WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma diffuser sorts

  1. Flow virometric sorting and analysis of HIV quasispecies from plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Keele, Brandon F.; Jenkins, Lisa M. Miller; Demberg, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry is utilized extensively for cellular analysis, but technical limitations have prevented its routine application for characterizing virus. The recent introduction of nanoscale fluorescence-activated cytometric cell sorting now allows analysis of individual virions. Here, we demonstrate staining and sorting of infectious HIV. Fluorescent antibodies specific for cellular molecules found on budding virions were used to label CCR5-tropic Bal HIV and CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 HIV Env-expressing pseudovirions made in THP-1 cells (monocyte/macrophage) and H9 cells (T cells), respectively. Using a flow cytometer, we resolved the stained virus beyond isotype staining and demonstrated purity and infectivity of sorted virus populations on cells with the appropriate coreceptors. We subsequently sorted infectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus from archived plasma. Recovery was approximately 0.5%, but virus present in plasma was already bound to viral-specific IgG generated in vivo, likely contributing to the low yield. Importantly, using two broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies, PG9 and VRC01, we also sorted virus from archived human plasma and analyzed the sorted populations genetically and by proteomics, identifying the quasispecies present. The ability to sort infectious HIV from clinically relevant samples provides material for detailed molecular, genetic, and proteomic analyses applicable to future design of vaccine antigens and potential development of personalized treatment regimens. PMID:28239654

  2. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  3. Ambipolar diffusion in complex plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T V; Popel, S I; Yu, M Y; Ma, J X

    2007-04-01

    A self-consistent model of the ambipolar diffusion of electrons and ions in complex (dusty) plasmas accounting for the local electric fields, the dust grain charging process, and the interaction of the plasma particles with the dust grains and neutrals is presented. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the interaction of the electrons and ions with the dust grains as well as with the neutrals are investigated. It is shown that increase of the dust density leads to a reduction of the diffusion scale length, and this effect is enhanced at higher electron densities. The dependence of the diffusion scale length on the neutral gas pressure is found to be given by a power law, where the absolute value of the power exponent decreases with increase of the dust density. The electric field gradient and its effects are shown to be significant and should thus be taken into account in studies of complex plasmas with not very small dust densities. The possibility of observing localized coherent dissipative nonlinear dust ion-acoustic structures in an asymmetrically discharged double plasma is discussed.

  4. Thermo-diffusion in inertially confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory

    2013-01-01

    In a plasma of multiple ion species, thermodynamic forces such as pressure and temperature gradients can drive ion species separation via inter-species diffusion. Unlike its neutral mix counterpart, plasma thermo-diffusion is found comparable to, or even much larger than, baro-diffusion. It is shown that such a strong effect is due to the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential, as opposed to short-range interactions in neutral gases. A special composition of the tritium and 3He fuel is identified to have vanishing net diffusion during adiabatic compression, and hence provides an experimental test in which yield degradation is minimized during ICF implosions.

  5. Inactivation of Bacterial Spore, Endotoxin, Lipid A, Normal Prion and Abnormal Prion by Exposures to Several Sorts of Gases Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the application of several sorts of non-equilibrium gas plasma discharges for sterilization and disinfection treatments against spores or bioburden on/in the healthcare products or biological indicators. The basic properties of electrical discharges are briefly reviewed and thereafter the paper discusses the interactions of gas plasma with several sorts of biological systems such as bacteria, bacterial spores, endotoxins, lipid A and normal and abnormal prion proteins.

  6. Diffusive Mixing in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A multispecies hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is developed for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. The modified transport equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while fluctuations enters through a mixture BGK operator. This model extends the usual Burgers equations for a dilute gas to strongly coupled and isothermal plasmas mixtures. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling of white dwarfs and neutron stars can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct-correlation function. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).

  7. Ubiquitin initiates sorting of Golgi and plasma membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheuring David

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In yeast and mammals, many plasma membrane (PM proteins destined for degradation are tagged with ubiquitin. These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. Degradation of these proteins occurs after endosomes fuse with lysosomes/lytic vacuoles to release their content into the lumen. In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport. Results Ubiquitin-tagged PM reporters localized to endosomes and to the lumen of the lytic vacuole in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and in tobacco epidermal cells. The internalization of these reporters was significantly reduced if clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by the coexpression of a mutant of the clathrin heavy chain, the clathrin hub. Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route. Conclusions Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route

  8. Self-diffusion in a dense magnetized plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Self-diffusion through dense classical one-component plasmas in a uniform magnetic field is studied by means of renormalized kinetic theory. Extensions of the Landau and the Rostoker equations to plasmas of high density are derived. The coefficient of self-diffusion along the magnetic field is evalu

  9. Acoustic black hole evaporation as plasma diffusion phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic analogues of Kerr black hole in plasmas are considered, by taking for granted the existence of acoustic ion waves in plasmas. An effective black holes (BH) in curved Riemannian spacetime in a random walk plasmas is endowed with a naked singularity, when plasmas are in the lowest diffusion mode. The plasma particle diffusion is encoded in the effective metric. The diffusive solution has a horizon when the plasma flow reaches the sound velocity in the medium and a shock wave is obtained inside the slab. The sonic black hole curved Riemannian metric is also found in terms of particle number density in plasmas. The sonic BH singularity is found at the center of the plasma diffusive slab from the study of the Ricci curvature scalar for constant diffusion coefficient. It is suggested and shown that the Hawking temperature is proportional to the plasma Kelvin temperature through diffusion coefficient dependence to this temperature. Therefore Unruh sonic or dumb BH is shown to have a relation between Hawking...

  10. Hydrodynamic theory of diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Detailed numerical simulations of multicomponent plasmas require tractable expressions for species diffusion fluxes, which must be consistent with the given plasma current density J{sub q} to preserve local charge neutrality. The common situation in which J{sub q} = 0 is referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The use of formal kinetic theory in this context leads to results of formidable complexity. We derive simple tractable approximations for the diffusion fluxes in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas by means of a generalization of the hydrodynamical approach used by Maxwell, Stefan, Furry, and Williams. The resulting diffusion fluxes obey generalized Stefan-Maxwell equations that contain driving forces corresponding to ordinary, forced, pressure, and thermal diffusion. The ordinary diffusion fluxes are driven by gradients in pressure fractions rather than mole fractions. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are systematically exploited and lead to a general expression for the ambipolar electric field in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity. We present a self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation for the diffusion fluxes. This approximation is well suited to numerical implementation and is currently in use in our LAVA computer code for simulating multicomponent thermal plasmas. Applications to date include a successful simulation of demixing effects in an argon-helium plasma jet, for which selected computational results are presented. Generalizations of the diffusion theory to finite electrical conductivity and nonzero magnetic field are currently in progress.

  11. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor (VSR) Proteins Reach the Plasma Membrane in Germinating Pollen Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Xiao-Hong Zhuang; Stefan Hillmer; David G. Robinson; Li-Wen Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) are type I integral membrane proteins that mediate the vacuolar transport of soluble cargo proteins via prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in plants.Confocal immunofluorescent and immunogold Electron Microscope (EM) studies have localized VSRs to PVCs or multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and trans-Golgi network (TGN) in various plant cell types,including suspension culture cells,root cells,developing and germinating seeds.Here,we provide evidence that VSRs reach plasma membrane (PM) in growing pollen tubes.Both immunofluorescent and immunogold EM studies with specific VSR antibodies show that,in addition to the previously demonstrated PVC/MVB localization,VSRs also localize to PM in lily and tobacco pollen tubes prepared from chemical fixation or high-pressure freezing/frozen substitution.Such a PM localization suggests an additional role of VSR proteins in mediating protein transport to PM and endocytosis in growing pollen tubes.Using a high-speed Spinning Disc Confocal Microscope,the possible fusion between VSR-positive PVC organelles and the PM was also observed in living tobacco pollen tubes transiently expressing the PVC reporter GFP-VSR.In contrast,the lack of a prominent PM localization of GFP-VSR in living pollen tubes may be due to the highly dynamic situation of vesicular transport in this fast-growing cell type.

  12. Investigation of heavy ions diffusion under the influence of current-driven mechanism and compositional waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Urpin, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    We consider diffusion caused by a combined influence of the Hall effect and electric currents, and argue that such diffusion forms chemical inhomogeneities in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Such current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by the propagation of a particular type of waves which have not been considered earlier. In these waves, the impurity number density oscillare alone and their frequency is determined by the electric currents and sort of impurity ions. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure. Such waves lead to local variations of chemical composition and, hence, can manifest themselves by variations of the emission in spectral lines.

  13. Reaction-diffusion problems in the physics of hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, H

    2000-01-01

    The physics of hot plasmas is of great importance for describing many phenomena in the universe and is fundamental for the prospect of future fusion energy production on Earth. Nontrivial results of nonlinear electromagnetic effects in plasmas include the self-organization and self-formation in the plasma of structures compact in time and space. These are the consequences of competing processes of nonlinear interactions and can be best described using reaction-diffusion equations. Reaction-Diffusion Problems in the Physics of Hot Plasmas is focused on paradigmatic problems of a reaction-diffusion type met in many branches of science, concerning in particular the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic fields with plasmas.

  14. Strong plasma turbulence and anomalous diffusion in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, H.

    1979-04-01

    Plasma diffusion in the presence of strong turbulence has been studied by means of analytic theory and numerical simulations. First, diffusion and turbulent fluctuation spectrum in the presence of convective cells are studied using a two-dimensional guiding center model and a two-fluid model keeping the ion inertia. Second, particle diffusion associated with drift wave turbulence using full dynamic ions and Debye shielding electrons is considered.

  15. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional assessments, seminal plasma composition, and field fertility after AI with either non-sorted or sex-sorted bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, S A; Fernandez-Fuertes, B; Murphy, C; Whelan, H; O'Gorman, A; Brennan, L; Butler, S T; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that different in vitro parameters are required to predict the in vivo fertility of non-sorted (NS) and sex-sorted (SS) semen. Thus, the aim was to correlate in vitro bull sperm functional parameters (experiment 1) and seminal plasma composition (experiment 2) with pregnancy rates using 2 cohorts of bulls (NS and SS). Experiment 1: ejaculates from each bull (n = 3 ejaculates per bull; n = 6 bulls for both NS and SS) were assessed for motility, thermal stress tolerance and morphology using microscopy, and viability, osmotic resistance, mitochondrial membrane potential, and acrosome integrity using flow cytometry. Fertilizing ability was assessed using IVF. Experiment 2: ejaculates (n = 3 per bull; n = 8 and 6 bulls for NS and SS, respectively) were collected, seminal plasma harvested and frozen and later analyzed for amino acid and fatty acid composition using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the NS cohort of bulls, there was no correlation between pregnancy rate and any of the sperm functional parameters assessed. However, within the SS cohort, motility and viability were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.80, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between IVF outcome and pregnancy rate in either the SS or NS cohort of bulls. In the NS cohort of bulls, concentrations of the amino acid isoleucine and the fatty acid tricosylic acid (C23:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.80 and 0.74, respectively; P < 0.05). Within the SS cohort of bulls, the amino acid glutamic acid and the fatty acid arachidic acid (C20:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that different in vitro markers of fertility are required to predict the fertility of NS and SS sperm.

  16. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  17. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  18. Ras diffusion is sensitive to plasma membrane viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J Shawn; Drake, Kimberly R; Remmert, Catha L; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2005-08-01

    The cell surface contains a variety of barriers and obstacles that slow the lateral diffusion of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins below the theoretical limit imposed by membrane viscosity. How the diffusion of proteins residing exclusively on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane is regulated has been largely unexplored. We show here that the diffusion of the small GTPase Ras is sensitive to the viscosity of the plasma membrane. Using confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we examined the diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HRas, NRas, and KRas in COS-7 cells loaded with or depleted of cholesterol, a well-known modulator of membrane bilayer viscosity. In cells loaded with excess cholesterol, the diffusional mobilities of GFP-HRas, GFP-NRas, and GFP-KRas were significantly reduced, paralleling the behavior of the viscosity-sensitive lipid probes DiIC(16) and DiIC(18). However, the effects of cholesterol depletion on protein and lipid diffusion in cell membranes were highly dependent on the depletion method used. Cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin slowed Ras diffusion by a viscosity-independent mechanism, whereas overnight cholesterol depletion slightly increased both protein and lipid diffusion. The ability of Ras to sense membrane viscosity may represent a general feature of proteins residing on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane.

  19. Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric plasma mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2004-09-07

    The authors present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric two-component plasma (TCP). They compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. for the case of viscosity they propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion they point out some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.

  20. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  1. Diffusion kinetics of nitrogen in tantalum during plasma-nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德元; 林勤; 曾卫军; 李放; 许兰萍; 付青峰

    2001-01-01

    The activation energies of nitrogen in tantalum on plasma nitriding conditions were calculated according to the experimental data of hardness of plasma-nitriding of tantalum vs time and temperature. The activation energy calculated is 148.873±0.390  kJ/mol. The depth increasing of nitriding layer with time follows square root relation. The nitriding process of tantalum is controlled by diffusion of nitrogen atoms in tantalum solid solution.

  2. A Stochastic Model of Inward Diffusion in Magnetospheric Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The inward diffusion of particles, often observed in magnetospheric plasmas (either naturally created stellar ones or laboratory devices) creates a spontaneous density gradient, which seemingly contradicts the entropy principle. We construct a theoretical model of diffusion that can explain the inward diffusion in a dipole magnetic field. The key is the identification of the proper coordinates on which an appropriate diffusion operator can be formulated. The effective phase space is foliated by the adiabatic invariants; on the symplectic leaf, the invariant measure (by which the entropy must be calculated) is distorted, by the inhomogeneous magnetic field, with respect to the conventional Lebesgue measure of the natural phase space. The collision operator is formulated to be consistent to the ergodic hypothesis on the symplectic leaf, i.e., the resultant diffusion must diminish gradients on the proper coordinates. The non-orthogonality of the cotangent vectors of the configuration space causes a coupling betw...

  3. Electro-diffusion in a plasma with two ion species

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory

    2012-01-01

    Electric field is a thermodynamic force that can drive collisional inter-ion-species transport in a multicomponent plasma. In an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule, such transport causes fuel ion separation even with a target initially prepared to have equal number densities for the two fuel ion species. Unlike the baro-diffusion driven by ion pressure gradient and the thermo-diffusion driven by ion and electron temperature gradients, electro-diffusion has a critical dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. Specifically, it is shown here that electro-diffusion vanishes if the ion species have the same charge-to-mass ratio. An explicit expression for the electro-diffusion ratio is obtained and used to investigate the relative importance of electro- and baro-diffusion mechanisms. In particular, it is found that electro-diffusion reinforces baro-diffusion in the deuterium and tritium mix, but tends to cancel it in the deuterium and helium-3 mix.

  4. Verification of the plasma diffusion-wave propagation in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet with the solution of a diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Guangsup; Uhm, Han Sup

    2016-10-01

    The time-dependent solution of diffusion equation by the Fourier integration provides the axial diffusion velocity of a plasma packet, which is a key element of the plasma propagation in a plasma jet operated by the several tens of kHz. The plasma diffusion velocity is higher than the order of un ˜ 10 m/s at a high electric-field region of plasma generation and it is about the order of un ˜ 10 m/s at the plasma column of a low field region in a jet-nozzle inside. Meanwhile, the diffusion velocity is slower than the order of un ˜ 10 m/s in the open-air space where the plasma density flattens due to its radial expansion. Using these diffusion velocity data, the group-velocity of plasma diffusion wave-packet is given by ug ˜ cs2/un, a combination of the diffusion velocity un and the acoustic velocity cs. The experimental results of the plasma propagation can be verified with the plasma propagation in a form of the wave-packet whose propagation velocity is 104 m/s in a tube inside and is as fast as 105 m/s in the open-air space, thereby reconfirming that the theory of a plasma diffusion-wave is the origin of the plasma propagation in a plasma jet.

  5. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L;

    1998-01-01

    amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  6. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Kendall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pena, Maria I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  7. Three temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bryan M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully-ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray-diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and co...

  8. Protein sorting by lipid phase-like domains supports emergent signaling function in B lymphocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Núñez, Marcos F; Wisser, Kathleen; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Diverse cellular signaling events, including B cell receptor (BCR) activation, are hypothesized to be facilitated by domains enriched in specific plasma membrane lipids and proteins that resemble liquid-ordered phase-separated domains in model membranes. This concept remains controversial and lacks direct experimental support in intact cells. Here, we visualize ordered and disordered domains in mouse B lymphoma cell membranes using super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy, demonstrate that clustered BCR resides within ordered phase-like domains capable of sorting key regulators of BCR activation, and present a minimal, predictive model where clustering receptors leads to their collective activation by stabilizing an extended ordered domain. These results provide evidence for the role of membrane domains in BCR signaling and a plausible mechanism of BCR activation via receptor clustering that could be generalized to other signaling pathways. Overall, these studies demonstrate that lipid mediated forces can bias biochemical networks in ways that broadly impact signal transduction.

  9. Equilibrium and stability code for a diffuse plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, O; Garabedian, P

    1976-04-01

    A computer code to investigate the equilibrium and stability of a diffuse plasma in three dimensions is described that generalizes earlier work on a sharp free boundary model. Toroidal equilibria of a plasma are determined by considering paths of steepest descent associated with a new version of the variational principle of magnetohydrodynamics that involves mapping a fixed coordinate domain onto the plasma. A discrete approximation of the potential energy is written down following the finite element method, and the resulting expression is minimized with respect to the values of the mapping at points of a rectangular grid. If a relative minimum of the discrete analogue of the energy is attained, the corresponding equilibrium is considered to be stable.

  10. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, George J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maggs, James E. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  11. Shukla-Spatschek diffusion effects on surface plasma waves in astrophysical turbulent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Shukla-Spatschek turbulent diffusion on a temporal mode of surface waves propagating at the interface of an astrophysical turbulent plasma are investigated. The damping rates for high and low modes of surface wave are kinetically derived by employing the Vlasov-Poisson equation and the specular reflection boundary condition. We found that the diffusion caused by the fluctuating electric fields leads to damping for both high and low modes of surface waves. The high-mode damping is enhanced with an increase of the wavenumber and the diffusion coefficient, but suppressed by an increase of electron thermal energy. By contrast, the low-mode damping is suppressed as the wavenumber and the thermal energy increase although it is enhanced as the diffusion increases. The variation of the damping rate due to the Shukla-Spatschek turbulent diffusion is also discussed.

  12. Diffuse spreading of inhomogeneities in the ionospheric dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalimov, S. L., E-mail: pmsk7@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, A. [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    According to results of sounding of the lower ionosphere at altitudes of about 100 km, the duration of radio reflections from sufficiently dense ionized meteor trails, which characterizes their lifetime, can reach a few tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. This is much longer than the characteristic spreading time (on the order of fractions of a second to several seconds) typical in meteor radar measurements. The presence of dust in the lower ionosphere is shown to affect the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, which determines the spreading of plasma inhomogeneities. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends substantially on the charge and size of dust grains, which allows one to explain the results of ionospheric sounding.

  13. Three-temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. M.; Klein, R. I.

    2017-03-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and coupling coefficients are compared to a full numerical simulation with a good match between the two, demonstrating that steady shock solutions constitute a straightforward and comprehensive verification test methodology for multi-physics numerical algorithms.

  14. Ion exchanger in the brain: Quantitative analysis of perineuronally fixed anionic binding sites suggests diffusion barriers with ion sorting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Markus; Reinert, Tilo; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Tröger, Wolfgang; Reinert, Anja; Jäger, Carsten; Brückner, Gert; Arendt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNs) are a specialized form of brain extracellular matrix, consisting of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans in the direct microenvironment of neurons. Still, locally immobilized charges in the tissue have not been accessible so far to direct observations and quantifications. Here, we present a new approach to visualize and quantify fixed charge-densities on brain slices using a focused proton-beam microprobe in combination with ionic metallic probes. For the first time, we can provide quantitative data on the distribution and net amount of pericellularly fixed charge-densities, which, determined at 0.4-0.5 M, is much higher than previously assumed. PNs, thus, represent an immobilized ion exchanger with ion sorting properties high enough to partition mobile ions in accord with Donnan-equilibrium. We propose that fixed charge-densities in the brain are involved in regulating ion mobility, the volume fraction of extracellular space and the viscosity of matrix components.

  15. Self-diffusion in a stochastically heated two-dimensional dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. E.

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion in a two-dimensional dusty plasma liquid (i.e., a Yukawa liquid) is studied experimentally. The dusty plasma liquid is heated stochastically by a surrounding three-dimensional toroidal dusty plasma gas which acts as a thermal reservoir. The measured dust velocity distribution functions are isotropic Maxwellians, giving a well-defined kinetic temperature. The mean-square displacement for dust particles is found to increase linearly with time, indicating normal diffusion. The measured diffusion coefficients increase approximately linearly with temperature. The effective collision rate is dominated by collective dust-dust interactions rather than neutral gas drag, and is comparable to the dusty-plasma frequency.

  16. Experimental Electron Heat Diffusion in TJ-II ECRH Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V.I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Herranz, J.; Castejon, F.

    2006-07-01

    Interpretative transport has been used to revisit the global scalings of TJ-II ECRH plasmas from a local perspective. Density, rotational transform and ERCH power scans were analysed based upon Thomson Scattering data (electron density and temperature) in steady state discharges. A simple formula to obtain the thermal conductivity, assuming pure diffusion and negligible convective heat fluxes was used in a set of 161 discharges. All the analysis was performed with the ASTRA transport shell. The density scan indicates that inside n=0,4 there is no significant change of e with density in the range studied (0.4 (1019m-3) 1.0), while in 0,5 <0,8 approximately, e decreases with density. In the rotational transform scan it is found that the values of e when a low order rational of the rotational transform is present locally seem to be smaller for the corresponding range, although it is apparent a general beneficial effect of the corresponding change in magnetic structure. Finally, in the ECRH power scan, e is found to have an overall increment in 0,2

  17. Diffusion in plasma: the Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    CERN Document Server

    Urpin, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    We consider diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and the Hall effect, and argue that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of the chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for a formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type waves in which the impurity number density oscillate alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure,

  18. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and triple...

  19. Scaling theory of relative diffusion of charged particles in a weakly magneto-turbulent plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haida Wang (University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui. Dept. of Modern Physics); Xiaoming Qui (Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China))

    1989-02-01

    Stochastic motion of charged particles in a magneto-turbulent plasma is studied for the whole time region. A set of nonlinear differential equations for describing relative spatial diffusion of charged particles is derived and some explicit results are obtained in the case of a weak magnetic field. It is found that, for the diffusion in the present system there are some new and interesting properties which do not exist in an unmagnetized plasma. The clump effect is also discussed. (author).

  20. Spatial variation of eddy-diffusion coefficients in the turbulent plasma sheet during substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stepanova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Study of the plasma turbulence in the central plasma sheet was performed using the Interball-Tail satellite data. Fluctuations of the plasma bulk velocity in the plasma sheet were deduced from the measurements taken by the Corall instrument for different levels of geomagnetic activity and different locations inside the plasma sheet. The events that satisfied the following criteria were selected for analysis: number density 0.1–10 cm−3, ion temperature T≥0.3 keV, and average bulk velocity ≤100 km/s. It was found that the plasma sheet flow generally appears to be strongly turbulent, i.e. is dominated by fluctuations that are unpredictable. Corresponding eddy-diffusion coefficients in Y- and Z-direction in the GSM coordinate system were derived using the autocorrelation time and rms velocity. Statistical studies of variation of the eddy-diffusion coefficients with the location inside the plasma sheet showed a significant increase in these coefficients in the tailward direction. During substorms this dependence shows strong increase of eddy-diffusion in the central part of the plasma sheet at the distances of 10–30 Earth's radii. This effect is much stronger for Y-components of the eddy-diffusion coefficient, which could be related to the geometry of the plasma sheet, allowing more room for development of eddies in this direction.

  1. Kinetic theory of self-diffusion in a moderately dense one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    A microscopic description of self-diffusion in a moderately dense classical one-component plasma is given on the basis of renormalized kinetic theory. The effects of close binary collisions and of collective interactions in the plasma are taken into account through the use of a composite memory kern

  2. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-01-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current (DC) glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self excited dust acoustic waves and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust par...

  3. Plasma transport in the interplanetary space: Percolation and anomalous diffusion of magnetic-field lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P. [Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-11-01

    The magnetic fluctuations due to, e.g., magnetohydrodynamic turbulence cause a magnetic-field line random walk that influences many cosmic plasma phenomena. The results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of a turbulent magnetic field in plane geometry are presented here. Magnetic percolation, Levy flights, and non-Gaussian random walk of the magnetic-field lines are found for moderate perturbation levels. In such a case plasma transport can be anomalous, i.e., either super diffusive or sub diffusive. Increasing the perturbation level a Gaussian diffusion regime is attained. The implications on the structure of the electron fore shock and of planetary magneto pauses are discussed.

  4. Plasma radiation sources. Quasi-adiabatic theory and numerical modeling in the electro-diffusive approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, J. U.; Terry, R. E.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes work done under DNA Contract 001-79-C-0189 from February 1982 to June 1983, and some more recent work. Part 1 includes treatments of a simple zero-D implosion code, analytic but very approximate scaling laws for radiation, and a discussion of preliminary work on nonlinear field penetration of plasma. Part 2 contains a discussion of electrodiffusive 1D modeling of annular plasma implosions. The thermoelectrical field, its role in field penetrations, the nonlocal constraints required in field diffusion (and some arising from field diffusion), flux limits and the acceleration process for annular plasmas are discussed.

