet fueling to produce a peaked density target for ICRH. The central T i is observed to increase by up to 80%, central T e by up to 40%, and the neutron rate by up to 400%, over their no-pellet values (which are already in the enhanced 'monster-sawtooth' regime). In this paper we describe the transport analysis of these discharges using the TRANSP code. These results indicate that the thermal diffusivities χ i and χ e are reduced by a factor of ∼2 near the plasma center where the pellets have increased the density gradient. The paper focuses on JET discharge 16211 which is documented more fully in a companion paper. (author) 6 refs., 8 figs

  2. Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al alloy by H2-plasma enhanced graphite etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. S.; Hirose, A.

    2007-01-01

    Without intermediate layer and surface pretreatment, adherent diamond films with high initial nucleation density have been deposited on Fe-15Cr-5Al (wt. %) alloy substrate. The deposition was performed using microwave hydrogen plasma enhanced graphite etching in a wide temperature range from 370 to 740 degree sign C. The high nucleation density and growth rate of diamond are primarily attributed to the unique precursors used (hydrogen plasma etched graphite) and the chemical nature of the substrate. The improvement in diamond adhesion to steel alloys is ascribed to the important role played by Al, mitigation of the catalytic function of iron by suppressing the preferential formation of loose graphite intermediate phase on steel surface

  3. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Man Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr. High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr and low r.f. power (10 W are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  4. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Lai, Chih-Chang; Chang, Chih-Wei; Wen, Kai-Shin; Hsiao, Vincent K. S.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.)-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD)-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC) structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr). High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr) and low r.f. power (10 W) are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  5. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  6. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  7. Investigation of plasma potential and pulsed discharge characteristics in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liuhe; Lu Qiuyuan; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (EGD-PII and D) does not require external plasma sources. In this technique, the plasma is produced by self-glow discharge when a high negative voltage is applied to the sample. The small-area, pointed-shape hollow anode and large area tabular cathode form an electron-focused electric field. Using a special electric field design, the electrons from either the plasma or target (secondary electrons) are focused to a special hollow anode. As a result of the special electron-focusing field, the self-glow discharge process can be enhanced to achieve effective ion implantation into the substrate. In this work, the plasma potential distribution is investigated in details and the possible pulse discharge mechanism is discussed. The unique characteristics of the pulsed plasma and plasma extinction are studied.

  8. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weimin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan, E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@njfu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Xiaotao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bian, Jie [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Wan, Jinglin [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  9. Buffalo plasma fibronectin: a physico-chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N; Chandra, R; Raj, H G

    2001-12-01

    Plasma fibronectin (FN) of buffalo (Babulis babulis) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using gelatin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose affinity columns. It was found to have two subunits of molecular mass 246 kDa and 228 kDa, on SDS-gel. Its immunological cross-reactivity with anti-human plasma FN was confirmed by Western blotting. The amino acid composition was found to be similar to that of human and bovine plasma FNs. Buffalo plasma FN contained 2.23% neutral hexoses and 1.18% sialic acids. No titrable sulfhydryl group could be detected in the absence of denaturant. Reaction with DTNB indicated 3.4 sulfhydryl groups in the molecule, whereas BDC-OH titration gave a value of 3.8 -SH groups in buffalo plasma FN. Stoke's radius, intrinsic viscosity, diffusion coefficient and frictional ratio indicated that buffalo plasma FN did not have a compact globular conformation at physiological pH and ionic strength. Molecular dimensions (average length, 120 nm; molar mass to length ratio, 3950 nm(-1) and mean diameter, 2.4 nm) as revealed by rotary shadowing electron microscopy further supported the extended conformation of buffalo plasma FN. These results show that buffalo plasma FN has similar properties as that of human plasma FN.

  10. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  11. RF-plasma vapor deposition of siloxane on paper. Part 2: Chemical evolution of paper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate the detailed RF-cold plasma surface modified paper by XPS and ATR-FTIR. ► Some chemical analysis of RF-cold plasma surface modified paper after RF plasma treatment. ► Identify the connection between RF plasma treatment and the surface chemistry of paper surface. - Abstract: Survey and high-resolution (HR) XPS studies indicate that OMCTSO plasma treatment created a new silicon containing functional groups and changed the hydroxyl content on the surface of paper. Four intense survey XPS spectrum peaks were observed for the OMCTSO plasma treated paper. They were the Si 2p at 100 eV, Si 2s at 160 eV, C 1s at 285 eV, and O 1s at 525 eV for the plasma modified surface. It was realized that the macromolecular chain-breaking mechanisms and plasma-induced etching processes control the number and the availability of OH-functionalities during OMCTSO plasma exposure on paper. The reaction, initiated by these species, depends mainly on the nature of chemicals in the plasma as well as on the energy level of the plasma and the nature of the surface effects in the modification of the paper. The ATR-FTIR spectrum of paper treated with OMCTSO plasma has characteristic absorption bands attributed to the Si-O and Si-O-Si formations on the surface.

  12. Temperature dependence on plasma-induced damage and chemical reactions in GaN etching processes using chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zecheng; Ishikawa, Kenji; Imamura, Masato; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Oda, Osamu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Plasma-induced damage (PID) on GaN was optimally reduced by high-temperature chlorine plasma etching. Energetic ion bombardments primarily induced PID involving stoichiometry, surface roughness, and photoluminescence (PL) degradation. Chemical reactions under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chlorine radical exposure at temperatures higher than 400 °C can be controlled by taking into account the synergism of simultaneous photon and radical irradiations to effectively reduce PID.

  13. Optimization of drilling mud conditioning for chemically enhanced centrifuging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtanowicz, A. K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ye, Y. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Beijing, (China)

    1998-05-01

    A simple method (the nine point (9-P) experiment) for finding optimum chemical conditioning that would maximize mud volume reduction, (i.e. enhance water removal or dewatering) and minimize the cost of the chemicals required, was described. The 9-P experiment is based on the statistical theory of factorial analysis and derives its name from the fact that it requires only nine tests to find the optimum treatment. The experimental design and the method of analysis are described. When compared to conventional trial-and-error approaches, the 9-P method showed a 1.78 to 2.35-fold increase in volume reduction efficiency, and up to 3.7-fold reduction in chemical usage.

  14. Plasma-enhanced growth, composition, and refractive index of silicon oxy-nitride films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and refractive index measurements have been carried out on silicon oxy-nitride produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrous oxide and ammonia were added to a constant flow of 2% silane in nitrogen, to produce oxy-nitride films with atomic...... nitrogen concentrations between 2 and 10 at. %. A simple atomic valence model is found to describe both the measured atomic concentrations and published material compositions for silicon oxy-nitride produced by PECVD. A relation between the Si–N bond concentration and the refractive index is found......-product. A model, that combine the chemical net reaction and the stoichiometric rules, is found to agree with measured deposition rates for given material compositions. Effects of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated for the 400 °C– 1100 °C temperature range. It is observed that PECVD oxy...

  15. Applications of non-equilibrium plasma in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, P.; Castro, A.

    2003-01-01

    By means of optical emission spectroscopy the population of O( 3 P) in a non-equilibrium, high voltage, oxygen plasma, and O( 3 P), H and OH in another of steam in radio frequency, have been followed. Reactions of both plasmas with liquid hydrocarbons have produced oxidation and/or hydrogenation, depending on the conditions of each one. (Author)

  16. Dry etching of ITO by magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasma for display and biosensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziani, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: tarik.meziani@jrc.it; Colpo, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy)]. E-mail: pascal.colpo@jrc.it; Lambertini, V. [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano (TO) (Italy); Ceccone, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy); Rossi, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The dry etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers deposited on glass substrates was investigated in a high density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. This innovative low pressure plasma source uses a magnetic core in order to concentrate the electromagnetic energy on the plasma and thus provides for higher plasma density and better uniformity. Different gas mixtures were tested containing mainly hydrogen, argon and methane. In Ar/H{sub 2} mixtures and at constant bias voltage (-100 V), the etch rate shows a linear dependence with input power varying the same way as the ion density, which confirms the hypothesis that the etching process is mainly physical. In CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures, the etch rate goes through a maximum for 10% CH{sub 4} indicating a participation of the radicals to the etching process. However, the etch rate remains quite low with this type of gas mixture (around 10 nm/min) because the etching mechanism appears to be competing with a deposition process. With CH{sub 4}/Ar mixtures, a similar feature appeared but the etch rate was much higher, reaching 130 nm/min at 10% of CH{sub 4} in Ar. The increase in etch rate with the addition of a small quantity of methane indicates that the physical etching process is enhanced by a chemical mechanism. The etching process was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy that appeared to be a valuable tool for endpoint detection.

  17. Oxygen-plasma-modified biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in several biomedical applications for tissue engineering due to their morphological resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM. Especially, there is a need for the cardiovascular implants to exhibit a nanostructured surface that mimics the native endothelium in order to promote endothelialization and to reduce the complications of thrombosis and implant failure. Thus, we herein fabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, to serve as coatings for cardiovascular implants and guide tissue regeneration. Oxygen plasma treatment was applied in order to modify the surface chemistry of the scaffold and its effect on cell attachment and growth was evaluated. The conditions of the surface modification were properly adjusted in order to define those conditions of the treatment that result in surfaces favorable for cell growth, while maintaining morphological integrity and mechanical behavior. Goniometry (contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements were used to evaluate the morphological and chemical changes induced by the plasma treatment. Moreover, depth-sensing nanoindentation was performed to study the resistance of the plasma-treated scaffolds to plastic deformation. Lastly, the cell studies indicated that all scaffolds were cytocompatible, with the plasma-treated ones expressing a more pronounced cell viability and adhesion. All the above findings demonstrate the great potential of these biomimetic tissue-engineering constructs as efficient coatings for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants.

  18. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  19. Plasma-assisted nitrogen doping of VACNTs for efficiently enhancing the supercapacitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashayekhi, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Mahmoud [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassanpour Amiri, Morteza; Namdar, Naser [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronics Laboratory, Nano-electronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanaee, Zeinab, E-mail: z.sanaee@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nitrogen doping of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been investigated to improve the supercapacitance performance of CNTs. Incorporating electrochemical measurements on the open-ended nitrogen-doped CNTs, showed the achievement of 6 times improvement in the capacitance value. For nitrogen-doped CNTs on silicon substrate, specific capacitance of 60 F g{sup −1} was obtained in 0.5 M KCl solution, with capacity retention ratio above 90 % after cycled at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for 5000 cycles. Using this sample, a symmetric supercapacitance was fabricated which showed the power density of 37.5 kW kg{sup −1}. The facile fabrication approach and its excellent capacitance improvement, propose it as an efficient technique for enhancing the supercapacitance performance of the carbon-based electrodes.

  20. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  1. Plasma Enhanced Growth of Carbon Nanotubes For Ultrasensitive Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Li, J.; Ye, Q.; Koehne, J.; Chen, H.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The multitude of considerations facing nanostructure growth and integration lends itself to combinatorial optimization approaches. Rapid optimization becomes even more important with wafer-scale growth and integration processes. Here we discuss methodology for developing plasma enhanced CVD growth techniques for achieving individual, vertically aligned carbon nanostructures that show excellent properties as ultrasensitive electrodes for nucleic acid detection. We utilize high throughput strategies for optimizing the upstream and downstream processing and integration of carbon nanotube electrodes as functional elements in various device types. An overview of ultrasensitive carbon nanotube based sensor arrays for electrochemical biosensing applications and the high throughput methodology utilized to combine novel electrode technology with conventional MEMS processing will be presented.

  2. Enhanced ion acceleration in transition from opaque to transparent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R.; Fiuza, F.; Glenzer, S.

    2018-04-01

    Using particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate ion acceleration in the interaction of high intensity lasers with plasmas which transition from opaque to transparent during the interaction process. We show that the highest ion energies are achieved when the laser traverses the target around the peak intensity and re-heats the electron population responsible for the plasma expansion, enhancing the corresponding sheath electric field. This process can lead to an increase of up to 2x in ion energy when compared with the standard Target Normal Sheath Acceleration in opaque targets under the same laser conditions. A theoretical model is developed to predict the optimal target areal density as a function of laser intensity and pulse duration. A systematic parametric scan for a wide range of target densities and thicknesses is performed in 1D, 2D and 3D and shown consistent with the theory and with recent experimental results. These results open the way for a better optimization of the ion energy in future laser–solid experiments.

  3. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  4. The Chemical Potential of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol: Implications for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuyan, Artem G; Cohen, Fredric S

    2018-02-27

    Cholesterol is abundant in plasma membranes and exhibits a variety of interactions throughout the membrane. Chemical potential accounts for thermodynamic consequences of molecular interactions, and quantifies the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of any substance participating in a process. We have developed, to our knowledge, the first method to measure cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes. This was accomplished by complexing methyl-β-cyclodextrin with cholesterol in an aqueous solution and equilibrating it with an organic solvent containing dissolved cholesterol. The chemical potential of cholesterol was thereby equalized in the two phases. Because cholesterol is dilute in the organic phase, here activity and concentration were equivalent. This equivalence allowed the amount of cholesterol bound to methyl-β-cyclodextrin to be converted to cholesterol chemical potential. Our method was used to determine the chemical potential of cholesterol in erythrocytes and in plasma membranes of nucleated cells in culture. For erythrocytes, the chemical potential did not vary when the concentration was below a critical value. Above this value, the chemical potential progressively increased with concentration. We used standard cancer lines to characterize cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes of nucleated cells. This chemical potential was significantly greater for highly metastatic breast cancer cells than for nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. Chemical potential depended on density of the cancer cells. A method to alter and fix the cholesterol chemical potential to any value (i.e., a cholesterol chemical potential clamp) was also developed. Cholesterol content did not change when cells were clamped for 24-48 h. It was found that the level of activation of the transcription factor STAT3 increased with increasing cholesterol chemical potential. The cholesterol chemical potential may regulate signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  5. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-06-01

    The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Sisbnd Osbnd C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  6. Theoretical studies of surface enhanced hyper-Raman spectroscopy: The chemical enhancement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Nicholas; Jensen, Lasse; Autschbach, Jochen; Schatz, George C.

    2010-08-01

    Hyper-Raman spectra for pyridine and pyridine on the surface of a tetrahedral 20 silver atom cluster are calculated using static hyperpolarizability derivatives obtained from time dependent density functional theory. The stability of the results with respect to choice of exchange-correlation functional and basis set is verified by comparison with experiment and with Raman spectra calculated for the same systems using the same methods. Calculated Raman spectra were found to match well with experiment and previous theoretical calculations. The calculated normal and surface enhanced hyper-Raman spectra closely match experimental results. The chemical enhancement factors for hyper-Raman are generally larger than for Raman (102-104 versus 101-102). Integrated hyper-Raman chemical enhancement factors are presented for a set of substituted pyridines. A two-state model is developed to predict these chemical enhancement factors and this was found to work well for the majority of the molecules considered, providing a rationalization for the difference between hyper-Raman and Raman enhancement factors.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on blueberries using cold plasma with chemical augmentation inside a partial vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justification: The mechanism by which cold plasma inactivates pathogens is through the production of free reactive chemical species. Unfortunately, the most reactive chemical species have the shortest half-life. In a vacuum their half-life is believed to be prolonged. Additionally, these reactive sp...

  8. Chemical reactions inside the plasma chamber of the SEAFP reactor plant models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J.M.; Ebert, E.; Mazille, F.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of coolant or loss of vacuum accidents may lead to chemical reactions between the protecting materials of the plasma facing components and air or water. A production of energy, reaction products and hydrogen may be induced. The paper defines the operating conditions and chemical reactions and presents the main results from the underlying studies. (orig.)

  9. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  10. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  11. A study of the potential of plasma processing in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, P.N.; Connolly, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs from a plasma based processing system. Based on these mass flows and the energy flows to the processor an economic assessment of the plasma processing system is made. This economic assessment which also includes the capital costs of the processor, can be used to determine if the plasma system is competitive with the conventional system

  12. Patterned deposition by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.; Kniknie, B.J.; Branca, A.; Winands, G.J.J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor has been developed, to deposit Al2O3 films from trimethyl aluminum and an He/O2 plasma. This technique can be used for 2D patterned deposition in a single in-line process by making use of switched localized plasma sources. It

  13. Low temperature growth of gallium oxide thin films via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Rechmann, J.; Aghaee, M.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.; Creatore, M.; Wieck, A.D.; Devi, A.P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we describe an efficient low temperature (60–160 °C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process for gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films using hexakis(dimethylamido)digallium [Ga(NMe2)3]2 with oxygen (O2) plasma on Si(100). The use of O2 plasma was found to have a significant

  14. In vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of granisetron by chemical penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanxi; Cun, Dongmei; Li, Wei; Ma, Xu; Sun, Lin; Xi, Honglei; Li, Li; Fang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    Granisetron (GRN), a potent antiemetic agent, is frequently used to prevent nausea and vomiting induced by cancer cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. As part of our efforts to further modify the physicochemical properties of this market drug, with the ultimate goal to formulate a better dosage form for GRN, this work was carried out to improve its permeability in vitro. The permeation behavior of GRN in isopropyl myristate (IPM) was investigated across excised rabbit abdominal skin and the enhancing activities of three novel O-acylmenthol derivatives synthesized in our laboratory as well as five well-known chemical enhancers were evaluated. It was found that the steady-state flux of granisetron free base (GRN-B) was about 26-fold higher than that of granisetron hydrochloride (GRN-H). The novel enhancer, 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate (M-HEP), was observed to provide the most significant enhancement for the absorption of GRN-B. When incorporated in the donor solution with the optimal enhancer M-HEP, the steady-state flux of GRN-B increased from (196.44 ± 12.03) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ to (1044.95 ± 71.99) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that the application of chemical enhancers was an effective approach to increase the percutaneous absorption of GRN in vitro.

  15. Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for sensitive elemental analysis: Elucidation of enhancement mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.L.; Cheung, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    When performing laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for elemental analysis, the analyte signal-to-noise ratio increased from four to over fifty if the plume was reheated by a dye laser pulse tuned to resonant absorption. Time-resolved studies showed that the enhancement was not due to resonance photoionization. Rather, efficient and controlled rekindling of a larger plume volume was the key mechanism. The signal-to-noise ratio further increased to over a hundred if the atmosphere was replaced by a low-pressure heavy inert gas. The ambient gas helped confine and thermally insulate the expanding vapor

  16. Growth kinetics and initial stage growth during plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the growth kinetics of plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a quartz crystal microbalance. Ti ALD films were grown at temperatures from 20 to 200 deg. C using TiCl sub 4 as a source gas and rf plasma-produced atomic H as the reducing agent. Postdeposition ex situ chemical analyses of thin films showed that the main impurity is oxygen, mostly incorporated during the air exposure prior to analysis. The thickness per cycle, corresponding to the growth rate, was measured by quartz crystal microbalance as a function of various key growth parameters, including TiCl sub 4 and H exposure time, rf plasma power, and sample temperature. The growth rates were independent of TiCl sub 4 exposure above 1x10 sup 3 L, indicating typical ALD mode growth. The key kinetic parameters for Cl extraction reaction and TiCl sub 4 adsorption kinetics were obtained and the growth kinetics were modeled to predict the growth rates based upon these results. Also, the dependency of growth kinetics on d...

  17. Comparative studies of chemically synthesized and RF plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. April 2015 physics pp. 653–665. Comparative studies of ... MS received 16 April 2013; revised 5 February 2014; accepted 28 May 2014 ... RF plasma polymerization; poly(o-toluidine); Fourier transform infrared; UV–visible ... tial applications, e.g., as electrodes and membranes for electrochemical energy ...

  18. Adsorbability Enhancement of Macroporous Resin by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment to Phenol in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adsorption efficiency and economize the use of macroporous resin, we have treated it with the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma to improve its adsorbing capacity for phenol. The effects of operation conditions, for instance, applied voltage, treated time, and air flow rate on resin, were investigated by adsorption kinetics and isotherms. Results showed that the adsorption data were in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order and Freundlich equation. Experimental results showed that the modified resin was 156.5 mg/g and 39.2% higher than the untreated sample, when the modified conditions were conducted for discharge voltage 20 kV, treatment time 45 min, and air flow rate 1.2 L/min. The resin was characterized by FTIR and nitrogen adsorption isotherms before and after the DBD processes. It was found that the reason for the enhancement of resin adsorbability was attributed to the DBD plasma changing the surface physical and chemical structure.

  19. Plasma sheath physics and dose uniformity in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liuhe; Li Jianhui; Kwok, Dixon T. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the multiple-grid particle-in-cell code, an advanced simulation model is established to study the sheath physics and dose uniformity along the sample stage in order to provide the theoretical basis for further improvement of enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. At t=7.0 μs, the expansion of the sheath in the horizontal direction is hindered by the dielectric cage. The electron focusing effect is demonstrated by this model. Most of the ions at the inside wall of the cage are implanted into the edge of the sample stage and a relatively uniform ion fluence distribution with a large peak is observed at the end. Compared to the results obtained from the previous model, a higher implant fluence and larger area of uniformity are disclosed.

  20. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a nonequilibrium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. They use Newton's method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. They investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, mesh sequencing, and a pseudotransient continuation technique is used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with incomplete lower-upper (ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a mesh sequencing implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented

  1. Surface-modified polymeric pads for enhanced performance during chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.; Dakshinamurthy, S.; Kuiry, S.C.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Obeng, Y.S.; Seal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process occurs at an atomic level at the slurry/wafer interface and hence slurries and polishing pads play a critical role in their successful implementation. Polyurethane is a commonly used polymer in the manufacturing of CMP pads. These pads are incompatible with some chemicals present in the CMP slurries, such as hydrogen peroxide. To overcome these problems, Psiloquest has developed new Application Specific Pads (ASP). Surface of such pads has been modified by depositing a thin film of tetraethyl orthosilicate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. In the present study, mechanical properties of such coated pads have been investigated using nanoindentation. The surface morphology and the chemistry of the ASP were studied using scanning electron microcopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that mechanical and chemical properties of the pad top surface are a function of the PECVD coating time. Such PECVD-treated pads are found to be hydrophilic and do not require storage in aqueous media during the not-in-use period. The metal removal rate using such surface-modified polishing pads was found to increase linearly with the PECVD coating time

  2. Improvement of Plating Characteristics Between Nickel and PEEK by Plasma Treatment and Chemical Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye W.; Lee, Jong K.; Park, Ki Y.

    2009-01-01

    Surface of PEEK(poly-ether-ether-ketone) was modified by chemical etching, plasma treatment and mechanical grinding to improve the plating adhesion. The plating characteristics of these samples were studied by the contact angle, plating thickness, gloss and adhesion. Chemical etching and plasma treatment increased wettability, adhesion and gloss. The contact angle of as-received PEEK was 61 .deg. . The contact angles of chemical etched, plasma treated or both were improved to the range of 15∼33 .deg. . In the case of electroless plating, the thickest layer without blister was 1.6 μm. The adhesion strengths by chemical etching, plasma treatment or both chemical etching and plasma treatment were 75 kgf/cm 2 , 102 kgf/cm 2 , 113 kgf/cm 2 , respectively, comparing to the 24 kgf/cm 2 of as-received. In the case of mechanically ground PEEKs, the adhesion strengths were higher than those unground, with the sacrifice of surface gloss. The gloss of untreated PEEK were greater than mechanically ground PEEKs. Plating thickness increased linearly with the plating times

  3. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Soracaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Trasferetti, B. Claudio [Present address: Superintendencia Regional da Policia Federal em Sao Paulo, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Rua Hugo d' Antola 95/10o Andar, Lapa de Baixo, 05038-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Davanzo, C.U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V{sub S}) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X{sub T}) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V{sub S} and X{sub T} are presented.

  4. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Trasferetti, B. Claudio; Davanzo, C.U.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V S ) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X T ) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V S and X T are presented

  5. Fabrication of aligned carbon nanotubes on Cu catalyst by dc plasma-enhanced catalytic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhejuan [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China); Shakerzadeh, Maziar; Tay, Beng Kang; Li Xiaocheng; Tan Chongwei [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue 50, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Lin Lifeng; Guo Pingsheng; Feng Tao [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China); Sun Zhuo, E-mail: zsun@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China)

    2009-04-01

    Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) are deposited using copper (Cu) catalyst on Chromium (Cr)-coated substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperature of 700 deg. C. Acetylene gas has been used as the carbon source while ammonia is used for diluting and etching. The thicknesses of Cu films on Cr-coated Si (100) substrates are controlled by deposition time of magnetron sputtering. The growth behaviors and quality of ACNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. The different performance of ACNTs on various Cu films is explained by referring to the graphitic order as detected by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the ACNTs are formed in tip-growth model where Cu is used as a novel catalyst, and the thickness of Cu films is responsible to the diameter and quality of synthesized CNTs.

  6. Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, C.; Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values

  7. PIII Plasma Density Enhancement by a New DC Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In practical terms, those plasmas produced by a DC voltage power supply do not attain densities above the 108 to 109 cm-3 band. Here we present a power supply, controlled in current and voltage, which has been successfully designed and constructed delivering plasma densities in the orders of 109 - 1010 cm-3. Its experimental performance test was conducted within one toroidal and one cylindrical chambers capable of 29 and 35 litres, respectively, using nitrogen gas. The DC plasma was characterized by a double electric probe. Several physical phenomena present in the PIII process have been keenly investigated including plasma sheath dynamics, interaction of plasma and surface, etc. In this paper we analyze the effect of the implantation voltage, plasma density and pulse time in the PIII average heating power and fluence density

  8. Physical and chemical contributions of a plasma treatment in the growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.T. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis. •Oxygen plasma was done on the surface of seed ZnO nanorods. •The ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were characterized. •The results showed that the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods with plasma treatment were enhanced. -- Abstract: We analyzed the enhancement of optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods by using a plasma treatment. In this study, seed ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h on a ZnO buffered Si substrate. The seed ZnO nanorods were then treated with an oxygen plasma. Next, ZnO was grown for an additional 4 h by hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The measurements showed that the plasma treatment of the seed ZnO nanorods increased the roughness of the buffer layer and the concentration of oxygen ions on the surfaces of the seed ZnO nanorods and the buffer layer, leading to improved optical and structural properties. In this study, we found that the plasma treatment on the seed ZnO nanorods enhanced the optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  9. Bio-compatibility, surface and chemical characterization of glow discharge plasma modified ZnO nanocomposite polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagra, Bhawna, E-mail: bhawnacct@gmail.com; Pimpliskar, Prashant, E-mail: bhawnacct@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India); Agrawal, Narendra Kumar [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Bio compatibility is an important issue for synthesis of biomedical devices, which can be tested by bioadoptability and creations of active site to enhance the bacterial/cell growth in biomedical devices. Hence a systematic study was carried out to characterize the effects of Nitrogen ion plasma for creations of active site in nano composite polymer membrane. Nano particles of ZnO are synthesized by chemical root, using solution casting nano composite polymeric membranes were prepared and treated with Nitrogen ion plasma. These membranes were characterized by different technique such as optical microscopy, SEM- Scanning electron microscope, optical transmittance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then biocompatibility for membranes was tested by testing of bio-adoptability of membrane.

  10. The Synergistic Effect between Electrical and Chemical Factors in Plasma Gene/Molecule-Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasma and processes on cells promote plasma gene/molecule transfection. We have discovered a new plasma source using a microcapillary electrode which enables high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. However, the mechanism of the transfection by plasma was not clear. To clarify the transfection mechanisms by micro plasma, we focused on the effects of electrical (current, charge, field, etc.) and chemical (radicals, RONS, etc.) factors generated by the micro plasma and evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones. At first, the necessity of the electrical factors was estimated by the laser produced plasma (LPP). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cell was cultured on a 96-well plate or 12-well micro slide chamber. Plasmids pCX-EGFP in Tris-EDTA buffer was dropped on the cells and they were exposed to the capillary discharge plasma (CDP) or the LPP. In the case of the CDP, the plasma was generated between the tip of the capillary electrode and the cells so that both electrical and chemical factors were supplied to the cells. In this setup, about 20% of average transfection efficiency was obtained. In the case of the LPP, the plasma was generated apart from the cells so that electrical factors were not supplied to the cells. In this setup, no transfection was observed. These results show that the electrical factors are necessary for the plasma gene transfection. Next, the necessity of the chemical factors was estimated the effect of catalase to remove H2O2 in CDP. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.4 by scavenging H2O2 with catalase. However, only the solution of H2O2 caused no gene transfection in cells. These results shows that H2O2 is important species to cause gene/molecule transfection but still needs a synergistic effect with electrical or other chemical factors. This work was partly supported by

  11. Fundamental limits on gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the plasma, the electrons do not react directly with the NOx molecules. The electrons collide mainly with the background gas molecules like N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron impact on these molecules result partly in dissociation reactions that produce reactive species like N, O and OH. The NOx in the engine exhaust gas initially consist mostly of NO. The ground state nitrogen atom, N, is the only species that could lead to the chemical reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The O radical oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2} leaving the same amount of NOx. The OH radical converts NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. Acid products in the plasma can easily get adsorbed on surfaces in the plasma reactor and in the pipes. When undetected, the absence of these oxidation products can often be mistaken for chemical reduction of NOx. In this paper the authors will examine the gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx. They will show that under the best conditions, the plasma can chemically reduce 1.6 grams of NOx per brake-horsepower-hour [g(NOx)/bhp-hr] when 5% of the engine output energy is delivered to the plasma.

  12. Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering by femtosecond ultraviolet plasma grating in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjiang; Yuan, Shuai; He, Boqu; Nan, Junyi; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ding, Liang'en; Zeng, Heping

    2018-02-01

    Efficient forward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) was observed along 400-nm femtosecond (fs) laser filaments in water. SRS conversion dominated over self-phase modulation induced continuum generation as the input pulse energy was above 4 μJ (˜30 Pcr), implying that plasma in the aqueous filamentation channel played an important role in compensating for the group velocity walk-off between the pump and Stokes pulses. By overlapping two synchronous fs 400-nm filaments to form plasma grating in water, significant enhancement of SRS conversion was observed. Such a SRS enhancement originated from the ultrahigh plasma density in the intersection region of the preformed plasma grating.

  13. Diffusion in plasma: The Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urpin, V., E-mail: Vadim.urpin@uv.es [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and Hall effect is considered, and it is argued that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of a chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type of waves in which the impurity number density oscillates alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure.

  14. A two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium modeling of DC arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haiyang; Wu Bin

    2011-01-01

    To a better understanding of non-equilibrium characteristics of DC arc plasma,a two-dimensional axisymmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (2T-NCE) model is applied for direct current arc argon plasma generator with water-cooled constrictor at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the electron temperature and heavy particle temperature has a relationship under different working parameters, indicating that DC arc plasma has a strong non-equilibrium characteristic, and the variation is obvious. (authors)

  15. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-11

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

  16. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed

  17. Atmospheric-pressure-plasma-enhanced fabrication of nonfouling nanocoatings for 316 stainless steel biomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Lin, Jin-He; Li, Chi-Heng; Yu, I.-Chun; Chen, Ting-Lun

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma, which was generated with electrical RF power, was fed to a tetramethyldisiloxane/argon gas mixture to prepare bioinert organosilicon coatings for 316 stainless steel. The surface characteristics of atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings were evaluated as a function of RF plasma power, precursor gas flow, and plasma working distance. After surface deposition, the chemical features, elemental compositions, and surface morphologies of the organosilicon nanocoatings were examined. It was found that RF plasma power and plasma working distance are the essential factors that affect the formation of plasma-deposited nanocoatings. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicate that the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings formed showed inorganic features. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the surface roughness variation of the plasma-deposited nanocoating at different RF plasma powers and plasma working distances during surface treatment. From these surface analyses, it was found that the plasma-deposited organosilicon nanocoatings under specific operational conditions have relatively hydrophobic and inorganic characteristics, which are essential for producing an anti-biofouling interface on 316 stainless steel. The experimental results also show that atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings have potential use as a cell-resistant layer on 316 stainless steel.

  18. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunming, E-mail: zcm1229@126.com [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China); Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Men, Yajing [Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  19. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunming; Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  20. Microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of porous carbon film as supercapacitive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Min; Feng, Chen-Chen; Huang, Hao; Paredes Camacho, Ramon Alberto; Gao, Song; Lei, Ming-Kai; Cao, Guo-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon film (PCF) coated on nickel foam was prepared successfully by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) with C2H2 as carbon source and Ar as discharge gas. The PCF is uniform and dense with 3D-crosslinked nanoscale network structure possessing high degree of graphitization. When used as the electrode material in an electrochemical supercapacitor, the PCF samples verify their advantageous electrical conductivity, ion contact and electrochemical stability. The test results show that the sample prepared under 1000 W microwave power has good electrochemical performance. It displays the specific capacitance of 62.75 F/g at the current density of 2.0 A/g and retains 95% of its capacitance after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A/g. Besides, its near-rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) curves exhibits typical character of an electric double-layer capacitor, which owns an enhanced ionic diffusion that can fit the requirements for energy storage applications.

  1. Spark plasma sintering of tungsten-yttrium oxide composites from chemically synthesized nanopowders and microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, M.A.; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, H.G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    Nano-crystalline W-1%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%) powder was produced by a modified solution chemical reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) and yttrium nitrate. The precursor powder was found to consist of particles of bimodal morphology i.e. large APT-like particles up to 20 μm and rectangular yttrium containing ultrafine plates. After thermal processing tungsten crystals were evolved from W-O-Y plate like particles. spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the powder at 1100 and 1200 deg. C for different holding times in order to optimize the sintering conditions to yield high density but with reduced grain growth. Dispersion of yttrium oxide enhanced the sinterability of W powder with respect to lanthanum oxide. W-1%Y 2 O 3 composites with sub-micron grain size showed improved density and mechanical properties as compared to W-La 2 O 3 composites. Sample sintered in two steps showed improved density, due to longer holding time at lower temperature (900 deg. C) and less grain growth due to shorter holding time at higher temperature i.e. 1 min at 1100 deg. C.

  2. Chemical compositions of spherical titanium powders prepared by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Jin Yuping; Ye Gaoying

    2012-01-01

    Spherical titanium powders were prepared by RF induction plasma technology. The particle size is essentially un- changed, while the particle size distribution is relatively narrow after spheroidization processing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) random testing of the spherical titanium powders shows no structure and phase changes. The content of O, H, N and C decreases, while the content of Ti increases slightly. It indicates that spheroidization with RF plasma can enhance powder purity. (authors)

  3. Fabrication of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong-Won, E-mail: jwlim@etri.re.kr [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Seong-il; Kang, Dong-Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Min, Byoung-Gue; Lee, Sang-Heung; Yoon, Hyung-Sup; Ju, Chull-Won; Kim, Haecheon; Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Nam, Eun-Soo [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Moo [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication and DC and microwave characteristics of 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment process. Silicon nitride layers 700 and 150 Å thick were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 260 °C to protect the device and to define the gate footprint. The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques to obtain enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with 0.5 μm gate lengths. The enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor was prepared in parallel to the depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device on one wafer. Completed double plasma treated 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices fabricated by dry etching exhibited a peak transconductance, gm, of 330 mS/mm, a breakdown voltage of 115 V, a current-gain cutoff frequency (f{sub T}) of 18 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (f{sub max}) of 66 GHz. - Highlights: • The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques. • Double plasma treated device exhibited a transconductance of 330 mS/mm. • Completed 0.5 μm gate device exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 18 GHz. • The off-state breakdown voltage of 115 V for 0.5 μm gate device was obtained. • Continuous-wave output power density of 4.3 W/mm was obtained at 2.4 GHz.