  5. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  6. Self-Diffusion in 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids: Numerical Simulation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Lu-Jing; Shukla, P K

    2008-01-01

    We perform Brownian dynamics simulations for studying the self-diffusion in two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma liquids, in terms of both mean-square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function (VAF). Super-diffusion of charged dust particles has been observed to be most significant at infinitely small damping rate $\\gamma$ for intermediate coupling strength, where the long-time asymptotic behavior of VAF is found to be the product of $t^{-1}$ and $\\exp{(-\\gamma t)}$. The former represents the prediction of early theories in 2D simple liquids and the latter the VAF of a free Brownian particle. This leads to a smooth transition from super-diffusion to normal diffusion, and then to sub-diffusion with an increase of the damping rate. These results well explain the seemingly contradictory scattered in recent classical molecular dynamics simulations and experiments of dusty plasmas.

  7. Spatiotemporal mapping of diffusion dynamics and organization in plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Nirmalya; Ng, Xue Wen; Sankaran, Jagadish; Wohland, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and the related FCS diffusion law have been applied in recent years to investigate the diffusion modes of lipids and proteins in membranes. These efforts have provided new insights into the membrane structure below the optical diffraction limit, new information on the existence of lipid domains, and on the influence of the cytoskeleton on membrane dynamics. However, there has been no systematic study to evaluate how domain size, domain density, and the probe partition coefficient affect the resulting imaging FCS diffusion law parameters. Here, we characterize the effects of these factors on the FCS diffusion law through simulations and experiments on lipid bilayers and live cells. By segmenting images into smaller 7  ×  7 pixel areas, we can evaluate the FCS diffusion law on areas smaller than 2 µm and thus provide detailed maps of information on the membrane structure and heterogeneity at this length scale. We support and extend this analysis by deriving a mathematical expression to calculate the mean squared displacement (MSDACF) from the autocorrelation function of imaging FCS, and demonstrate that the MSDACF plots depend on the existence of nanoscopic domains. Based on the results, we derive limits for the detection of domains depending on their size, density, and relative viscosity in comparison to the surroundings. Finally, we apply these measurements to bilayers and live cells using imaging total internal reflection FCS and single plane illumination microscopy FCS.

  8. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: a novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekamp, Nina A; Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf; Schrader, Michael

    2010-12-10

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  9. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonekamp, Nina A. [Centre for Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf [Department of Cell Biology and Cell Pathology, University of Marburg, Robert-Koch-Str. 6, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Schrader, Michael, E-mail: mschrader@ua.pt [Centre for Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-12-10

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  10. Influence of Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance in turbulent plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The influence of Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance for the electron-ion collision is investigated in turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal method and the effective Dupree potential term associated with the plasma turbulence are employed to obtain the occurrence scattering time as a function of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, thermal energy, and Debye length. The result shows that the occurrence scattering time advance decreases with an increase of the Dupree diffusivity. Hence, we have found that the influence of plasma turbulence diminishes the occurrence time advance in forward electron-ion collisions in thermal turbulent plasmas. The occurrence time advance shows that the propensity of the occurrence time advance increases with increasing scattering angle. It is also found that the effect of turbulence due to the Dupree diffusivity on the occurrence scattering time advance decreases with an increase of the thermal energy. In addition, the variation of the plasma turbulence on the occurrence scattering time advance due to the plasma parameters is also discussed.

  11. Heat Transfer and Reconnection Diffusion in Turbulent Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that magnetic fields constrain motions of charged particles, impeding the diffusion of charged particles perpendicular to magnetic field direction. This modification of transport processes is of vital importance for a wide variety of astrophysical processes including cosmic ray transport, transfer of heavy elements in the interstellar medium, star formation etc. Dealing with these processes one should keep in mind that in realistic astrophysical conditions magnetized fluids are turbulent. In this review we single out a single transport process, namely, heat transfer and consider how it occurs in the presence of the magnetized turbulence. We show that the ability of magnetic field lines to constantly change topology and connectivity is at the heart of the correct description of the 3D magnetic field stochasticity in turbulent fluids. This ability is ensured by fast magnetic reconnection in turbulent fluids and puts forward the concept of reconnection diffusion at the core of the physical pictu...

  12. The relationship between the microstructure and thermal diffusivity of plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, C. [National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, Quebec (Canada); Boire-Lavigne, S.; Saint-Jacques, R.G. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Tungsten and tungsten alloy coatings are candidate materials for plasma facing components of divertor plates in future fusion reactors. In normal operation, the sprayed coatings will be submitted to intense heat fluxes and particle bombardment. This work intends to investigate the relationship between the microstructure of plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings and their thermal diffusivity as determined by the laser flash method. The microstructural investigation was carried out on copper-infiltrated coatings. Such a preparation technique permitted the measurement of the total real contact area between the lamellae within the tungsten coatings. The spraying atmosphere was found to strongly influence the interfacial contact between lamellae and coating thermal diffusivity.

  13. Sorting choanoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Veronica I.; Miño, Gaston L.; Sparacino, Javier; Banchio, Adolfo J.; Condat, Carlos A.; Koehl, Mimi A. R.; King, Nicole; Stocker, Roman

    2015-03-01

    In freshwater environments, as well as in oceans, environmental conditions are in constant fluctuation. Some heterotrophic plankton must adapt their swimming behavior in order to survive under these conditions. In the case of the choanoflagellate, the closest animal ancestor, the ability to forage for food is given not only by its single flagellum, but also by its differentiation between fast and slow swimmers. The understanding of how these cells with different strategies to swim search for food can give us a better insight into how eukaryotes respond to different stimuli. In this work, we have designed a microfluidic device that sorts choanoflagellates by their speed. The optimal geometry was found by a numerical model using the experimentally determined motilities of each swimmer type.

  14. Perpendicular diffusion of a dilute beam of charged dust particles in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J.

    2014-06-01

    The diffusion of projectiles drifting through a target of strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated in a simulation. A projectile's drift is driven by a constant force F. We characterize the random walk of the projectiles in the direction perpendicular to their drift. The perpendicular diffusion coefficient Dp⊥ is obtained from the simulation data. The force dependence of Dp⊥ is found to be a power law in a high force regime, but a constant at low forces. A mean kinetic energy Wp for perpendicular motion is also obtained. The diffusion coefficient is found to increase with Wp with a linear trend at higher energies, but an exponential trend at lower energies.

  15. Diffusion of magnetic field lines in a confined RFP plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzani, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Lab. di Tecnologia dei Materiali, Bologna (Italy); Di Sebastiano, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica; Turchetti, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica

    1998-12-01

    A volume-preserving symplectic map is proposed to describe the magnetic field lines when the Taylor equilibrium is perturbed in a generic way. The standard scenario is observed by varying the perturbation strength, but the statistical properties in the chaotic regions are not simple due to the presence of boundaries and remnants of invariant structures. Simpler models of volume-preserving maps are proposed. The slowly modulated standard map captures the basic topological and statistical features. The diffusion is analytically described for large perturbations in terms of correlation functions and for small perturbations using the adiabatic theory, provided that the modulation is sufficiently slow.

  16. Self-Organization and Heating by Inward Diffusion in Magnetospheric Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, N; Kawazura, Y

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of inward diffusion, a strongly localized clump of plasma is created in a magnetosphere. The creation of the density gradient, instead of the usual flattening by a diffusion process, can be explained by the topological constraints given by the adiabatic invariants of magnetized particles. After developing a canonical formalism for the standard guiding center dynamics in a dipole magnetic field, we complete our attempt to build a statistical mechanics on a constrained phase space by discussing the construction principles of the associated diffusion operator. We then investigate the heating mechanism associated with inward diffusion: as particles move toward regions of higher magnetic field, they experience preferential heating of the perpendicular (with respect to the magnetic field) temperature in order to preserve the magnetic moment. A relationship between conservation of bounce action and temperature isotropy emerged. We further show that this behavior is scaled by the diffusion paramet...

  17. Diffusion and radiation in magnetized collisionless plasmas with small-scale Whistler turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2016-04-01

    > Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas - which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation - is tightly related to their energy and pitch-angle diffusion. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of particle transport in cold, `small-scale' Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  18. A prospective study of plasma exchange in the treatment of diffuse scleroderma.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    A prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy between plasma exchange (PE) plus Dpenicillamine (13 cases) (group Ⅰ)and D-penicillamine alone (16 cases) (group Ⅱ) in the treatment of diffuse scleroderma was carried out. Total skin score, the distance between finger and palm the distance between

  19. Patterning functional materials using channel diffused plasma-etched self-assembled monolayer templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective methodology for large-area micrometer-scale patterning of a wide range of metallic and oxidic functional materials is presented. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkyl thiols on Au were micropatterned by channel-diffused oxygen plasma etching, a method in which selected

  20. A technique to control cross-field diffusion of plasma across a transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Das, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2016-12-01

    A study to control charged particle transport across a transverse magnetic field (TMF), popularly known as the magnetic filter in a negative ion source, has been carried out in a double plasma device. In the experimental setup, the TMF placed between the two magnetic cages divides the whole plasma chamber into two distinct regions, viz., the source and the target on the basis of the plasma production and the corresponding electron temperature. The plasma produced in the source region by the filament discharge method diffuses into the target region through the TMF. Data are acquired by the Langmuir probe and are compared in different source configurations, in terms of external biasing applied to metallic plates inserted in the TMF plane but in the orthogonal direction. The effect of the direction of current between the two plates in either polarity of bias in the presence of TMF on the plasma parameters and the cross-field transport of charge particles are discussed.

  1. Enhanced reliability of drift-diffusion approximation for electrons in fluid models for nonthermal plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Becker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common fluid models used for the description of electron transport in nonthermal discharge plasmas are subject to substantial restrictions if the electron energy transport significantly influences the discharge behaviour. A drift-diffusion approach is presented which is based on a multiterm approximation of the electron velocity distribution function and overcomes some of these restrictions. It is validated using a benchmark model and applied for the analysis of argon discharge plasmas at low and atmospheric pressure. The results are compared to those of common drift-diffusion models as well as to experimental data. It is pointed out that fluid models are able to describe nonlocal phenomena caused by electron energy transport, if the energy transport is consistently described. Numerical difficulties that frequently occur when the conventional drift-diffusion model is consistently applied are avoided by the proposed method.

  2. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  3. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  4. Diffuse plasma treatment of polyamide 66 fabric in atmospheric pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Peng, Ming-yang; Teng, Yun; Gao, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    The polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics are hard to be colored or glued in industrial production due to the poor hydrophily. Diffuse plasma is a kind of non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure in air. This paper proposes that large-scale diffuse plasma generated between wire electrodes can be employed for improving the hydrophily of PA66 fabrics. A repetitive nanosecond-pulse diffuse-discharge reactor using a cylindrical wire electrode configuration is presented, which can generate large-scale non-thermal plasmas steadily at atmospheric pressure without any barrier dielectric. Then the reactor is used to treat PA66 fabrics in different discharge conditions. The hydrophilicity property of modified PA66 is measured by wicking test method. The modified PA66 is also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to prove the surface changes in physical microstructure and chemical functional groups, respectively. What's more, the effects of treatment time and treatment frequency on surface modification are investigated and discussed.

  5. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Dmitry A; Lillie, Elizabeth M; Garbett, Shawn P; McCawley, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air plasma converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results indicate that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a 3-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to 3 weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60 % smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a 3-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems.

  6. Non-thermal Dupree diffusivity and shielding effects on atomic collisions in astrophysical turbulent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-02-01

    The influence of non-thermal Dupree turbulence and the plasma shielding on the electron-ion collision is investigated in astrophysical non-thermal Lorentzian turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal analysis and the effective interaction potential including the Lorentzian far-field term are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length and spectral index of the astrophysical Lorentzian plasma. It is shown that the non-thermal effect suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift. However, it enhances the eikonal collision cross section in astrophysical non-thermal turbulent plasmas. The effect of non-thermal turbulence on the eikonal atomic collision cross section is weakened with increasing collision energy. The variation of the atomic cross section due to the non-thermal Dupree turbulence is also discussed.

  7. Heavy-Quark Diffusion Dynamics in Quark-Gluon Plasma under Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We discuss heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma under a strong magnetic field induced by colliding nuclei. By the use of the diagrammatic resummation techniques for Hard Thermal Loop and the external magnetic field, we show analytic results of heavy-quark diffusion coefficient and drag force which become anisotropic due to the preferred spatial orientation in the magnetic field. We argue that the anisotropic diffusion coefficient gives rise to an enhancement/suppression of the heavy-quark elliptic flow depending on the transverse momentum.

  8. Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Kubo relation D ¼ Z ∞ 0 ZðtÞdt; which describes the long-time mean -square displacement of a given particle through D ¼ limt→∞hjrðtÞ − rð0Þj2i=6t [25...Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma T. S. Strickler,1 T. K. Langin,1 P. McQuillen,1 J. Daligault,2 and T. C...collisional relaxation of ion velocities in a strongly coupled , ultracold neutral plasma on short time scales compared to the inverse collision rate. The

  9. Anomalous diffusion, clustering, and pinch of impurities in plasma edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priego, M.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    The turbulent transport of impurity particles in plasma edge turbulence is investigated. The impurities are modeled as a passive fluid advected by the electric and polarization drifts, while the ambient plasma turbulence is modeled using the two-dimensional Hasegawa-Wakatani paradigm for resistive......-diffusion analysis of the evolution of impurity puffs. Additional effects appear for inertial impurities as a consequence of compressibility. First, the density of inertial impurities is found to correlate with the vorticity of the electric drift velocity, that is, impurities cluster in vortices of a precise...

  10. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  11. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  12. Diffusion characteristics of plasma nitrided hard chromium on AISI 1010 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisman, Murat [Gedik Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Electronic Engineering Dept.; Kocabas, Mustafa; Cansever, Nurhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the different Cr-N formation characteristics of plasma nitrided hard Cr coatings, Cr was electrodeposited on AISI 1010 steel and plasma nitrided at 600, 700 and 800 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Phase analyses of resulting Cr-N phases and grain size of Cr layer before and after nitriding process were calculated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Structure of nitride layer and its thickness were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The micrographs indicated that samples consisted of three distinctive layers. In order to distinguish these layers, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analysis were used as well as elemental distribution versus depth was plotted. The Cr-N diffusion was investigated by layer thickness measurements, and diffusion coefficient as well as activation energies were calculated.

  13. Second-harmonic plasma response in diffusion-controlled surface-wave-sustained discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, L.

    2008-05-01

    The formation of nonlinear plasma response at the second harmonic frequency in diffusion controlled surface-wave-sustained discharges is studied theoretically. The study is aimed at estimating theoretically the ratio of the squared amplitudes of the wave field of fundamental frequency and of the resulting - from the nonlinear effects - electric field at the second harmonic frequency. The model presented is intended for further use in discharge diagnostics.

  14. Numerical study of the Transverse Diffusion coefficient for a one component model of a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Valvo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of MD numerical simulations for a one component model of a plasma in the weakly coupled regime, at different values of temperature $T$ and applied magnetic field $\\vec B$, in which the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\perp}$ transverse to the field is estimated. We find that there exists a threshold in temperature, at which an inversion occurs, namely, for $T$ above the threshold the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\perp}$ starts decreasing as $T$ increases. This is at variance with the behavior predicted by the Bohm law $D_{\\perp}\\sim T/B$, which actually holds below the threshold. In addition we find that, for temperatures above such a threshold, another transition occurs, now with respect to the values of the magnetic field: for weak magnetic fields the diffusion coefficients scales as $1/B^2$, in agreement with the predictions of the standard kinetics theory, while it apparently saturates when the field strength is sufficiently increased.

  15. Diffusion of Energetic Electrons in Turbulent Plasmas of the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, A. S.; Krafft, C.

    2016-12-01

    A method of calculation of the diffusion coefficients { D }(v) of particles in velocity space, based on the statistical analysis of the motion of a great number of test electrons, is proposed. In the case of Langmuir turbulence developing in plasmas with fluctuating density inhomogeneities such as the solar wind, simulations provide coefficients { D }(v) which mainly depend on the Langmuir wave spectra and agree well with the analytical predictions {{ D }}{th}(v) of the quasilinear theory of weak turbulence. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences exist with this theory: in the range of phase velocity of the short waves where the main part of the wave energy is concentrated, { D }(v) is noticeably smaller than {{ D }}{th}(v), due to the scattering, the reflection, and the focusing effects encountered by the Langmuir waves when they interact with the plasma density inhomogeneities. Moreover, the probability of large velocity jumps in the particles’ trajectories essentially exceeds the probability of a Gaussian distribution. These large jumps, which are connected with the waves’ transformation processes, modify the nature of the particle diffusion, which is no more classical. These higher order effects cause the discrepancies observed with the quasilinear theory, which does not take them into account in its perturbative approach. The solar wind plasmas, which present fluctuating density inhomogeneities of noticeable average levels, are a very good laboratory to study such diffusion processes, which can eventually influence significantly on the development of essential physical phenomena, as electromagnetic radio emissions by type III solar radio bursts, for example.

  16. k -Bitonic sort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆狮; 胡玥; 刘志勇

    1999-01-01

    A k-bitonic sort which generalizes the bitonic sort is proposed. The theorem of the bitonic sort, which merges two monotonic sequences into one order sequence, is extended into the theorem of k-bitonic sort. The k-bitonic sort merges K (=2k or 2k-1) monotonic sequences into one order sequence in steps, where k=[K/2] is an integer and k≥1. The k-bitonic sort is the Batcher’s bitonic sort when k=1.

  17. The diffusion of charged particles in the weakly ionized plasma with power-law kappa-distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Du, Jiulin

    2017-10-01

    We study the diffusion of charged particles in the weakly ionized plasma with the power-law κ-distributions and without the magnetic field. The electrons and ions have different κ-parameters. We obtain the expressions of both diffusion and mobility coefficients of electrons and ions respectively in the plasma. We find that these new transport coefficient formulae depend strongly on the κ-parameters in the power-law distributed plasma. When we take κ→∞, these formulae reduce to the classical forms in the weakly ionized plasma with a Maxwellian distribution.

  18. A gedankenexperiment for anomalous diffusion in a charge-fluctuating dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Andreas, E-mail: kopp@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Shchekinov, Yuri A., E-mail: yus@sfedu.ru [Department of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov on Don 344090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    possible prototype of anomalous diffusion. We discuss briefly possible implications to space and astrophysical dusty plasma. In particular, we show that in a plasma with polydisperse dust particles, a superposition of the three regimes of the anomalous diffusion can simultaneously come into play.

  19. Diffusion and Radiation in Magnetized Collisionless Plasmas with High-Frequency Small-Scale Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas, which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and their energy and pitch-angle diffusion are tightly related. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of the particles' transport in both cold, "small-scale" Langmuir and Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary, and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  20. Experimental measurement of non-Markovian dynamics and self-diffusion in a strongly coupled plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Strickler, T S; McQuillen, P; Daligault, J; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the collisional relaxation of ion velocities in a strongly coupled, ultracold neutral plasma on short timescales compared to the inverse collision rate. Non-exponential decay towards equilibrium for the average velocity of a tagged population of ions heralds non-Markovian dynamics and a breakdown of assumptions underlying standard kinetic theory. We prove the equivalence of the average-velocity curve to the velocity autocorrelation function, a fundamental statistical quantity that provides access to equilibrium transport coefficients and aspects of individual particle trajectories in a regime where experimental measurements have been lacking. From our data, we calculate the ion self-diffusion constant. This demonstrates the utility of ultracold neutral plasmas for isolating the effects of strong coupling on collisional processes, which is of interest for dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  1. Diffusion of lipids and GPI-anchored proteins in actin-free plasma membrane vesicles measured by STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Falk; Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...... (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Hindered diffusion of phospholipids and sphingolipids...... forming immobile clusters, both of which disappear in GPMVs. Our data underline the crucial role of the actin cortex in maintaining hindered diffusion modes of many but not all of the membrane molecules, and highlight a powerful experimental approach to decipher specific influences on molecular plasma...

  2. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...

  3. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable ro...

  4. Synthesis of tantalum nitride diffusion barriers for Cu metal by plasma immersion ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M; Kumar, D; George, P J; Paul, A K

    2002-01-01

    A Tantalum nitride diffusion barrier layer for copper metal was synthesized by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation technique (PIII). Effect of nitrogen dose in Ta layer was investigated in improving its diffusion barrier properties. Silicon wafers coated with Ta were implanted with nitrogen at two different doses viz. 10$^{15}$ions/cm$^2$ and 10$^{17}$ions/cm$^2$ corresponding to low and high dose regime. High dose of implanted nitrogen ions in the film render it to become Ta(N), Thereafter a copper (Cu) layer was deposited on the samples to produce Cu/Ta(N)/Si structure. To evaluate the barrier properties of Ta(N) these samples were annealed up to 700$^\\circ$C for 30 minutes. Sheet resistance, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of annealing. Low dose implanted Ta layer does not show any change in its diffusion barrier properties, while high dose implanted layer stops the diffusion of Cu metal through it at annealing temperature...

  5. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...

  6. Thermodynamics analysis of diffusion in spark plasma sintering welding Cr3C2 and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jinyong; Leng, Xiaoxuan; Lei, Liwen; Fu, Zhengyi

    2017-03-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) welding of chromium carbide (Cr3C2) and nickel (Ni) was used to investigate the atomic diffusion caused by bypassing current. It was found that the diffusion coefficient with bypassing current was enhanced by almost 3.57 times over that without bypassing current. Different from the previous researches, the thermodynamics analysis conducted herein showed that the enhancement included a current direction-independent part besides the known current direction-dependent part. A local temperature gradient (LTG) model was proposed to explain the current direction-independent effect. Assuming that the LTG was mainly due to the interfacial electric resistance causing heterogeneous Joule heating, the theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results both in the present and previous studies. This new LTG model provides a reasonable physical meaning for the low-temperature advantage of SPS welding and should be useful in a wide range of applications.

  7. Injection to rapid diffusive shock acceleration at perpendicular shocks in partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and the upstream ionization fraction are Vsh ~ 1333 km/s and fi ~ 0.5, that are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region, they are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected to the diffusive shock acceleration at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed diffusive shock acceleration can be interpreted as the shock drift acceleration with scattering. Particles are accelerated to v ~ 100 Vsh ~ 0.3c within ~ 100 gyroperio...

  8. The diffusion transfer of sputtered atoms in plasma spraying on the internal cylindrical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G.G. [Moscow State University of Electronics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bonk, O.G.; Kristya, V.I. [Kaluga Branch of N.E. Bauman Moscow University of Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The sputtering of the surface of the solid by the glow discharge plasma is used widely in the electronics for the deposition of thin films. The sputtered atoms (SA), leaving the surface, clash with the gas atoms and the granules the energy. It is interesting to examine the effect of the condensation coefficient of the SA on the concentration of the SA in the cylindrical discharge volume and the fluxes of the SA to different areas of the wall. The solution of this problem for the case of the diffusion transfer of the SA is the subject of this work.

  9. Lateral diffusion of phospholipids in the plasma membrane of soybean protoplasts: Evidence for membrane lipid domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, T N; Wang, J L; Schindler, M

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescent lipid and phospholipid probes were incorporated at 4 degrees C into soybean protoplasts prepared from cultured soybean (SB-1) cells. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the plasma membrane as well as the nucleus were labeled. Fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis was performed on these cells at 18 degrees C to monitor the lateral mobility of the incorporated probes. After labeling at low concentrations (40 mug/ml) of phosphatidyl-N-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazolyl)ethanolamine (NBD-PtdEtn), a single mobile component was observed with a diffusion coefficient (D) of approximately 3 x 10(-9) cm(2)/sec. After labeling at higher probe concentrations (>/=100 mug/ml), two diffusing species were observed, with diffusion coefficients of approximately 3 x 10(-9) cm(2)/sec ("fast") and approximately 5 x 10(-10) cm(2)/sec ("slow"). Similar results were observed with fluorescent derivatives of phosphatidylcholine and fatty acids. In contrast to these results, parallel analysis of 3T3 fibroblasts, using the same probes and conditions, yielded only a single diffusion component. These results suggest that the soybean plasma membrane may contain two distinct lipid domains in terms of lipid mobility. Consistent with this idea, experiments with soybean protoplasts yielded a single diffusion component under the following conditions: (i) labeling with NBD-PtdEtn (100 mug/ml), FRAP analysis at 37 degrees C (D = 1.1 x 10(-8) cm(2)/sec); (ii) labeling with NBD-PtdEtn (100 mug/ml), FRAP analysis at 18 degrees C in the presence of 2 mM EGTA (D = 4.2 x 10(-9) cm(2)/sec); (iii) labeling with 5-(N-dodecanoyl)aminofluorescein (a short-chain lipid probe), FRAP analysis at 18 degrees C or 37 degrees C (D = 2.5 x 10(-8) cm(2)/sec). These results suggest that the plasma membrane of soybean cells may contain stable immiscible domains of fluid and gel-like lipids.

  10. Resonant scattering of plasma sheet electrons leading to diffuse auroral precipitation: 1. Evaluation for electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen

    2011-04-01

    Using statistical wave power spectral profiles obtained from CRRES and the latitudinal distributions of wave propagation modeled by the HOTRAY code, a quantitative analysis has been performed on the scattering of plasma sheet electrons into the diffuse auroral zone by multiband electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions near L = 6 within the 0000-0600 MLT sector. The results show that ECH wave scattering of plasma sheet electrons varies from near the strong diffusion rate (timescale of an hour or less) during active times with peak wave amplitudes of an order of 1 mV/m to very weak scattering (on the timescale of >1 day) during quiet conditions with typical wave amplitudes of tenths of mV/m. However, for the low-energy (˜100 eV to below 2 keV) electron population mainly associated with the diffuse auroral emission, ECH waves are only responsible for rapid pitch angle diffusion (occasionally near the limit of strong diffusion) for a small portion of the electron population with pitch angles αeq 70°. Computations of the bounce-averaged coefficients of momentum diffusion and (pitch angle, momentum) mixed diffusion indicate that both mixed diffusion and energy diffusion of plasma sheet electrons due to ECH waves are very small compared to pitch angle diffusion and that ECH waves have little effect on local electron acceleration. Consequently, the multiple harmonic ECH emissions cannot play a dominant role in the occurrence of diffuse auroral precipitation near L = 6, and other wave-particle interaction mechanisms, such as whistler mode chorus-driven resonant scattering, are required to explain the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and the formation of the pancake distribution in the inner magnetosphere.