  4. Fabrication of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong-Won; Ahn, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Seong-il; Kang, Dong-Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Min, Byoung-Gue; Lee, Sang-Heung; Yoon, Hyung-Sup; Ju, Chull-Won; Kim, Haecheon; Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Nam, Eun-Soo; Park, Hyung-Moo

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and DC and microwave characteristics of 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment process. Silicon nitride layers 700 and 150 Å thick were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 260 °C to protect the device and to define the gate footprint. The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques to obtain enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with 0.5 μm gate lengths. The enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor was prepared in parallel to the depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device on one wafer. Completed double plasma treated 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices fabricated by dry etching exhibited a peak transconductance, gm, of 330 mS/mm, a breakdown voltage of 115 V, a current-gain cutoff frequency (f T ) of 18 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 66 GHz. - Highlights: • The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques. • Double plasma treated device exhibited a transconductance of 330 mS/mm. • Completed 0.5 μm gate device exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 18 GHz. • The off-state breakdown voltage of 115 V for 0.5 μm gate device was obtained. • Continuous-wave output power density of 4.3 W/mm was obtained at 2.4 GHz

  5. Low-Pressure H2, NH3 Microwave Plasma Treatment of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powders: Chemical, Thermal and Wettability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunke, Harald; Soin, Navneet; Shah, Tahir H.; Kramer, Erich; Pascual, Alfons; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Siores, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Functionalization of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powders of ~6 μm particle size is carried out using low-pressure 2.45 GHz H2, NH3 microwave plasmas for various durations (2.5, 10 h) to chemically modify their surface and alter their surface energy. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses reveal that plasma treatment leads to significant defluorination (F/C atomic ratio of 1.13 and 1.30 for 10 h NH3 and H2 plasma treatments, respectively vs. 1.86 for pristine PTFE), along with the incorporation of functional polar moieties on the surface, resulting in enhanced wettability. Analysis of temperature dependent XPS revealed a loss of surface moieties above 200 °C, however, the functional groups are not completely removable even at higher temperatures (>300 °C), thus enabling the use of plasma treated PTFE powders as potential tribological fillers in high temperature engineering polymers. Ageing studies carried over a period of 12 months revealed that while the surface changes degenerate over time, again, they are not completely reversible. These functionalised PTFE powders can be further used for applications into smart, high performance materials such as tribological fillers for engineering polymers and bio-medical, bio-material applications.

  6. Gravimetrical and chemical characterization of SiOx structures deposited on fine powders by short plasma exposure in a plasma down stream reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillmann, Adrian; Sonnenfeld, Axel; Rohr, Philipp Rudolf von

    2008-01-01

    The surface of lactose particles was modified by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process to improve the flow behavior of the powder. For this, the particulates were treated in a plasma down stream reactor which provides a short (50 ms) and homogeneous exposure to the capacitively coupled RF discharge. The organosilicon monomer hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was used as a precursor for the formation of SiO x which is deposited on the substrate particle surface. For varying process gas mixtures (O 2 /Ar/HMDSO) and RF power applied, the amount of the deposited material was determined gravimetrically after dissolution of the lactose substrate particles and the chemical composition of the accumulated deposition material was investigated by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The concentration of the deposited SiO x relating to the substrate material was found to be in the range of 0.1 wt.%. Based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, the inorganic, i.e. oxidic SiO x fraction of the obtained deposits was shown to be controllable by varying the process parameters, whilst a relatively large amount of organic structures must be considered.

  7. Enhanced resonant second harmonic generation in plasma based on density transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Niti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resonant second harmonic generation of a relativistic self-focusing laser in plasma with density ramp profile has been investigated. A high intense Gaussian laser beam generates resonant second harmonic beam in plasma with density ramp profile. The second harmonic undergoes periodic focusing in the plasma channel created by the fundamental wave. The normalized second harmonic amplitude varies periodically with distance and attains maximum value in the focal region. Enhancement in the second harmonic amplitude on account of relativistic self-focusing of laser based on plasma density transition is seen. Plasma density ramp plays an important role to make self-focusing stronger which leads to enhance the second harmonic generation in plasma.

  8. Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, N A D [Department of Physics, Gomal Unversity, D I Khan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: ktk_nad@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    Plasma dynamics of a liner consisting of two or three annular cascade gas-puffs with entrained axial magnetic field is studied using the modified snow-plow model. The current stepping technique (Les 1984 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 733) is employed to enhance compression of the imploding plasma. A small-diameter low-voltage-driven system of imploding plasma is considered in order to work out the possibility of the highest gain, in terms of plasma parameters and radiation yield with a relatively simple and compact system. Our numerical results demonstrate that current stepping enhances the plasma compression, yielding high values of the plasma parameters and compressed magnetic field B{sub z} (in magnitudes), if the switching time for the additional current is properly synchronized.

  9. Compression enhancement by current stepping in a multicascade liner gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, N A D; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G; Zakaullah, M

    2008-01-01

    Plasma dynamics of a liner consisting of two or three annular cascade gas-puffs with entrained axial magnetic field is studied using the modified snow-plow model. The current stepping technique (Les 1984 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 733) is employed to enhance compression of the imploding plasma. A small-diameter low-voltage-driven system of imploding plasma is considered in order to work out the possibility of the highest gain, in terms of plasma parameters and radiation yield with a relatively simple and compact system. Our numerical results demonstrate that current stepping enhances the plasma compression, yielding high values of the plasma parameters and compressed magnetic field B z (in magnitudes), if the switching time for the additional current is properly synchronized

  10. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials in the SOL of Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Wukitch, S. J. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); D' Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    We performed an extensive survey of the plasma potential in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of Ion Cyclotron Range-of Frequencies (ICRF)-heated discharges on Alcator C-Mod. Our results show that plasma potentials are enhanced in the presence of ICRF power and plasma potential values of >100 V are often observed. Such potentials are high enough to induce sputtering of high-Z molybdenum (Mo) plasma facing components by deuterium ions on C-Mod. For comparison, the plasma potential in Ohmic discharges is typically less than 10 V, well below the threshold needed to induce Mo sputtering by deuterium ions. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials are observed in the SOL regions that both magnetically map and do not map to active ICRF antennas. Regions that magnetically map to active ICRF antennas are accessible to slow waves directly launched by the antennas and these regions experience plasma potential enhancement that is partially consistent with the slow wave rectification mechanism. One of the most defining features of the slow wave rectification is a threshold appearance of significant plasma potentials (>100 V) when the dimensionless rectification parameter Λ{sub −o} is above unity and this trend is observed experimentally. We also observe ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials >100 V in regions that do not magnetically map to the active antennas and, hence, are not accessible for slow waves launched directly by the active antennas. However, unabsorbed fast waves can reach these regions. The general trend that we observe in these 'un-mapped' regions is that the plasma potential scales with the strength of the local RF wave fields with the fast wave polarization and the highest plasma potentials are observed in discharges with the highest levels of unabsorbed ICRF power. Similarly, we find that core Mo levels scale with the level of unabsorbed ICRF power suggesting a link between plasma potentials in the SOL and the strength of the impurity source.

  11. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  12. Expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition of ZnO:Al layers for CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.; Williams, B.L.; Mittal, A.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, N.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) grown by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP-CVD) has demonstrated excellent electrical and optical properties, which make it an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic applications. However, when depositing

  13. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry : a case study on CO2 reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, G.J.; Akse, H.N.; Bongers, W.A.; Van De Sanden, M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  15. Plasma for Electrification of Chemical Industry: a Case Study on CO2 Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significantly increasing the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  16. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  17. Enhanced confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2010-02-01

    Power loss by plasma-wall interactions may become a limitation for the performance of ECR and fusion plasma devices. Based on our research to optimize the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) devices by the use of metal-dielectric (MD) structures, the development of the method presented here, allows to significantly improve the confinement of plasma electrons and hence to reduce losses. Dedicated measurements were performed at the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS using argon and helium as working gas and high temperature resistive material for the MD structures. The analyzed charge state distributions and bremsstrahlung radiation spectra (corrected for background) also clearly verify the anticipated increase in the plasma-electron density and hence demonstrate the advantage by the MD-method.

  18. On the enhancement of pervaporation properties of plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-06-24

    The separation performance of a polymeric-supported hybrid silica membrane in the dehydration process of a butanol-water mixture at 95C has been enhanced by applying a bias to the substrate during the plasma deposition.

  19. Combustion Enhancement Via Stabilized Piecewise Nonequilibrium Gliding Arc Plasma Discharge (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ombrello, Timothy; Qin, Xiao; Ju, Yiguang; Gutsol, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander; Carter, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    ... enhancement of methane-air diffusion flames. The results showed that the new system provided a well-defined flame geometry for the understanding of the basic mechanism of the plasma-flame interaction...

  20. Enhanced coagulation activation in preeclampsia: the role of APC resistance, microparticles and other plasma constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWijk, Marja J.; Boer, Kees; Berckmans, René J.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Sturk, Augueste; VanBavel, Ed; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation activation in pregnancy is further enhanced in preeclampsia. We investigated whether this results from increased thrombin generation by the plasma itself or its cell-derived microparticles. Plasma samples were obtained from preeclamptic, normal pregnant and nonpregnant women (each n =

  1. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited MoOx emitters for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, J.; Mews, M.; Kaufmann, K.; Schneider, T.; Sprafke, A.N.; Korte, L.; Wehrsporn, R.B

    2015-01-01

    A method for the deposition of molybdenum oxide MoOx with high growth rates at temperatures below 200 C based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is presented. The stoichiometry of the overstoichiometric MoOx films can be adjusted by the plasma parameters. First results of these layers acting as hole selective contacts in silicon heterojunction solar cells are presented and discussed

  2. [Study of enhancement effect of laser-induced crater on plasma radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin; Su, Hong-Xin; Li, Guang

    2009-02-01

    Single pulses exported from high-energy neodymium glass laser were used to act on the same position of soil sample surface repeatedly, and the plasma emission spectra generated from sequential laser pulse action were collected by spectral recording system. The experimental results show that the laser-induced soil plasma radiation was enhanced continuously under the confinement effect of the crater walls, and the line intensities and signal-to-background ratios both had different improvements along with increasing the number of acting pulses. The photographs of the plasma image and crater appearance were taken to study the plasma shape, laser-induced crater appearance, and the mass of the ablated sample. The internal mechanism behind that laser-induced crater enhanced plasma radiation was researched. Under the sequential laser pulse action, the forming plasma as a result enlarges gradually first, leading to distortion at the trail of plasma plume, and then, its volume diminishes slowly. And also, the color of the plasma changes from buff to white gradually, which implies that the temperature increases constantly. The laser-induced crater had a regular shape, that is, the diameter increased from its bottom to top gradually, thus forming a taper. The mass of the laser-ablated substance descends along with increasing the amount of action pulse. Atomization degree of vaporized substance was improved in virtue of the crater confinement effect, Fresnel absorption produced from the crater walls reflection, and the inverse bremsstrahlung, and the plasma radiation intensity was enhanced as a result.

  3. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 7, part B. Particle induced erosion of Be, C and W in fusion plasmas. Part B: Physical sputtering and radiation-enhanced sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Stephens, J.A.; Clark, R.E.H.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Vietzke, E.; Hirooka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion is devoted to a critical review of the physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation (RES) behaviour of fusion plasma-facing materials, in particular carbon, beryllium and tungsten. The present volume is intended to provide fusion reactor designers a detailed survey and parameterization of existing, critically assessed data for the chemical erosion of plasma-facing materials by particle impact. The survey and data compilation is presented for a variety of materials containing the elements C, Be and W (including dopants in carbon materials) and impacting plasma species. The dependencies of physical sputtering and RES yields on the material temperature, incident projectile energy, and incident flux are considered. The main data compilation is presented as separate data sheets indicating the material, impacting plasma species, experimental conditions, and parameterizations in terms of analytic functions

  4. Determination of clebopride in plasma by capillary gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P R; Jones, M D; Maddock, J

    1988-11-18

    A procedure for the analysis of clebopride in plasma using capillary gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed. Employing an ethoxy analogue as internal standard, the two compounds were extracted from basified plasma using dichloromethane. Subsequent reaction with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole produced volatile monoheptafluorobutyryl derivatives whose ammonia negative-ion mass spectra proved ideal for selected-ion monitoring. The recovery of clebopride from plasma at 0.536 nmol/l was found to be 85.5 +/- 0.9% (n = 3) whilst measurement down to 0.268 nmol/l was possible with a coefficient of variation of 7.9%. Plasma levels of the compound are reported in two volunteers following ingestion of 1 mg of clebopride as the malate salt.

  5. Microwave plasma-assisted photoluminescence enhancement in nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties and conductivity of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystal diamond (UNCD films were investigated following treatment with low energy microwave plasma at room temperature. The plasma also generated vacancies in UNCD films and provided heat for mobilizing the vacancies to combine with the impurities, which formed the nitrogen-vacancy defect centers. The generated color centers were distributed uniformly in the samples. The conductivity of nitrogen-doped UNCD films treated by microwave plasma was found to decrease slightly due to the reduced grain boundaries. The photoluminescence emitted by the plasma treated nitrogen-doped UNCD films was enhanced significantly compared to the untreated films.

  6. Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanrong, KONG; Qiuyue, NIE; Shu, LIN; Zhibin, WANG; Bowen, LI; Shulei, ZHENG; Binhao, JIANG

    2018-01-01

    The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.

  7. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology

  8. Diamond films deposited by oxygen-enhanced linear plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Davydova, Marina; Krátká, Marie; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 509-514 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond films * process gas chemistry * pulsed microwave plasma * surface conductivity of diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. PumpKin: A tool to find principal pathways in plasma chemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markosyan, A. H.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Ebert, U.

    2014-10-01

    PumpKin is a software package to find all principal pathways, i.e. the dominant reaction sequences, in chemical reaction systems. Although many tools are available to integrate numerically arbitrarily complex chemical reaction systems, few tools exist in order to analyze the results and interpret them in relatively simple terms. In particular, due to the large disparity in the lifetimes of the interacting components, it is often useful to group reactions into pathways that recycle the fastest species. This allows a researcher to focus on the slow chemical dynamics, eliminating the shortest timescales. Based on the algorithm described by Lehmann (2004), PumpKin automates the process of finding such pathways, allowing the user to analyze complex kinetics and to understand the consumption and production of a certain species of interest. We designed PumpKin with an emphasis on plasma chemical systems but it can also be applied to atmospheric modeling and to industrial applications such as plasma medicine and plasma-assisted combustion.

  10. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Mark J., E-mail: msowa@ultratech.com [Ultratech/Cambridge NanoTech, 130 Turner Street, Building 2, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  11. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenhorst, L.M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  12. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenhorst, L.M., E-mail: lena.wallenhorst@hawk-hhg.de [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Gerhard, C. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Militz, H. [Wood Biology and Wood Products, Burckhardt Institute, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ohms, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Viöl, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  13. Improving plasma resistance and lowering roughness in an ArF photoresist by adding a chemical reaction inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Uesugi, Takuji; Koyama, Koji; Samukawa, Seiji; Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shinichi; Momose, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    Major challenges associated with 193 nm lithography using an ArF photoresist are low plasma resistance and roughness formation in the ArF photoresist during plasma processes. We have previously found decisive factors affecting the plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist: plasma resistance is determined by UV/VUV radiation, and roughness formation is dominated by chemical reactions. In this study, based on our findings on the interaction between plasma radiation species and ArF photoresist polymers, we proposed an ArF photoresist with a chemical reaction inhibitor, which can trap reactive species from the plasma, and characterized the performances of the resultant ArF photoresist through neutral beam experiments. Hindered amine light stabilizers, i.e. 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (HO-TEMPO), were used as the chemical reaction inhibitor. Etching rates of the ArF photoresist films were not dependent on the HO-TEMPO content in the irradiations without chemical reactions or under UV/VUV radiation. However, in the irradiation with chemical reactions, the etching rates of the ArF photoresist films decreased as the HO-TEMPO content increased. In addition, the surface roughness decreased with the increase in the additive amount of chemical reaction inhibitor. According to FTIR analysis, a chemical reaction inhibitor can inhibit the chemical reactions in ArF photoresist films through plasma radicals. These results indicate that a chemical reaction inhibitor is effective against chemical reactions, resulting in improved plasma resistance and less roughness in an ArF photoresist. These results also support our suggested mechanism of plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist.

  14. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, R., E-mail: ochoukov@psfc.mit.edu [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cziegler, I. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Myra, J. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Terry, J.; Wukitch, S. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ{sub P}) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ{sub P} enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ{sub P} enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ{sub P} enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement.

  15. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Myra, J.; Terry, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ P ) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ P enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ P enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ P enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement

  16. Enhancement of the incoherent scattering plasma lines due to precipitating protons and secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernaa, N.; Havnes, O.; Jensen, J.O.; Trulsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitating protons in the energy range 1-100 keV are regularly present in the auroral ionosphere. These protons will produce enhancements in the intensity of the upshifted plasma line of the incoherently scattered spectrum. Similarly, secondary electrons produced by the precipitating protons give rise to enhanced plasma line intensities. For a quantitative discussion of these effects an experimentally measured proton flux is adapted and the corresponding secondary electron flux calculated. These particle fluxes are then applied in connection with the EISCAT radar facility. Both fluxes give rise to enhancements of the order of 20. It is possible to separate between proton and electron contributions to the enhanced plasma lines for scattering heights above the source region of secondary electrons. (Auth.)

  17. Enhancement of gas sensor response of nanocrystalline zinc oxide for ammonia by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yue; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on nanocrystalline ZnO thin film based gas sensor was investigated. ZnO thin films were synthesized on alkali-free glass substrates by a sol–gel process. ZnO thin films were treated with oxygen plasma to change the number of vacancies/defects in ZnO. The effect of oxygen plasma on the structural, electrical, optical and gas sensing properties was investigated as a function of plasma treatment time. The results suggest that the microstructure and the surface morphology can be tuned by oxygen plasma treatment. The optical transmission in the visible range varies after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover, it is found that the oxygen plasma has significant impact on the electrical properties of ZnO thin films indicating a variation of resistivity. The oxygen plasma treated ZnO thin film exhibits an enhanced sensing response towards NH 3 in comparison with that of the as-deposited ZnO sensor. When compared with the as-deposited ZnO film, the sensing response was improved by 50% for the optimum oxygen plasma treatment time of 8 min. The selectivity of 8 min plasma treated ZnO sensor was also examined for an important industrial gas mixture of H 2 , CH 4 and NH 3 .

  18. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of Environmental Chemicals by Machine Learning in the Pharmaceutical Space: Applicability Domain and Limits of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores th...