  11. Ambipolar and non-ambipolar diffusion in an rf plasma source containing a magnetic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, T., E-mail: trevor.lafleur@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ONERA-The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-06-15

    By placing a magnetic filter across a rectangular plasma source (closed at one end with a ceramic plate and an rf antenna, and terminated at the opposite end by a grounded grid), we experimentally investigate the effect of conducting and insulating source walls on the nature of the plasma diffusion phenomena. The use of a magnetic filter creates a unique plasma, characterized by a high upstream electron temperature (T{sub e{sub u}}∼5 eV) near the rf antenna and a low downstream electron temperature (T{sub e{sub d}}∼1 eV) near the grid, which more clearly demonstrates the role of the source wall materials. For conducting walls a net ion current to ground is measured on the grid, and the plasma potential is determined by a mean electron temperature within the source. For insulating walls the plasma potential is determined by the downstream electron temperature (i.e., V{sub p}∼5.2T{sub e{sub d}} in argon), and the net current to the grid is exactly zero. Furthermore, by inserting a small additional upstream conductor (that can be made floating or grounded through an external circuit switch), we demonstrate that the plasma potential can be controlled and set to a low (V{sub p}∼5.2T{sub e{sub d}}), or high (V{sub p}∼5.2T{sub e{sub u}}) value.

  12. Non-thermal Dupree diffusivity and shielding effects on atomic collisions in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-05-01

    The influence of non-thermal Dupree turbulence and the plasma shielding on the electron-ion collision is investigated in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal analysis and the effective interaction potential including the Lorentzian far-field term are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length and spectral index of the astrophysical Lorentzian plasma. It is shown that the non-thermal effect suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift. However, it enhances the eikonal collision cross section in astrophysical non-thermal turbulent plasmas. The effect of non-thermal turbulence on the eikonal atomic collision cross section is weakened with increasing collision energy. The variation of the atomic cross section due to the non-thermal Dupree turbulence is also discussed. This research was supported by Nuclear Fusion Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No. 2015M1A7A1A01002786).

  13. Diffusion, trapping, and isotope exchange of plasma implanted deuterium in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Joseph Lincoln

    Tritium accumulation in nuclear fusion reactor materials is a major concern for practical and safe fusion energy. This work examines hydrogen isotope exchange as a tritium removal technique, analyzes the effects of neutron damage using high energy copper ion beams, and introduces a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. Tungsten samples were irradiated with high energy (0.5 - 5 MeV) copper ions for controlled levels of damage - 10-3 to 10-1 displacements per atom (dpa) - at room temperature. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma at constant temperature (˜ 380 K) to a high fluence of 1024 ions/m2, where retention is at is maximized (i.e. saturated). By then subsequently exposing these samples to fractions of this fluence with hydrogen plasma, isotope exchange rates were observed. The resulting deuterium still trapped in the tungsten is then measured post mortem. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) gives the depth resolved deuterium retention profile with the 3He(D,p) 4He reaction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) gives the total amount of deuterium trapped in the tungsten by heating a sample in vacuum up to 1200 K and measuring the evaporated gas molecules with a residual gas analyzer. Isotope exchange data show that hydrogen atoms can displace trapped deuterium atoms efficiently only up to the first few microns, but does not affect the atoms trapped at greater depths. In ion damaged tungsten, measurements showed a significant increase in retention in the damage region proportional to dpa 0.66, which results in a significant spike in total retention, and isotope exchange in damaged samples is still ineffective at depths greater than a few microns. Thus, isotope exchange is not an affective tritium removal technique; however, these experiments have shown that trapping in material defects greatly affects diffusion. These experiments lead to a simplified diffusion model with defect densities as the only free

  14. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G

    1985-01-01

    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  15. Mixed diffusive-convective relaxation of a broad beam of energetic particles in cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Falessi, Matteo V; Montani, Giovanni; Terzani, Davide; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the applications of quasi-linear theory as a paradigmatic model for weak plasma turbulence and the associated bump-on-tail problem. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that large-amplitude or strongly shaped beams do not relax through diffusion only and that there exists an intermediate time scale where the relaxations are {\\it convective} (ballistic-like). We cast this novel idea in the rigorous form of a self-consistent nonlinear dynamical model, which generalizes the classic equations of the quasi-linear theory to "broad" beams with internal structure. We also present numerical simulation results of the relaxation of a broad beam of energetic particles in cold plasma. These generally demonstrate the mixed diffusive-convective features of supra-thermal particle transport; and essentially depend on nonlinear wave-particle interactions and phase-space structures. Taking into account modes of the stable linear spectrum is crucial for the self-consistent evolution of the distribution f...

  16. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  17. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  18. Physical and plasmachemical aspects of diffuse coplanar barrier discharge as a novel atmospheric-pressure plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernak, M.; Kovacik, D.; Zahoranova, A.; Rahel, J.

    2008-07-01

    Collaborating Czech and Slovakian university teams have recently developed an innovative plasma source, the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD), which has the potential to move a step closer to the industry requirement for in-line treatment of low-added-value materials using a highly-nonequlibrium ambient air plasma (Simor et al. 2002, The idea is to generate a thin (on the order of 0.1 mm) layer of highly-nonequlibrium plasma with a high power density (up to 100 W/cm^3) in the immediate vicinity of the treated surface and bring it into a close contact with the treated surface. Comparing to atmospheric-pressure glow discharge, volume dielectric barrier discharge, and plasma jet plasmas, such a diffuse plasma layer is believed to provide substantial advantages in energy consumption, exposure time, and technical simplicity. A brief outline of physical mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD will given using the results of emission spectroscopy, high-speed camera, and spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy studies. The presentation will review also a current state of the art in in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DCSBD). The results obtained on the ambient air plasma treatments of textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.

  19. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  20. Individual cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovel, R T; Sweet, R G

    1979-01-01

    Current cell sorting machines do not preserve the individual identity of processed cells; after analysis, the cells are assigned to a subpopulation where they are pooled with other similar cells. This paper reports progress on a system that sorts cells individually to precise locations on a microscope slide and preserves them for further observation with a light microscope while recording flow measurement data for each cell. Various electronic and mechanical modifications to an existing sorting machine are described that increase drop placement accuracy and permit individual cell sorting.

  1. Designing sorting networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baddar, Sherenaz W Al-Haj

    2012-01-01

    Designing Sorting Networks: A New Paradigm provides an in-depth guide to maximizing the efficiency of sorting networks, and uses 0/1 cases, partially ordered sets and Haase diagrams to closely analyze their behavior in an easy, intuitive manner. This book also outlines new ideas and techniques for designing faster sorting networks using Sortnet, and illustrates how these techniques were used to design faster 12-key and 18-key sorting networks through a series of case studies. Finally, it examines and explains the mysterious behavior exhibited by the fastest-known 9-step 16-key network. Designi

  2. Convection-Diffusion Model for Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets: Obtaining Off-Axis Data from On-Axis Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Dünnbier, Mario; Winter, Jörn; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    An analytical convection-diffusion model for atmospheric pressure plasma jets is presented. The model can be applied both for ambient air species diffusion and for heat transfer into a jets effluent. Using on-axis data from experiments as input, the model can be used to extrapolate the measured quantities to the complete domain for laminar flows and near-axis region for turbulent flows. The method is applied to experimental data obtained from molecular beam mass spectrometry as well as from a VUV absorption spectrometry method using the plasma jet itself as a VUV emitter. The measurements are conducted on a turbulent atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with a protective gas nozzle, allowing for the creation of a shielding gas curtain around the plasma jets effluent. The results obtained from the hybrid analytical-experimental method are compared to computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  3. Nitric oxide kinetics in the afterglow of a diffuse plasma filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, D.; Montello, A.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2014-08-01

    A suite of laser diagnostics is used to study kinetics of vibrational energy transfer and plasma chemical reactions in a nanosecond pulse, diffuse filament electric discharge and afterglow in N2 and dry air at 100 Torr. Laser-induced fluorescence of NO and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence of O and N atoms are used to measure absolute, time-resolved number densities of these species after the discharge pulse, and picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is used to measure time-resolved rotational temperature and ground electronic state N2(v = 0-4) vibrational level populations. The plasma filament diameter, determined from plasma emission and NO planar laser-induced fluorescence images, remains nearly constant after the discharge pulse, over a few hundred microseconds, and does not exhibit expansion on microsecond time scale. Peak temperature in the discharge and the afterglow is low, T ≈ 370 K, in spite of significant vibrational nonequilibrium, with peak N2 vibrational temperature of Tv ≈ 2000 K. Significant vibrational temperature rise in the afterglow is likely caused by the downward N2-N2 vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Simple kinetic modeling of time-resolved N, O, and NO number densities in the afterglow, on the time scale longer compared to relaxation and quenching time of excited species generated in the plasma, is in good agreement with the data. In nitrogen, the N atom density after the discharge pulse is controlled by three-body recombination and radial diffusion. In air, N, NO and O concentrations are dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, N + NO → N2 + O, and ozone formation reaction, O + O2 + M → O3 + M, respectively. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules and excited N atoms on NO formation kinetics is estimated to be negligible. The results suggest that NO formation in the nanosecond pulse discharge is dominated by reactions of excited electronic states of nitrogen, occurring on

  4. How to calculate the neoclassical viscosity, diffusion, and current coefficients in general toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Nishimura, S.

    2002-05-01

    A novel method to obtain the full neoclassical transport matrix for general toroidal plasmas by using the solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is shown. In this method, the neoclassical coefficients for both poloidal and toroidal viscosities in toroidal helical systems can be obtained, and the neoclassical transport coefficients for the radial particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current with the non-diagonal coupling between unlike-species particles are derived from combining the viscosity-flow relations, the friction-flow relations, and the parallel momentum balance equations. Since the collisional momentum conservation is properly retained, the well-known intrinsic ambipolar condition of the neoclassical particle fluxes in symmetric systems is recovered. Thus, these resultant neoclassical diffusion and viscosity coefficients are applicable to evaluating accurately how the neoclassical transport in quasi-symmetric toroidal systems deviates from that in exactly-symmetric systems. (author)

  5. Probabilistic transport models for plasma transport in the presence of critical thresholds: Beyond the diffusive paradigma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, R.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    It is argued that the modeling of plasma transport in tokamaks may benefit greatly from extending the usual local paradigm to accommodate scale-free transport mechanisms. This can be done by combining Lévy distributions and a nonlinear threshold condition within the continuous time random walk concept. The advantages of this nonlocal, nonlinear extension are illustrated by constructing a simple particle density transport model that, as a result of these ideas, spontaneously exhibits much of nondiffusive phenomenology routinely observed in tokamaks. The fluid limit of the system shows that the kind of equations that are appropriate to capture these dynamics are based on fractional differential operators. In them, effective diffusivities and pinch velocities are found that are dynamically set by the system in response to the specific characteristics of the fueling source and external perturbations. This fact suggests some dramatic consequences for the extrapolation of these transport properties to larger size systems.

  6. Nonperturbative heavy-quark diffusion in the quark-gluon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, H; Mannarelli, M; Greco, V; Rapp, R

    2008-05-16

    We evaluate heavy-quark (HQ) transport properties in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within a Brueckner many-body scheme employing interaction potentials extracted from thermal lattice QCD. The in-medium T matrices for elastic charm- and bottom-quark scattering off light quarks in the QGP are dominated by attractive meson and diquark channels which support resonance states up to temperatures of ~1.5T(c). The resulting drag coefficient increases with decreasing temperature, contrary to expectations based on perturbative QCD scattering. Employing relativistic Langevin simulations we compute HQ spectra and elliptic flow in sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. A good agreement with electron decay data supports our nonperturbative computation of HQ diffusion, indicative for a strongly coupled QGP.

  7. Diffusion-induced parametric dispersion and amplification in doped semiconductor plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Yadav; S Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Using the hydrodynamic model of semiconductor plasma, the diffusion-induced nonlinear current density and the consequent second-order effective susceptibility are obtained under off-resonant laser irradiation. The analysis deals with the qualitative behaviour of the anomalous parametric dispersion and the gain profile with respect to the excess doping concentration and pump electric field. The analysis suggests that a proper selection of doping level and pump field may lead to either positive or negative enhanced parametric dispersion, which can be of great use in the generation of sequeezed states. It is found that gain maximizes at moderate doping concentration level, which may drastically reduce the fabrication cost of parametric amplifier based on this interaction.

  8. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil; Giuliani, J. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  9. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ωeτe effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  10. Suppression of Baryon Diffusion and Transport in a Baryon Rich Strongly Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2015-11-13

    Five dimensional black hole solutions that describe the QCD crossover transition seen in (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD calculations at zero and nonzero baryon densities are used to obtain predictions for the baryon susceptibility, baryon conductivity, baryon diffusion constant, and thermal conductivity of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in the range of temperatures 130  MeV≤T≤300  MeV and baryon chemical potentials 0≤μ(B)≤400  MeV. Diffusive transport is predicted to be suppressed in this region of the QCD phase diagram, which is consistent with the existence of a critical end point at larger baryon densities. We also calculate the fourth-order baryon susceptibility at zero baryon chemical potential and find quantitative agreement with recent lattice results. The baryon transport coefficients computed in this Letter can be readily implemented in state-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes used to investigate the dense QGP currently produced at RHIC's low energy beam scan.

  11. Lectin receptors on the plasma membrane of soybean cells. Binding and lateral diffusion of lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, T N; Wang, J L; Schubert, K R; Schindler, M

    1983-08-02

    Protoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of root cells of Glycine max (SB-1 cell line) bound soybean agglutinin (SBA), concanavalin A (Con A), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Binding studies carried out with 125I-labeled SBA, Con A, and WGA showed that these interactions were saturable and specific. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated uniform membrane labeling. The mobility of the lectin-receptor complexes was measured by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching. The diffusion constants (D) for SBA and Con A were 5 X 10(-11) and 7 X 10(-11) cm2/s, respectively. In contrast, WGA yielded a diffusion constant of 3 X 10(-10) cm2/s. Pretreatment of the protoplasts with either SBA or Con A resulted in a 6-fold reduction in the mobility of WGA (D congruent to 5 X 10(-11) cm2/s). The results suggest that the binding of SBA or Con A may lead to alterations of the soybean plasma membrane which, in turn, may restrict the mobility of other receptors.

  12. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  13. Modification of a metallic surface in a vacuum arc discharge plasma using thermally stimulated ion diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    A new process for modifying a metallic surface in a vacuum arc discharge plasma using thermally stimulated ion diffusion is considered. The effect of the bias voltage (negative substrate potential) on the processes that occur on the surface of a treated part is studied when the substrate material interacts with an accelerated metallic-ion flow. The phase and elemental compositions of the modified layer are studied for substrates made of nickel-based superalloys, austenitic and martensitic steels, and titanium-based alloys. The heat resistance, the salt corrosion resistance, and the corrosion cracking resistance of steels and titanium-based alloys are investigated after their modification in vacuum arc plasmas of pure metals (Ti, Zr, Al, Cr, Y) and related alloys. The surface modification caused by the thermally stimulated ion saturation of the surfaces of parts made from structural materials is shown to change the structural-phase states of their surfaces and, correspondingly, the properties of these materials in relation to the state of the surface.

  14. Sorting it out: regulation of exosome loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Baixauli, Francesc; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Mittelbrunn, María

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a term that includes both exosomes of endocytic origin and vesicles derived from plasma membranes, are continuously secreted by cells to the extracellular environment, and represent a novel vehicle for cell-cell communication. Exosomes contain specific repertoires of proteins and RNAs, indicating the existence of mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into them. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the loading of proteins into exosomes have been studied for years, the sorting of RNA has been elusive until recently. Here we review the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into exosomes, with special attention to the sorting of RNA. We also discuss how the cellular context affects the composition of exosomes, and thus the outcome of the communication between the exosome-producer and recipient cells, with particular focus on the communication between tumor cells and with cells of the tumor microenvironment.

  15. Diffusive, convective and Nernst-effect losses of magnetic flux and heat from a wall-confined magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2013-10-01

    The recently proposed MAGLIF approach to inertial fusion ignition involves compression and heating of plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. To reach fusion conditions, the compressed plasma should retain a large fraction of the magnetic flux and thermal energy enclosed by the liner. Magnetic flux and heat losses from strongly magnetized plasma to a cold liner wall are significantly influenced by the Nernst and Ettingshausen thermomagnetic effects. We present exact analytical solutions of 1D MHD equations with Ohmic heating, heat conductivity and thermomagnetic terms included and discuss relative roles of diffusive, conductive and Nernst-effect-related losses of magnetic flux and heat from the magnetized plasma to the wall. These solutions are compared to our 1D simulation results. They can serve for verification of plasma transport modeling by MHD codes. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  16. Investigation of ambient air species diffusion into the effluent of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet by measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Reuter, Stephan; Winter, Jörn; Lange, Hartmut; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Leibniz InstitutePlasma Science; Technology (INP) Greifswald Team

    2011-10-01

    The diffusion of ambient air species into the effluent of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) jet operated with pure argon is quantified using both experimental methods and theoretical estimations by a convection-diffusion approach. In the effluent of CAP jets operated in ambient air, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated. ROS and RNS are believed to play a central role in biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas. The inflow of atmospheric oxygen is determined by a novel absorption technique in the VUV spectral range, where emission originating from within the discharge is used as light source. An analytic expression for the estimation of the on-axis density of ambient species was obtained assuming a stationary drift-diffusion equation and is compared to complete numerical results. The easy to use expression correlates well with the experimental results obtained.

  17. Effect of hydrogen plasma on electroless-plating Ni-B films and its Cu diffusion barrier property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Kee, Jong; Kwon, Da-Jung; Kim, Deok-Kee

    2014-12-01

    Electroless-plating Ni-B films have been evaluated for the application as the diffusion barrier and metal cap for copper integration. The effect of post plasma treatment in a hydrogen environment on the characteristics of Ni-B films such as chemical composition, surface roughness, crystallinity, and resistivity was investigated. By treating electroless-plating Ni-B films with H2 plasma, the resistance and the roughness of the films decreased. The leakage current of Ni-B bottom electrode/30-nm-thick Al2O3/Al top electrode structures improved after the H2 plasma treatment on the Ni-B films. 40 nm-thick electroless-plating Ni-B film was able to block Cu diffusion up to 350 degrees C.

  18. Cell sorting in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krens, S F Gabby; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-01-01

    During the development of multicellular organisms, cell fate specification is followed by the sorting of different cell types into distinct domains from where the different tissues and organs are formed. Cell sorting involves both the segregation of a mixed population of cells with different fates and properties into distinct domains, and the active maintenance of their segregated state. Because of its biological importance and apparent resemblance to fluid segregation in physics, cell sorting was extensively studied by both biologists and physicists over the last decades. Different theories were developed that try to explain cell sorting on the basis of the physical properties of the constituent cells. However, only recently the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the physical properties driving cell sorting, have begun to be unraveled. In this review, we will provide an overview of different cell-sorting processes in development and discuss how these processes can be explained by the different sorting theories, and how these theories in turn can be connected to the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving these processes.

  19. Partitioning, diffusion, and ligand binding of raft lipid analogs in model and cellular plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Levental, Ilya; Grzybek, Michal; Schwarzmann, Günter; Mueller, Veronika; Honigmann, Alf; Belov, Vladimir N; Eggeling, Christian; Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai; Schwille, Petra

    2012-07-01

    cellular plasma membranes consistently reveals a constant level of confined diffusion for raft lipid analogs that vary greatly in their partitioning behavior, suggesting different physicochemical bases for these phenomena.

  20. Confined diffusion of transmembrane proteins and lipids induced by the same actin meshwork lining the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahiro K; Iwasawa, Kokoro; Kalay, Ziya; Tsunoyama, Taka A; Watanabe, Yusuke; Umemura, Yasuhiro M; Murakoshi, Hideji; Suzuki, Kenichi G N; Nemoto, Yuri L; Morone, Nobuhiro; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms by which the diffusion rate in the plasma membrane (PM) is regulated remain unresolved, despite their importance in spatially regulating the reaction rates in the PM. Proposed models include entrapment in nanoscale noncontiguous domains found in PtK2 cells, slow diffusion due to crowding, and actin-induced compartmentalization. Here, by applying single-particle tracking at high time resolutions, mainly to the PtK2-cell PM, we found confined diffusion plus hop movements (termed "hop diffusion") for both a nonraft phospholipid and a transmembrane protein, transferrin receptor, and equal compartment sizes for these two molecules in all five of the cell lines used here (actual sizes were cell dependent), even after treatment with actin-modulating drugs. The cross-section size and the cytoplasmic domain size both affected the hop frequency. Electron tomography identified the actin-based membrane skeleton (MSK) located within 8.8 nm from the PM cytoplasmic surface of PtK2 cells and demonstrated that the MSK mesh size was the same as the compartment size for PM molecular diffusion. The extracellular matrix and extracellular domains of membrane proteins were not involved in hop diffusion. These results support a model of anchored TM-protein pickets lining actin-based MSK as a major mechanism for regulating diffusion.

  1. Formation of Diffusion Layers by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Nitrocarburizing of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmanov, S. A.; Kusmanova, Yu. V.; Naumov, A. R.; Belkin, P. N.

    2015-08-01

    The structure of the low-carbon steel after plasma electrolytic nitrocarburizing in the electrolyte containing acetonitrile was investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure, composition, and phase constituents of a modified layer under different processing conditions were characterized. It is shown that the electrolyte that contained ammonium chloride and acetonitrile provides the saturation of steel with nitrogen and carbon and the formation of the Fe4N and FeN0.05 nitrides, Fe4C carbide and other phases. The nitrogen diffusion decreases the austenitization temperature and results in the formation of martensite after the sample cooling in the electrolyte. The formation of a carbon and nitrogen source in a vapor-gas envelope (VGE) is investigated. The proposed mechanism includes evaporation of acetonitrile in the VGE, its adsorption on an anode with the following thermal decomposition, and also the acetonitrile reduction to amine with subsequent hydrolysis to ethanol that is determined with the use of chromatographic method. The aqueous solution that contained 10 wt.% NH4Cl and 10 wt.% CH3CN allows one to obtain the nitrocarburized layer with the thickness of 0.22 mm and microhardness up to 740 HV during 10 min at 850 °C. This treatment regime leads to the decrease in the surface roughness of steel R a from 1.01 μm to 0.17 μm.

  2. Diffusion effects on the determination of surface catalysis in Inductively Coupled Plasma facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladegut, Alan; Düzel, Ümran; Chazot, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Atomic recombination is an important process to consider when computing the heat flux transferred to the wall of a re-entry vehicle. Two chemical processes are influencing the species diffusion in the boundary layer surrounding a re-usable Thermal Protection System: gas phase reactions and catalytic recombination at the surface. The coupling between them is not normally taken into account when determining the catalytic recombination coefficient (γ) in plasma facilities. This work aims to provide evidence of such coupling based on both a theoretical analysis and an experimental campaign in the VKI-Plasmatron facility. Recombination coefficient measurements at off-stagnation point configuration on a linear copper calorimeter are provided. An evolution from a high-catalytic to a low-catalytic condition due to the boundary layer growth along the probe is observed. This result is consistent with a parametric analysis carried out using the in-house non-equilibrium boundary layer solver, which shows how the experimentally determined catalysis could be influenced by the amount of gas-phase recombination inside the boundary layer.

  3. Conditions for uniform impact of the plasma of a runaway-electron-induced pulsed diffuse discharge on an anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-09-01

    The subject matters in this work are (i) the spatial structure of a volume (diffuse) discharge initiated in atmospheric-pressure air in a heavily nonuniform electric field by nanosecond voltage pulses and (ii) the influence of its plasma on the surface of a plane aluminum anode. It is shown that a diffuse discharge initiated by nanosecond voltage pulses makes it possible to uniformly process the anode's surface in atmospheric-pressure air in contrast to a spark discharge, which results in microcracking, locally changes the surface properties, and thereby degrades the surface.

  4. The Effect of Multipole-Enhanced Diffusion on the Joule Heating of a Cold Non-Neutral Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Steven Francis

    One proposed technique for trapping anti-atoms is to superimpose a Ioffe-Pritchard style magnetic-minimum neutral trap on a standard Penning trap used to trap the charged atomic constituents. Adding a magnetic multipole field in this way removes the azimuthal symmetry of the ideal Penning trap and introduces a new avenue for radial diffusion. Enhanced diffusion will lead to increased Joule heating of a non-neutral plasma, potentially adversely affecting the formation rate of anti-atoms and increasing the required trap depth. We present a model of this effect, along with an approach to minimizing it, with comparison to measurements from an intended anti-atom trap.

  5. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    mechanism, but is handled by informal sorting mechanisms. We identify two informal sorting mechanisms with large impact on the sorting practices, namely subtle categorizing and collective remembering. These informal sorting mechanisms have implications for the design of electronic booking systems because...

  6. LazySorted: A Lazily, Partially Sorted Python List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LazySorted is a Python C extension implementing a partially and lazily sorted list data structure. It solves a common problem faced by programmers, in which they need just part of a sorted list, like its middle element (the median, but sort the entire list to get it. LazySorted presents them with the abstraction that they are working with a fully sorted list, while actually only sorting the list partially with quicksort partitions to return the requested sub-elements. This enables programmers to use naive "sort first" algorithms but nonetheless attain linear run-times when possible. LazySorted may serve as a drop-in replacement for the built-in sorted function in most cases, and can sometimes achieve run-times more than 7 times faster.

  7. Plasma-wall interactions data compendium-1. ''Hydrogen retention property, diffusion and recombination coefficients database for selected plasma-facing materials''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Matsuhiro, Kenjirou [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Hirooka, Yoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamamura, Yasunori [Okayama Univ. of Scinece, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    A summary on the recent activities of the plasma-wall interactions database task group at the National Institute for Fusion Science is presented in this report. These activities are focused on the compilation of literature data on the key parameters related to wall recycling characteristics that affect dynamic particle balance during plasma discharges and also on-site tritium inventory. More specifically, in this task group a universal fitting formula has been proposed and successfully applied to help compile hydrogen implantation-induced retention data. Also, presented here are the data on hydrogen diffusion and surface recombination coefficients, both critical in modeling dynamic wall recycling behavior. Data compilation has been conducted on beryllium, carbon, tungsten and molybdenum, all currently used for plasma-facing components in magnetic fusion experiments. (author)

  8. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  10. Model development of plasma implanted hydrogenic diffusion and trapping in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A Cu ion beam is used to induce controlled levels of damage (10-3, 10-2, and 10-1 dpa) in room temperature W samples. A single 5 MeV beam energy yielding a peaked damage profile 0.8 μm into the material, or three beam energies (0.5, 2, and 5 MeV) producing a relatively uniform damage profile from the near surface up to 0.8 μm were used. The W samples were then exposed to a D plasma ion fluence of 1024 ions m-2 at 380 K, and the resulting D retention was measured using the D(3He,p)4He reaction analysis (NRA) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We observe that within experimental error there is no significant difference in retention whether the damage profile is peaked or uniform. The increase in retention is observed to increase proportional to \\text{dp}{{\\text{a}}0.66} estimated from the dpa peak calculated from the SRIM program. A simplified retention model is proposed that provides concentration profiles that can be directly compared to NRA data and total retention measurements. Taking the trapping energies due to three defect types calculated from density functional theory (DFT), the only free-parameters are three defect densities of in-grain monovacancies, dislocations, and grain boundary vacancies, and we assume these defects to be the dominant trapping locations. The model can fit D retention data in a pristine W sample within the experimental error of the measurements, and in subsequent modeling these intrinsic defect densities are then fixed. We model the retention profile after ion damage by adding the SRIM predicted vacancy profile to the intrinsic monovacancy defect density. Since the increase in retention, and therefore the increase in vacancy production, does not increase linearly with dpa, a correction factor is multiplied to the predicted vacancy profile to fit the data. A new diffusion coefficient is calculated with the model that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. This calculation may resolve discrepancies of various

  11. A new Differential Equation for Anomalous Diffusion with Potential Applications to Nonlinear Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Credgington, D.; Sanchez, R.; Chapman, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since the 1960s Mandelbrot has advocated the use of fractals for the description of the non-Euclidean geometry of many aspects of nature. In particular he proposed two kinds of model to capture persistence in time (his Joseph effect, common in hydrology and with fractional Brownian motion as the prototpe) and/or prone to heavy tailed jumps (the Noah effect, typical of economic indices, for which he proposed Lévy flights as an exemplar). Both effects are now well demonstrated in space plasmas, notably in indices quantifying Earth's auroral currents and in the turbulent solar wind. Models have, however, typically emphasised one of the Noah and Joseph parameters (the Lévy exponent μ and the temporal exponent β) at the other's expense. I will describe recent work [1] in which we studied a simple self-affine stable model-linear fractional stable motion, LFSM, which unifies both effects. I will discuss how this resolves some contradictions seen in earlier work. Such Noah-Joseph hybrid ("ambivalent" [2]) behaviour is highly topical in physics but is typically studied in the paradigm of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) [2,3] rather than LFSM. I will clarify the physical differences between these two pictures and present a recently-derived diffusion equation for LFSM. This replaces the second order spatial derivative in the equation of fBm [4] with a fractional derivative of order μ, but retains a diffusion coefficient with a power law time dependence rather than a fractional derivative in time (c.f. [2,3]). Intriguingly the self-similarity exponent extracted from the CTRW differs from that seen in LFSM. In the CTRW it is the ratio of μ to a temporal exponent, in LFSM it is an additive function of them. I will also show work in progress using an LFSM model and simple analytic scaling arguments to study the problem of the area between an LFSM curve and a threshold-related to the burst size measure introduced by Takalo and Consolini into solar- terrestrial physics

  12. In situ study of hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H based junctions exposed to hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbi, Fadila; Hadjadj, Aomar [Groupe de Recherche en Sciences pour l' Ingenieur (GRESPI), Universite de Reims (France); Fellah, Samira; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces (LPICM), Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Dine Sib, Jamal [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Materiaux pour l' Electronique (LPCM2E), Universite d' Oran (Algeria)

    2012-06-15

    Just after their deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process, we have exposed Cr/I/N, Cr/I/P, Cr/N/I and Cr/P/I a-Si:H based junctions to H{sub 2} plasma and followed in situ, by ellipsometry, the modifications induced by hydrogen diffusion. In the case of Cr/N/I and Cr/P/I junctions, no significant effects of the junction on the hydrogen diffusion were observed since the time-evolution of the thickness of the H-modified layer is similar to that of a single intrinsic layer. However, Cr/I/N, Cr/I/P structures present an attenuated thickness of the H-modified layer in the first few minutes of hydrogen plasma exposure. This effect should be attributed to the charges in the field regions of I/N or I/P junctions which increase the hydrogen trap concentration and restrain the hydrogen diffusion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Reckermann

    2000-01-01

    Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological param...

  14. Sorting by Recursive Partitioning,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    asymptotic time-complexity. This paper has the following main parts: First, a Pidgin -Algol version of the algorithm is presented and we discuss the main...those sorted subsets e) end "UsingBin*; end "AdaptSorting. 4 "Figure 1: A condensed Pidgin -Algol version of Adaptsort eiFor some conditions that we will...algorithm which have to be completed in either linear or constant times (these required critical times appear as comments in the Pidgin -Algol version

  15. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001...

  16. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  17. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  18. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  19. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  20. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  1. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries in ...

  2. Spatial control of processing plasmas in a multicusp plasma source equipped with a movable magnetic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, O.; Naitou, H.; Sakiyama, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    The plasma chemical vapor deposition (p-CVD) method has been used in the preparation of various sorts of thin films such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, etc. and the application feasibility of a magnetically filtered multicusp plasma source has been studied. In this paper, it is confirmed that plasma parameters (H {sub 2} - ch {sub 4} or Ar-CH {sub 4} plasmas) are spatially well controlled by using both a movable magnetic filter and a plasma grid. Plasma parameters change sharply across the magnetic filter at any filter position and the whole plasma is divided clearly into the region of source plasma with high-energy electrons and the region of diffused plasma without high-energy electrons. Concerning the role of the magnetic filter which reflects preferentially high-energy electrons, a study is made through computer simulation. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Influence of air diffusion on the OH radicals and atomic O distribution in an atmospheric Ar (bio)plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A.; Li, L.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Vanraes, P.; Leys, C.

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of samples with plasmas in biomedical applications often occurs in ambient air. Admixing air into the discharge region may severely affect the formation and destruction of the generated oxidative species. Little is known about the effects of air diffusion on the spatial distribution of OH radicals and O atoms in the afterglow of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. In our work, these effects are investigated by performing and comparing measurements in ambient air with measurements in a controlled argon atmosphere without the admixture of air, for an argon plasma jet. The spatial distribution of OH is detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIF), whereas two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) is used for the detection of atomic O. The spatially resolved OH LIF and O TALIF show that, due to the air admixture effects, the reactive species are only concentrated in the vicinity of the central streamline of the afterglow of the jet, with a characteristic discharge diameter of ˜1.5 mm. It is shown that air diffusion has a key role in the recombination loss mechanisms of OH radicals and atomic O especially in the far afterglow region, starting up to ˜4 mm from the nozzle outlet at a low water/oxygen concentration. Furthermore, air diffusion enhances OH and O production in the core of the plasma. The higher density of active species in the discharge in ambient air is likely due to a higher electron density and a more effective electron impact dissociation of H2O and O2 caused by the increasing electrical field, when the discharge is operated in ambient air.

  4. Wave Propagation and Diffusive Transition of Oscillations in Pair Plasmas with Dust Impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Atamaniuk, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In view of applications to electron-positron pair-plasmas and fullerene pair-ion-plasmas containing charged dust impurities a thorough discussion is given of three-component Plasmas. Space-time responses of multi-component linearized Vlasov plasmas on the basis of multiple integral equations are invoked. An initial-value problem for Vlasov-Poisson -Ampere equations is reduced to the one multiple integral equation and the solution is expressed in terms of forcing function and its space-time convolution with the resolvent kernel. The forcing function is responsible for the initial disturbance and the resolvent is responsible for the equilibrium velocity distributions of plasma species. By use of resolvent equations, time-reversibility, space-reflexivity and the other symmetries are revealed. The symmetries carry on physical properties of Vlasov pair plasmas, e.g., conservation laws. Properly choosing equilibrium distributions for dusty pair plasmas, we can reduce the resolvent equation to: (i) the undamped disp...

  5. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, Erwin F.; Valeo, Ernest; Harvey, Robert; Bonoli, Paul

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell's equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change ( W ˙ ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmor radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.

  6. K-sort: A new sorting algorithm that beats Heap sort for n <= 70 lakhs!

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararajan, Kiran Kumar; Chakraborty, Soubhik; Mahanti, N C

    2011-01-01

    Sundararajan and Chakraborty (2007) introduced a new version of Quick sort removing the interchanges. Khreisat (2007) found this algorithm to be competing well with some other versions of Quick sort. However, it uses an auxiliary array thereby increasing the space complexity. Here, we provide a second version of our new sort where we have removed the auxiliary array. This second improved version of the algorithm, which we call K-sort, is found to sort elements faster than Heap sort for an appreciably large array size (n <= 70,00,000) for uniform U[0, 1] inputs.

  7. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  8. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  9. Heideggers sorte arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Gosvig

    2015-01-01

    Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker......Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker...

  10. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.

  11. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an non-uniform cylindrical plasma; Diffusion coherente d'une onde electromagnetique par un cylindre de plasma inhomogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P.E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Groupe de recherches sur la fusion controlee

    1967-07-01

    The problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a non-uniform, cylindrically symmetrical plasma is solved analytically, by a self-consistent field method, for a wave with the electric field parallel to the cylinder axis. Numerical results for the diffracted field are plotted for interesting ranges of the parameters involved: diameter, density on the axis, radial profile of the density, and collision frequencies. The case where the incident field is cylindric (waves surfaces parallel to the cylinder axis) is examined - this permits to connect theoretical calculations and experimental diffraction patterns, and also to explain the diffraction effects observed in a classical microwave interferometry experiment. These results, and the possibility of measuring exactly the diffracted field (showed by experiments with dielectric and metallic rods) lead to a new plasma diagnostic method, based on the diffraction, which has no theoretical limitations and it usable when the classical free-space wave methods are not (plasma diameter lower than 10 wave lengths). The feasibility of this method is tested with a plasma at atmospheric pressure and a 2 mm incident wavelength. The plasma is obtained by the laminar flow of a plasma torch, with a working gas (He or Ar) seeded by potassium (density continuously variable between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}. Some diffraction patterns by this plasma and for various incident waves, are also given and explained with theoretical calculations. (author) [French] On etudie la diffusion coherente d'une onde electromagnetique par un cylindre de plasma inhomogene par une methode de champ self-consistant, et pour une onde de vecteur electrique parallele a l'axe du cylindre. On a calcule le champ diffracte en faisant varier le diametre du cylindre, la densite sur l'axe, le profil de densite et les frequences de collisions, et on donne ici les principaux resultats. On examine ensuite le cas d'une onde

  12. Heat Diffusion across a Strong Stochastic Magnetic Field in Tokamak Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; YU Qing-Quan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate heat diffusion across a local strong stochastic magnetic field by using eleven low-m perturbed magnetic islands.A maximum stochasticity of 38.82 between two neighboring rationed surfaces is attained.The correlation between the effective radied heat conductivity Xr and the ratio of the paredlel heat diffusion coefficient to the perpendicular coefficient,X||/X,is numericeally studied and compared with earlier work.

  13. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  14. Infrared gas phase study on plasma-polymer interactions in high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Welzel, S.; Starostin, S. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Engeln, R.; de Vries, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    A roll-to-roll high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure was operated in air and Ar/N2/O2 gas mixtures. The exhaust gas from the discharge was studied using a high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer in the range from 3000 to 750 cm-1 to unravel the plasma-polymer interactions. The absorption features of HxNyOz, COx, and HCOOH (formic acid) were identified, and the relative densities were deduced by fitting the absorption bands of the detected molecules. Strong interactions between plasma and polymer (Polyethylene-2,6-naphthalate, or PEN) in precursor-free oxygen-containing gas mixtures were observed as evidenced by a high COx production. The presence of HCOOH in the gas effluent, formed through plasma-chemical synthesis of COx, turns out to be a sensitive indicator for etching. By adding tetraethylorthosilicate precursor in the plasma, dramatic changes in the COx production were measured, and two distinct deposition regimes were identified. At high precursor flows, a good agreement with the precursor combustion and the COx production was observed, whereas at low precursor flows an etching-deposition regime transpires, and the COx production is dominated by polymer etching.

  15. A new nonlinear diffusion formalism in a magnetized plasma - Application to space physics and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimbadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.

    1992-01-01

    A novel diffusion formalism that takes into account the finite width of resonances is presented. The resonance diagram technique is shown to reproduce the details of the particle orbits very accurately, and can be used to determine the acceleration/scattering in the presence of a given wave spectrum. Ways in which the nonlinear orbits can be incorporated into the diffusion equation are shown. The resulting diffusion equation is an extension of the Q-L theory to cases where the waves have large amplitudes and/or are coherent. This new equation does not have a gap at 90 deg in cases where the individual orbits can cross the gap. The conditions under which the resonance gap at 90-deg pitch angle exits are also examined.

  16. Spin-the-bottle Sort and Annealing Sort: Oblivious Sorting via Round-robin Random Comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    We study sorting algorithms based on randomized round-robin comparisons. Specifically, we study Spin-the-bottle sort, where comparisons are unrestricted, and Annealing sort, where comparisons are restricted to a distance bounded by a \\emph{temperature} parameter. Both algorithms are simple, randomized, data-oblivious sorting algorithms, which are useful in privacy-preserving computations, but, as we show, Annealing sort is much more efficient. We show that there is an input permutation that causes Spin-the-bottle sort to require $\\Omega(n^2\\log n)$ expected time in order to succeed, and that in $O(n^2\\log n)$ time this algorithm succeeds with high probability for any input. We also show there is an implementation of Annealing sort that runs in $O(n\\log n)$ time and succeeds with very high probability.

  17. Spin-the-bottle Sort and Annealing Sort: Oblivious Sorting via Round-robin Random Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    We study sorting algorithms based on randomized round-robin comparisons. Specifically, we study Spin-the-bottle sort, where comparisons are unrestricted, and Annealing sort, where comparisons are restricted to a distance bounded by a temperature parameter. Both algorithms are simple, randomized, data-oblivious sorting algorithms, which are useful in privacy-preserving computations, but, as we show, Annealing sort is much more efficient. We show that there is an input permutation that causes Spin-the-bottle sort to require Ω(n(2) log n) expected time in order to succeed, and that in O(n(2) log n) time this algorithm succeeds with high probability for any input. We also show there is a specification of Annealing sort that runs in O(n log n) time and succeeds with very high probability.

  18. Deductive sort and climbing sort: new methods for non-dominated sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Kent; Keedwell, Ed

    2012-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of real-world many-dimensional optimisation problems have been identified across the spectrum of research fields. Many popular evolutionary algorithms use non-dominance as a measure for selecting solutions for future generations. The process of sorting populations into non-dominated fronts is usually the controlling order of computational complexity and can be expensive for large populations or for a high number of objectives. This paper presents two novel methods for non-dominated sorting: deductive sort and climbing sort. The two new methods are compared to the fast non-dominated sort of NSGA-II and the non-dominated rank sort of the omni-optimizer. The results demonstrate the improved efficiencies of the deductive sort and the reductions in comparisons that can be made when applying inferred dominance relationships defined in this paper.

  19. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  20. Paracrine diffusion of PrP(C and propagation of prion infectivity by plasma membrane-derived microvesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mattei

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PrP(C is a physiological constituent of eukaryotic cells. The cellular pathways underlying prions spread from the sites of prions infection/peripheral replication to the central nervous system are still not elucidated. Membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs are submicron (0.1-1 microm particles, that are released by cells during plasma membrane shedding processes. They are usually liberated from different cell types, mainly upon activation as well as apoptosis, in this case, one of their hallmarks is the exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer leaflet of the membrane. MVs are also characterized by the presence of adhesion molecules, MHC I molecules, as well as of membrane antigens typical of their cell of origin. Evidence exists that MVs shedding provide vehicles to transfer molecules among cells, and that MVs are important modulators of cell-to-cell communication. In this study we therefore analyzed the potential role of membrane-derived MVs in the mechanism(s of PrP(C diffusion and prion infectivity transmission. We first identified PrP(C in association with the lipid raft components Fyn, flotillin-2, GM1 and GM3 in MVs from plasma of healthy human donors. Similar findings were found in MVs from cell culture supernatants of murine neuronal cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that PrP(Sc is released from infected murine neuronal cells in association with plasma membrane-derived MVs and that PrP(Sc-bearing MVs are infectious both in vitro and in vivo. The data suggest that MVs may contribute both to the intercellular mechanism(s of PrP(C diffusion and signaling as well as to the process of prion spread and neuroinvasion.

  1. Comparison study of fast responses in confined plasmas with diffusivity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is introduced to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the fast responses in the transition from Low confinement mode (L-mode) to High confinement mode (H-mode) and in the heating power switching. Examples of diffusivity models are chosen, i.e., constant, Bohm and Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) model and the comparison study is done. A small reaction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in reducing the response time. Independent of the diffusivity models, the fast transient transport in the heat pulse propagation is reproduced based on this non-local model. (author)

  2. Pseudochaos and low-frequency percolation scaling for turbulent diffusion in magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander V

    2009-04-01

    The basic physics properties and simplified model descriptions of the paradigmatic "percolation" transport in low-frequency electrostatic (anisotropic magnetic) turbulence are theoretically analyzed. The key problem being addressed is the scaling of the turbulent diffusion coefficient with the fluctuation strength in the limit of slow fluctuation frequencies (large Kubo numbers). In this limit, the transport is found to exhibit pseudochaotic, rather than simply chaotic, properties associated with the vanishing Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and anomalously slow mixing of phase-space trajectories. Based on a simple random-walk model, we find the low-frequency percolation scaling of the turbulent diffusion coefficient to be given by D/omega proportional, variantQ;{2/3} (here Q1 is the Kubo number and omega is the characteristic fluctuation frequency). When the pseudochaotic property is relaxed, the percolation scaling is shown to cross over to Bohm scaling. The features of turbulent transport in the pseudochaotic regime are described statistically in terms of a time fractional diffusion equation with the fractional derivative in the Caputo sense. Additional physics effects associated with finite particle inertia are considered.

  3. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  4. Gas Diffusion Barriers Prepared by Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Theirich, Detlef; Pack, Sven; Kocak, Firat; Schlamm, Daniel; Hasselmann, Tim; Fahl, Henry; Räupke, André; Gargouri, Hassan; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gas permeation barriers prepared by spatial ALD (SALD) at atmospheric pressure. We compare the growth characteristics and layer properties using trimethylaluminum (TMA) in combination with an Ar/O2 remote atmospheric pressure plasma for different substrate velocities and different temperatures. The resulting Al2O3 films show ultralow water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) on the order of 10(-6) gm(-2)d(-1). In notable contrast, plasma based layers already show good barrier properties at low deposition temperatures (75 °C), while water based processes require a growth temperature above 100 °C to achieve equally low WVTRs. The activation energy for the water permeation mechanism was determined to be 62 kJ/mol.

  5. Plasma Radiation Sources. Quasi-Adiabatic Theory and Numerical Modeling in the Electro-Diffusive Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-16

    Plasmas," JAYCOR Report J207-81-004, January, 1981 . 6. R. PoI, D. Fisher, T. Wilcox , S. Wong, H. Sze, L. Deraad anld W. Tsai, "Experiments on, Multiple...step with this are both r 2E and r at -0.52 cm (in from -0.66 cm thisare oth / ndE 1/20 at 2.48 ns) and the velocity profile for r>0.5245 cm is

  6. Kinetic Effects of Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Assisted Methane Oxidation on Diffusion Flame Extinction Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    measured using the Two-photon Absorption Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) method (for atomic oxygen, O), Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy...photon Absorption Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) method (for atomic oxygen, O), Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy and Gas...and ozone (O3) from other plasma related species and shown that both (at concentrations of several thousand ppm) can enhance flame speeds by a few

  7. Spatial investigation of plasma emission from laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames using LIBS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezelbash, Mahsa; Majd, Abdollah Eslami; Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Seyyed Jabbar; Ghasemi, Ali; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is used to record some plasma emissions of different laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames, to investigate the shapes, structures (i.e., reactants and products zones), kind, and quality of burning in different areas. For this purpose, molecular bands of CH, CH*, C2, CN, and CO as well as atomic and ionic lines of C, H, N, and O are identified, simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that the CN and C2 emissions have highest intensity in LIBS spectrum of n-propanol flame and the lowest in methanol. In addition, lowest content of CO pollution and better quality of burning process in n-propanol fuel flame toward ethanol and methanol are confirmed by comparison between their CO molecular band intensities. Moreover, variation of the signal intensity from these three flames with that from a known area of burner plate is compared. Our findings in this research advance the prior results in time-integrated LIBS combustion application and suggesting that LIBS can be used successfully with the CCD detector as a non-gated analytical tool, given its simple instrumentation needs, real-time capability applications of molecular detection in laminar diffusion flame samples, requirements.

  8. Chronic diarrhea associated with high serum level of immunoglobulin A and diffuse infiltration of plasma cell in small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junwen; Chen, Shuijiao; Chen, Linlin; Ouyang, Miao; Li, Fujun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage. Duodenal and ileac biopsies revealed atrophy and blunting villi. The bowel lamina propria was infiltrated with slightly increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and mainly with diffuse plasma cells. The following enzyme labeling immunohistochemistry results were strongly positive to alpha-heavy-chain. Computed tomography manifested she had diffuse thickening of small intestine wall. At last a diagnosis of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was made. Interventions and Outcomes: On the first month, the patient was treated with vitamin D supplements, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, folic acid, mecobalamin replacements and microflora probiotics. The patient frequency of water diarrhea alleviated slightly, but her weight loss, anxiety neurosis and other disorders were still severe. After taking with prednisone (40 mg per day, and gradually reduced to the lowest dose) for another month, the symptoms was gradually subsided. Lessons: The study shows that immunohistochemical staining for alpha-heavy chain proteins should be completed on small intestine biopsy specimens if the patient is suspected a diagnosis of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease. PMID:28151917

  9. Resolving sorting mechanisms into exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of mechanisms driving protein sorting into exosomes is only beginning to emerge. In a paper recently published in Cell Research, Roucourt et al. report that trimming of heparan sulfate side chains of syndecans by endosomal heparanase facilitates sorting into exosomes by the formation

  10. Effect of hydrophobic mismatch on domain formation and peptide sorting in the multicomponent lipid bilayers in the presence of immobilized peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Wu, Qing-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2014-08-21

    In the plasma membranes, many transmembrane (TM) proteins/peptides are anchored to the underlying cytoskeleton and/or the extracellular matrix. The lateral diffusion and the tilt of these proteins/peptides may be greatly restricted by the anchoring. Here, using the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the domain formation and peptide sorting in the ternary lipid bilayers in the presence of the immobilized peptide-grid and peptide-cluster. We mainly focused on examining the combining effect of the peptide immobilization and hydrophobic mismatch on the domain formation and peptide sorting in the lipid bilayers. Compared to the lipid bilayers inserted with free TM peptides, our results showed that, because of the tilt restriction imposed on the peptides, the hydrophobic mismatch effect more significantly influences the domain size, the dynamics of domain formation, and the peptide sorting in our systems. Our results provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized lipid rafts, the protein sorting in the lipid rafts and the interaction between the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the plasma membranes.

  11. Effect of hydrophobic mismatch on domain formation and peptide sorting in the multicomponent lipid bilayers in the presence of immobilized peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Wu, Qing-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2014-08-01

    In the plasma membranes, many transmembrane (TM) proteins/peptides are anchored to the underlying cytoskeleton and/or the extracellular matrix. The lateral diffusion and the tilt of these proteins/peptides may be greatly restricted by the anchoring. Here, using the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the domain formation and peptide sorting in the ternary lipid bilayers in the presence of the immobilized peptide-grid and peptide-cluster. We mainly focused on examining the combining effect of the peptide immobilization and hydrophobic mismatch on the domain formation and peptide sorting in the lipid bilayers. Compared to the lipid bilayers inserted with free TM peptides, our results showed that, because of the tilt restriction imposed on the peptides, the hydrophobic mismatch effect more significantly influences the domain size, the dynamics of domain formation, and the peptide sorting in our systems. Our results provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized lipid rafts, the protein sorting in the lipid rafts and the interaction between the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the plasma membranes.

  12. On the validity of the local diffusive paradigm in turbulent plasma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Strugarek, A.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.