  19. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  20. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma-enhanced mixing and flameholding in supersonic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Alexander; Savelkin, Konstantin V; Yarantsev, Dmitry A; Leonov, Sergey B

    2015-08-13

    The results of experimental study of plasma-based mixing, ignition and flameholding in a supersonic model combustor are presented in the paper. The model combustor has a length of 600 mm and cross section of 72 mm width and 60 mm height. The fuel is directly injected into supersonic airflow (Mach number M=2, static pressure P(st)=160-250 Torr) through wall orifices. Two series of tests are focused on flameholding and mixing correspondingly. In the first series, the near-surface quasi-DC electrical discharge is generated by flush-mounted electrodes at electrical power deposition of W(pl)=3-24 kW. The scope includes parametric study of ignition and flame front dynamics, and comparison of three schemes of plasma generation: the first and the second layouts examine the location of plasma generators upstream and downstream from the fuel injectors. The third pattern follows a novel approach of combined mixing/ignition technique, where the electrical discharge distributes along the fuel jet. The last pattern demonstrates a significant advantage in terms of flameholding limit. In the second series of tests, a long discharge of submicrosecond duration is generated across the flow and along the fuel jet. A gasdynamic instability of thermal cavity developed after a deposition of high-power density in a thin plasma filament promotes the air-fuel mixing. The technique studied in this work has weighty potential for high-speed combustion applications, including cold start/restart of scramjet engines and support of transition regime in dual-mode scramjet and at off-design operation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertically aligned Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous Si matrix prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogay, G. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Saleh, Z.M., E-mail: zaki.saleh@aauj.edu [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab American University–Jenin (AAUJ), Jenin, Palestine (Country Unknown); Özkol, E. [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Turan, R. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Inductively-coupled plasma is used for nanostructured silicon at room temperature. • Low temperature deposition allows device processing on various substrates. • Deposition pressure is the most effective parameter in controlling nanostructure. • Films consist of quantum dots in a-Si matrix and exhibit columnar vertical growth. • Films are porous to oxygen infusion along columnar grain boundaries. - Abstract: Vertically-aligned nanostructured silicon films are deposited at room temperature on p-type silicon wafers and glass substrates by inductively-coupled, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD). The nanocrystalline phase is achieved by reducing pressure and increasing RF power. The crystalline volume fraction (X{sub c}) and the size of the nanocrystals increase with decreasing pressure at constant power. Columnar growth of nc-Si:H films is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films exhibit cauliflower-like structures with high porosity that leads to slow but uniform oxidation after exposure to air at room temperature. Films deposited at low pressures exhibit photoluminescence (PL) signals that may be deconvoluted into three distinct Gaussian components: 760–810, 920–935, and 990–1000 nm attributable to the quantum confinement and interface defect states. Hydrogen dilution is manifested in significant enhancement of the PL, but it has little effect on the nanocrystal size and X{sub c}.

  3. Control of ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide nanostructures formed using plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Child, David, E-mail: david.child@uws.ac.uk [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Song, Shigeng; Zhao, Chao [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Alajiani, Yahya [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Waddell, Ewan [Thin Film Solutions Ltd, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow, G20 0TH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensional nanostructures of mesoporous (pore diameter between 2-50 nm) nanocrystalline titania (TiO{sub 2}) were produced using glancing angle deposition combined with plasma ion assisted deposition, providing plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition eliminating the need for post-annealing to achieve film crystallinity. Electron beam evaporation was chosen to deposit nanostructures at various azimuthal angles, achieving designed variation in three dimensional nanostructure. A thermionic broad beam hollow cathode plasma source was used to enhance electron beam deposition, with ability to vary in real time ion fluxes and energies providing a means to modify and control TiO{sub 2} nanostructure real time with controlled density and porosity along and lateral to film growth direction. Plasma ion assisted deposition was carried out at room temperature using a hollow cathode plasma source, ensuring low heat loading to the substrate during deposition. Plasma enhanced glancing angle TiO{sub 2} structures were deposited onto borosilicate microscope slides and used to characterise the effects of glancing angle and plasma ion energy distribution function on the optical and nanostructural properties. Variation in TiO{sub 2} refractive index from 1.40 to 2.45 (@ 550 nm) using PEGLAD is demonstrated. Results and analysis of the influence of plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition on evaporant path and resultant glancing angle deviation from standard GLAD are described. Control of mesoporous morphology is described, providing a means of optimising light trapping features and film porosity, relevant to applications such as fabrication of dye sensitised solar cells. - Highlights: • Plasma assistance during glancing angle deposition enables control of morphology. • Ion energy variation during glancing angle deposition varies columnar angle • Column thickness of glancing angle deposition dependant on ion current density • Ion current density variation during

  4. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, N; Ishii, Y; Yasuoka, K

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  5. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yasuoka, K.

    2012-02-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  6. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  7. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Weisz, David G; Zaug, Joseph M; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L; Cappelli, Mark A; Rose, Timothy P

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  8. Enhanced Plasma Confinement in a Magnetic Well by Whistler Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmashnov, A. A.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well.......The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well....

  9. The kinetics of nonequilibrium chain plasma-chemical oxidation in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminskii, M.A.; Potapkin, B.V.; Rusanov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of low-impurity components in air mixtures under heterogeneous conditions was studied. The principal kinetic features of the process were determined on the basis of theoretical analysis of plasma-chemical oxidation in heterogeneous media. The analysis also showed that low concentrations of impurities in liquid aerosol particles can be efficiently oxidized via a chain process induced by reactive species formed in the gas

  10. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  12. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ki-Moon; Shin, Jae-Su; Yun, Ju-Young; Jun Lee, Sang; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO 2 thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr) 3 SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO 2 films at temperatures as low as 50 °C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3 s and 10 s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO 2 films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS

  13. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using the plasma-enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrych, Frantisek; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvilova, Irena; Kluiber, Zdenek; Fekete, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Jan [Department of Physics and Measurement, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ-16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rezacova, Vladimira; Petrak, Vaclav [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Sitna 3105, CZ-27201 Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Liehr, Michael [Leybold Optics Dresden GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Nesladek, Milos, E-mail: fendrych@fzu.c [IMOMEC division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    Industrial applications of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond grown on large area substrates, 3D shapes, at low substrate temperatures and on standard engineering substrate materials require novel plasma concepts. Based on the pioneering work of the group at AIST in Japan, the high-density coaxial delivery type of plasmas has been explored (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). However, an important challenge is to obtain commercially interesting growth rates at very low substrate temperatures. In this work we introduce the concept of novel linear antenna sources, designed at Leybold Optics Dresden, using high-frequency pulsed MW discharge with a high plasma density. This type of pulse discharges leads to the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, compared with ultra-NCD thin films prepared in (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). We present optical emission spectroscopy data for the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas chemistry and we discuss the basic properties of the NCD films grown.

  14. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schuetze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O 2 /H 2 O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O 2 * , He * ) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G. S.

    1999-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schütze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products.

  16. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, L. M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  17. Plasma-Sprayed ZnO/TiO2 Coatings with Enhanced Biological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Peng, Chao; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Surface chemical composition and topography are two key factors in the biological performance of implants. The aim of this work is to deposit ZnO/TiO2 composite coatings on the surface of titanium substrates by plasma spraying technique. The effects of the amount of ZnO doping on the microstructure, surface roughness, corrosion resistance, and biological performance of the TiO2 coatings were investigated. The results indicated that the phase composition of the as-sprayed TiO2 coating was mainly rutile. Addition of 10% ZnO into TiO2 coating led to a slight shift of the diffraction peaks to lower angle. Anatase phase and Zn2TiO4 were formed in 20%ZnO/TiO2 and 30%ZnO/TiO2 coatings, respectively. Doping with ZnO changed the topography of the TiO2 coatings, which may be beneficial to enhance their biological performance. All coatings exhibited microsized surface roughness, and the corrosion resistance of ZnO/TiO2 coatings was improved compared with pure TiO2 coating. The ZnO/TiO2 coatings could induce apatite formation on their surface and inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus, but these effects were dose dependent. The 20%ZnO/TiO2 coating showed better biological performance than the other coatings, suggesting potential application for bone implants.

  18. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  19. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  20. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W_2CoB_2. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W_2CoB_2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  1. Enhancement of the Laser Transmission Weldability between Polyethylene and Polyoxymethylene by Plasma Surface Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their large compatibility difference, polyethylene (PE and polyoxymethylene (POM cannot be welded together by laser transmission welding. In this study, PE and POM are pretreated using plasma that significantly enhances their laser transmission welding strength. To understand the mechanism underlying the laser welding strength enhancement, surface modification is analyzed using contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Characterization results show that the plasma surface treatment improves the surface free energy, significantly enhancing the wettability of the materials. The increase in surface roughness and the generation of homogeneous bubbles contribute to the formation of mechanical micro-interlocking. The oxygen-containing groups introduced by the oxygen plasma treatment improve the compatibility of PE and POM, and facilitate the diffusion and entanglement of molecular chains and the formation of van der Waals force.

  2. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  3. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechana, A; Thamboon, P; Boonyawan, D

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films-analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques-will be discussed.

  4. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechana, A. [Program of Physics and General Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000 (Thailand); Thamboon, P. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D., E-mail: dheerawan.b@cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  5. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  6. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-01-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al 2 O 3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al 2 O 3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed

  7. The physical and chemical properties of plasma treated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Teodoru, Steluta; Hansen, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    A uniform and smooth transfer of stresses across the polymer matrix/fiber interface is enhanced when adhesion between the matrix and fiber surface is optimized. In the absence of covalent bonds matching the Hansen solubility (cohesion) parameters (HSP) of the fiber surface with the HSP of a matrix...... at 18.0, 1.2, and 1.4, all in MPa½. The dispersion parameter has been lowered somewhat by the plasma treatment, while the polar and hydrogen bonding parameters are much higher. The HSP methodology predicts enhanced adhesion is possible by skillful use of anhydride and nitrile functional groups in matrix...

  8. Sensing signatures mediated by chemical structure of molecular solids in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-03-03

    Laser ablation of organic compounds has been investigated for almost 30 years now, either in the framework of pulse laser deposition for the assembling of new materials or in the context of chemical sensing. Various monitoring techniques such as atomic and molecular fluorescence, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectroscopy have been used for plasma diagnostics in an attempt to understand the spectral signature and potential origin of gas-phase ions and fragments from organic plasmas. Photochemical and photophysical processes occurring within these systems are generally much more complex than those suggested by observation of optical emission features. Together with laser ablation parameters, the structural and chemical-physical properties of molecules seem to be closely tied to the observed phenomena. The present manuscript, for the first time, discusses the role of molecular structure in the optical emission of organic plasmas. Factors altering the electronic distribution within the organic molecule have been found to have a direct impact on its ensuing optical emissions. The electron structure of an organic molecule, resulting from the presence, nature, and position of its atoms, governs the breakage of the molecule and, as a result, determines the extent of atomization and fragmentation that has proved to directly impact the emissions of CN radicals and C2 dimers. Particular properties of the molecule respond more positively depending on the laser irradiation wavelength, thereby redirecting the ablation process through photochemical or photothermal decomposition pathways. It is of paramount significance for chemical identification purposes how, despite the large energy stored and dissipated by the plasma and the considerable number of transient species formed, the emissions observed never lose sight of the original molecule.

  9. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  10. Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated With Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garate, Eusebio

    1999-01-01

    ... based on the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma. We used both a DC corona and dielectric barrier discharge for the sterilization tests which were conducted on a variety of substrates including metals and chemically resistant fabrics...

  11. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Utku K; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D; Joshi, Suresh G

    2016-02-02

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation.

  12. Low-temperature ({<=}200 Degree-Sign C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of dense titanium nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samal, Nigamananda; Du Hui; Luberoff, Russell; Chetry, Krishna; Bubber, Randhir; Hayes, Alan; Devasahayam, Adrian [Veeco Instruments, 1 Terminal Drive, Plainview, New York 11803 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for the DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.

  13. A study of the performance and properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited by plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for two stroke engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tither, D. [BEP Grinding Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W.; Sarwar, M.; Penlington, R. [Univ. of Northumbria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using microwave and RF plasma is arguably the most successful technique for depositing diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) films for various engineering applications. However, the difficulties of depositing diamond are nearly as extreme as it`s unique combination of physical, chemical and electrical properties. In this paper, the modified low temperature plasma enhanced CVD system is described. The main focus of this paper will be work related to deposition of DLC on metal matrix composite materials (MMCs) for application in two-stroke engine components and results will be presented from SEM, mechanical testing and composition analysis studies. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of depositing DLC on MMCs for the first time using a vacuum deposition process.

  14. Energization of the Ring Current through Convection of Substorm Enhancements of the Plasma Sheet Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, A.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Spence, H. E.; Henderson, M. G.; Matsui, H.

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that electric field strength and night-side plasma sheet density are the two best predictors of the adiabatic energy gain of the ring current during geomagnetic storms (Liemohn and Khazanov, 2005). While H+ dominates the ring current during quiet times, O+ can contribute substantially during geomagnetic storms. Substorm activity provides a mechanism to enhance the energy density of O+ in the plasma sheet during geomagnetic storms, which is then convected adiabatically into the inner-magnetosphere. Using the Van Allen Probes data in the the plasma sheet source region (defined as L>5.5 during storms) and the inner magnetosphere, along with LANL-GEO data to identify substorm injection times, we show that adiabatic convection of O+ enhancements in the source region can explain the observed enhancements in the inner magnetosphere. We use the UNH-IMEF electric field model to calculate drift times from the source region to the inner magnetosphere to test whether enhancements in the inner-magnetosphere can be explained by dipolarization driven enhancements in the plasma sheet source hours before.

  15. A quantitative assay of cortisol in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography using a selective chemically bonded stationary phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.H.M.; Mol, C.R.; Deelder, R.S.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The extraction and subsequent liquid chromatographic analysis of human plasma samples for cortisol is described. Extraction and chromatography are optimized, resulting in a recovery for cortisol of 96% and a detection limit of 1 microgram cortisol in 100 ml plasma. The application of two chemically

  16. A combination of CO2 laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Wang, Zhecun; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • COOH and microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure were constructed on PEEK surface by a combination of CO 2 laser and plasma treatment. • The mechanical properties of PEEK are maintained after single or dual surface treatment. • Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation were improved remarkably on dual treated PEEK surface. • Cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (−COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that −COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which gives

  17. Activation of peroxydisulfate by gas-liquid pulsed discharge plasma to enhance the degradation of p-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kefeng; Wang, Hao; Li, Jie; Lu, Na; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Pulsed discharge in water and over water surfaces generates ultraviolet radiation, local high temperature, shock waves, and chemical reactive species, including hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) can oxidize and mineralize pollutants very efficiently, but high energy consumption restricts its application for industrial wastewater treatment. A novel method for improving the energy efficiency of wastewater treatment by PDP was proposed, in which peroxydisulfate (PDS) was added to wastewater and PDS was activated by PDP to produce more strong oxidizing radicals, including sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals, leading to a higher oxidation capacity for the PDP system. The experimental results show that the increase in solution conductivity slightly decreased the discharge power of the pulse discharge over the water surface. An increase in the discharge intensity improved the activation of PDS and therefore the degradation efficiency and energy efficiency of p-nitrophenol (PNP). An increase in the addition dosage of PDS greatly facilitated the degradation of PNP at a molar ratio of PDS to PNP of lower than 80:1, but the performance enhancement was no longer obvious at a dosage of more than 80:1. Under an applied voltage of 20 kV and a gas discharge gap of 2 mm, the degradation efficiency and energy efficiency of the PNP reached 90.7% and 45.0 mg kWh-1 for the plasma/PDS system, respectively, which was 34% and 18.0 mg kWh-1 higher than for the discharge plasma treatment alone. Analysis of the physical and chemical effects indicated that ozone and hydrogen peroxide were important for PNP degradation and UV irradiation and heat from the discharge plasma might be the main physical effects for the activation of PDS.

  18. A combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Zhecun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • COOH and microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure were constructed on PEEK surface by a combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma treatment. • The mechanical properties of PEEK are maintained after single or dual surface treatment. • Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation were improved remarkably on dual treated PEEK surface. • Cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (−COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that −COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which

  19. Contact glow discharge electrolysis: its origin, plasma diagnostics and non-faradaic chemical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    Contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) also termed plasma electrolysis is a novel electrolysis where a stable sheath of light emitting plasma develops around an electrode immersed well inside a relatively high-conductivity liquid electrolyte during normal electrolysis (NE) at several hundred volts. The phenomenon may develop in dc-, pulsed dc-, ac- as well as RF-driven electrolyses. The chemical effects of CGDE are remarkably non-faradaic in respect to the nature of the products as well as their yields. The article traces comprehensively the progress made in studies of CGDE in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions since 1844 and reviews the developments in the understanding of its origin, light emission, plasma state and non-faradaic effects leading to the elucidation of detailed mechanism of the origin of CGDE on the basis of the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in local vaporization of the solvent near the working electrode during NE, and that of highly non-faradaic effects of CGDE based on a model of two reaction zones located within the electrode plasma and at the plasma–liquid interface producing solvent derived radicals at high local concentrations. Keeping in view the recent surge of interest in varied applications of CGDE, the article is appended with highlights of these applications across synthetic chemistry, waste water treatment, electrosurgical devices, nanoparticle fabrications, surface engineering and micro-machining. (topical review)

  20. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  1. Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  2. Plasma-chemical simulation of negative corona near the inception voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Duran-Olivencia, Francisco J.; Castellanos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The spatiotemporal development of Trichel pulses in oxygen between a spherical electrode and a grounded plane has been simulated using a fluid approximation that incorporates the plasma chemistry of the electrical discharge. Elementary plasma processes, such as ionization, electron attachment, electron detachment, recombination between ions and chemical reactions between neutral species, are all included in a chemical model consisting of 55 reactions between 8 different species (electrons, O2+,O2-,O3-,O-, O2, O, O3). Secondary emission at the cathode by the impact of positive ions and photons is also considered. The spatial distribution of species is computed in three dimensions (2D-axysimmetrical) by solving Poisson's equation for the electric field and the continuity equations for the species, with the inclusion of the chemical gain/loss rate due to the particle interaction. The results of the simulation reveal the interplay between the different negative ions during the development of every Trichel pulse, and the rate of production of atomic oxygen and ozone by the corona discharge. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  3. Enhancing Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Fiber-Based Supercapacitors by Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Nie, Wenqi; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fujun; Ding, Xin; Wang, Shiren; Qiu, Yiping

    2018-04-25

    Graphene fiber-based supercapacitors (GFSCs) hold high power density, fast charge-discharge rate, ultralong cycling life, exceptional mechanical/electrical properties, and safe operation conditions, making them very promising to power small wearable electronics. However, the electrochemical performance is still limited by the severe stacking of graphene sheets, hydrophobicity of graphene fibers, and complex preparation process. In this work, we develop a facile but robust strategy to easily enhance electrochemical properties of all-solid-state GFSCs by simple plasma treatment. We find that 1 min plasma treatment under an ambient condition results in 33.1% enhancement of areal specific capacitance (36.25 mF/cm 2 ) in comparison to the as-prepared GFSC. The energy density reaches 0.80 μW h/cm 2 in polyvinyl alcohol/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte and 18.12 μW h/cm 2 in poly(vinylidene difluoride)/ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, which are 22 times of that of as-prepared ones. The plasma-treated GFSCs also exhibit ultrahigh rate capability (69.13% for 40 s plasma-treated ones) and superior cycle stability (96.14% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles for 1 min plasma-treated ones). This plasma strategy can be extended to mass-manufacture high-performance carbonaceous fiber-based supercapacitors, such as graphene and carbon nanotube-based ones.

  4. Experimental investigation of lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft using nanosecond DBD plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junkai; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; He, Chengjun; Shi, Zhiwei; Du, Hai

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the arrangement position and control parameters of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuators on lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft were investigated through wind tunnel experiments at a flow speed of 25 m s-1. The aerodynamic forces and moments were obtained by a six-component balance at angles of attack ranging from -4° to 28°. The lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients were compared for the cases with and without plasma control. The results revealed that the maximum control effect was achieved by placing the actuator at the leading edge of the inner and middle wing, for which the maximum lift coefficient increased by 37.8% and the stall angle of attack was postponed by 8° compared with the plasma-off case. The effects of modulation frequency and discharge voltage were also investigated. The results revealed that the lift enhancement effect of the NS-DBD plasma actuators was strongly influenced by the modulation frequency. Significant control effects were obtained at f = 70 Hz, corresponding to F + ≈ 1. The result for the pitching moment coefficient demonstrated that the plasma actuator can induce the reattachment of the separation flows when it is actuated. However, the results indicated that the discharge voltage had a negligible influence on the lift enhancement effect.

  5. Novel Cyclosilazane-Type Silicon Precursor and Two-Step Plasma for Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Won-Jun

    2018-03-14

    We designed cyclosilazane-type silicon precursors and proposed a three-step plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process to prepare silicon nitride films with high quality and excellent step coverage. The cyclosilazane-type precursor, 1,3-di-isopropylamino-2,4-dimethylcyclosilazane (CSN-2), has a closed ring structure for good thermal stability and high reactivity. CSN-2 showed thermal stability up to 450 °C and a sufficient vapor pressure of 4 Torr at 60 °C. The energy for the chemisorption of CSN-2 on the undercoordinated silicon nitride surface as calculated by density functional theory method was -7.38 eV. The PEALD process window was between 200 and 500 °C, with a growth rate of 0.43 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 500 °C, with hydrogen impurity of ∼7 atom %, oxygen impurity less than 2 atom %, low wet etching rate, and excellent step coverage of ∼95%. At 300 °C and lower temperatures, the wet etching rate was high especially at the lower sidewall of the trench pattern. We introduced the three-step PEALD process to improve the film quality and the step coverage on the lower sidewall. The sequence of the three-step PEALD process consists of the CSN-2 feeding step, the NH 3 /N 2 plasma step, and the N 2 plasma step. The H radicals in NH 3 /N 2 plasma efficiently remove the ligands from the precursor, and the N 2 plasma after the NH 3 plasma removes the surface hydrogen atoms to activate the adsorption of the precursor. The films deposited at 300 °C using the novel precursor and the three-step PEALD process showed a significantly improved step coverage of ∼95% and an excellent wet etching resistance at the lower sidewall, which is only twice as high as that of the blanket film prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  6. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokitin, Oleg, E-mail: volokitin-oleg@mail.ru; Volokitin, Gennady, E-mail: vgg-tomsk@mail.ru; Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mai.ru; Shekhovtsov, Valentin, E-mail: shehovcov2010@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  7. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  8. Effect of electronegative additives on physical properties and chemical activity of gas discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. L.; Filatov, I. E.; Uvarin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of electronegative additives (oxygen O2, sulfur dioxide SO2, carbon disulfide CS2, and carbon tetrachloride CCl4) on physical properties and chemical activity of plasma formed by pulsed corona discharge and by non-self-sustained discharge supported by pulsed electron beam in atmospheric pressure gas mixtures was investigated. It is shown that a decrease in discharge current depends on a sort of the additive and on its concentration. The reason is the difference in rate constants of electron attachment processes for the above molecules. In experiments on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conversion in air by streamer corona it is obtained that an addition of CCl4 both decreases the discharge current amplitude and increases the VOCs conversion degree. An installation for investigation of electron attachment processes and for study of toxic impurities conversion in plasma formed by non-self-sustained discharge initiated by pulsed nanosecond electron beam is created.

  9. Plasma-treated polystyrene film that enhances binding efficiency for sensitive and label-free protein biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bihong [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Shaopeng [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Lusheng [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Mo; Zhou, Wenfei; Tyagi, Deependra [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Rd., 19(A), Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jinsong, E-mail: jizhu88@gmail.com [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • A simple and robust plasma-treated ultrathin polystyrene film surface was developed for protein biosensing. • The surface was optimized by evaluating up to 120 types of fabrication parameters with high-throughput analytical methods. • The optimized surface showed a 620% improvement of the protein detection signal and 210% protein binding per immobilized protein ligand compared with a self-assembled monolayer surface. - Abstract: A plasma-treated ultrathin polystyrene (PS) film surface was explored as a simple, robust, and low-cost surface chemistry solution for protein biosensing applications. This surface could dramatically improve the binding efficiency of the protein–protein interactions, which is defined as the binding signal per immobilized ligand. The PS-modified protein biosensor was readily fabricated by spin coating and plasma treatment. Various parameters for fabrication, including the concentration of the PS solution, rate of spin coating, and duration of plasma treatment, were systematically optimized based on the improvement of fluorescence signal yielded by the microfluidic network-aided fluorescence immunoassay. The performance of the label-free protein detection on the optimized surfaces was further evaluated by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). PS surfaces with optimal fabrication parameters exhibited up to an 620% enhancement of the protein binding response and approximately 210% of the protein binding per immobilized protein ligand compared with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surface of 11-mercapto undecanoic acid (MUA). The relationship between the fabrication parameters used and changes to the surface chemistry and the morphological properties were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was revealed that the morphological changes observed in the plasma-treated PS film were the dominant factor for the

  10. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok

    2013-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH 2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH 3 + (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

  11. Antifouling enhancement of polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite separation membrane by plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Yin, C.; Wang, S.; Ito, K.; Fu, Q. M.; Deng, Q. R.; Fu, P.; Lin, Z. D.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane was prepared via casting method, followed by the plasma etching of the membrane surface. Doppler broadened energy spectra vs. positron incident energy were employed to elucidate depth profiles of the nanostructure for the as-prepared and treated membranes. The results confirmed that the near-surface of the membrane was modified by the plasma treatment. The antifouling characteristics for the membranes, evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamin B, indicated that the plasma treatment enhances the photo catalytic ability of the membrane, suggesting that more TiO2 nanoparticles are exposed at the membrane surface after the plasma treatment as supported by the positron result.

  12. Antifouling enhancement of polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite separation membrane by plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Yin, C; Wang, S; Fu, Q M; Deng, Q R; Fu, P; Lin, Z D; Zhang, Y; Ito, K

    2017-01-01

    A polysulfone/TiO 2 nanocomposite membrane was prepared via casting method, followed by the plasma etching of the membrane surface. Doppler broadened energy spectra vs. positron incident energy were employed to elucidate depth profiles of the nanostructure for the as-prepared and treated membranes. The results confirmed that the near-surface of the membrane was modified by the plasma treatment. The antifouling characteristics for the membranes, evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamin B, indicated that the plasma treatment enhances the photo catalytic ability of the membrane, suggesting that more TiO 2 nanoparticles are exposed at the membrane surface after the plasma treatment as supported by the positron result. (paper)

  13. Noise Suppression and Enhanced Focusability in Plasma Raman Amplifier with Multi-frequency Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Laser pulse compression/amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated by using multi-frequency pump laser beams. The efficiency of amplification is increased by suppressing the Raman instability of thermal fluctuations and seed precursors. Also the focusability of the amplified radiation is enhanced due to the suppression of large-scale longitudinal speckles in the pump wave structure

  14. Growth and characterization of titanium oxide by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Long; LI, LIANG

    2013-01-01

    The growth of TiO2 films by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using Star-Ti as a precursor has been systematically studied. The conversion from amorphous to crystalline TiO2 was observed either during high temperature growth or annealing

  15. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.; Kravchenko, A.; Kublanovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  16. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, A; Kravchenko, A [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Kublanovsky, V [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  17. Enhancement of quality in chemical inquiry by pre-university students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; Pilot, A.; van Dijk, H.

    2005-01-01

    Our pre-university chemistry students face problems achieving sufficient quality in chemical inquiry. To try to enhance the quality of student performance in chemical inquiry, Dutch pre-university chemistry students (age 17) carried out an authentic research project on 'Diffusion of ions in

  18. Enhancement of quality in chemical inquiry by pre-university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; Pilot, A.; van Dijk, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our pre-university chemistry students face problems achieving sufficient quality in chemical inquiry. To try to enhance the quality of student performance in chemical inquiry, Dutch pre-university chemistry students (age 17) carried out an authentic research project on 'Diffusion of ions in

  19. Enhanced Field Emission from Argon Plasma-Treated Ultra-sharp α-Fe2O3Nanoflakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JX

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hematite nanoflakes have been synthesized by a simple heat oxide method and further treated by Argon plasmas. The effects of Argon plasma on the morphology and crystal structures of nanoflakes were investigated. Significant enhancement of field-induced electron emission from the plasma-treated nanoflakes was observed. The transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the plasma treatment effectively removes amorphous coating and creates plenty of sub-tips at the surface of the nanoflakes, which are believed to contribute the enhancement of emission. This work suggests that plasma treatment technique could be a direct means to improve field-emission properties of nanostructures.

  20. Chemically reacting flow of a compressible thermally radiating two-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper studies the compressible flow of a hot two-component plasma in the presence of gravitation and chemical reaction in a vertical channel. For the optically thick gas approximation, closed form analytical solutions are possible. Asymptotic solutions are also obtained for the general differential approximation when the temperature of the two bounding walls are the same. In the general case the problem is reduced to the solution of standard nonlinear integral equations which can be tackled by iterative procedure. The results are discussed quantitatively. The problem may be applicable to the understanding of explosive hydrogen-burning model of solar flares. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  1. An unstructured shock-fitting solver for hypersonic plasma flows in chemical non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, R.; Bonfiglioli, A.; D'Angola, A.; Colonna, G.; Paciorri, R.

    2015-11-01

    A CFD solver, using Residual Distribution Schemes on unstructured grids, has been extended to deal with inviscid chemical non-equilibrium flows. The conservative equations have been coupled with a kinetic model for argon plasma which includes the argon metastable state as independent species, taking into account electron-atom and atom-atom processes. Results in the case of an hypersonic flow around an infinite cylinder, obtained by using both shock-capturing and shock-fitting approaches, show higher accuracy of the shock-fitting approach.

  2. Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-12-30

    We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic N=4,SU(N) super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.

  3. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...

  4. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  5. Photon production in an expanding and chemically equilibrating gluon-enriched plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-12-01

    Photon production in a longitudinally and transversely expanding gluon plasma with initially little quark admixture is considered. Chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons is followed by rate equations. The yields of hard photons with E ≥ 2 GeV are insensitive to chemical equilibration and depend mainly on the initial thermalized state. Medium-energy photons with E ∼ 1 GeV are more frequently produced in case of faster equilibration, despite of faster cooling. For an assumed fast equilibration we follow the evolution of matter through mixed and hadron phases. The transverse momentum kick, due to transverse expansion, of photons from hadron matter is shown to be reduced for an equation of state with reduced latent heat. The photon yield in the region E > 1 GeV from deconfined matter dominates for conditions, estimated to be achieved at RHIC, in case of a weakly first-order confinement transition. (orig.)

  6. Development of novel tungsten processing technologies for electro-chemical machining (ECM) of plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, Nils; Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Plasma facing components for fusion applications must exhibit long-term stability under extreme conditions, and therefore material imperfections cannot be tolerated due to a high risk of technical failures. To prevent or abolish defects in refractory metals components during the manufacturing process, some methods of electro-chemical machining as S-ECM and C-ECM were developed, enabling both the processing of smooth plain defect-free surfaces of different geometry and the removal of bulk material for the shaping of three-dimensional structures, also without cracks. It is discussed, that tungsten ablation with accurate electro-chemical molding is very sensitive to the kind of electric current, and therefore current investigations focused also on the effects of frequency profiles on the sharpness of edge rounding.

  7. Enhanced chemical sensing organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanese, M. C.; Torsi, L.; Farinola, G. M.; Valli, L.; Hassan Omar, O.; Giancane, G.; Ieva, E.; Babudri, F.; Palmisano, F.; Naso, F.; Zambonin, P. G.

    2007-09-01

    Organic thin film transistor (OTFT) sensors are capable of fast, sensitive and reliable detection of a variety of analytes. They have been successfully tested towards many chemical and biological "odor" molecules showing high selectivity, and displaying the additional advantage of being compatible with plastic technologies. Their versatility is based on the possibility to control the device properties, from molecular design up to device architecture. Here phenylene-thiophene based organic semiconductors functionalized with ad hoc chosen side groups are used as active layers in sensing OTFTs. These materials, indeed, combine the detection capability of organic molecules (particularly in the case of bio-substituted systems) with the electronic properties of the conjugated backbone. A new OTFT structure including Langmuir-Schäfer layer by layer organic thin films is here proposed to perform chemical detection of organic vapors, including vapor phase chiral molecules such as citronellol vapors, with a detection limit in the ppm range. Thermally evaporated α6T based OTFT sensors are used as well to be employed as standard system in order to compare sensors performances.

  8. Chemical stabilization of porous silicon for enhanced biofunctionalization with immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naveas, Vicente Torres Costa, Dario Gallach, Jacobo Hernandez-Montelongo, Raul Jose Martín Palma, Josefa Predenstinacion Garcia-Ruiz and Miguel Manso-Silván

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi is widely used in biological experiments, owing to its biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods that allow tailoring its surface. Nevertheless, there are some unresolved issues such as deciding whether the stabilization of PSi is necessary for its biological applications and evaluating the effects of PSi stabilization on the surface biofunctionalization with proteins. In this work we demonstrate that non-stabilized PSi is prone to detachment owing to the stress induced upon biomolecular adsorption. Biofunctionalized non-stabilized PSi loses the interference properties characteristic of a thin film, and groove-like structures resulting from a final layer collapse were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Likewise, direct PSi derivatization with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS does not stabilize PSi against immunoglobulin biofunctionalization. To overcome this problem, we developed a simple chemical process of stabilizing PSi (CoxPSi for biological applications, which has several advantages over thermal stabilization (ToxPSi. The process consists of chemical oxidation in H2O2, surface derivatization with APTS and a curing step at 120 °C. This process offers integral homogeneous PSi morphology, hydrophilic surface termination (contact angle θ = 26° and highly efficient derivatized and biofunctionalized PSi surfaces (six times more efficient than ToxPSi. All these features are highly desirable for biological applications, such as biosensing, where our results can be used for the design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces.

  9. Plasma assisted fabrication of multi-layer graphene/nickel hybrid film as enhanced micro-supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q.; Li, W. L.; Zhao, W. L.; Wang, J. Y.; Xing, Y. P.; Li, X.; Xue, T.; Qi, W.; Zhang, K. L.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhao, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    A facile synthesis strategy has been developed for fabricating multi-layer graphene/nickel hybrid film as micro-supercapacitor electrodes by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The as-presented method is advantageous for rapid graphene growth at relatively low temperature of 650 °C. In addition, after pre-treating for the as-deposited nickel film by using argon plasma bombardment, the surface-to-volume ratio of graphene film on the treated nickel substrate is effectively increased by the increasing of surface roughness. This is demonstrated by the characterization results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical performance of the resultant graphene/nickel hybrid film as micro-supercapacitor working electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. It was found that the increase of the surface-to-volume ratio of graphene/nickel hybrid film improved the specific capacitance of 10 times as the working electrode of micro-supercapacitor. Finally, by using comb columnar shadow mask pattern, the micro-supercapacitor full cell device was fabricated. The electrochemical performance measurements of the micro-supercapacitor devices indicate that the method presented in this study provides an effective way to fabricate micro-supercapacitor device with enhanced energy storage property.

  10. Transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems: enhancement using iontophoretic and chemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longsheng; Silva, Sérgio M C; Damaj, Bassam B; Martin, Richard; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2011-12-12

    We investigated the enhancement effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on the in vitro transdermal and transbuccal delivery of lidocaine HCl (LHCl), nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT), and diltiazem HCl (DHCl) using porcine skin and buccal tissues. Dodecyl 2-(N,N-dimethylamino) propionate (DDAIP), dodecyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino) propionate hydrochloride (DDAIP HCl), N-(4-bromobenzoyl)-S,S-dimethyliminosulfurane (Br-iminosulfurane), and azone (laurocapram) were used as chemical enhancers. The study results showed that the application of iontophoresis at either 0.1 mA or 0.3 mA significantly enhanced transdermal and transmucosal delivery of LHCl, NHT and DHCl. It was also demonstrated that iontophoresis had a more pronounced enhancement effect on transdermal delivery than on transbuccal delivery of LHCl, NHT and DHCl. In addition, DDAIP HCl was found to be the most effective enhancer for transbuccal delivery of LHCl and NHT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A saw-tooth plasma actuator for film cooling efficiency enhancement of a shaped hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhan; Yu, Jianyang; Liu, Huaping; Chen, Fu; Song, Yanping

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the large eddy simulations of the effects of a saw-tooth plasma actuator and the laidback fan-shaped hole on the film cooling flow characteristics, and the numerical results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (cylindrical hole without the saw-tooth plasma actuator). For this numerical research, the saw-tooth plasma actuator is installed just downstream of the cooling hole and a phenomenological plasma model is employed to provide the 3D plasma force vectors. The results show that thanks to the downward force and the momentum injection effect of the saw-tooth plasma actuator, the cold jet comes closer to the wall surface and extends further downstream. The saw-tooth plasma actuator also induces a new pair of vortex which weakens the strength of the counter-rotating vortex pair (CRVP) and entrains the coolant towards the wall, and thus the diffusion of the cold jet in the crossflow is suppressed. Furthermore, the laidback fan-shaped hole reduces the vertical jet velocity causing the disappearance of downstream spiral separation node vortices, this compensates for the deficiency of the saw-tooth plasma actuator. Both effects of the laidback fan-shaped hole and the saw-tooth plasma actuator effectively control the development of the CRVP whose size and strength are smaller than those of the anti-counter rotating vortex pair in the far field, thus the centerline and the spanwise-averaged film cooling efficiency are enhanced. The average film cooling efficiency is the biggest in the Fan-Dc = 1 case, which is 80% bigger than that in the Fan-Dc = 0 case and 288% bigger than that in the Cyl-Dc = 0 case.