    2010-08-01

    A systematic, constructive and self-consistent procedure to quantify nonlocal, nondiffusive action at a distance in plasma turbulence is exposed and applied to turbulent heat fluxes computed from the state-of-the-art full- f , flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA and XGC1 codes. A striking commonality is found: heat transport below a dynamically selected mesoscale has the structure of a Lévy distribution, is strongly nonlocal, nondiffusive, scale-free, and avalanche mediated; at larger scales, we report the observation of a self-organized flow structure which we call the “ E×B staircase” after its planetary analog.

  13. On the regularity of the magnetic field in a diffusive plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-09-28

    It is known that magnetic fields in ideal chaotic plasmas tend to become extremely irregular and to concentrate in a fractal set, and it is assumed that the presence of a positive resistivity will have a smoothing effect. Here we try to quantify this effect by proving new inequalities which, on the one hand, relate the local and global size of velocity and magnetic field with the gradient of this field, and on the other provide a bound of the area of generalized level surfaces. (author)

  14. HPTLC Method for Estimation of Topiramate in Solubility Studies, Diffusion Studies, Plasma, Brain Homogenate and Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vijaykumar K; Parikh, Rajesh H; Patel, Ravish J

    2016-08-01

    Topiramate, 2,3:4,5-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-β-d-fructopyranose, is an anticonvulsant drug indicated in the treatment and control of partial seizures and severe tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures in adults and children. An economic and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and was validated for the quantitative determination of topiramate in plasma, brain homogenate and pharmaceutical formulation. The simple extraction method was used for the isolation of topiramate from formulation, plasma and brain homogenate samples. HPTLC separation was achieved on an aluminum-backed layer of silica gel 60F254 plates using toluene : acetone (5.0 : 2.0, v/v) as mobile phase. Spots of developed plates were visualized by spraying of reagent [3.0% phenol in the mixture of ethanol : sulfuric acid (95 : 5, v/v)]. Quantitation was achieved by densitometric analysis at 340 nm over the concentration range of 1,000-5,000 ng/spot. The method was found to give compact spot for the drug (Rf: 0.61 ± 0.018). The regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983. The minimum detectable amount was found to be 165 ng/spot, whereas the limit of quantitation was found to be 500 ng/spot. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is precise, accurate, reproducible and selective for the analysis of topiramate. The developed method was successfully employed for the estimation of topiramate in samples of equilibrium solubility study, diffusion study, microemulsion formulation and suspension formulation (developed in-house), rat plasma and rat brain homogenate samples.

  15. Barriers to the free diffusion of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, William S; Grinstein, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Biological membranes segregate into specialized functional domains of distinct composition, which can persist for the entire life of the cell. How separation of their lipid and (glyco)protein components is generated and maintained is not well understood, but the existence of diffusional barriers has been proposed. Remarkably, the physical nature of such barriers and the manner whereby they impede the free diffusion of molecules in the plane of the membrane has rarely been studied in depth. Moreover, alternative mechanisms capable of generating membrane inhomogeneity are often disregarded. Here we describe prototypical biological systems where membrane segregation has been amply documented and discuss the role of diffusional barriers and other processes in the generation and maintenance of their structural and functional compartmentalization.

  16. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Reckermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological parameters (radiotracer-uptake rates, to the production of clonal or non-clonal cultures from mixtures, to the isolaton of cell groups from natural assemblages for molecular analyses, and for taxonomic identification of sorted cells by microscopy. The application of cell sorting from natural water samples from the Wadden Sea, including different cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and diatoms, is shown, as well as the establishment of laboratory cultures from field samples. The optional use of a red laser to account for phycocyanine-rich cells is also discussed.

  17. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  18. Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Simons, K.

    1988-01-01

    Apical and basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cell plasma membranes possess unique lipid compositions. The tight junction, the structure separating the two domains, forms a diffusion barrier for membrane components and thereby prevents intermixing of the two sets of lipids. The barrier appar

  19. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  20. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Nemati, Reza; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was significantly diminished and there were no abnormal foci throughout the skeleton. The bone scintigraphy of the present case of an anaplastic plasma cell tumor suggests the possible presence of amyloidosis.

  1. A microfluidic device to sort capsules by deformability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, L; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Guided by extensive numerical simulations, we propose a microfluidic device that can sort elastic capsules by their deformability. The device consists of a duct embedded with a semi-cylindrical obstacle, and a diffuser which further enhances the sorting capability. We demonstrate that the device can operate reasonably well under changes in the initial position of the the capsule. The efficiency of the device remains essentially unaltered under small changes of the obstacle shape (from semi-circular to semi-elliptic cross-section). Confinement along the direction perpendicular to the plane of the device increases its efficiency. This work is the first numerical study of cell sorting by a realistic microfluidic device.

  2. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  3. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  4. Cholesterol-induced protein sorting: an analysis of energetic feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S; Werge, T;

    2003-01-01

    transmembrane domain (TMD). M. S. Bretscher and S. Munro (SCIENCE: 261:1280-1281, 1993) therefore proposed a physical sorting mechanism based on the hydrophobic match between the proteins' TMD and the bilayer thickness, in which cholesterol would regulate protein sorting by increasing the lipid bilayer...... thickness. In this model, Golgi proteins with short TMDs would be excluded from cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) that are incorporated into transport vesicles destined for the plasma membrane. Although attractive, this model remains unproven. We therefore evaluated the energetic feasibility...... thickness per se, however, have only a modest effect on sorting; the major effect arises because cholesterol changes also the bilayer material properties, which augments the energetic penalty for incorporating short TMDs into cholesterol-enriched domains. We conclude that cholesterol-induced changes...

  5. An improved neutral diffusion model and numerical solution of the two dimensional edge plasma fluid equations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, A.K.

    1998-09-01

    relatively smooth as a consequence of the less localized recycling, leading to an improved convergence rate of the numerical algorithm. Peak plasma density is lower and the temperature correspondingly higher than those predicted by the standard diffusion model. It is believed that the FFCD model is more accurate. With both the TP continuation and multigrid methods, the author has demonstrated the robustness of these two methods. A mutually beneficial hybridization between the TP method and multigrid methods is clearly an alternative for edge plasma simulation. While the fundamental transport model considered in this work has ignored important physics such as drifts and currents, he has nevertheless demonstrated the versatility and robustness of the numerical scheme to handle such new physics. The application of gaseous-radiative divertor model in this work is just a beginning and up to this point numerically, the future is exciting.

  6. Phase sorting wave-particle correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, C. A.; LaBelle, J.; Bounds, S. R.; Dolan, J.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Dombrowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Wave-particle correlations, particularly of Langmuir waves and electrons, have been the subject of significant interest extending back to the 1970s. Often, these correlations have been simply observing modulation of the electrons at the plasma frequency with no phase resolution. The first phase-resolving correlators were developed at UC Berkeley in the late 1980s and reported by Ergun in the early 1990s. A design is presented which further improves on phase resolution in correlations of Langmuir waves and electrons with phase resolution of 22.5°. In this technique, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used to lock onto the wave and subdivide the phase. Electrons are sorted on-the-fly as they arrive into the phase bins. Discussed are details of accurate timing, testing, and calibration of this system as well as results from rocket flights in which statistically significant phase correlations have been observed.

  7. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan

    2011-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...

  8. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  9. Sorting cells by their density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Nazila; Bhakta, Heran C.

    2017-01-01

    Sorting cells by their type is an important capability in biological research and medical diagnostics. However, most cell sorting techniques rely on labels or tags, which may have limited availability and specificity. Sorting different cell types by their different physical properties is an attractive alternative to labels because all cells intrinsically have these physical properties. But some physical properties, like cell size, vary significantly from cell to cell within a cell type; this makes it difficult to identify and sort cells based on their sizes alone. In this work we continuously sort different cells types by their density, a physical property with much lower cell-to-cell variation within a cell type (and therefore greater potential to discriminate different cell types) than other physical properties. We accomplish this using a 3D-printed microfluidic chip containing a horizontal flowing micron-scale density gradient. As cells flow through the chip, Earth’s gravity makes each cell move vertically to the point where the cell’s density matches the surrounding fluid’s density. When the horizontal channel then splits, cells with different densities are routed to different outlets. As a proof of concept, we use our density sorter chip to sort polymer microbeads by their material (polyethylene and polystyrene) and blood cells by their type (white blood cells and red blood cells). The chip enriches the fraction of white blood cells in a blood sample from 0.1% (in whole blood) to nearly 98% (in the output of the chip), a 1000x enrichment. Any researcher with access to a 3D printer can easily replicate our density sorter chip and use it in their own research using the design files provided as online Supporting Information. Additionally, researchers can simulate the performance of a density sorter chip in their own applications using the Python-based simulation software that accompanies this work. The simplicity, resolution, and throughput of this

  10. Maize plasma membrane aquaporin ZmPIP2;5, but not ZmPIP1;2, facilitates transmembrane diffusion of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Heinen, Robert B; Berny, Marie C; Chaumont, François

    2014-01-01

    Plant aquaporins play important roles in transmembrane water transport processes, but some also facilitate the diffusion of other small uncharged solutes ranging from gases to metalloids. Recent evidence suggests that the transmembrane movement of hydrogen peroxide, an intra- and intercellular multifunctional signaling and defense compound, can be regulated by aquaporins. We addressed the question whether maize aquaporins belonging to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily facilitate hydrogen peroxide diffusion using heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We showed that ZmPIP proteins belonging to the PIP1 and PIP2 groups were significantly expressed in yeast cells only after codon optimization of their cDNA. In accordance with previous localization studies in oocytes and plants, ZmPIP1;2 was mainly retained in intracellular membranes, while ZmPIP2;5 was localized to the plasma membrane. However, upon co-expression with ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was re-localized to the plasma membrane. Using a non-functional plasma membrane-localized ZmPIP2;5 mutant to deliver ZmPIP1;2 to the plasma membrane, we demonstrated that, in contrast to wild type ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was not permeable to hydrogen peroxide. Our study further highlighted the fact that, when using the yeast system, which is widely employed to study substrates for plant aquaporins and other transporters, although positive transport assay results allow direct conclusions to be drawn regarding solute permeability, negative results require additional control experiments to show that the protein is expressed and localized correctly before concluding on the lack of transport activity.

  11. Swarm-Based Spatial Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present an algorithm for spatially sorting objects into an annular structure. Design/Methodology/Approach: A swarm-based model that requires only stochastic agent behaviour coupled with a pheromone-inspired "attraction-repulsion" mechanism. Findings: The algorithm consistently generates high-quality annular structures, and is particularly powerful in situations where the initial configuration of objects is similar to those observed in nature. Research limitations/implications: Experimental evidence supports previous theoretical arguments about the nature and mechanism of spatial sorting by insects. Practical implications: The algorithm may find applications in distributed robotics. Originality/value: The model offers a powerful minimal algorithmic framework, and also sheds further light on the nature of attraction-repulsion algorithms and underlying natural processes.

  12. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  13. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  14. Sorting of Sperm by Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, James; Marcos, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have proven that the percentage of morphologically normal sperm is a significant factor in determining the success of assisted reproduction. The velocity of sperm in a microchannel with shear flow subjected to an external field will be explored theoretically. The difference in response between morphologically normal and abnormal sperm will be computed from a statistical approach, to study the feasibility and effectiveness of sorting by an external field to remove abnormal sperm. The full name of this author is Marcos.

  15. Self-sorting molecular clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Wu, Anxin; Fettinger, James C; Zavalij, Peter Y; Isaacs, Lyle

    2008-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 12 C-shaped methylene-bridged glycoluril dimers (1-12) bearing H-bonding groups on their aromatic rings. Compounds 1, 2, (+/-)-4a, (+/-)-5, (+/-)-7, and 8 form tightly associated homodimers in CDCl3, due to the combined driving force of pi-pi and H-bonding interactions. Compounds 2, (+/-)-5, and 8, having disparate spatial distribution of their H-bonding groups, display the ability to efficiently distinguish between self and nonself even within three-component mixtures in CDCl3. When the spatial distributions of the H-bonding groups of the molecular clips are similar (e.g., 1 and 2), a mixture of homodimers and heterodimers is formed. The effect of various structural modifications (e.g., chirality, side chain steric bulk, number and pattern of H-bonds) on the strength of self-assembly and the fidelity of self-sorting are presented. On the basis of these results we prepared self-sorting systems comprising three (e.g., 1, (+/-)-5, and (+/-)-7) and even four ( 2, (+/-)-5, 9, and 10) components. The potential of molecular clips 1-12 as robust, functionalizable, self-sorting modules to control the noncovalent interaction network in systems chemistry studies is described.

  16. Flow cytometry and cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sherrif F; van den Engh, Ger

    2007-01-01

    Flow cytometry and cell sorting are well-established technologies in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Heterogeneous mixtures of cells are placed in suspension and passed single file across one or more laser interrogation points. Light signals emitted from the particles are collected and correlated to entities such as cell morphology, surface and intracellular protein expression, gene expression, and cellular physiology. Based on user-defined parameters, individual cells can then be diverted from the fluid stream and collected into viable, homogeneous fractions at exceptionally high speeds and a purity that approaches 100%. As such, the cell sorter becomes the launching point for numerous downstream studies. Flow cytometry is a cornerstone in clinical diagnostics, and cheaper, more versatile machines are finding their way into widespread and varied uses. In addition, advances in computing and optics have led to a new generation of flow cytometers capable of processing cells at orders of magnitudes faster than their predecessors, and with staggering degrees of complexity, making the cytometer a powerful discovery tool in biotechnology. This chapter will begin with a discussion of basic principles of flow cytometry and cell sorting, including a technical description of factors that contribute to the performance of these instruments. The remaining sections will then be divided into clinical- and research-based applications of flow cytometry and cell sorting, highlighting salient studies that illustrate the versatility of this indispensable technology.

  17. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  18. Effect of Temperature Sensitivity and Plasticizer Diffusive Transport on Performance of Layered Solid Propellants under Electrothermal Plasma Injection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourham, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    .... The plasma jet velocity 2 inches from the source exit was found to be about 1300 m/s. Following characterization of the plasma-flow field, a set of experiments was conducted on JA-2 solid propellant with controlled bed temperature...

  19. Atomic oxygen in a cold argon plasma jet: TALIF spectroscopy in ambient air with modelling and measurements of ambient species diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, S.; Winter, J.; Schmidt-Bleker, A.; Schroeder, D.; Lange, H.; Knake, N.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2012-04-01

    By investigating the atomic oxygen density in its effluent, two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy measurements are for the first time performed in a cold argon/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The measurements are carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. We propose a novel absorption technique in the VUV spectral range, where emission originating from within the discharge is used as light source to determine the inflow of atmospheric oxygen into the effluent. Furthermore, we propose a modelling solution for the on-axis density of inflowing ambient air based on the stationary convection-diffusion equation.

  20. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  1. How does the Shift-insertion sort behave when the sorting elements follow a Normal distribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Mita; Mahanti, N C

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the behavior of Shift-insertion sort (insertion sort with shifting) for normal distribution inputs and is in continuation of our earlier work on this new algorithm for discrete distribution inputs, namely, negative binomial. Shift insertion sort is found more sensitive for main effects but not for all interaction effects compared to conventional insertion sort.

  2. Cholesterol-induced protein sorting: an analysis of energetic feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S; Werge, T

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying the sorting of integral membrane proteins between the Golgi complex and the plasma membrane remain uncertain because no specific Golgi retention signal has been found. Moreover one can alter a protein's eventual localization simply by altering the length of its...... thickness. In this model, Golgi proteins with short TMDs would be excluded from cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) that are incorporated into transport vesicles destined for the plasma membrane. Although attractive, this model remains unproven. We therefore evaluated the energetic feasibility...

  3. Plasma nitriding process by direct current glow discharge at low temperature increasing the thermal diffusivity of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prandel, L. V.; Somer, A.; Assmann, A.; Camelotti, F.; Costa, G.; Bonardi, C.; Jurelo, A. R.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Cruz, G. K. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica e Fotoacustica de Materiais, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, CEP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2013-02-14

    This work reports for the first time on the use of the open photoacoustic cell technique operating at very low frequencies and at room temperature to experimentally determine the thermal diffusivity parameter of commercial AISI304 stainless steel and AISI304 stainless steel nitrided samples. Complementary measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The results show that in standard AISI 304 stainless steel samples the thermal diffusivity is (4.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. After the nitriding process, the thermal diffusivity increases to the value (7.1 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. The results are being associated to the diffusion process of nitrogen into the surface of the sample. Carrying out subsequent thermal treatment at 500 Degree-Sign C, the thermal diffusivity increases up to (12.0 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. Now the observed growing in the thermal diffusivity must be related to the change in the phases contained in the nitrided layer.

  4. Polarized sorting and trafficking in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwang Cao; Michal A Surma; Kai Simons

    2012-01-01

    The polarized distribution of proteins and lipids at the surface membrane of epithelial cells results in the formation of an apical and a basolateral domain,which are separated by tight junctions.The generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity require elaborate mechanisms that guarantee correct sorting and vectorial delivery of cargo molecules.This dynamic process involves the interaction of sorting signals with sorting machineries and the formation of transport carriers.Here we review the recent advances in the field of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.We especially highlight the role of lipid rafts in apical sorting.

  5. Dynamics of the electron thermal diffusivity at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprienko, D. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Lashkul, S. I.; Esipov, L. A.

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of electron heat transport at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak was studied experimentally. Evolution of the profiles of the electron temperature and density was thoroughly investigated under conditions of fast variation in the plasma parameters. The energy balance in the electron channel is calculated with the help of the ASTRA code by using the measured plasma parameters. Correlation is revealed between the dynamics of electron heat transport and the behavior of small-scale drift turbulence measured using the enhanced scattering correlation diagnostics. The suppression of heat transfer and turbulence agrees well with the increase in the shear of poloidal plasma rotation calculated from experimental data in the neoclassical approximation.

  6. Sorting and Selection in Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Mossel, Elchanan; Riesenfeld, Samantha; Verbin, Elad

    2007-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study a more general setting, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is relevant in applications related to rankings in sports, college admissions, or conference submissions. It also has potential applications in biology, such as comparing the evolutionary fitness of different strains of bacteria, or understanding input-output relations among a set of metabolic reactions or the causal influences among a set of interacting genes or proteins. Our results improve and extend results from two decades ago of Faigle and Tur\\'{a}n. A measure of complexity of a partially ordered set (poset) is its width. Our algorithms obtain information about a poset by queries that compare two elements. We present an algorithm that sorts, i.e. completely identifies, a width w poset of size n and has query complexity O(wn + nlog(n)), which is within a constant factor of the in...

  7. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractTim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting alg

  8. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, C.P.T. de; Boer, F.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Tim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting algorithm in Ja

  9. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractTim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting

  10. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Plasma-wall interactions data compendium-2. ''Hydrogen retention property, diffusion and recombination coefficients database for selected plasma-facing materials''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhiro, Kenjirou [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Hirooka, Yoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamamura, Yasunori [Okayama Univ. of Scinece, Okayama (Japan); Morita, Kenji [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report will present additional data to those included in the previous report of this series. These new data are on the hydrogen (deuterium) trapping properties of graphite materials. The units on the data on hydrogen (deuterium) diffusion and surface recombination coefficients have been updated to adopt the SI unit system. Also, the graphic representations of previously compiled data on hydrogen (deuterium) retention have been improved for better understanding. For the sake of completeness, this report will present all these data in the improved format. (author)

  12. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  13. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  14. Computational modeling reveals that a combination of chemotaxis and differential adhesion leads to robust cell sorting during tissue patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhen Tan

    Full Text Available Robust tissue patterning is crucial to many processes during development. The "French Flag" model of patterning, whereby naïve cells in a gradient of diffusible morphogen signal adopt different fates due to exposure to different amounts of morphogen concentration, has been the most widely proposed model for tissue patterning. However, recently, using time-lapse experiments, cell sorting has been found to be an alternative model for tissue patterning in the zebrafish neural tube. But it remains unclear what the sorting mechanism is. In this article, we used computational modeling to show that two mechanisms, chemotaxis and differential adhesion, are needed for robust cell sorting. We assessed the performance of each of the two mechanisms by quantifying the fraction of correct sorting, the fraction of stable clusters formed after correct sorting, the time needed to achieve correct sorting, and the size variations of the cells having different fates. We found that chemotaxis and differential adhesion confer different advantages to the sorting process. Chemotaxis leads to high fraction of correct sorting as individual cells will either migrate towards or away from the source depending on its cell type. However after the cells have sorted correctly, there is no interaction among cells of the same type to stabilize the sorted boundaries, leading to cell clusters that are unstable. On the other hand, differential adhesion results in low fraction of correct clusters that are more stable. In the absence of morphogen gradient noise, a combination of both chemotaxis and differential adhesion yields cell sorting that is both accurate and robust. However, in the presence of gradient noise, the simple combination of chemotaxis and differential adhesion is insufficient for cell sorting; instead, chemotaxis coupled with delayed differential adhesion is required to yield optimal sorting.

  15. MMS observations of plasma wave and electron energization in the electron diffusion region of asymmetric reconnection with strong guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chijie; Zhao, Siqi; Shi, Mijie; Pu, Zuyin; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-10-01

    Here we report an asymmetric reconnection event with strong guide field observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) on the dayside magnetopause. In this event there are multiple wave modes, such as electron Alfvenic mode, broadband waves between the lower-hybrid and electron cyclotron frequencies, exist in the vicinity of the electron diffusion region and the separatrix. And the electron velocity distribution functions show that bi-stream electrons with low energy (processes are investigated and comparison with some 3D numerical simulation results. This work was supported by NSFC (Grants 41274168 and 11375053).

  16. Recent advances in flow cytometric cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Geoffrey W

    2011-01-01

    The classification and separation of one cell type or particle from others is a fundamental task in many areas of science. Numerous techniques are available to perform this task; however, electrostatic cell sorting has gained eminence over others because, when combined with the analysis capabilities of flow cytometry it provides flexible separations based on multiple parameters. Unlike competing technologies, such as gradient or magnetic separations that offer much larger total throughput, flow cytometric cell sorting permits selections based on various levels of fluorescent reporters, rather the complete presence or absence of the reporter. As such, this technology has found application in a huge range of fields. This chapter aims to describe the utility of single-cell sorting with particular emphasis given to index sorting. This is followed by two recently developed novel techniques of sorting cells or particles. The first of these is positional sorting which is useful in cell-based studies where sorting can proceed and produce meaningful results without being inherently dependant on prior knowledge of where gates should be set. Secondly, reflective plate sorting is introduced which positionally links multiwell sample and collection plates in a convenient assay format so that cells in the collection plate "reflect" those in the sample plate.

  17. Uncoupling the functions of CALM in VAMP sorting and clathrin-coated pit formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Sahlender

    Full Text Available CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein is a cargo-selective adaptor for the post-Golgi R-SNAREs VAMPs 2, 3, and 8, and it also regulates the size of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. The present study has two objectives: to determine whether CALM can sort additional VAMPs, and to investigate whether VAMP sorting contributes to CALM-dependent vesicle size regulation. Using a flow cytometry-based endocytosis efficiency assay, we demonstrate that CALM is also able to sort VAMPs 4 and 7, even though they have sorting signals for other clathrin adaptors. CALM homologues are present in nearly every eukaryote, suggesting that the CALM family may have evolved as adaptors for retrieving all post-Golgi VAMPs from the plasma membrane. Using a knockdown/rescue system, we show that wild-type CALM restores normal VAMP sorting in CALM-depleted cells, but that two non-VAMP-binding mutants do not. However, when we assayed the effect of CALM depletion on coated pit morphology, using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay, we found that the two mutants were as effective as wild-type CALM. Thus, we can uncouple the sorting function of CALM from its structural role.

  18. Uncoupling the functions of CALM in VAMP sorting and clathrin-coated pit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlender, Daniela A; Kozik, Patrycja; Miller, Sharon E; Peden, Andrew A; Robinson, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein) is a cargo-selective adaptor for the post-Golgi R-SNAREs VAMPs 2, 3, and 8, and it also regulates the size of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. The present study has two objectives: to determine whether CALM can sort additional VAMPs, and to investigate whether VAMP sorting contributes to CALM-dependent vesicle size regulation. Using a flow cytometry-based endocytosis efficiency assay, we demonstrate that CALM is also able to sort VAMPs 4 and 7, even though they have sorting signals for other clathrin adaptors. CALM homologues are present in nearly every eukaryote, suggesting that the CALM family may have evolved as adaptors for retrieving all post-Golgi VAMPs from the plasma membrane. Using a knockdown/rescue system, we show that wild-type CALM restores normal VAMP sorting in CALM-depleted cells, but that two non-VAMP-binding mutants do not. However, when we assayed the effect of CALM depletion on coated pit morphology, using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay, we found that the two mutants were as effective as wild-type CALM. Thus, we can uncouple the sorting function of CALM from its structural role.

  19. Data parallel sorting for particle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.

  20. Scalable, Multithreaded, Partially-in-Place Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglin, David J.; Adolf, Robert D.; Mackey, Greg E.

    2013-05-20

    A recent trend in hardware development is producing computing systems that are stretching the number of cores and size of shared-memory beyond where most fundamental serial algorithms perform well. The expectation is that this trend will continue. So it makes sense to rethink our fundamental algorithms such as sorting. There are many situations where data that needs to be sorted will actually fit into the shared memory so applications could benefit from an efficient parallel sorting algorithm. When sorting large data (at least hundreds of Gigabytes) in a single shared memory, there are two factors that affect the algorithm choice. First, does the algorithm sort in-place? And second, does the algorithm scale well beyond tens of threads? Surprisingly, existing algorithms posses either one of these factors, but not both. We present an approach that gracefully degrades in performance as the amount of available working memory decreases relative to the size of the input.