  12. Chemical and microstructural characterizations of plasma polymer films by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossement, Damien; Renaux, Fabian; Thiry, Damien; Ligot, Sylvie; Francq, Rémy; Snyders, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plasma polymer films have a chemical selectivity and a cross-linking degree which are known to vary in opposite trends. • Three plasma polymers families were used as model organic layers for cross-linking evaluation by ToF-SIMS and principal component analysis. • The data were cross-checked with related functional properties that are known to depend on the cross-linking degree (stability in solvent, mechanical properties, …). • The suggested cross-linking evaluation method was validated for different families of plasma polymers demonstrating that it can be seen as a “general” method. - Abstract: It is accepted that the macroscopic properties of functional plasma polymer films (PPF) are defined by their functional density and their crosslinking degree (χ) which are quantities that most of the time behave in opposite trends. If the PPF chemistry is relatively easy to evaluate, it is much more challenging for χ. This paper reviews the recent work developed in our group on the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric (ToF-SIMS) positive spectra data in order to extract the relative cross-linking degree (χ) of PPF. NH_2-, COOR- and SH-containing PPF synthesized in our group by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) varying the applied radiofrequency power (P_R_F), have been used as model surfaces. For the three plasma polymer families, the scores of the first computed principal component (PC1) highlighted significant differences in the chemical composition supported by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The most important fragments contributing to PC1 (loadings > 90%) were used to compute an average C/H ratio index for samples synthesized at low and high P_R_F. This ratio being an evaluation of χ, these data, accordingly to the literature, indicates an increase of χ with P_R_F excepted for the SH-PPF. These results have been cross

  13. Chemical and microstructural characterizations of plasma polymer films by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossement, Damien, E-mail: damien.cossement@materianova.be [Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, 1, Avenue Nicolas Copernic, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Renaux, Fabian [Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, 1, Avenue Nicolas Copernic, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Thiry, Damien; Ligot, Sylvie [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Francq, Rémy; Snyders, Rony [Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, 1, Avenue Nicolas Copernic, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plasma polymer films have a chemical selectivity and a cross-linking degree which are known to vary in opposite trends. • Three plasma polymers families were used as model organic layers for cross-linking evaluation by ToF-SIMS and principal component analysis. • The data were cross-checked with related functional properties that are known to depend on the cross-linking degree (stability in solvent, mechanical properties, …). • The suggested cross-linking evaluation method was validated for different families of plasma polymers demonstrating that it can be seen as a “general” method. - Abstract: It is accepted that the macroscopic properties of functional plasma polymer films (PPF) are defined by their functional density and their crosslinking degree (χ) which are quantities that most of the time behave in opposite trends. If the PPF chemistry is relatively easy to evaluate, it is much more challenging for χ. This paper reviews the recent work developed in our group on the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric (ToF-SIMS) positive spectra data in order to extract the relative cross-linking degree (χ) of PPF. NH{sub 2}-, COOR- and SH-containing PPF synthesized in our group by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) varying the applied radiofrequency power (P{sub RF}), have been used as model surfaces. For the three plasma polymer families, the scores of the first computed principal component (PC1) highlighted significant differences in the chemical composition supported by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The most important fragments contributing to PC1 (loadings > 90%) were used to compute an average C/H ratio index for samples synthesized at low and high P{sub RF}. This ratio being an evaluation of χ, these data, accordingly to the literature, indicates an increase of χ with P{sub RF} excepted for the SH-PPF. These results have

  14. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  15. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.; Roy, S.S.; Hazra, K.S.; Wadhwa, S.; Ray, S.C.; Mitra, S.K.; Misra, D.S.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We showed Ar/O 2 plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. ► The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. ► Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. ► Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15–20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110° to 40°. It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from ∼0.80 V μm −1 (untreated) to ∼0.60 V μm −1 (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  16. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  17. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  18. Physical Modeling of the Processes Responsible for the Mid-Latitude Storm Enhanced Plasma Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Maruyama, N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Certain magnetic local time sectors at mid latitudes see substantial increases in plasma density in the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. The St. Patrick's Day storms of 2013 and 2015 were no exception, both producing large increases of total electron content at mid latitudes. There are theories for the build up of the storm enhanced density (SED), but can current theoretical ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models actually reproduce the response for an actual event? Not only is it necessary for the physical model to contain the appropriate physics, they also have to be forced by the correct drivers. The SED requires mid-latitude zonal transport to provide plasma stagnation in sunlight to provide the production. The theory also requires a poleward drift perpendicular to the magnetic field to elevate the plasma out of the body of the thermosphere to regions of substantially less loss rate. It is also suggested that equatorward winds are necessary to further elevate the plasma to regions of reduced loss. However, those same winds are also likely to transport molecular nitrogen rich neutral gas equatorward, potentially canceling out the benefits of the neutral circulation. Observations of mid-latitude zonal plasma flow are first analyzed to see if this first necessary ingredient is substantiated. The drift observations are then used to tune the driver to determine if, with the appropriate electric field driver, the latest physical models can reproduce the substantial plasma build up. If it can, the simulation can also be used to assess the contribution of the equatorward meridional wind; are they an asset to the plasma build up, or does the enhanced molecular species they carry counteract their benefit.

  19. Accuracy enhancement of laser induced breakdown spectra using permittivity and size optimized plasma confinement rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Guo, Shuai; Wazir, Nasrullah; Chai, Ke; Liang, Liang; Zhang, Min; Hao, Yan; Nan, Pengfei; Liu, Ruibin

    2017-10-30

    The inevitable problems in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy are matrix effect and statistical fluctuation of the spectral signal, which can be partly avoided by utilizing a proper confined unit. The dependences of spectral signal enhancement on relative permittivity were studied by varying materials to confine the plasma, which include polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), nylon/dacron, silicagel, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with the relative permittivity 2.2, ~3.3, 3.6, 8~13, 15~22. We found that higher relative permittivity rings induce stronger enhancement ability, which restricts the energy dissipation of plasma better and due to the reflected electromagnetic wave from the wall of different materials, the electromagnetic field of plasma can be well confined and makes the distribution of plasma more orderly. The spectral intensities of the characteristic lines Si I 243.5 nm and Si I 263.1 nm increased approximately 2 times with relative permittivity values from 2.2 to ~20. The size dependent enhancement of PTFE was further checked and the maximum gain was realized by using a confinement ring with a diameter size of 5 mm and a height of 3 mm (D5mmH3mm), and the rings with D2mmH1mm and D3mmH2mm also show higher enhancement factor. In view of peak shift, peak lost and accidental peaks in the obtained spectra were properly treated in data progressing; the spectral fluctuation decreased drastically for various materials with different relative permittivities as confined units, which means the core of plasma is stabilized, attributing to the confinement effect. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis in coal shows wonderful results-the prediction fitting coefficient R 2 reaches 0.98 for ash and 0.99 for both volatile and carbon.

  20. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO 2 is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO 2 are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO 2 with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO 2 is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO x with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al 2 O 3 interlayers between electrode and TiO 2 , Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO x deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10 -7 A/cm 2 at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO 2 is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  1. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  2. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  3. Refraction-enhanced backlit imaging of axially symmetric inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jeffrey A; Landen, Otto L; Suter, Laurence J; Masse, Laurent P; Clark, Daniel S; Ross, James S; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Meezan, Nathan B; Thomas, Cliff A; Ping, Yuan

    2013-05-20

    X-ray backlit radiographs of dense plasma shells can be significantly altered by refraction of x rays that would otherwise travel straight-ray paths, and this effect can be a powerful tool for diagnosing the spatial structure of the plasma being radiographed. We explore the conditions under which refraction effects may be observed, and we use analytical and numerical approaches to quantify these effects for one-dimensional radial opacity and density profiles characteristic of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. We also show how analytical and numerical approaches allow approximate radial plasma opacity and density profiles to be inferred from point-projection refraction-enhanced radiography data. This imaging technique can provide unique data on electron density profiles in ICF plasmas that cannot be obtained using other techniques, and the uniform illumination provided by point-like x-ray backlighters eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in inferences of plasma opacity profiles from area-backlit pinhole imaging data when the backlight spatial profile cannot be independently characterized. The technique is particularly suited to in-flight radiography of imploding low-opacity shells surrounding hydrogen ice, because refraction is sensitive to the electron density of the hydrogen plasma even when it is invisible to absorption radiography. It may also provide an alternative approach to timing shockwaves created by the implosion drive, that are currently invisible to absorption radiography.

  4. Chemical derivatization to enhance chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this task is to develop modified resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to improve the chemical/oxidative stability of the resin. R-F resin is a regenerable organic ion-exchange resin that is selective for cesium ion in highly alkaline, high ionic-strength solutions. R-F resin tends to undergo chemical degradation, reducing its ability to remove cesium ion from waste solutions; the mechanistic details of these decomposition reactions are currently unknown. The approach used for this task is chemical modification of the resin structure, particularly the resorcinol ring unit of the polymer resin. This approach is based on prior characterization studies conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that indicated the facile chemical degradation of the resin is oxidation of the resorcinol ring to the para-quinone structure, with subsequent loss of ion-exchange sites for cesium ion. R-F resin represents an important alternative to current radiocesium remediation technology for tank wastes at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites, particularly if regenerable resins are needed.

  5. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak, E-mail: zam89blue@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-14

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (R{sub bulk}) and the sheath region (R{sub sheath}). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH{sub 3} plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the R{sub bulk}, NH{sub 3} plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the R{sub sheath}, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the R{sub bulk} using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  6. Chemical stability and osteogenic activity of plasma-sprayed boron-modified calcium silicate-based coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Li, Kai; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, CaSiO 3 bio-ceramic coatings have attracted great attention because of their good bioactivity. However, their high degradation rates in physiological environment restrict their practical applications. In this work, boron-modified CaSiO 3 ceramic (Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 , B-CS) coating was developed on Ti substrates by plasma-spraying technique attempting to obtain enhanced chemical stability and osteogenic activity. The B-CS coating possessed significantly increased chemical stability due to the introduction of boron and consequently the modified crystal structure, while maintaining good bioactivity. Scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence studies showed that better cellular adhesion and extinctive filopodia-like processes were observed on the B-CS coating. Compared with the pure CaSiO 3 (CS) coating, the B-CS coating promoted MC3T3-E1 cells attachment and proliferation. In addition, enhanced collagen I (COL-I) secretion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization levels were detected from the B-CS coating. According to RT-PCR results, notable up-regulation expressions of mineralized tissue-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) were observed on the B-CS coating compared with the CS coating. The above results suggested that Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 coatings possess excellent osteogenic activity and might be a promising candidate for orthopedic applications.

  7. Chemical and microstructural characterizations of plasma polymer films by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossement, Damien; Renaux, Fabian; Thiry, Damien; Ligot, Sylvie; Francq, Rémy; Snyders, Rony

    2015-11-01

    It is accepted that the macroscopic properties of functional plasma polymer films (PPF) are defined by their functional density and their crosslinking degree (χ) which are quantities that most of the time behave in opposite trends. If the PPF chemistry is relatively easy to evaluate, it is much more challenging for χ. This paper reviews the recent work developed in our group on the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric (ToF-SIMS) positive spectra data in order to extract the relative cross-linking degree (χ) of PPF. NH2-, COOR- and SH-containing PPF synthesized in our group by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) varying the applied radiofrequency power (PRF), have been used as model surfaces. For the three plasma polymer families, the scores of the first computed principal component (PC1) highlighted significant differences in the chemical composition supported by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The most important fragments contributing to PC1 (loadings > 90%) were used to compute an average C/H ratio index for samples synthesized at low and high PRF. This ratio being an evaluation of χ, these data, accordingly to the literature, indicates an increase of χ with PRF excepted for the SH-PPF. These results have been cross-checked by the evaluation of functional properties of the plasma polymers namely a linear correlation with the stability of NH2-PPF in ethanol and a correlation with the mechanical properties of the COOR-PPF. For the SH-PPF family, the peculiar evolution of χ is supported by the understanding of the growth mechanism of the PPF from plasma diagnostic. The whole set of data clearly demonstrates the potential of the PCA method for extracting information on the microstructure of plasma polymers from ToF-SIMS measurements.

  8. Nitrogen Fixation by Gliding Arc Plasma: Better Insight by Chemical Kinetics Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizong; Patil, Bhaskar; Heijkers, Stjin; Hessel, Volker; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-05-22

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into valuable compounds, that is, so-called nitrogen fixation, is gaining increased interest, owing to the essential role in the nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. Plasma technology, and more specifically gliding arc plasma, has great potential in this area, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, we developed a detailed chemical kinetics model for a pulsed-power gliding-arc reactor operating at atmospheric pressure for nitrogen oxide synthesis. Experiments are performed to validate the model and reasonable agreement is reached between the calculated and measured NO and NO 2 yields and the corresponding energy efficiency for NO x formation for different N 2 /O 2 ratios, indicating that the model can provide a realistic picture of the plasma chemistry. Therefore, we can use the model to investigate the reaction pathways for the formation and loss of NO x . The results indicate that vibrational excitation of N 2 in the gliding arc contributes significantly to activating the N 2 molecules, and leads to an energy efficient way of NO x production, compared to the thermal process. Based on the underlying chemistry, the model allows us to propose solutions on how to further improve the NO x formation by gliding arc technology. Although the energy efficiency of the gliding-arc-based nitrogen fixation process at the present stage is not comparable to the world-scale Haber-Bosch process, we believe our study helps us to come up with more realistic scenarios of entering a cutting-edge innovation in new business cases for the decentralised production of fertilisers for agriculture, in which low-temperature plasma technology might play an important role. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  10. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  11. SiO2 films deposited on silicon at low temperature by plasma-enhanced decomposition of hexamethyldisilazane: Defect characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, S.; Pecheur, A.; Autran, J.L.; Vedda, A.; Caccavale, F.; Martini, M.; Spinolo, G.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films have been deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperature (50 deg. C) in a parallel-plate reactor using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), diluted in He, and O 2 as Si and O precursors. The effect of the O 2 /(HMDS+He) flow rate ratio on the oxide properties has been investigated in the range of 0.05-1.25 by means of deposition rate, wet etching rate, secondary ion mass spectrometry, thermally stimulated luminescence, and high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements. Both the deposition rate and the etching rate increase by increasing the O 2 /(HMDS+He) flow rate ratio and reach a constant value at flow rate ratios higher than 0.6. The strong increase and saturation in the deposition rate can be attributed to the impinging oxide atoms flux and to the consumption of silyl radicals at the deposition surface, respectively. The Si/SiO 2 interface state density and the positive fixed charge density are in the range 1x10 11 -1x10 12 eV -1 cm -2 and 6x10 11 -1.5x10 12 C cm -2 , respectively. These concentrations are comparable with literature data concerning SiO 2 films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperatures higher than 200 deg. C using other Si precursors. Moreover, the interface state density decreases while the fixed oxide charge increases by increasing the O 2 /(HMDS+He) flow rate ratio. A correlation has been found between defects monitored by thermally stimulated luminescence and fixed oxide charges. From a comparison with secondary ion mass spectrometry results, the fixed oxide charges can be preliminarily attributed to intrinsic defects

  12. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F2 remote plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F 2 remote plasmas. N 2 and N 2 +O 2 gases in the F 2 /Ar/N 2 and F 2 /Ar/N 2 /O 2 remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N 2 and N 2 +O 2 or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N 2 O and NO 2 by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF 4 formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature

  13. Lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts followed by chemical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Sarena; Izraeli, Elad; Shor, Yaron; Domb, Avi

    2013-05-01

    A method for lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts and enhancing the lifted impressions with amido black is presented. On rough or dark substrates, background interferences may conceal significant details of footwear impressions. Illumination with alternative light sources and chemically enhancing the bloody footwear impressions may reveal additional details, but sometimes, lifting footwear impressions prior to enhancing is the only way to expose hidden details (by using blood reagents not adequate on the original). Several cast formulations were tested for lifting the footwear impressions. The best results were achieved using Aroma fine®. Enhancement of the footwear impressions was attempted with several reagents prior to lifting, during the casting process, and on the lifted footwear impressions. Applying amido black to footwear impressions lifted with alginate produced the sharpest and most detailed footwear impressions. Alginate castings followed by chemical enhancement with amido black may produce high-quality footwear impressions for comparison. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Numerical analysis of the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yufeng; Nie Wansheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the body force aerodynamic actuation mechanism of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, the effect of plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of ten blade elements equably along the stratospheric screw propeller blade was numerical studied. Then the effect of plasma flow control enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller was compared that by the blade element theory method. The results show that the flow separate phenomena will easily happen in the root region and top end region of screw propeller, and the blade elements in the root region of screw propeller may work on the negative attack angle condition. DBD plasma flow control can entirely restrain the faintish flow separate phenomena in middle region of screw propeller. Although DBD plasma flow control can not entirely restrain the badly flow separate phenomena in top end region of screw propeller, it also can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of blade elements in these regions in same degree. But effect of DBD plasma flow control on enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade elements working on the negative attack angle condition is ineffectively. It can be concluded that DBD plasma flow control can enhance the aerodynamic characteristics of stratospheric screw propeller, the thrust of the whole propeller and the propeller efficiency in the case of plasma on will increases by a factor of 28.27% and 12.3% respectively compared with that in the case of plasma off studied. (authors)

  15. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  16. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  17. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Bosco, O; Mariano, F; Dondi, A E; Goffi, A; Spatola, T; Cuccurullo, A; Tizzani, P; Brondino, G; Stella, M; Montrucchio, G

    2009-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists. Circulating levels of TPO are increased in patients with sepsis and are mainly related to sepsis severity. To investigate the potential contribution of elevated TPO levels in platelet activation during burn injury complicated or not by sepsis. We studied 22 burned patients, 10 without and 12 with sepsis, and 10 healthy subjects. We measured plasma levels of TPO, as well as leukocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression. The priming activity of plasma from burned patients or healthy subjects on platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and the role of TPO in these effects were also studied in vitro. Burned patients without and with sepsis showed higher circulating TPO levels and increased monocyte-platelet binding compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, TPO levels, monocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression were significantly higher in burned patients with sepsis than in burned patients without sepsis. In vitro, plasma from burned patients without and with sepsis, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation, monocyte-platelet binding and platelet P-selectin expression. The effect of plasma from burned patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that of plasma from burned patients without sepsis. An inhibitor of TPO prevented the priming effect of plasma from burned patients. Increased TPO levels may enhance platelet activation during burn injury and sepsis, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure in these diseases.