  1. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  2. Sorting carbon nanotubes for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Richard

    2008-11-25

    Because of their unique structure and composition, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are at the interface between molecules and crystalline solids. They also present properties that are ideal for making lightweight, inexpensive, and flexible electronics. The raw material is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of SWNTs that differ in helicity and diameter and, therefore, requires purification and separation. In a series of groundbreaking experiments, a robust process serving this purpose was developed based on SWNTs encapsulated in surfactants and water. Ultracentrifugation in a density gradient combined with surfactant mixtures provided buoyant density differences, enabling enrichment for both diameter and electronic properties. A new paper in this issue explores further the process through the hydrodynamic properties of SWNT-surfactant complexes. The study reveals that we have just begun to uncover the dynamics and properties of nanotube-surfactant interactions and highlights the potential that could be gained from a better understanding of their chemistry. The time scale of integration of carbon nanotubes into electronics applications remains unclear, but the recent developments in sorting out SWNTs paves the way for improving on the properties of network-based SWNTs.

  3. Partial plasma cell differentiation as a mechanism of lost major histocompatibility complex class II expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sarah T; Vanpatten, Kristie A; Fernandez, Diane R; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Garsha, Karl E; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty J; Grogan, Thomas M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Rimsza, Lisa M

    2012-02-09

    Loss of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression is associated with poor patient outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). As MHC II molecules are lost with plasmacytic differentiation in normal cells, we asked whether MHC II loss in DLBCL is associated with an altered differentiation state. We used gene expression profiling, quantum dots, and immunohistochemistry to study the relationship between MHC II and plasma cell markers in DLBCL and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Results demonstrate that MHC II(-) DLBCL immunophenotypically overlap with PBL and demonstrate an inverse correlation between MHC II and plasma cell markers MUM1, PRDM1/Blimp1, and XBP1s. In addition, MHC II expression is significantly higher in germinal center-DLBCL than activated B cell-DLBCL. A minor subset of cases with an unusual pattern of mislocalized punctate MHC II staining and intermediate levels of mRNA is also described. Finally, we show that PBL is negative for MHC II. The results imply a spectrum of MHC II expression that is more frequently diminished in tumors derived from B cells at the later stages of differentiation (with complete loss in PBL). Our observations provide a possible unifying concept that may contribute to the poor outcome reported in all MHC II(-) B-cell tumors.

  4. Analysis of intermediate pressure SiH4/He capacitively coupled plasma for deposition of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon film in consideration of thermal diffusion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2017-08-01

    To achieve rapid, uniform deposition of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) film, a capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is often used at an intermediate pressure (>100 Pa), with a silane (SiH4)-based mixture. At these pressures, heavy particle interactions (such as ion-ion, ion-neutral, and neutral-neutral reactions) contribute significantly to the formation of precursor radicals. By adding a consideration of the thermal diffusion effects to the neutral transport equation, the chemical processes have been numerically analyzed with variation in the number fraction of SiH4 and electrode spacing using a two-dimensional fluid model of radio frequency discharges in a cylindrically symmetric CCP reactor. The non-uniformity of the deposition rate profiles increases consistently as electrode spacing increases, although the non-uniformity of the plasma parameters decreases with the increase of electrode spacing. The simulated deposition rate profiles match well with the experimental data for the change of electrode spacing. Based on the validation of our model, we propose predictive designs to potentially improve the reactor and process by modifying the thermal and electrical surface conditions.

  5. Plasma Motions and Turbulent Magnetic Diffusivity of Active Region AR 12158 Using a Minimum Energy Functional and Non-Force-Free Reconstructions of Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Benoit; Vincent, Alain

    2017-01-01

    We present a generalization of the resistive minimum-energy fit (MEF-R: Tremblay and Vincent, Solar Phys. 290, 437, 2015) for non-force-free (NFF) magnetic fields. In MEF-R, an extremum principle is used to infer two-dimensional maps of plasma motions [boldsymbol{v}(x,y)] and magnetic eddy diffusivity [η _{eddy}(x,y)] at the photosphere. These reconstructions could be used as boundary conditions in data-driven simulations or in data assimilation. The algorithm is validated using the analytical model of a resistive expanding spheromak by Rakowski, Laming, and Lyutikov ( Astrophys. J. 730, 30, 2011). We study the flaring Active Region AR 12158 using a series of magnetograms and Dopplergrams provided by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The results are discussed for a non-force-free magnetic-field reconstruction [boldsymbol{B}_{NFF}] (Hu and Dasgupta in Solar Phys. 247, 87, 2008). We found that the vertical plasma velocities [vz(x,y)] inferred using MEF-R are very similar to the observed Doppler velocities [vr(x,y)]. Finally, we study the potential spatial correlation between microturbulent velocities and significant values of η_{eddy}(x,y).

  6. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insertion sort are presented. Bi-directional Selection Sort and MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort are the enhancement on basic selection sort while Bidirectional bubble sort and MIDBidirectional bubble sort are the enhancement on basic bubble sort by changing the selection and swapping mechanism of data for sorting. Enhanced sorting algorithms reduced the iteration by half and quarter times respectively. Asymptotically complexities of these algorithms are reduced to O (n2/2 and O (n2/4 from O (n2. Linear insertion sort is the enhancement of insertion sort by changing the design of algorithm (convert two loops to one loop. So asymptotically this algorithm is converted to linear time complexity from quadratic complexity. These sorting algorithms are described using C. The proposed algorithms are analyzed using asymptotic analysis and also using machine-running time and compared with their basic sorting algorithms. In this study we also discuss how the performance and complexity can be improved by optimizing the code and design.

  7. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  8. Parallel velocity diffusion and slowing-down rate from long-range collisions in a magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    This paper derives an expression for the rate of collisional slowing of charges in a magnetized plasma for which r{sub c} < λ{sub D}, where r{sub c} is the mean thermal cyclotron radius and λ{sub D} is the Debye length. The rate depends on a new fundamental length scale d that separates collisions into two impact parameter ranges that yield different slowing rates: a Boltzmann rate due to isolated binary collisions for impact parameters ρ < d and a Fokker-Planck rate due to multiple small scatterings for ρ > d. Slowing due to Boltzmann collisions is also shown to depend on the sign of the Coulomb interaction: for repulsive interactions, the slowing is enhanced by “collisional caging,” while for attractive interactions the Boltzmann slowing rate is zero.

  9. A modeling approach for heat conduction and radiation diffusion in plasma-photon mixture in temperature nonequilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    We present a simple approach for determining ion, electron, and radiation temperatures of heterogeneous plasma-photon mixtures, in which temperatures depend on both material type and morphology of the mixture. The solution technique is composed of solving ion, electron, and radiation energy equations for both mixed and pure phases of each material in zones containing random mixture and solving pure material energy equations in subdivided zones using interface reconstruction. Application of interface reconstruction is determined by the material configuration in the surrounding zones. In subdivided zones, subzonal inter-material energy exchanges are calculated by heat fluxes across the material interfaces. Inter-material energy exchange in zones with random mixtures is modeled using the length scale and contact surface area models. In those zones, inter-zonal heat flux in each material is determined using the volume fractions.

  10. An improved infrared technique for sorting pecans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeve, Thorsten; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Lamonica, John A., Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of pecan spectral reflectances. It describes an experiment for measuring the contrast between several components of raw pecan product to be sorted. An analysis of the experimental data reveals high contrast ratios in the infrared spectrum, suggesting a potential improvement in sorting efficiency when separating pecan meat from shells. It is believed that this technique has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of current sorting machinery, and to reduce the cost of processing pecans for the consumer market.

  11. Minimal Model Semantics for Sorted Constraint Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 史忠植

    1995-01-01

    Sorted constraint representation is a very useful representation in AI which combines class hierarchies and constraint networks.For such sorted constraint representation,a problem is how to generalize the idea of default inheritance to constraint network,where the attributes in a class or between different classes interact with each other via the network.To give a formal account for the defeasible reasoning in such representation,a general sorted constraint logic is proposed,and a minimal-model semantics for the logic is presented.

  12. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...... for comparison-based sorting, as well as with recent cache-aware proposals. The main result is a carefully implemented cache-oblivious sorting algorithm, which our experiments show can be faster than the best Quicksort implementation we are able to find, already for input sizes well within the limits of RAM....... It is also at least as fast as the recent cache-aware implementations included in the test. On disk the difference is even more pronounced regarding Quicksort and the cache-aware algorithms, whereas the algorithm is slower than a careful implementation of multiway Mergesort such as TPIE....

  13. Filter-less submicron hydrodynamic size sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouet, M; Mader, M-A; Iraïn, S; Yanha, Z; Naillon, A; Cargou, S; Gué, A-M; Joseph, P

    2016-02-21

    We propose a simple microfluidic device able to separate submicron particles (critical size ∼0.1 μm) from a complex sample with no filter (minimum channel dimension being 5 μm) by hydrodynamic filtration. A model taking into account the actual velocity profile and hydrodynamic resistances enables prediction of the chip sorting properties for any geometry. Two design families are studied to obtain (i) small sizes within minutes (low-aspect ratio, two-level chip) and (ii) micron-sized sorting with a μL flow rate (3D architecture based on lamination). We obtain quantitative agreement of sorting performances both with experiments and with numerical solving, and determine the limits of the approach. We therefore demonstrate a passive, filter-less sub-micron size sorting with a simple, robust, and easy to fabricate design.

  14. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, H; Hansson, G-Å; Dahlqvist, C; Eklund, J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity.

  15. Efficient sorting of Bessel beams [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to efficiently sort orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, by performing a Cartesian to log-polar coordinate transformation which translates helically phased beams into a transverse phase gradient, currently exists1. We...

  16. Quantum Database Search can do without Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, A

    2001-01-01

    Sorting is a fundamental computational process, which facilitates subsequent searching of a database. It can be thought of as factorisation of the search process. The location of a desired item in a sorted database can be found by classical queries that inspect one letter of the label at a time. For an unsorted database, no such classical quick search algorithm is available. If the database permits quantum queries, however, then mere digitisation is sufficient for efficient search. Sorting becomes redundant with the quantum superposition of states. A quantum algorithm is written down which locates the desired item in an unsorted database a factor of two faster than the best classical algorithm can in a sorted database. This algorithm has close resemblance to the assembly process in DNA replication.

  17. Card Sorts, State Tests, and Meaningful Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvot, Jennifer B.; Benson, Sharon L. D.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares card-sorting activities that involve state-mandated test items to use with prospective and practicing mathematics teachers to teach about accountability measures while exploring reform-minded mathematics instruction recommendations. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  19. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  20. THE DIAGNOSTIC O VI ABSORPTION LINE IN DIFFUSE PLASMAS: COMPARISON OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS TO FUSE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho 59, 7000 Evora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-20

    The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} cm{sup -3}. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (10{sup 3.9} K < T {<=} 10{sup 4.2} K; 20%) and unstable (10{sup 4.2} K < T < 10{sup 5} K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

  1. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubito Nakatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  2. Laser ablation cell sorting in scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feimo; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2001-05-01

    Flow cytometry has been an important tool for automated cells sorting. However, the lack of good sensitivity prevents it from being used for rare events sorting; furthermore, fragile cells, anchorage-dependent cells, and clump forming cells cannot be sorted this way. A fully automated, high-speed scanning cytometer with autofocus and image segmentation is capable of accurately locating contaminant cells in a monolayer cell population. A laser ablation system was incorporated into the cytometer to negatively sort out the unwanted cells by applying a focused, ultra-short laser pulse (sub-micron diameter, pulse duration = 4 nsec, wavelength - 500 nm) to each targeted cell. Due to the high power density (approximately 1010 W/cm2) that was present at the focal point, disruptive mechanical forces were generated and were responsible for the kill. Fluorescently stained NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were used as a model contaminant target ells in an unstained NIH-3T3 population to determine the identification-kill effectiveness. The contaminant cells were stained with the fluorochrome CellTracker Blue CMAC, whereas the background cells were left intact. Ablation pulses were applied in frame-by-frame increment batches to the cell culture on the microscope. The negative sorting effectiveness was analyzed by automatically re-scanning the post-ablation cell culture in phase contrast and propidium iodide stained epi fluorescent fields to verify cell death.

  3. Flow karyotyping and sorting of human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Peters, D.; Pinkel, D.; Trask, B.; van den Engh, G.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1986-07-16

    Flow cytometry and sorting are becoming increasingly useful as tools for chromosome classfication and for the detection of numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Chromosomes of a single type can be purified with these tools to facilitate gene mapping or production of chromosome specific recombinant DNA libraries. For analysis of chromosomes with flow cytometry, the chromosomes are extracted from mitotic cells, stained with one or more fluorescent dyes and classified one-by-one according to their dye content(s). Thus, the flow approach is fundamentally different than conventional karyotyping where chromosomes are classified within the context of a metaphase spread. Flow sorting allows purification of chromosomes that can be distinguished flow cytometrically. The authors describe the basic principles of flow cytometric chromosome classification i.e. flow karyotyping, and chromosome sorting and describe several applications. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Applications of cell sorting in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to its unique capability to analyze a large number of single cells for several parameters simultaneously, flow cytometry has changed our understanding of the behavior of cells in culture and of the population dynamics even of clonal populations. The potential of this method for biotechnological research, which is based on populations of living cells, was soon appreciated. Sorting applications, however, are still less frequent than one would expect with regard to their potential. This review highlights important contributions where flow cytometric cell sorting was used for physiological research, protein engineering, cell engineering, specifically emphasizing selection of overproducing cell lines. Finally conclusions are drawn concerning the impact of cell sorting on inverse metabolic engineering and systems biology.

  5. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    techniques. Scattering forces from beams actuated via efficient phase-only efficient modulation has been adopted. This has lowered the required power for sorting cells to a tenth of our previous approach, and also makes the cell sorter safer for use in clinical settings. With the versatility of dynamically...... programmable phase spatial light modulators, a plurality of light shaping techniques, including hybrid approaches, can be utilized in cell sorting....... healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...

  6. Order-Sorted Parameterization and Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, José

    Parameterization is one of the most powerful features to make specifications and declarative programs modular and reusable, and our best hope for scaling up formal verification efforts. This paper studies order-sorted parameterization at three different levels: (i) its mathematical semantics; (ii) its operational semantics by term rewriting; and (iii) the inductive reasoning principles that can soundly be used to prove properties about such specifications. It shows that achieving the desired properties at each of these three levels is a considerably subtler matter than for many-sorted specifications, but that such properties can be attained under reasonable conditions.

  7. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  8. Micro and nanofluidic structures for cell sorting and genomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Keith J.

    Microfluidic systems promise rapid analysis of small samples in a compact and inexpensive format. But direct scaling of lab bench protocols on-chip is challenging because laminar flows in typical microfluidic devices are characterized by non-mixing streamlines. Common microfluidic mixers and sorters work by diffusion, limiting application to objects that diffuse slowly such as cells and DNA. Recently Huang et.al. developed a passive microfluidic element to continuously separate bio-particles deterministically. In Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD), objects are sorted by size as they transit an asymmetric array of microfabricated posts. This thesis further develops DLD arrays with applications in three broad new areas. First the arrays are used, not simply to sort particles, but to move streams of cells through functional flows for chemical treatment---such as on-chip immunofluorescent labeling of blood cells with washing, and on-chip E.coli cell lysis with simultaneous chromosome extraction. Secondly, modular tiling of the basic DLD element is used to construct complex particle handling modes that include beam steering for jets of cells and beads. Thirdly, nanostructured DLD arrays are built using Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) and continuous-flow separation of 100 nm and 200 nm size particles is demonstrated. Finally a number of ancillary nanofabrication techniques were developed in support of these overall goals, including methods to interface nanofluidic structures with standard microfluidic components such as inlet channels and reservoirs, precision etching of ultra-high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon nanostructures, and fabrication of narrow (˜ 35 nm) channels used to stretch genomic length DNA.

  9. An investigation of the effect of membrane curvature on transmembrane-domain dependent protein sorting in lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Matteo; Goud, Bruno; Borgese, Nica; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins within the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells is a complex process involving discrete sorting signals as well as physico-chemical properties of the transmembrane domain (TMD). Previous work demonstrated that tail-anchored (TA) protein sorting at the interface between the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is exquisitely dependent on the length and hydrophobicity of the transmembrane domain, and suggested that an imbalance between TMD length and bilayer thickness (hydrophobic mismatch) could drive long TMD-containing proteins into curved membrane domains, including ER exit sites, with consequent export of the mismatched protein out of the ER. Here, we tested a possible role of curvature in TMD-dependent sorting in a model system consisting of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) from which narrow membrane tubes were pulled by micromanipulation. Fluorescent TA proteins differing in TMD length were incorporated into GUVs of uniform lipid composition or made of total ER lipids, and TMD-dependent sorting and diffusion, as well as the bending rigidity of bilayers made of microsomal lipids, were investigated. Long and short TMD-containing constructs were inserted with similar orientation, diffused equally rapidly in GUVs and in tubes pulled from GUVs, and no difference in their final distribution between planar and curved regions was detected. These results indicate that curvature alone is not sufficient to drive TMD-dependent sorting at the ER-Golgi interface, and set the basis for the investigation of the additional factors that must be required. PMID:25210649

  10. Analysis of polyacrylamide gels for trace metals using diffusive gradients in thin films and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Kent W; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2004-10-15

    A simple method for the analysis of polyacrylamide diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), employing a novel use of (115)In internal standardization, has been developed. This method allows the determination of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations (at the DGT filter face) or fluxes in sediments at a spatial resolution of 100 microm. Single-layered gels, using an optimized laser defocus of 4000 microm at 400 mJ power, showed high precision (generally approximately 10%) and a linear response during solution deployment. Of the elements Sc, In, Ba, La, Ce, and Tb, Ba most closely tracked variations in laser energy and showed the highest analytical precision but could not be used as an internal standard due to its elevated presence in natural sediments. Therefore, internal standardization, necessary to normalize data collected on different days, was carried out using (115)In contained within a second layer of backing gel and dried along with the analyte layer as a dual-gel disk. This multilayered gel standard required a laser defocus setting of 1000 microm and a laser power of approximately 800 mJ. Analytical precision for a 64-spot ablation grid at 100-microm spacing was approximately 10%. Verification of this method was carried out on DGT sediment probes deployed in Priest Pot (English Lake District). Results obtained by conventional slicing techniques and aqueous elution agreed with laser ablation results when the different sampling areas were considered. The elution results varied by a factor of laser ablation technique showed a variability of approximately 4, indicating localized elevated concentrations of Co. This higher resolution LA-ICPMS method could ultimately lead to an improved understanding of the geochemical processes responsible for metal uptake and release in sediments.

  11. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...

  12. Economics of Grading and Sorting Pallet Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; John A. McLeod; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Before trying to develop an automated inspection system for pallet part grading we analyzed the economics of such a system. Our results suggest that higher quality pallets produced by grading and sorting pallet parts would be attractive to both manufacturers and their customers, who would have to pay increased prices for higher quality pallets. Reductions in cost-per-...

  13. Matlab Code for Sorted Real Schur Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In Matlab, there exists a standard command to generate a real Schur form, and another command transforms a real Schur form into a complex one. In Golub and Van Loan (1996), a Matlab-like routine is sketched that sorts a complex Schur form: given a target value ? in the complex plane, the diagonal el

  14. Wavelet adaptation for automatic voice disorders sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Almasganj, Farshad

    2013-07-01

    Early diagnosis of voice disorders and abnormalities by means of digital speech processing is a subject of interest for many researchers. Various methods are introduced in the literature, some of which are able to extensively discriminate pathological voices from normal ones. Voice disorders sorting, on the other hand, has received less attention due to the complexity of the problem. Although, previous publications show satisfactory results in classifying one type of disordered voice from normal cases, or two different types of abnormalities from each other, no comprehensive approach for automatic sorting of vocal abnormalities has been offered yet. In this paper, a solution for this problem is suggested. We create a powerful wavelet feature extraction approach, in which, instead of standard wavelets, adaptive wavelets are generated and applied to the voice signals. Orthogonal wavelets are parameterized via lattice structure and then, the optimal parameters are investigated through an iterative process, using the genetic algorithm (GA). GA is guided by the classifier results. Based on the generated wavelet, a wavelet-filterbank is constructed and the voice signals are decomposed to compute eight energy-based features. A support vector machine (SVM) then classifies the signals using the extracted features. Experimental results show that six various types of vocal disorders: paralysis, nodules, polyps, edema, spasmodic dysphonia and keratosis are fully sorted via the proposed method. This could be a successful step toward sorting a larger number of abnormalities associated with the vocal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  16. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  17. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  18. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  19. Irregular dunes, sediment sorting, and river morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Weerts, H.J.T.; Ritsema, I.L; van Os, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research project focuses on modelling the large-scale morphodynamics of low-slope rivers dominated by mixed sediment, such as the Dutch part of the Rhine River. Usually we simply neglect the effects of sorting and variability in dune dimensions on the large-scale morphodynamics. This paper

  20. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology.

  1. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  2. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide...... of proteinase A. We found that sorting of such a hybrid protein is dependent on the vacuolar protein-sorting receptor Vps10p. This was unexpected, as strains disrupted for VPS10 sort more than 85% of the proteinase A to the vacuole. Consistent with a role for Vps10p in sorting of proteinase A, we found that 1...

  3. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Stephens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  4. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  5. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  6. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    In contemporary life science there is an increasing emphasis on sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of optofluidic lab-on-chip devices. Our approach to this is based on the use of optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by advanc...... the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...

  7. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  8. Efficient sorting using registers and caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickremesinghe, Rajiv; Arge, Lars Allan; Chase, Jeffrey S.;

    2002-01-01

    Modern computer systems have increasingly complex memory systems. Common machine models for algorithm analysis do not reflect many of the features of these systems, e.g., large register sets, lockup-free caches, cache hierarchies, associativity, cache line fetching, and streaming behavior...... on sorting performance. We introduce a new cache-conscious sorting algorithm, R-MERGE, which achieves better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the theoretical models. R-MERGE is designed to minimize memory stall cycles rather than cache misses by considering features common to many....... Inadequate models lead to poor algorithmic choices and an incomplete understanding of algorithm behavior on real machines.A key step toward developing better models is to quantify the performance effects of features not reflected in the models. This paper explores the effect of memory system features...

  9. Sorting Network for Reversible Logic Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; karim, Muhammad Rezaul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced an algorithm to implement a sorting network for reversible logic synthesis based on swapping bit strings. The algorithm first constructs a network in terms of n*n Toffoli gates read from left to right. The number of gates in the circuit produced by our algorithm is then reduced by template matching and removing useless gates from the network. We have also compared the efficiency of the proposed method with the existing ones.

  10. Evaluating Effects of Cell Sorting on Cellular Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    During the past year the Flow Cytometry Research Group has continued on its goal to establish best practice guidelines for cell sorting conditions that minimize cell stress, perturbation, or injury to the sorted cells. Towards this goal the group has followed up on an observation from our initial study that showed poor cell recovery when a clonal population of cells (Jurkat) was sorted aggressively under intentionally adverse sorting conditions (excessive pressure as well as undersized sortin...

  11. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons.

  12. Chromosome analysis and sorting using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Cíhalíková, Jarmila; Suchánková, Pavla; Simková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome analysis and sorting using flow cytometry (flow cytogenetics) is an attractive tool for fractionating plant genomes to small parts. The reduction of complexity greatly simplifies genetics and genomics in plant species with large genomes. However, as flow cytometry requires liquid suspensions of particles, the lack of suitable protocols for preparation of solutions of intact chromosomes delayed the application of flow cytogenetics in plants. This chapter outlines a high-yielding procedure for preparation of solutions of intact mitotic chromosomes from root tips of young seedlings and for their analysis using flow cytometry and sorting. Root tips accumulated at metaphase are mildly fixed with formaldehyde, and solutions of intact chromosomes are prepared by mechanical homogenization. The advantages of the present approach include the use of seedlings, which are easy to handle, and the karyological stability of root meristems, which can be induced to high degree of metaphase synchrony. Chromosomes isolated according to this protocol have well-preserved morphology, withstand shearing forces during sorting, and their DNA is intact and suitable for a range of applications.

  13. Generalized sorting profile of alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly Litwin; Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    Alluvial rivers often exhibit self-similar gravel size distributions and abrupt gravel-sand transitions. Experiments suggest that these sorting patterns are established rapidly, but how—and how fast—this convergence occurs in the field is unknown. We examine the establishment of downstream sorting patterns in a kilometer-scale alluvial fan. The sharp transition from canyon to unconfined, channelized fan provides a well-defined boundary condition. The channel changes from deep and entrenched at the fan apex to shallow and depositional over a short distance, exhibiting nonequilibrium behavior. The resulting gravel-fining profile is not self-similar; the particle size distribution narrows until approximate equal mobility is achieved. Downfan, the gravel-sand transition appears to exhibit a self-similar form; field and laboratory data collapse when downstream distance is normalized by the location of the transition. Results suggest a generalized sorting profile for alluvial fans as a consequence of the threshold of motion and nonequilibrium channels.

  14. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  15. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  16. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  17. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  18. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol ...... for the GenericSort algorithm by Estivill-Castro and Wood. From both algorithms we derive I/O-optimal cache-aware and cache-oblivious adaptive sorting algorithms. These are the first I/O-optimal adaptive sorting algorithms....

  19. Stochastic Models of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intra-cellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values leads to fast sorting, but results in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well defined sorted compartments but is exponentially slow. Our results suggests an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components, and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organizati...

  20. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  1. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  2. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  3. Human-powered Sorts and Joins

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Adam; Karger, David; Madden, Samuel; Miller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Crowdsourcing markets like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) make it possible to task people with small jobs, such as labeling images or looking up phone numbers, via a programmatic interface. MTurk tasks for processing datasets with humans are currently designed with significant reimplementation of common workflows and ad-hoc selection of parameters such as price to pay per task. We describe how we have integrated crowds into a declarative workflow engine called Qurk to reduce the burden on workflow designers. In this paper, we focus on how to use humans to compare items for sorting and joining data, two of the most common operations in DBMSs. We describe our basic query interface and the user interface of the tasks we post to MTurk. We also propose a number of optimizations, including task batching, replacing pairwise comparisons with numerical ratings, and pre-filtering tables before joining them, which dramatically reduce the overall cost of running sorts and joins on the crowd. In an experiment joining tw...

  4. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  5. Quantum bounds for ordered searching and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P; Shi, Y; Hoyer, Peter; Neerbek, Jan; Shi, Yaoyun

    2001-01-01

    We consider the quantum complexities of searching an ordered list and sorting an un-ordered list. For searching an ordered list of N elements, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{1}{\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of oracle queries that access the list elements. This improves the previously best lower bound of ({1/12}\\log_2(N) - O(1)) due to Ambainis. For sorting N numbers, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{N}{2\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of binary comparisons. The previously best lower bound is \\Omega(N). Our proofs are based on a weighted all-pairs inner product argument, and our results generalize to bounded error quantum algorithms. Both results are proven in the so-called quantum black box model, a quantum analogue of classical decision trees. In addition to our lower bound results, we give an exact quantum algorithm for ordered searching using (\\log_3(N) + O(1)) queries, which is roughly 0.631 \\log_2(N). Although our algorithm is worse than that of Farhi, Goldstone, Gutmann and Sipser, which makes 0.526 \\log_2(...

  6. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  7. Corner Sort for Pareto-Based Many-Objective Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Handing; Yao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Nondominated sorting plays an important role in Pareto-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). When faced with many-objective optimization problems multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) with more than three objectives, the number of comparisons needed in nondominated sorting becomes very large. In view of this, a new corner sort is proposed in this paper. Corner sort first adopts a fast and simple method to obtain a nondominated solution from the corner solutions, and then uses the nondominated solution to ignore the solutions dominated by it to save comparisons. Obtaining the nondominated solutions requires much fewer objective comparisons in corner sort. In order to evaluate its performance, several state-of-the-art nondominated sorts are compared with our corner sort on three kinds of artificial solution sets of MOPs and the solution sets generated from MOEAs on benchmark problems. On one hand, the experiments on artificial solution sets show the performance on the solution sets with different distributions. On the other hand, the experiments on the solution sets generated from MOEAs show the influence that different sorts bring to MOEAs. The results show that corner sort performs well, especially on many-objective optimization problems. Corner sort uses fewer comparisons than others.

  8. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers: a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  9. Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  10. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  11. Investigation of diffusion kinetics of plasma paste borided AISI 8620 steel using a mixture of B2O3 paste and B4C/SiC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Gunes; Sukru Taktak; Cuma Bindal; Yilmaz Yalcin; Sukru Ulker; Yusuf Kayali

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, AISI 8620 steel was plasma paste borided by using various B2O3 paste mixture. The plasma paste boriding process was carried out in a dc plasma system at temperatures of 973, 1023 and 1073 K for 2, 5 and 7 h in a gas mixture of 70% H2 -30% Ar under a constant pressure of 10 mbar. The properties of the boride layer were evaluated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers micro-hardness tester and the growth kinetics of the boride layers. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steel revealed FeB and Fe2B phases. Depending on temperature and layer thickness, the activation energies of boron in steel were found to be 124.7 kJ/mol for 100% B2O3.

  12. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  13. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  14. Receptorligand sorting along the endocytic pathway

    CERN Document Server

    Linderman, Jennifer J

    1989-01-01

    This research monograph focuses on a biomolecular separation process that occurs within most cells. Two types of molecules, receptors and ligands, are separated and routed along different intracellular pathways; this is a critical step in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The development of an understanding of the basic mechanisms of this separation process is presented, with an emphasis on discovering the fundamental and measurable parameters that influence the event. Mathematical models of sorting are evaluated to predict the range of possible outcomes. These are compared with a variety of experimental data on different receptor/ligand systems. In addition, the influence of the separation on overall receptor/ligand processing dynamics is discussed. The book is intended for both biomathematicians and biologists. It is not necessary to understand the details of the model equations and their solution in order to test the models experimentally. The analysis suggests experiments that might be done to...

  15. Carbon Nanotube–Purification and Sorting Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornendu Chaturvedi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown extraordinary mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic properties. Electronic properties of CNT are very sensitive to its diameter and chirality, making it metallicor semiconducting, depending upon its chiral vector. The extraordinary properties of CNTs have led to demonstration of several applications but commercial realisation of these devices require consistent qualityof CNTs, and these should be  free of any impurity. For development of electronic devices, CNTs should notjust be pure but also of similar length, diameter, and electronic behaviour. Such demanding requirements need development of elaborate purification and sorting protocols. In this paper,  a brief review of the existing technologies and the research done is presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.591-599, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1694

  16. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  17. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  18. Improved method for pulse sorting based on PRI transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunhui; Cao, Junqing; Fu, Yusheng; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2014-06-01

    To solve the problem of pulse sorting in complex electromagnetic environment, we propose an improved method for pulse sorting through in-depth analysis of the PRI transform algorithm principle and the advantages and disadvantages in this paper. The method is based on the traditional PRI transform algorithm, using spectral analysis of PRI transform spectrum to estimate the PRI centre value of jitter signal. Simulation results indicate that, the improved sorting method overcome the shortcomings of the traditional PRI jitter separation algorithm which cannot effectively sort jitter pulse sequence, in addition to the advantages of simple and accurate.

  19. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  20. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph

    1987-01-01

    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  1. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  2. Opposing effects of cAMP and T259 phosphorylation on plasma membrane diffusion of the water channel aquaporin-5 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Marlar, Saw

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) facilitates passive water transport in glandular epithelia in response to secretory stimuli via intracellular pathways involving calcium release, cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA). In epithelial plasma membranes, AQP5 may be acutely regulated to facilitate water transport in resp...

  3. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multiparametric flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Winshell, Jamie; Guerrero, Maria A; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W; Eaton, Richard W; Brand, Larry; Rein, Kathleen S

    2009-07-01

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor, as fragile dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae), survived electronic cell sorting to yield viable cells. The rate of successful isolation of large-scale (> 4 litres) cultures was higher for manual picking than for electronic cell sorting (2% vs 0.5%, respectively). However, manual picking of cells is more labor intensive and time consuming. Most manually isolated cells required repicking, as the cultures were determined not to be unialgal after a single round of isolation; whereas, no cultures obtained in this study from electronic single-cell sorting required resorting. A broad flow cytometric gating logic was employed to enhance species diversity. The percentages of unique genotypes produced by manual picking or electronic cell sorting were similar (57% vs 54%, respectively), and each approach produced a variety of dinoflagellate or raphidophyte genera. Alternatively, a highly restrictive gating logic was successfully used to target K. brevis from a natural bloom sample. Direct electronic single-cell sorting was more successful than utilizing a pre-enrichment sort followed by electronic single-cell sorting. The appropriate recovery medium may enhance the rate of successful isolations. Seventy percent of isolated cells were recovered in a new medium (RE) reported here, which was optimized for axenic dinoflagellate cultures. The greatest limiting factor to the throughput of electronic cell sorting is the need for manual postsort culture maintenance and assessment of the large number of isolated cells. However, when combined with newly developed automated methods for growth screening, electronic single-cell sorting has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new algal strains.

  4. The cortical acto-myosin network: from diffusion barrier to functional gateway in the transport of neurosecretory vesicles to the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas ePapadopulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of regulated exocytosis is linked to an array of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, asthma and diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning neuroexocytosis including the processes that allow neurosecretory vesicles to access and fuse with the plasma membrane and to recycle post-fusion, is therefore critical to the design of future therapeutic drugs that will efficiently tackle these diseases. Despite considerable efforts to determine the principles of vesicular fusion, the mechanisms controlling the approach of vesicles to the plasma membrane in order to undergo tethering, docking, priming, and fusion remain poorly understood. All these steps involve the cortical actin network, a dense mesh of actin filaments localized beneath the plasma membrane. Recent work overturned the long-held belief that the cortical actin network only plays a passive constraining role in neuroexocytosis functioning as a physical barrier that partly breaks down upon entry of Ca2+ to allow secretory vesicles to reach the plasma membrane. A multitude of new roles for the cortical actin network in regulated exocytosis have now emerged and point to highly dynamic novel functions of key myosin molecular motors. Myosins are not only believed to help bring about dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton, tethering and guiding vesicles to their fusion sites, but they also regulate the size and duration of the fusion pore, thereby directly contributing to the release of neurotransmitters and hormones.Here we discuss the functions of the cortical actin network, myosins and their effectors in controlling the processes that lead to tethering, directed transport, docking, and fusion of exocytotic vesicles in regulated exocytosis.

  5. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather

    2012-01-01

    the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  6. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n...

  7. Real-Time Implementation of a Color Sorting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikathyanyani Srikanteswara; Qiang Lu; William King; Thomas Drayer; Richard Conners; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Wood edge glued panels are used extensively in the furniture and cabinetry industries. They are used to make doors, tops, and sides of solid wood furniture and cabinets. Since lightly stained furniture and cabinets are gaining in popularity, there is an increasing demand to color sort the parts used to make these edge glued panels. The goal of the sorting processing is...

  8. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G...; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed

  9. Method and set-up for uranium ore sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania)); Gherea, Gh. (Intreprinderea metalelor rare, Bucuresti (Romania)); Draga, Z.; Funaru, Gh. (Exploatarea miniera Oravita, Oravita (Romania))

    1981-01-01

    A method was studied for uranium ore sorting. After the discussion of the principle, some particular conditions of the sorting are pointed out. A radiometric assembly is described and some results obtained on the simulator and in industrial conditions are reported.

  10. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G...; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed wa

  11. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: Causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-12-29

    Dairy cattle commonly sort total mixed rations, a behavior that influences individual nutrient intake and reduces the nutritive value of the ration left in the bunk across the day. Typical patterns of feed sorting in lactating dairy cows, against longer forage particles, result in greater intake of highly-fermentable carbohydrates and lesser intake of effective fiber than intended, and are associated with reduced rumen pH and altered milk composition. To understand the reason for this behavior and reduce it on-farm, numerous studies have explored the influences of ration characteristics, feeding strategies, and management factors on the expression of feed sorting. In mature cows and young calves, feed sorting is influenced by forage inclusion rate, particle size, and dry matter content. Feeding strategies that increase the time available to manipulate feed-including decreased feeding frequency and increased feeding level-may result in increased feed sorting. The extent of feed sorting is also influenced by a variety of herd-level factors, but variability between individuals in the extent of feed sorting suggests that this behavior may be subject to additional factors, including previous experience and internal state. The development of feed sorting in young calves has been explored in several recent studies, suggesting that early opportunities to sort feed, as provided by access to mixed diets, may encourage the early onset of this behavior and help it persist beyond weaning. Evidence also supports the role of feedback mechanisms that influence this behavior at the individual level. In calves and adult cows, selective consumption of higher-energy ration components may be linked to energy demands, as influenced by the availability of supplemental feed or changing metabolic status. Further, considerable evidence suggests that cattle will adjust patterns of feed sorting in favor of physically effective fiber to attenuate low rumen pH, providing evidence for the role

  12. Degree of molecular self-sorting in multicomponent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manik Lal; Schmittel, Michael

    2012-06-28

    Self-sorting represents the spontaneous and high fidelity self and/or non-self-recognition of two or more related components within a complex mixture. While the effective management of self-sorting principles perceptibly requires some key expertise in molecular programming, at a higher stage of operation it is of supreme interest to guide the process to increasingly higher degrees of self-sorting. In this article, we present the emerging principles of how to guide several components toward formation of self-sorted multicomponent architectures. To provide further guidance in denominating such systems, we suggest to utilise a systematic classification as well as a formula to evaluate their degree of self-sorting (M).

  13. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  14. Sorting Pairs of Points Based on Their Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farshi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting data is one of the main problems in computer science which studied vastly and used in several places. In several geometric problems, like problems on point sets or lines in the plane or Euclidean space with higher dimensions, the problem of sorting pairs of points based on the distance (between them is used. Using general sorting algorithms, sorting n 2 distances between n points can be done in O(n2 log n time. Ofcourse, sorting (n2 independent numbers does not have a faster solution, but since we have dependency between numbers in this case, finding a faster algorithm or showing that the problem in this case has O(n2 log n time complexity is interesting. In this paper, we try to answer this question.

  15. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  16. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of diseases can save lives. Hence, there is emphasis in sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of lab-on-a-chip devices. In our work, we use optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by machine vision. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass beads commonly used in the optical manipulation literature, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam's propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells.

  17. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  18. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  19. Sortilin regulates sorting and secretion of Sonic hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles; Beug, Shawn; Nickerson, Philip E B; Peng, Jimmy; Mazerolle, Chantal; Bassett, Erin A; Ringuette, Randy; Jama, Fadumo A; Morales, Carlos; Christ, Annabel; Wallace, Valerie A

    2016-10-15

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen that is an essential regulator of patterning and growth. The Shh full-length protein undergoes autocleavage in the endoplasmic reticulum to generate the biologically active N-terminal fragment (ShhN), which is destined for secretion. We identified sortilin (Sort1), a member of the VPS10P-domain receptor family, as a new Shh trafficking receptor. We demonstrate that Sort-Shh interact by performing coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays in transfected cells and that they colocalize at the Golgi. Sort1 overexpression causes re-distribution of ShhN and, to a lesser extent, of full-length Shh to the Golgi and reduces Shh secretion. We show loss of Sort1 can partially rescue Hedgehog-associated patterning defects in a mouse model that is deficient in Shh processing, and we show that Sort1 levels negatively regulate anterograde Shh transport in axons in vitro and Hedgehog-dependent axon-glial interactions in vivo Taken together, we conclude that Shh and Sort1 can interact at the level of the Golgi and that Sort1 directs Shh away from the pathways that promote its secretion.

  20. Microfluidic droplet sorting using integrated bilayer micro-valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncong; Tian, Yang; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Xinran; Yu, Sicong; Dong, Liang

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on a microfluidic device capable of sorting microfluidic droplets utilizing conventional bilayer pneumatic micro-valves as sorting controllers. The device consists of two micro-valves placed symmetrically on two sides of a sorting area, each on top of a branching channel at an inclined angle with respect to the main channel. Changes in transmitted light intensity, induced by varying light absorbance by each droplet, are used to divert the droplet from the sorting area into one of the three outlet channels. When no valve is activated, the droplet flows into the outlet channel in the direction of the main channel. When one of the valves is triggered, the flexible membrane of valve will first be deflected. Once the droplet leaves the detection point, the deflected membrane will immediately return to its default flattened position, thereby exerting a drawing pressure on the droplet and deviating it from its original streamline to the outlet on the same side as the valve. This sorting method will be particularly suitable for numerous large-scale integrated microfluidic systems, where pneumatic micro-valves are already used. Only few structural modifications are needed to achieve droplet sorting capabilities in these systems. Due to the mechanical nature of diverting energy applied to droplets, the proposed sorting method may induce only minimal interference to biological species or microorganisms encapsulated inside the droplets that may accompany electrical, optical and magnetic-based techniques.

  1. Vaneless diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  2. Mean-cluster approach indicates cell sorting time scales are determined by collective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrici, Carine P.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-03-01

    Cell migration is essential to cell segregation, playing a central role in tissue formation, wound healing, and tumor evolution. Considering random mixtures of two cell types, it is still not clear which cell characteristics define clustering time scales. The mass of diffusing clusters merging with one another is expected to grow as td /d +2 when the diffusion constant scales with the inverse of the cluster mass. Cell segregation experiments deviate from that behavior. Explanations for that could arise from specific microscopic mechanisms or from collective effects, typical of active matter. Here we consider a power law connecting diffusion constant and cluster mass to propose an analytic approach to model cell segregation where we explicitly take into account finite-size corrections. The results are compared with active matter model simulations and experiments available in the literature. To investigate the role played by different mechanisms we considered different hypotheses describing cell-cell interaction: differential adhesion hypothesis and different velocities hypothesis. We find that the simulations yield normal diffusion for long time intervals. Analytic and simulation results show that (i) cluster evolution clearly tends to a scaling regime, disrupted only at finite-size limits; (ii) cluster diffusion is greatly enhanced by cell collective behavior, such that for high enough tendency to follow the neighbors, cluster diffusion may become independent of cluster size; (iii) the scaling exponent for cluster growth depends only on the mass-diffusion relation, not on the detailed local segregation mechanism. These results apply for active matter systems in general and, in particular, the mechanisms found underlying the increase in cell sorting speed certainly have deep implications in biological evolution as a selection mechanism.

  3. Automatic gear sorting system based on monocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic gear sorting system based on monocular vision is proposed in this paper. A CCD camera fixed on the top of the sorting system is used to obtain the images of the gears on the conveyor belt. The gears׳ features including number of holes, number of teeth and color are extracted, which is used to categorize the gears. Photoelectric sensors are used to locate the gears׳ position and produce the trigger signals for pneumatic cylinders. The automatic gear sorting is achieved by using pneumatic actuators to push different gears into their corresponding storage boxes. The experimental results verify the validity and reliability of the proposed method and system.

  4. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi; Cheng, Jian-Feng

    2017-04-18

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as "good" and "not good" (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.

  5. Efficient Sorting of Free Electron Orbital Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    McMorran, Benjamin J; Lavery, Martin P J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for sorting electrons by orbital angular momentum (OAM). Several methods now exist to prepare electron wavefunctions in OAM states, but no technique has been developed for efficient, parallel measurement of pure and mixed electron OAM states. The proposed technique draws inspiration from the recent demonstration of the sorting of OAM through modal transformation. We show that the same transformation can be performed with electrostatic electron optical elements. Specifically, we show that a charged needle and an array of electrodes perform the transformation and phase correction necessary to sort orbital angular momentum states. This device may enable the analysis of the spatial mode distribution of inelastically scattered electrons.

  6. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  7. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  8. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  9. FPGA-based Accelerators for Parallel Data Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarov Valery

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to parallel data sort based on sorting networks. The proposed methods and circuits have the following characteristics: 1 using two-level parallel comparators in even-odd transition networks with feedback to a register keeping input/intermediate data; 2 parallel merging of many sorted sequences; 3 using even-odd transition networks built from other sorting networks; 4 rational reuse of comparators in different types of networks, namely even-odd transition and for discovering maximum/minimum values. The experiments in FPGA, which were done for up to 16×220 32-bit data items, demonstrate very good results (as fast as 3-5 ns per data item.

  10. Unsupervised Spike Sorting Based on Discriminative Subspace Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separab...

  11. Combination of the Sorting Line Priority Polling Control Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed the priority polling control mechanism of the unit material combinations sorting lines, and sorters operating process is understood to be the arrival process of orders, service process of each sorter sorts orders and the conversion process between sorting machines. Control process, sorters of the combined sorting lines are divided into the priority sorters and ordinary sorters, priority sorters use full service control, ordinary sorters use limited service (k = 1, applies the polling service system theory, through the embedded Markov chain and probability generating function to establish the mathematical model of the system, the exact solution of the control mechanism of the polling system model and the first and second characteristic parameters, combined with the actual production priority parameters of orders picking for simulation analysis

  12. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  13. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser light sources of different regimes have emerged as an essential tool in the biophotonics research area. Classic applications include, for example: manipulating single cells and their subcellular organelles, sorting cells...

  14. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  15. Aquaporin-3 and aquaporin-4 are sorted differently and separately in the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Sundbye, Sabrina Maria Gade; Nelson, W. James

    2013-01-01

    , it is unknown if they are sorted together in the Golgi, or arrive in the same or different vesicles at the plasma membrane. We addressed these questions using high resolution deconvolution imaging, spinning disk and laser scanning confocal microscopy of cells expressing AQP3 and AQP4. AQP3 and AQP4 were...... observed mostly in separate post-Golgi carriers, and spinning disk microscopy showed that most of AQP3 and AQP4 were delivered to the plasma membrane in separate vesicles. In contrast, VSV-G and LDL-R, two well-charcterized basolateral proteins, co-localized to a high degree in the same post-Golgi carriers......, indicating that the differential sorting of AQP3 and AQP4 is specific and regulated. Significantly, a chimeric AQP3 containing the AQP4 cytoplasmic tails co-localized with AQP4 in post-Golgi vesicles. These results indicate that AQP3 and AQP4 are separated into different post-Golgi carriers based...

  16. Molecular characterization of flow-sorted mammalian centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamkalo, B.A.; Henschen, A.; Parseghian, M.H. [Univ. of Calfornia, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved experiments directed towards developing a molecular characterization of the centromere region of mammalian chromosomes. Attempts to purify this essential chromosomal locus by conventional methods have thus far been unsuccessful. However, preliminary data obtained in collaboration with the National Flow Cytometry Resource (NFCR) showed that it is possible to purify a chromosome fragment that is present in certain cultured mouse cell lines and has all the properties expected of an intact centromere region. To begin sorting this minichromosome for the identification of proteins preferentially associated with centromere regions, standard buffers utilized in chromosome sorting were evaluated for potential effects on maintenance of chromosomal proteins during sorting. The data indicate that the presence of several buffer constituents results in the extraction of all but a few chromosomal proteins. The subsequent use of a magnesium sulfate buffer resulted in the sorting of mouse chromosomes that do not suffer a significant loss of proteins. Several DNA stains were also evaluated for causing protein dissociation, but no significant losses were observed. Although flow-sorted chromosomes have been used extensively for DNA analysis and cloning, this is a pioneering effort by the NFCR, and its collaborators, to exploit chromosome sorting capabilities for the analysis of chromosomal proteins.

  17. Automatic particle detection and sorting in an electrokinetic microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Peng, Ran; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports a lab-on-a-chip device that can automatically detect and sort particles based on their size differences with a high resolution. The PDMS-glass microfluidic chip is made by soft-lithography technique. A differential resistive pulse sensor is employed to electrically detect the sizes of the particles in EOF generated by applying DC voltages across channels. The detected resistive pulse sensor signals, whose amplitudes are proportional to particles' sizes, will automatically trigger the sorting process that is controlled by applying a voltage pulse (36 V) whenever a target particle is detected. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort polystyrene particles and microalgae in aqueous solutions. Sorting 5 μm polymer particle from a mixture of 4- and 5-μm polystyrene particles in aqueous solution, i.e. 1 μm sorting resolution, was demonstrated. The device described in this paper is simple, automatic, and label-free with high sorting resolution. It has wide applications in sample pretreatment and target particles detection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Molecular characterization of flow-sorted mammalian centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamkalo, B.A.; Henschen, A.; Parseghian, M.H. [Univ. of Calfornia, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved experiments directed towards developing a molecular characterization of the centromere region of mammalian chromosomes. Attempts to purify this essential chromosomal locus by conventional methods have thus far been unsuccessful. However, preliminary data obtained in collaboration with the National Flow Cytometry Resource (NFCR) showed that it is possible to purify a chromosome fragment that is present in certain cultured mouse cell lines and has all the properties expected of an intact centromere region. To begin sorting this minichromosome for the identification of proteins preferentially associated with centromere regions, standard buffers utilized in chromosome sorting were evaluated for potential effects on maintenance of chromosomal proteins during sorting. The data indicate that the presence of several buffer constituents results in the extraction of all but a few chromosomal proteins. The subsequent use of a magnesium sulfate buffer resulted in the sorting of mouse chromosomes that do not suffer a significant loss of proteins. Several DNA stains were also evaluated for causing protein dissociation, but no significant losses were observed. Although flow-sorted chromosomes have been used extensively for DNA analysis and cloning, this is a pioneering effort by the NFCR, and its collaborators, to exploit chromosome sorting capabilities for the analysis of chromosomal proteins.

  19. NOVEL RADAR SIGNAL SORTING METHOD BASED ON GEOMETRIC COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建; 国强; 宋文明

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of complexity of electromagnetic environment and continuous appearance of advanced system radars ,signals received by radar reconnaissance receivers become even more intensive and complex .There-fore ,traditional radar sorting methods based on neural network algorithms and support vector machine (SVM ) cannot process them effectively .Aiming at solving this problem ,a novel radar signal sorting method based on the cloud model theory and the geometric covering algorithm is proposed .By applying the geometric covering algo-rithm to divide input signals into different covering domains based on their distribution characteristics ,the method can overcome a typical problem that it is easy for traditional sorting algorithms to fall into the local extrema due to the use of complex nonlinear equation to describe input signals .The method uses the cloud model to describe the membership degree between signals to be sorted and their covering domains ,thus it avoids the disadvantage that traditional sorting methods based on hard clustering cannot deinterleave the signal samples with overlapped param-eters .Experimental results show that the presented method can effectively sort advanced system radar signals with overlapped parameters in complex electromagnetic environment .

  20. Random walk models of worker sorting in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Van Lent, Jan

    2002-07-21

    Sorting can be an important mechanism for the transfer of information from one level of biological organization to another. Here we study the algorithm underlying worker sorting in Leptothorax ant colonies. Worker sorting is related to task allocation and therefore to the adaptive advantages associated with an efficient system for the division of labour in ant colonies. We considered four spatially explicit individual-based models founded on two-dimensional correlated random walk. Our aim was to establish whether sorting at the level of the worker population could occur with minimal assumptions about the behavioural algorithm of individual workers. The behaviour of an individual worker in the models could be summarized by the rule "move if you can, turn always". We assume that the turning angle of a worker is individually specific and negatively dependent on the magnitude of an internal parameter micro which could be regarded as a measure of individual experience or task specialization. All four models attained a level of worker sortedness that was compatible with results from experiments onLeptothorax ant colonies. We found that the presence of a sorting pivot, such as the nest wall or an attraction force towards the centre of the worker population, was crucial for sorting. We make a distinction between such pivots and templates and discuss the biological implications of their difference.

  1. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  2. Microfluidic train station: highly robust and multiplexable sorting of droplets on electric rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Daniel; Merten, Christoph A

    2017-02-24

    Fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) has become a widely used technique for high-throughput screening applications. However, existing methods are very sensitive to fluctuating flow rates at the sorting junction, which can be caused by the pulsing effects of mechanical pumps, droplet aggregates or the accumulation of precipitates during lengthy biological screening applications. Furthermore, existing sorting devices allow only 2-way sorting. We present here a dielectrophoretic sorting system in which the droplets are sorted along multiple electrode pairs that run parallel to the channels. This enables highly reliable sorting (no errors were detected for more than 2000 sorting events) even when inverting the relative flow rates at a 2-way sorting junction from 80 : 20 to 20 : 80. Furthermore, our toolbox is scalable: we demonstrate on the example of a triple-colour sorting experiment with a total of four decoupled electrodes that multi-way sorting is feasible.

  3. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  4. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  5. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  6. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  7. Role of hydrogen diffusion in temperature-induced transformation of carbon nanostructures deposited on metallic substrates by using a specially designed fused hollow cathode cold atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bikash; Kar, R.; Pal, Arup R.; Shilpa, R. K.; Dusane, R. O.; Patil, D. S.; Suryawanshi, S. R.; More, M. A.; Sinha, S.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on inconel substrates under two different experimental conditions using atmospheric pressure glow discharge radio-frequency (RF) PECVD process. A specially designed hollow cathode is used for this plasma generation. The growth is carried out at 610 and 660 °C substrate temperatures on inconel substrates. Our results show that CNFs and CNTs could be synthesized at 610 and 660 °C respectively irrespective of pre-treatment methods in either set. HRTEM results indicate that a temperature-induced transformation of CNFs into CNTs occur when the growth temperature is raised from 610 to 660 °C. With the help of characterization results and a schematic model, it is shown how an increase in hydrogen diffusion (~44% increase) plays a pivotal role in this transformation by providing a sink for hydrogen atoms. Field emission results show that most defective CNFs contribute to the maximum emission current density. This better field emission behavior is explained on the basis that the outer surfaces of CNFs are more defective due to the presence of the open edges of the graphene planes, which results in better field emission from the outer surfaces of the CNFs.

  8. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  9. Lovastatin-induced cholesterol depletion affects both apical sorting and endocytosis of aquaporin-2 in renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, G; Barbieri, C; Carmosino, M; Rizzo, F; Valenti, G; Svelto, M

    2010-02-01

    Vasopressin causes the redistribution of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) from cytoplasmic storage vesicles to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells, leading to urine concentration. The molecular mechanisms regulating the selective apical sorting of AQP2 are only partially uncovered. In this work, we investigate whether AQP2 sorting/trafficking is regulated by its association with membrane rafts. In both MCD4 cells and rat kidney, AQP2 preferentially associated with Lubrol WX-insoluble membranes regardless of its presence in the storage compartment or at the apical membrane. Block-and-release experiments indicate that 1) AQP2 associates with detergent-resistant membranes early in the biosynthetic pathway; 2) strong cholesterol depletion delays the exit of AQP2 from the trans-Golgi network. Interestingly, mild cholesterol depletion promoted a dramatic accumulation of AQP2 at the apical plasma membrane in MCD4 cells in the absence of forskolin stimulation. An internalization assay showed that AQP2 endocytosis was clearly reduced under this experimental condition. Taken together, these data suggest that association with membrane rafts may regulate both AQP2 apical sorting and endocytosis.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  11. Stigmergy, self-organization, and sorting in collective robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, O; Melhuish, C

    1999-01-01

    Many structures built by social insects are the outcome of a process of self-organization, in which the repeated actions of the insects interact over time with the changing physical environment to produce a characteristic end state. A major mediating factor is stigmergy, the elicitation of specific environment-changing behaviors by the sensory effects of local environmental changes produced by previous behavior. A typical task involving stigmergic self-organization is brood sorting: Many ant species sort their brood so that items at similar stages of development are grouped together and separated from items at different stages of development. This article examines the operation of stigmergy and self-organization in a homogeneous group of physical robots, in the context of the task of clustering and sorting Frisbees of two different types. Using a behavioral rule set simpler than any yet proposed for ant sorting, and having no capacity for spatial orientation or memory, the robots are able to achieve effective clustering and sorting showing all the signs of self-organization. It is argued that the success of this demonstration is crucially dependent on the exploitation of real-world physics, and that the use of simulation alone to investigate stigmergy may fail to reveal its power as an evolutionary option for collective life forms.

  12. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  13. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  14. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  15. System for sorting microscopic objects using electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is presented a system 10,100 for sorting microscopic objects 76, 78, 80, where the system comprises a fluid channel 66 with an inlet 68 and an outlet 70, where the fluid channel is arranged for allowing the fluid flow to be laminar. The system furthermore comprises a detection system 52 which...... enables detecting microscopic objects in the fluid channel and furthermore enables determining their position. The system furthermore comprises a controller 67, such as a computer, which receives the positions and accordingly controls a source of light beams so as to "shoot" light beams towards selected...... microscopic objects so as to "push" them into a new position. The system thereby enables sorting the selected microscopic objects. In more specific embodiments, the detection system furthermore assigns different categories to different microscopic objects, so as to enable sorting based on multiple categories....

  16. Efficient searching and sorting applications using an associative array processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, W.; Quinn, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of searching and sorting data by using some of the unique capabilities of an associative array processor. To understand the application, the associative array processor is described in detail. In particular, the content addressable memory and flip network are discussed because these two unique elements give the associative array processor the power to rapidly sort and search. A simple alphanumeric sorting example is explained in hardware and software terms. The hardware used to explain the application is the STARAN (Goodyear Aerospace Corporation) associative array processor. The software used is the APPLE (Array Processor Programming Language) programming language. Some applications of the array processor are discussed. This summary tries to differentiate between the techniques of the sequential machine and the associative array processor.

  17. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yi Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as “good” and “not good” (NG. The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.

  18. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  19. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  20. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jie; LIU Gui-Min; LI Hao-Hu; ZHANG Man-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF)booster ring,a full energy injector for the storage ring,is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150MeV to 3.5GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping.Closed orbit distortion(COD)caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting.Considering the affections of random errors in measurement,both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper.

  1. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

  2. Scalable orbital-angular-momentum sorting without destroying photon states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Single photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted substantial attention from researchers. A single photon can carry infinite OAM values theoretically. Thus, OAM photon states have been widely used in quantum information and fundamental quantum mechanics. Although there have been many methods for sorting quantum states with different OAM values, the nondestructive and efficient sorter of high-dimensional OAM remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a scalable OAM sorter which can categorize different OAM states simultaneously, meanwhile, preserving both OAM and spin angular momentum. Fundamental elements of the sorter are composed of symmetric multiport beam splitters (BSs) and Dove prisms with cascading structure, which in principle can be flexibly and effectively combined to sort arbitrarily high-dimensional OAM photons. The scalable structures proposed here greatly reduce the number of BSs required for sorting high-dimensional OAMstates. In view of the nondestructive and extensible ...

  3. Cognitive impairments of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Glöckner-Rist, A; Lutz, M; Maier, T; Meier, E

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of earlier experiments showing a differential deficit of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks, two experiments were conducted to test the conjecture of a specific deficit of aphasics in the analytical appraisal of individual features. Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics--according to clinical diagnoses and the Aachener Aphasie Test--were compared with patients having right-hemisphere lesions or left-hemisphere lesions without aphasia. Both groups of aphasics differed from the control groups in the sorting task, irrespective of the sorting criterion, but the differences were small. The picture matching task did not discriminate between groups. Obviously, the basic assumption has to be modified with respect to specific conditions of task requirements. The experimental literature is reviewed.

  4. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  5. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble.

  6. Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes μ-opioid receptor endocytosis and facilitates receptor sorting into the recycling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jian Liang; Dai-Fei Wu; Ralf Stumm; Volker H(o)llt; Thomas Koch

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) with the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a is known to facilitate MOPr endocytosis in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. To further study the role of M6a in the post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr, we investigated the agonist-induced co-internalization of MOPr and M6a and protein targeting after internalization in HEK293 cells that co-expressed HA-tagged MOPr and Myc-tagged M6a. We found that M6a, MOPr, and Rab 11, a marker for recycling endosomes, co-localized in endocytotic vesicles, indicating that MOPr and M6a are primarily targeted to recycling endosomes after endocytosis. Furthermore, co-expression of M6a augmented the post-endocytotic sorting of δ-opioid receptors into the recycling pathway, indicating that M6a might have a more general role in opioid receptor post-ndocytotic sorting. The enhanced post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr into the recycling pathway was accompanied by a decrease in agonist-induced receptor down-regulation of M6a in co-expressing cells. We tested the physiological relevance of these findings in primary cultures of cortical neurons and found that co-expression of M6a markedly increased the translocation of MOPrs from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles at steady state and significantly enhanced both constitutive and agonist-induced receptor endocytosis. In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that M6a modulates MOPr endocytosis and post-endocytotic sorting and has an important role in receptor regulation.

  7. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  8. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  9. Plasma parameters controlled by remote electron shower in a double plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Phukan, A.

    2012-07-01

    The principal feature of this experiment is the electron showers consisting of three tungsten wires embedded by the plasma, which are heated up consequently emitting electrons inside the diffused plasma to control the plasma parameters in the discharge section of a double plasma device. These cold electrons emitted by the heated filament are free from maintenance of discharge which is sustained in the source section. The target plasma, where electrons are injected is produced as a result of diffusion from the source section. It is found that, plasma density and plasma potential can be effectively controlled in this way.

  10. In situ determination of V(V) by diffusive gradients in thin films and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques using amberlite IRA-410 resin as a binding layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luko, Karen Silva; Menegário, Amauri Antonio; Suárez, Carlos Alfredo; Tafurt-Cardona, Makenly; Pedrobom, Jorge Henrique; Rolisola, Ana Marta Cavinato Marchini; Sulato, Everton Tiago; Kiang, Chang Hung

    2017-01-15

    Amberlite IRA-410 anionic exchange resin was evaluated as the binding layer for sampling V(V) by using Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT). V(V) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mass vs. time DGT deployments (ionic strength = 0.03 mol L(-1) NaNO3, pH = 5.6 and T = 23.5 ± 0.5 °C) was characterized by excellent linear relationship (R(2) = 0.9993) and a significant retention of V(V) by the binding layer. An exchange capacity of at least 40 μg V g(-1) resin was achieved for the proposed binding layer. The diffusion coefficient obtained (7.13 ± 0.6 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1)) agrees with the literature. The accumulation rate of V(V) was not significantly affected by ionic strength of solutions up to 0.03 mol L(-1) and for the entire studied pH range (from 3 to 9). Furthermore, when comparing the concentrations obtained using IRA-410-DGT and those obtained by direct measurement of the solution concentrations, the proposed approach provided a reduction of the (35)Cl(16)O interference on V(V) determination by ICP-MS. Determination of V in normal mode (without collision cell) in solutions containing analyte:Cl(-) concentration ratio up to 1:500,000 was not affected by interference of (35)Cl(16)O(+) polyatomic ion even when normal mode ICP-MS was used. Potential interfering ions on sampling V(V) by DGT (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) showed no significant effects on the accumulation rate of V(V). Laboratory tests performed using synthetic samples, natural freshwater and acid drainage water showed an excellent performance (recoveries from 93% to 110%). For in situ deployment, measurements of V(V) by the proposed approach was not significantly different (95.5%) from the value of dissolved V concentration.

  11. Basic Study on Color Sorting of Fresh Market Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Kentaro; UMEDA, Shigeo; TSURUMI, Gaku

    1987-01-01

    The surface colors of tomatoes are one of decision factor for the ripeness rate of fruits, and that is mainly graded by the human sense in fact. The color sorting based on the surface colors of tomatoes was attemped by using an opto-electronic system consisting of the color sensors. The sample tomatoes of each ripeness rate were prepared and tested by the color sorting system. As the ripeness rate of tomatoes develops from unripe to ripe, the surface colors change from green to pink or red. W...

  12. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  13. A full parallel radix sorting algorithm for multicore processors

    OpenAIRE

    Maus, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is that we want to sort an integer array a [] of length n on a multi core machine with k cores. Amdahl’s law tells us that the inherent sequential part of any algorithm will in the end dominate and limit the speedup we get from parallelisation of that algorithm. This paper introduces PARL, a parallel left radix sorting algorithm for use on ordinary shared memory multi core machines, that has just one simple statement in its sequential part. It can be seen a...

  14. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yi Huang; Jian-Feng Cheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as “good” and “not good” (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% fo...

  15. Excitation-energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that at moderate excitation energies the nucleus temperature does not vary with increasing excitation energy. We show that, as a consequence, two nuclei with different temperatures brought into contact show a rather surprising energy-sorting mechanism where the hotter nucleus transfers all its excitation energy to the colder one. The scission configuration of the fission process offers a unique possibility to observe this phenomenon. The energy-sorting mechanism is clearly reflected by the mean number of prompt neutrons as a function of the fragment mass and by the dependence of the local even-odd effect with mass asymmetry.

  16. FPGA-based implementation of sorting networks in MMC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricco, Mattia; Máthé, Lászlo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    , and they are usually implemented in microcontrollers or DSPs. However, they are not convenient for hardware implementation due to their inherent sequential operation. Instead, the proposed SNs, are suitable for FPGA devices thanks to their fixed parallel structure that allows improving the timing performance......In this paper an implementation technique for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices of two Sorting Networks (SNs) used for control of Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is presented. In such applications, the classical sorting algorithms are based on repetitive/recursive loops...

  17. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steve; Carr, Roger

    1995-02-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules.

  18. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  19. Finding all sorting tandem duplication random loss operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernt, Matthias; Chen, Kuan Yu; Chen, Ming Chiang

    2011-01-01

    A tandem duplication random loss (TDRL) operation duplicates a contiguous segment of genes, followed by the random loss of one copy of each of the duplicated genes. Although the importance of this operation is founded by several recent biological studies, it has been investigated only rarely from...... a theoretical point of view. Of particular interest are sorting TDRLs which are TDRLs that, when applied to a permutation representing a genome, reduce the distance towards another given permutation. The identification of sorting genome rearrangement operations in general is a key ingredient of many algorithms...

  20. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, J. D.; Chang, C. H.

    1996-06-01

    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations.

  1. LUCID: A Quantitative Assay of ESCRT-Mediated Cargo Sorting into Multivesicular Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Daniel P; Merz, Alexey J

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes are transportation nodes, mediating selective transport of soluble and transmembrane cargos to and from the Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane and lysosomes. As endosomes mature to become multivesicular bodies (MVBs), Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRTs) selectively incorporate transmembrane cargos into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Luminal vesicles and their cargoes are targeted for destruction when MVBs fuse with lysosomes. Common assays of endosomal luminal targeting, including fluorescence microscopy and monitoring of proteolytic cargo maturation, possess significant limitations. We present a quantitative assay system called LUCID (LUCiferase reporter of Intraluminal Deposition) that monitors exposure of chimeric luciferase-cargo reporters to cytosol. Luciferase-chimera signal increases when sorting to the endosome lumen is disrupted, and silencing of signal from the chimera depends upon luminal delivery of the reporter rather than proteolytic degradation. The system presents several advantages, including rapidity, microscale operation and a high degree of reproducibility that enables detection of subtle phenotypic differences. Luciferase reporters provide linear signal over an extremely broad dynamic range, allowing analysis of reporter traffic even at anemic levels of expression. Furthermore, LUCID reports transport kinetics when applied to inducible trafficking reporters.

  2. Routes to the tonoplast: the sorting of tonoplast transporters in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenstetter, Susanne; Wirsching, Petra; Dotzauer, Dorina; Schneider, Sabine; Sauer, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Vacuoles perform a multitude of functions in plant cells, including the storage of amino acids and sugars. Tonoplast-localized transporters catalyze the import and release of these molecules. The mechanisms determining the targeting of these transporters to the tonoplast are largely unknown. Using the paralogous Arabidopsis thaliana inositol transporters INT1 (tonoplast) and INT4 (plasma membrane), we performed domain swapping and mutational analyses and identified a C-terminal di-leucine motif responsible for the sorting of higher plant INT1-type transporters to the tonoplast in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. We demonstrate that this motif can reroute other proteins, such as INT4, SUCROSE TRANSPORTER2 (SUC2), or SWEET1, to the tonoplast and that the position of the motif relative to the transmembrane helix is critical. Rerouted INT4 is functionally active in the tonoplast and complements the growth phenotype of an int1 mutant. In Arabidopsis plants defective in the β-subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex, INT1 is correctly localized to the tonoplast, while sorting of the vacuolar sucrose transporter SUC4 is blocked in cis-Golgi stacks. Moreover, we demonstrate that both INT1 and SUC4 trafficking to the tonoplast is sensitive to brefeldin A. Our data show that plants possess at least two different Golgi-dependent targeting mechanisms for newly synthesized transporters to the tonoplast.

  3. Evidence for a Golgi-to-endosome protein sorting pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Krai

    Full Text Available During the asexual intraerythrocytic stage, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum must traffic newly-synthesized proteins to a broad array of destinations within and beyond the parasite's plasma membrane. In this study, we have localized two well-conserved protein components of eukaryotic endosomes, the retromer complex and the small GTPase Rab7, to define a previously-undescribed endosomal compartment in P. falciparum. Retromer and Rab7 co-localized to a small number of punctate structures within parasites. These structures, which we refer to as endosomes, lie in close proximity to the Golgi apparatus and, like the Golgi apparatus, are inherited by daughter merozoites. However, the endosome is clearly distinct from the Golgi apparatus as neither retromer nor Rab7 redistributed to the endoplasmic reticulum upon brefeldin A treatment. Nascent rhoptries (specialized secretory organelles required for invasion developed adjacent to endosomes, an observation that suggests a role for the endosome in rhoptry biogenesis. A P. falciparum homolog of the sortilin family of protein sorting receptors (PfSortilin was localized to the Golgi apparatus. Together, these results elaborate a putative Golgi-to-endosome protein sorting pathway in asexual blood stage parasites and suggest that one role of retromer is to mediate the retrograde transport of PfSortilin from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus.

  4. From noncoding variant to phenotype via SORT1 at the 1p13 cholesterol locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuru, Kiran; Strong, Alanna; Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Lee, Noemi E.; Ahfeldt, Tim; Sachs, Katherine V.; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Hui; Kuperwasser, Nicolas; Ruda, Vera M.; Pirruccello, James J.; Muchmore, Brian; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Hall, Jennifer L.; Schadt, Eric E.; Morales, Carlos R.; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C.; Wong, Jamie; Cantley, William; Racie, Timothy; Ejebe, Kenechi G.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; Koteliansky, Victor; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Krauss, Ronald M.; Cowan, Chad A.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a locus on chromosome 1p13 as strongly associated with both serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and myocardial infarction (MI) in humans. Here we show through a series of studies in human cohorts and human-derived hepatocytes that a common noncoding polymorphism at the 1p13 locus, rs12740374, creates a C/EBP transcription factor binding site and alters the hepatic expression of the SORT1 gene. With siRNA knockdown and viral overexpression in mouse liver, we demonstrate that Sort1 alters plasma LDL-C and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle levels by modulating hepatic VLDL secretion. Thus, we provide functional evidence for a novel regulatory pathway for lipoprotein metabolism and suggest that modulation of this pathway may alter risk for MI in humans. We also demonstrate that common noncoding DNA variants identified by GWASs can directly contribute to clinical phenotypes. PMID:20686566

  5. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiacona, M; Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Capitani, E

    2000-10-01

    The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, with 5-17 years of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed as well as norms for some well known qualitative aspects of the performance, i.e. perseverative responses, failure to maintain the set and non-perseverative errors. In setting normative values, we followed a statistical methodology (equivalent scores) employed in Italy for other neuropsychological tests, in order to favour the possibility of comparison among these tests. A correlation study between the global score of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the score on the Weigl test was carried out and it emerges that some cognitive aspects are not overlapping in these two measures.

  6. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Patterned ground is a typical phenomenon in polar, subpolar and alpine regions [1]. As it is commonly (but not necessarily!) related to freeze-thaw cycles, its presence on Mars could possibly point to locations and periods where and when liquid water existed in the recent past [2]. Sorted circles are a class of patterned ground that was tentatively identified in Elysium Planitia (Mars) [3], but this interpretation has been challenged on the basis of physical considerations [4]. Without direct access to potential patterned ground on Mars, the analysis of terrestrial analogues can inform the interpretation of Martian landforms. Svalbard (Norway) offers a wide variety of permafrost features that are morphologically analogous to Martian cold-climate landforms [5]. It hosts some of the best examples of sorted circles on Earth, which are located on the westernmost tip of Brøgger peninsula, on a broad strand flat that is characterized by a series of postglacial beach ridges [6]. Here we report on our analysis of sorted circle morphology (especially their plan-view shape, i.e. their "roundness" or ellipticity) and its correlation with local topography (slopes, curvature). Sorted circle morphology was determined from HRSC-AX images (for details on the flight campaign and image properties see ref [5]) and through field work. Topographic information comes from a 50 cm gridded DEM derived from HRSC-AX stereo images. We measured sorted circle morphology (ellipticity, azimuth of major axis) along a WNW-ESE traverse that runs from the inland towards the sea and is oriented perpendicular to the local beach ridge trend. Selected areas with homogeneous sorted circle appearance were visually mapped, and compared to the average slope, aspect, and the calculated topographic wetness index (TWI). Furthermore the whole traverse was classified into four different morphologies of the sorted patterned ground (sorted circles, sorted "ellipses", sorted nets and areas without patterned ground

  7. Diffusion theory of slow responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景德; 陈敏; 郑凤; 周镇宏

    1997-01-01

    When an action is applied to a macroscopic substance, there is a particular sort of slow response he sides the well-known fast response. Using diffusion theory, the characteristics of slow response in dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric relaxation may he explained A time domain spectroscopy method suitable for slow and fast responses in linear and nonlinear effects is given. Every relaxation mechanism contributes a peak in differential spectroscopy, and its position, height, and line shape show the dynamical properties of the mechanism The method of frequency domain spectroscopy is suitable only for linear fast response. Time domain spectroscopy is another nonequiv-alent powerful method. The theory is confirmed by a lot of experimental data

  8. Some Aspects of Diffusion Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pignedoli, A

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: V.C.A. Ferraro: Diffusion of ions in a plasma with applications to the ionosphere; P.C. Kendall: On the diffusion in the atmosphere and ionosphere; F. Henin: Kinetic equations and Brownian motion; T. Kahan: Theorie des reacteurs nucleaires: methodes de resolution perturbationnelles, interactives et variationnelles; C. Cattaneo: Sulla conduzione del calore; C. Agostinelli: Formule di Green per la diffusione del campo magnetico in un fluido elettricamente conduttore; A. Pignedoli: Transformational methods applied to some one-dimensional problems concerning the equations of t

  9. Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance.

  10. Magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting methods for the isolation and function analysis of mouse CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells*

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this paper we compared the two methods of cell sorting (magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting) for the isolation and function analysis of mouse CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in order to inform further studies in Treg cell function. Methods: We separately used magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting to identify CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells. After magnetic cell separation, we further used flow cytometry to analyze the purity of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, trypan bl...

  11. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  12. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  13. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W;

    2011-01-01

    a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...... feature of vesicles carrying PM cargo and suggests a common lipid-based mechanism for their formation....

  14. Parallel particle identification and separation for active optical sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    matched with a rapidly reconfigurable optical sorting field. We demonstrate the potential of such a system using colloidal polystyrene microspheres. By combining machine vision with a parallel add-on optical manipulation scheme, we were able to move identified particles over a distance of several hundred...

  15. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...

  16. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A

    2010-01-01

    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  17. Tunable Superomniphobic Surfaces for Sorting Droplets by Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafaghi, Sanli; Wang, Wei; Metzger, Ari; Williams, Desiree; Williams, John; Kota, Arun

    2016-11-01

    Manipulation of liquid droplets on super-repellent surfaces (i.e., surfaces that are extremely repellent to liquids) has been widely studied because droplets exhibit high mobility on these surfaces due to the ultra-low adhesion, which leads to minimal sample loss and contamination. Although droplet manipulation has been demonstrated using electric fields, magnetic fields, guiding tracks and wettability gradients, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of droplet manipulation methods that can sort droplets by surface tension on super-repellent surfaces. In this work, we utilized tunable superomniphobic surfaces (i.e., surfaces that are extremely repellent to virtually all liquids) to develop a simple device with precisely tailored solid surface energy domains that, for the first time, can sort droplets by surface tension. Droplet sorting occurs on our device entirely due to a balance between the work done by gravity and the work expended due to adhesion, without the need for any external energy input. Our device can be fabricated easily in a short time and is particularly useful for in-the-field and on-the-go operations, where complex analysis equipment is unavailable. We envision that our methodology for droplet sorting will enable inexpensive and energy-efficient analytical devices for personalized point-of-care diagnostic platforms and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  18. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  19. Digoxin in clinical practice: sorting out the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, S A; Landless, P N

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this review is to sort out from the huge amount of facts related to digoxin in the literature those pertinent to current clinical practice. Seven aspects of digoxin are discussed: its mechanism of action, therapeutic controversy, clinical efficacy, avoidance of toxicity, manifestations of toxicity, indications, and its use in coronary artery