  18. Proton-sensing transistor systems for detecting ion leakage from plasma membranes under chemical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Schaffhauser, Daniel F; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Akira; Miyahara, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    The membrane integrity of live cells is routinely evaluated for cytotoxicity induced by chemical or physical stimuli. Recent progress in bioengineering means that high-quality toxicity validation is required. Here, we report a pH-sensitive transistor system developed for the continuous monitoring of ion leakage from cell membranes upon challenge by toxic compounds. Temporal changes in pH were generated with high reproducibility via periodic flushing of HepG2 cells on a gate insulator of a proton-sensitive field-effect transistor with isotonic buffer solutions with/without NH 4 Cl. The pH transients at the point of NH 4 Cl addition/withdrawal originated from the free permeation of NH 3 across the semi-permeable plasma membranes, and the proton sponge effect produced by the ammonia equilibrium. Irreversible attenuation of the pH transient was observed when the cells were subjected to a membrane-toxic reagent. Experiments and simulations proved that the decrease in the pH transient was proportional to the area of the ion-permeable pores on the damaged plasma membranes. The pH signal was correlated with the degree of hemolysis produced by the model reagents. The pH assay was sensitive to the formation of molecularly sized pores that were otherwise not measurable via detection of the leakage of hemoglobin, because the hydrodynamic radius of hemoglobin was greater than 3.1nm in the hemolysis assay. The pH transient was not disturbed by inherent ion-transporter activity. The ISFET assay was applied to a wide variety of cell types. The system presented here is fast, sensitive, practical and scalable, and will be useful for validating cytotoxins and nanomaterials. The plasma membrane toxicity and hemolysis are widely and routinely evaluated in biomaterials science and biomedical engineering. Despite the recent development of a variety of methods/materials for efficient gene/drug delivery systems to the cytosol, the methodologies for safety validation remain unchanged in

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering reveals adsorption of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuzard, G.; Angiboust, J.-F.; Jeannesson, P.; Manfait, M.; Millot, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was applied to analyze mitoxantrone (MTX) adsorption on the plasma membrane microenvironment of sensitive (HCT-116 S) or BCRP/MXR-type resistant (HCT-116 R) cells. The addition of silver colloid to MTX-treated cells revealed an enhanced Raman scattering of MTX. Addition of extracellular DNA induced a total extinction of MTX Raman intensity for both cell lines, which revealed an adsorption of MTX on plasma membrane. A threefold higher MTX Raman intensity was observed for HCT-116 R, suggesting a tight MTX adsorption in the plasma membrane microenvironment. Fluorescence confocal microscopy confirmed a relative MTX emission around plasma membrane for HCT-116 R. After 30 min at 4 deg. C, a threefold decrease of the MTX Raman scattering was observed for HCT-116 R, contrary to HCT-116 S. Permeation with benzyl alcohol revealed a threefold decrease of membrane MTX adsorption on HCT-116 R, exclusively. This additional MTX adsorption should correspond to the drug bound to an unstable site on the HCT-116 R membrane. This study showed that SERS spectroscopy could be a direct method to reveal drug adsorption to the membrane environment of living cells

  20. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikopoulos, C.N.

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures

  1. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar

    2010-01-01

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental...... degrees C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  3. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented

  4. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  5. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Biocompatibility of Dental Zirconia Ceramics by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chou Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties play a critical role in influencing cell responses to a biomaterial. The objectives of this study were (1 to characterize changes in surface properties of zirconia (ZrO2 ceramic after oxygen plasma treatment; and (2 to determine the effect of such changes on biological responses of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63. The results indicated that the surface morphology was not changed by oxygen plasma treatment. In contrast, oxygen plasma treatment to ZrO2 not only resulted in an increase in hydrophilicity, but also it retained surface hydrophilicity after 5-min treatment time. More importantly, surface properties of ZrO2 modified by oxygen plasma treatment were beneficial for cell growth, whereas the surface roughness of the materials did not have a significant efficacy. It is concluded that oxygen plasma treatment was certified to be effective in modifying the surface state of ZrO2 and has the potential in the creation and maintenance of hydrophilic surfaces and the enhancement of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  6. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  7. Effects of the instability enhanced friction on relative ion densities in a two-ion species low-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The instability enhanced friction theory of Baalrud & Hegna (Phys. Plasmas 18, 023505 (2011)) predicts that for comparable ion densities the ions nearly reach a common velocity near the sheath edge in a low temperature plasma. The theory was experimentally confirmed by Yip, Hershkowitz, & Severn (Phys. Rev. Letters 104, 225003 (2010)). We will explore the effects of the theory on relative ion densities in a numerical simulation of an Ar/Xe plasma. Results for a 0D plasma model (Lieberman, Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2005) will be presented.

  8. Plasma position and current control system enhancements for the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, A.C. [Ass. EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lomas, P.J.; McCullen, P.; Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • JET plasma position and current control system enhanced for the JET ITER like wall. • Vertical stabilization system enhanced to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. • Improved termination management system. • Implementation of the current limit avoidance system. • Implementation of PFX-on-early-task. - Abstract: The upgrade of Joint European Torus (JET) to a new all-metal wall, the so-called ITER-like wall (ILW), has posed a set of new challenges regarding both machine operation and protection. The plasma position and current control (PPCC) system plays a crucial role in minimizing the possibility that the plasma could permanently damage the ILW. The installation of the ILW has driven a number of upgrades of the two PPCC components, namely the Vertical Stabilization (VS) system and the Shape Controller (SC). The VS system has been enhanced in order to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. The SC upgrade includes three new features: an improved termination management system, the current limit avoidance system, and the PFX-on-early-task. This paper describes the PPCC upgrades listed above, focusing on the implementation issues and on the experimental results achieved during the 2011–12 JET experimental campaigns.

  9. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry: a case study on CO2 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H. N.; Bongers, W. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure stream of CO to aid in renewable energy penetration in this sector. A realistic process design is constructed to serve as a basis for an economical analysis. The manufacturing cost price of CO is estimated at 1.2 kUS ton-1 CO. A sensitivity analysis shows that separation is the dominant cost factor, so that improving conversion is currently more effective to lower the price than e.g. energy efficiency.

  10. Plasma chemical and electrical modelling of a negative DC corona in pure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, C [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    A complex plasma chemical and electrical model of a negative stationary wire-to-cylinder corona discharge in pure oxygen is presented. The corona discharge is assumed to have axial and azimuthal symmetry. The experimental current-voltage characteristic is required as input data, but there are no other adjustable or empirical parameters. The experimental validation of the results of the model comes from its prediction of the ozone concentration. The role played by different reactions and species is analysed in detail using the results of the simulation. The effect of the gas temperature and of the decomposition of ozone at the electrodes is also investigated. The agreement between the model and the experiments is excellent when the effect of ozone decomposition at the electrodes is taken into account.

  11. Low temperature metal free growth of graphene on insulating substrates by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, R.; Munuera, C.; Martínez, J. I.; Azpeitia, J.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; García-Hernández, M.

    2017-03-01

    Direct growth of graphene films on dielectric substrates (quartz and silica) is reported, by means of remote electron cyclotron resonance plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition r-(ECR-CVD) at low temperature (650 °C). Using a two step deposition process- nucleation and growth- by changing the partial pressure of the gas precursors at constant temperature, mostly monolayer continuous films, with grain sizes up to 500 nm are grown, exhibiting transmittance larger than 92% and sheet resistance as low as 900 Ω sq-1. The grain size and nucleation density of the resulting graphene sheets can be controlled varying the deposition time and pressure. In additon, first-principles DFT-based calculations have been carried out in order to rationalize the oxygen reduction in the quartz surface experimentally observed. This method is easily scalable and avoids damaging and expensive transfer steps of graphene films, improving compatibility with current fabrication technologies.

  12. Low-temperature synthesis of graphene on nickel foil by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Song, W.; Lee, S. Y.; Jeon, C.; Jung, W.; Kim, M.; Park, C.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was employed to synthesize high quality centimeter scale graphene film at low temperatures. Monolayer graphene was obtained by varying the gas mixing ratio of hydrogen and methane to 80:1. Using advantages of MPCVD, the synthesis temperature was decreased from 750 deg. C down to 450 deg. C. Optical microscopy and Raman mapping images exhibited that a large area monolayer graphene was synthesized regardless of the temperatures. Since the overall transparency of 89% and low sheet resistances ranging from 590 to 1855 Ω/sq of graphene films were achieved at considerably low synthesis temperatures, MPCVD can be adopted in manufacturing future large-area electronic devices based on graphene film.

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of graphene on nickel foil by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Song, W.; Lee, S. Y.; Jeon, C.; Jung, W.; Kim, M.; Park, C.-Y.

    2011-06-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was employed to synthesize high quality centimeter scale graphene film at low temperatures. Monolayer graphene was obtained by varying the gas mixing ratio of hydrogen and methane to 80:1. Using advantages of MPCVD, the synthesis temperature was decreased from 750 °C down to 450 °C. Optical microscopy and Raman mapping images exhibited that a large area monolayer graphene was synthesized regardless of the temperatures. Since the overall transparency of 89% and low sheet resistances ranging from 590 to 1855 Ω/sq of graphene films were achieved at considerably low synthesis temperatures, MPCVD can be adopted in manufacturing future large-area electronic devices based on graphene film.

  14. Morphology and structure of Ti-doped diamond films prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejie; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Hongchao; Ren, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Sun, Shiyang; Jia, Huiling

    2018-06-01

    Ti-doped diamond films were deposited through a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) system for the first time. The effects of the addition of Ti on the morphology, microstructure and quality of diamond films were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectrometry results show that Ti can be added to diamond films through the MPCVD system using tetra n-butyl titanate as precursor. The spectra from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the images from scanning electron microscopy of the deposited films indicate that the diamond phase clearly exists and dominates in Ti-doped diamond films. The amount of Ti added obviously influences film morphology and the preferred orientation of the crystals. Ti doping is beneficial to the second nucleation and the growth of the (1 1 0) faceted grains.

  15. Plasma chemical and electrical modelling of a negative DC corona in pure oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, C; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A

    2004-01-01

    A complex plasma chemical and electrical model of a negative stationary wire-to-cylinder corona discharge in pure oxygen is presented. The corona discharge is assumed to have axial and azimuthal symmetry. The experimental current-voltage characteristic is required as input data, but there are no other adjustable or empirical parameters. The experimental validation of the results of the model comes from its prediction of the ozone concentration. The role played by different reactions and species is analysed in detail using the results of the simulation. The effect of the gas temperature and of the decomposition of ozone at the electrodes is also investigated. The agreement between the model and the experiments is excellent when the effect of ozone decomposition at the electrodes is taken into account

  16. Microwave plasma chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline carbon film structures and study their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, N.; Yafarov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Starykh, D.

    2015-08-01

    The self-organization effect of diamond nanocrystals in polymer-graphite and carbon films is detected. The carbon materials deposition was carried from ethanol vapors out at low pressure using a highly non-equilibrium microwave plasma. Deposition processes of carbon film structures (diamond, graphite, graphene) is defined. Deposition processes of nanocrystalline structures containing diamond and graphite phases in different volume ratios is identified. The solid film was obtained under different conditions of microwave plasma chemical synthesis. We investigated the electrical properties of the nanocrystalline carbon films and identified it's from various factors. Influence of diamond-graphite film deposition mode in non-equilibrium microwave plasma at low pressure on emission characteristics was established. This effect is justified using the cluster model of the structure of amorphous carbon. It was shown that the reduction of bound hydrogen in carbon structures leads to a decrease in the threshold electric field of emission from 20-30 V/m to 5 V/m. Reducing the operating voltage field emission can improve mechanical stability of the synthesized film diamond-graphite emitters. Current density emission at least 20 A/cm2 was obtained. Nanocrystalline carbon film materials can be used to create a variety of functional elements in micro- and nanoelectronics and photonics such as cold electron source for emission in vacuum devices, photonic devices, cathodoluminescent flat display, highly efficient white light sources. The obtained graphene carbon net structure (with a net size about 6 μm) may be used for the manufacture of large-area transparent electrode for solar cells and cathodoluminescent light sources

  17. pypk - A Python extension module to handle chemical kinetics in plasma physics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PLASMAKIN is a package to handle physical and chemical data used in plasma physics modeling and to compute gas-phase and gas-surface kinetics data: particle production and loss rates, photon emission spectra and energy exchange rates. A large number of species properties and reaction types are supported, namely: gas or electron temperature dependent collision rate coefficients, vibrational and cascade levels, evaluation of branching ratios, superelastic and other reverse processes, three-body collisions, radiation imprisonment and photoelectric emission. Support of non-standard rate coefficient functions can be handled by a user-supplied shared library.

    The main block of the PLASMAKIN package is a Fortran module that can be included in an user's program or compiled as a shared library, libpk. pypk is a new addition to the package and provides access to libpk from Python programs. It is build on top of the ctypes foreign function library module and is prepared to work with several Fortran compilers. However pypk is more than a wrapper and provides its own classes and functions taking advantage of Python language characteristics. Integration with Python tools allows substantial productivity gains on program development and insight on plasma physics problems.

  18. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  19. Hole injection enhancement in organic light emitting devices using plasma treated graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesuraj, P. Justin; Parameshwari, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kanthasamy, K.; Koch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Pfnür, H. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Laboratorium für Nano- und Quantene$ngineering, Schneiderberg 30, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Jeganathan, K., E-mail: kjeganathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Plasma treated Graphene oxide for hole injection enhancement in OLEDs. - Highlights: • Oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma exposed graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been demonstrated as hole buffer layers in OLEDs. • O{sub 2} plasma exposure induces assimilation of oxygen contents in GO lattice resulting in improved work function that reduced the hole injection barrier further. Whereas, H{sub 2} plasma contrastingly reduced the GO by excluding oxygen which ensuing lower work function. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigations reveal the capricious amount of oxygen in GO lattice and its corresponding work function variations. • GO and O{sub 2} plasma treated GO significantly improves the current efficiency of OLEDs more than one order with notable reduction in turn on voltage. - Abstract: The hole injection layer (HIL) with high work function (WF) is desirable to reduce the injection barrier between anode and hole transport layer in organic light emitting devices (OLED). Here, we report a novel approach to tune the WF of graphene oxide (GO) using oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatment and its hole injection properties in OLEDs. The mild exposure of oxygen plasma on GO (O{sub 2}-GO) significantly reduces the injection barrier by increasing the WF of anode (4.98 eV) through expansion of C−O bonds. In contrast, the hole injection barrier was drastically increased for hydrogen plasma treated GO (H{sub 2}-GO) layers as the WF is lowered by the contraction of C−O bond. By employing active O{sub 2}-GO as HIL in OLEDs found to exhibit superior current efficiency of 4.2 cd/A as compared to 3.3 cd/A for pristine GO. Further, the high injection efficiency of O{sub 2}-GO infused hole only device can be attributed to the improved energy level matching. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to correlate the WF of HIL infused anode towards the enhanced performance of

  20. Enhanced adherence of mouse fibroblast and vascular cells to plasma modified polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, Alena, E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Novotna, Zdenka, E-mail: zdenka1.novotna@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolska, Zdenka [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, Silvie [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    Since the last decade, tissue engineering has shown a sensational promise in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures for harvested tissues, implants and prostheses. Biomedical polymers, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), were activated by Ar plasma discharge. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by determination of the thickness of ablated layer. The amount of an ablated polymer layer was measured by gravimetry. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface chemistry and polarity of the samples were investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Changes in surface morphology were followed using atomic force microscopy. Cytocompatibility of plasma activated polyethylene foils was studied using two distinct model cell lines; VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) as a model for vascular graft testing and connective tissue cells L929 (mouse fibroblasts) approved for standardized material cytotoxicity testing. Specifically, the cell number, morphology, and metabolic activity of the adhered and proliferated cells on the polyethylene matrices were studied in vitro. It was found that the plasma treatment caused ablation of the polymers, resulting in dramatic changes in their surface morphology and roughness. ARXPS and electrokinetic measurements revealed oxidation of the polymer surface. It was found that plasma activation has a positive effect on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs and L929 cells. - Highlights: • Plasma activation of LDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE • Study of surface properties by several techniques: ARXPS, AFM, zeta-potential, and goniometry • Investigation of adhesion and spreading of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and mouse fibroblasts (L929)

  1. Impacts of chemical enhancers on skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Meryem Sedef; Peköz, Ayca Yıldız; Aksu, Buket; Araman, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    The addition of chemical enhancers into formulations is the most commonly employed approach to overcome the skin barrier. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of vehicle and chemical enhancers on the skin permeation and accumulation of terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug. Terbinafine (1% w/w) was formulated as a Carbopol 934 P gel formulation in presence and absence of three chemical enhancers, nerolidol, dl-limonene and urea. Terbinafine distribution and deposition in stratum corneum (SC) and skin following 8-h ex vivo permeation study was determined using a sequential tape stripping procedure. The conformational order of SC lipids was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Nerolidol containing gel formulation produced significantly higher enhancement in terbinafine permeation through skin and its skin accumulation was increased. ATR-FTIR results showed enhancer induced lipid bilayer disruption in SC. Urea resulted in enhanced permeation of terbinafine across the skin and a balanced distribution to the SC was achieved. But, dl-limonene could not minimize the accumulation of terbinafine in the upper SC. Nerolidol dramatically improved the skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine in the skin that might help to optimize targeting of the drug to the epidermal sites as required for both of superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  2. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-03-20

    Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In₄Se₃ - δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In₄Se₃ - δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In₄Se₃ - δ Cl 0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n -type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  3. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Soo Rhyee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In4Se3−δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In4Se3−δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In4Se3−δCl0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n-type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  4. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Roy, S.S., E-mail: sinharoy@ualberta.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Hazra, K.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Wadhwa, S. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Ray, S.C. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mitra, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Misra, D.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); McLaughlin, J.A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed Ar/O{sub 2} plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15-20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from {approx}0.80 V {mu}m{sup -1} (untreated) to {approx}0.60 V {mu}m{sup -1} (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  5. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A.J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A.R.; Dass, N.N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  6. Enhancement of corrosion resistance for plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel by plain air plasma post-oxidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiqiang; Liu, Han; Ye, Xuemei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Chai, Yating [Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Hu, Jing, E-mail: jinghoo@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Plain air was primarily used for plasma post-oxidation for AISI 4140 steel. • A thin iron oxide layer composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on top of the compound layer. • The ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was closely related to the post-oxidizing conditions. • Post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min brought out highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and optimum corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma post-oxidizing was conducted immediately after plasma nitriding in the same equipment for AISI 4140 steel, and plain air was used as the oxygen bearing gas. The cross-sectional microstructures of the treated samples were observed by optical metallography and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and the thickness of compound layer was measured accordingly. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization, and the surface morphology before and after polarization test was also observed by SEM. Meanwhile, standard Gibbs free energy of the oxidation reactions existed in Fe–O system was calculated. The results show that a thin iron oxide layer composed of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is formed on top of the compound layer during plasma post-oxidizing process, and the ratio of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is depended on plasma post-oxidizing temperature and time. Highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained while post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min due to lower standard Gibbs free energy and appropriate forming rate for the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at this temperature. The thin oxide layer brings out significant enhancement of corrosion resistance, especially at higher ratios of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to the dense and adherent characteristic of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide. Surface images of the post-oxidizing specimen

  7. Expanding Thermal Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition of ZnO:Al Layers for CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al grown by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP-CVD has demonstrated excellent electrical and optical properties, which make it an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic applications. However, when depositing ZnO:Al on CIGS solar cell stacks, one should be aware that high substrate temperature processing (i.e., >200°C can damage the crucial underlying layers/interfaces (such as CIGS/CdS and CdS/i-ZnO. In this paper, the potential of adopting ETP-CVD ZnO:Al in CIGS solar cells is assessed: the effect of substrate temperature during film deposition on both the electrical properties of the ZnO:Al and the eventual performance of the CIGS solar cells was investigated. For ZnO:Al films grown using the high thermal budget (HTB condition, lower resistivities, ρ, were achievable (~5 × 10−4 Ω·cm than those grown using the low thermal budget (LTB conditions (~2 × 10−3 Ω·cm, whereas higher CIGS conversion efficiencies were obtained for the LTB condition (up to 10.9% than for the HTB condition (up to 9.0%. Whereas such temperature-dependence of CIGS device parameters has previously been linked with chemical migration between individual layers, we demonstrate that in this case it is primarily attributed to the prevalence of shunt currents.

  8. Organo-Functionalization of Silicon Nanocrystals Synthesized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Don-Sung; Choe, Dong-Hoe; Jeong, Hyun-Dam [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung-Wan; Kim, Jung-Hyung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ODE-Si NCs) are obtained via a surface-initiated thermal hydrosilylation reaction on hydride-terminated Si NCs (H-Si NCs). Pristine Si NCs were synthesized at the gram scale by using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) . The H-Si NCs were produced through a chemical etching process with hydrofluoric acid (HF), ethanol (EtOH), and distilled water (d-H{sub 2}O). The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicate that the synthesized Si NCs obtained via ICP-CVD have diamond cubic-structured silicon with a grain size of 10 nm and a densely packed Si NC array consisting of individual NCs. Organo-functionalized Si NCs, i.e., ODE-Si NCs, are well soluble in organic solvent whereas pristine Si NCs synthesized through ICP-CVD are not. The surface chemistry of the ODE-Si NCs was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-NMR), and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). Thereby, these newly synthesized and scalable organo-functionalized Si NCs are applicable as raw materials for practical use in devices by tuning the surface chemistry with various capping molecules.

  9. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2 O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 o C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  10. Chemical corrosion by chlorides on ancient-like bronzes and treatment by hydrogen glow discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, O.; Novakovic, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Filippaki, E.; Bassiakos, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Three representative ancient-like bronzes are employed for the chemical synthesis of Cu2(OH)3Cl rich patinas in order to study the influence of the alloying elements in the evolution of the chloride attack and to further conduct stabilization treatment via Hydrogen Glow Discharge Plasma (HGDP) at low temperature and pressure. The corrosion behavior of specimens having Sn and Pb as main alloying elements is governed by a decuprification mechanism and by the formation of Sn-Pb-O enriched barrier layers. In the case of the Zn containing alloy, dezincification is more pronounced at the corrosion initial stages, and copper species predominate the corrosion products evolution. A three-hour HGDP treatment leads to Cu+ production and metallic Cu, Sn, Zn, and Pb redeposition, as a result of metal cation reduction. This process is accompanied by partial removal of Cl species, O diminution, and change in coloration. The further increase of the Cl/O atomic ratio measured on the post-treated surfaces leads to the formation of nantokite and thus to the conclusion that the stabilization of objects with extensive Cl attack is not feasible by HGDP without preliminary chemical treatment.

  11. Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin-doped indium oxide in hydrocarbon-based plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Device and Material R& D Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, and inert-gas ion (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, and Ar{sup +}) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CH{sub x}{sup +}) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH{sup +} ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.

  12. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  13. Fast screening of analytes for chemical reactions by reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Guangming

    2015-11-15

    Approaches for analyte screening have been used to aid in the fine-tuning of chemical reactions. Herein, we present a simple and straightforward analyte screening method for chemical reactions via reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry (reactive LTP-MS). Solution-phase reagents deposited on sample substrates were desorbed into the vapor phase by action of the LTP and by thermal desorption. Treated with LTP, both reagents reacted through a vapor phase ion/molecule reaction to generate the product. Finally, protonated reagents and products were identified by LTP-MS. Reaction products from imine formation reaction, Eschweiler-Clarke methylation and the Eberlin reaction were detected via reactive LTP-MS. Products from the imine formation reaction with reagents substituted with different functional groups (26 out of 28 trials) were successfully screened in a time of 30 s each. Besides, two short-lived reactive intermediates of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation were also detected. LTP in this study serves both as an ambient ionization source for analyte identification (including reagents, intermediates and products) and as a means to produce reagent ions to assist gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The present reactive LTP-MS method enables fast screening for several analytes from several chemical reactions, which possesses good reagent compatibility and the potential to perform high-throughput analyte screening. In addition, with the detection of various reactive intermediates (intermediates I and II of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation), the present method would also contribute to revealing and elucidating reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Enhancement of mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion by chemical odification of natural fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available with the polymer matrix. Therefore, the constituents need to be chemically modified to enhancing adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix. The aim of this work is to improve the interfacial adhesion between the polypropylene matrix and the natural fibre...

  15. Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babushok, V.I.; DeLucia, F.C.; Gottfried, J.L.; Munson, C.A.; Miziolek, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of recent results of the studies of double laser pulse plasma and ablation for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applications is presented. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy configuration was suggested with the aim of overcoming the sensitivity shortcomings of the conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. Several configurations have been suggested for the realization of the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique: collinear, orthogonal pre-spark, orthogonal pre-heating and dual pulse crossed beam modes. In addition, combinations of laser pulses with different wavelengths, different energies and durations were studied, thus providing flexibility in the choice of wavelength, pulse width, energy and pulse sequence. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy approach provides a significant enhancement in the intensity of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy emission lines up to two orders of magnitude greater than a conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The double pulse technique leads to a better coupling of the laser beam with the plasma plume and target material, thus providing a more temporally effective energy delivery to the plasma and target. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum effect is obtained at some optimum separation delay time between pulses. The optimum value of the interpulse delay depends on several factors, such as the target material, the energy level of excited states responsible for the emission, and the type of enhancement process considered. Depending on the specified parameter, the enhancement effects were observed on different time scales ranging from the picosecond time level (e.g., ion yield, ablation mass) up to the hundred microsecond level (e.g., increased emission intensity for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of submerged metal target in water). Several suggestions have been proposed to explain

  16. Chemical compatibility and properties of suspension plasma-sprayed SrTiO3-based anodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    La-doped strontium titanate (LST) is a promising, redox-stable perovskite material for direct hydrocarbon oxidation anodes in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In this study, nano-sized LST and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) powders are produced by the sol-gel and glycine-nitrate processes, respectively. The chemical compatibility between LST and electrolyte materials is studied. A LST-SDC composite anode is prepared by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The effects of annealing conditions on the phase structure, microstructure, and chemical stability of the LST-SDC composite anode are investigated. The results indicate that the suspension plasma-sprayed LST-SDC anode has the same phase structure as the original powders. LST exhibits a good chemical compatibility with SDC and Mg/Sr-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM). The anode has a porosity of ∼40% with a finely porous structure that provides high gas permeability and a long three-phase boundary for the anode reaction. Single cells assembled with the LST-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte, and La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-SDC cathode show a good performance at 650-800 °C. The annealing reduces the impedances due to the enhancement in the bonding between the particles in the anode and interface of anode and LSGM electrolyte, thus improving the output performance of the cell.

  17. Enhancing electronic and optoelectronic performances of tungsten diselenide by plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan; Wu, Enxiu; Hu, Ruixue; Qian, Shuangbei; Feng, Zhihong; Chen, Xuejiao; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Linyan; Hu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua

    2018-06-21

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently become spotlighted as nanomaterials for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we develop an effective approach to enhance the electronic and optoelectronic performances of WSe2-based devices by N2O plasma treatment. The hole mobility and sheet density increase by 2 and 5 orders of magnitude, reaching 110 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.2 × 1012 cm-2, respectively, after the treatment. At the same time, the contact resistance (Rc) between WSe2 and its metal electrode drop by 5 orders of magnitude from 1.0 GΩ μm to 28.4 kΩ μm. The WSe2 photoconductor exhibits superior performance with high responsivity (1.5 × 105 A W-1), short response time (106). We have also built a lateral p-n junction on a single piece of WSe2 flake by selective plasma exposure. The junction reaches an exceedingly high rectifying ratio of 106, an excellent photoresponsivity of 2.49 A W-1 and a fast response of 8 ms. The enhanced optoelectronic performance is attributed to band-engineering through the N2O plasma treatment, which can potentially serve as an effective and versatile approach for device engineering and optimization in a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D materials.

  18. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H 2 plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H 2 gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10 7 -10 8 cm -2 when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened

  19. Comparison of some effects of modification of a polylactide surface layer by chemical, plasma, and laser methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmm@ukw.edu.pl [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Rytlewski, Piotr [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malinowski, Rafał [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, ul. M. Skłodowskiej–Curie 55, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Żenkiewicz, Marian [Department of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Materials Engineering, ul. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We modified polylactide surface layer with chemical, plasma or laser methods. • We tested selected properties and surface structure of modified samples. • We stated that the plasma treatment appears to be the most beneficial. - Abstract: The article presents the results of studies and comparison of selected properties of the modified PLA surface layer. The modification was carried out with three methods. In the chemical method, a 0.25 M solution of sodium hydroxide in water and ethanol was utilized. In the plasma method, a 50 W generator was used, which produced plasma in the air atmosphere under reduced pressure. In the laser method, a pulsed ArF excimer laser with fluency of 60 mJ/cm{sup 2} was applied. Polylactide samples were examined by using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Images of surfaces of the modified samples were recorded, contact angles were measured, and surface free energy was calculated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of the PLA surface layer were performed as well. Based on the survey it was found that the best modification results are obtained using the plasma method.

  20. Model of enhanced energy deposition in a Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Davis, J.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L. Jr.; Rudakov, L. I.; Deeney, C.

    2000-01-01

    In numerous experiments, magnetic energy coupled to strongly radiating Z-pinch plasmas exceeds the thermalized kinetic energy, sometimes by a factor of 2-3. An analytical model describing this additional energy deposition based on the concept of macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent pinch heating proposed by Rudakov and Sudan [Phys. Reports 283, 253 (1997)] is presented. The pinch plasma is modeled as a foam-like medium saturated with toroidal ''magnetic bubbles'' produced by the development of surface m=0 Rayleigh-Taylor and MHD instabilities. As the bubbles converge to the pinch axis, their magnetic energy is converted to thermal energy of the plasma through pdV work. Explicit formulas for the average dissipation rate of this process and the corresponding contribution to the resistance of the load, which compare favorably to the experimental data and simulation results, are presented. The possibility of using this enhanced (relative to Ohmic heating) dissipation mechanism to power novel plasma radiation sources and produce high K-shell yields using long current rise time machines is discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  1. Modeling ionospheric pre-reversal enhancement and plasma bubble growth rate using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Lin, C. C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Matsuo, T.

    2017-12-01

    We report that assimilating total electron content (TEC) into a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model by using the ensemble Kalman filter results in improved specification and forecast of eastward pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) electric field (E-field). Through data assimilation, the ionospheric plasma density, thermospheric winds, temperature and compositions are adjusted simultaneously. The improvement of dusk-side PRE E-field over the prior state is achieved primarily by intensification of eastward neutral wind. The improved E-field promotes a stronger plasma fountain and deepens the equatorial trough. As a result, the horizontal gradients of Pedersen conductivity and eastward wind are increased due to greater zonal electron density gradient and smaller ion drag at dusk, respectively. Such modifications provide preferable conditions and obtain a strengthened PRE magnitude closer to the observation. The adjustment of PRE E-field is enabled through self-consistent thermosphere and ionosphere coupling processes captured in the model. The assimilative outputs are further utilized to calculate the flux tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate during March 2015 for investigation of global plasma bubble occurrence. Significant improvements in the calculated growth rates could be achieved because of the improved update of zonal electric field in the data assimilation forecast. The results suggest that realistic estimate or prediction of plasma bubble occurrence could be feasible by taking advantage of the data assimilation approach adopted in this work.

  2. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Tian, X. B.; Chu, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel.

  3. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Z.M.; Tian, X.B.; Chu, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C 2 H 2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel

  4. Both solubility and chemical stability of curcumin are enhanced by solid dispersion in cellulose derivative matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-10-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of curcumin (Cur) in cellulose derivative matrices, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared in order to investigate the structure-property relationship and identify polymer properties necessary to effectively increase Cur aqueous solution concentration. XRD results indicated that all investigated solid dispersions were amorphous, even at a 9:1 Cur:polymer ratio. Both stability against crystallization and Cur solution concentration from these ASDs were significantly higher than those from physical mixtures and crystalline Cur. Remarkably, curcumin was also stabilized against chemical degradation in solution. Chemical stabilization was polymer-dependent, with stabilization in CAAdP>CMCAB>HPMCAS>PVP, while matrices enhanced solution concentration as PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB≈CAAdP. HPMCAS/Cur dispersions have useful combinations of pH-triggered release profile, chemical stabilization, and strong enhancement of Cur solution concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro characterization of two different atmospheric plasma jet chemical functionalizations of titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussano, F., E-mail: federico.mussano@unito.it [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Genova, T. [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, UNITO, via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Turin (Italy); Verga Falzacappa, E. [Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, UNIVE, Via Torino 155, 30170, Venezia (Italy); Nadir srl, Via Torino 155, 30170 Venezia (Italy); Scopece, P. [Nadir srl, Via Torino 155, 30170 Venezia (Italy); Munaron, L. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, UNITO, via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Turin (Italy); Centre for Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS) (Italy); Rivolo, P.; Mandracci, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Materials and Microsoystems Laboratory (ChiLab), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Benedetti, A. [Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, UNIVE, Via Torino 155, 30170, Venezia (Italy); Carossa, S. [CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences UNITO, via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin (Italy); Patelli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UNIPD, via Marzolo 8, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • NH{sub 2}-Ti and COOH/R-Ti obtained via atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. • Higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved cell adhesion on treated surfaces. • More tapered and elongated cells on NH{sub 2}-Ti compared to COOH/R-Ti. • Higher osteocalcin expression on NH{sub 2}-Ti. - Abstract: Plasma surface activation and plasma polymers deposition are promising technologies capable to modulate biologically relevant surface features of biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of two different surface modifications, i.e. amine (NH{sub 2}-Ti) and carboxylic/esteric (COOH/R-Ti) functionalities obtained from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) precursors, respectively, through an atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and surface energy calculations. Stability in water and after UV sterilization were also verified. The pre-osteoblastic murine cell line MC3T3-E1 was used to perform the in-vitro tests. The treated samples showed a higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved osteoblast cells adhesion on the surfaces compared to the pristine titanium, in particular the COOH/R-Ti led to a nearly two-fold improvement. Cell proliferation on coated samples was initially (at 24 h) lower than on titanium control, while, at 48 h, COOH/R-Ti reached the proliferation rate of pristine titanium. Cells grown on NH{sub 2}-Ti were more tapered and elongated in shape with lower areas than on COOH/R-Ti enriched surfaces. Finally, NH{sub 2}-Ti significantly enhanced osteocalcin production, starting from 14 days, while COOH/R-Ti had this effect only from 21 days. Notably, NH{sub 2}-Ti was more efficient than COOH/R-Ti at 21 days. The amine functionality elicited the most relevant osteogenic effect in terms of osteocalcin expression, thus establishing an interesting correlation

  6. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm 3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  7. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional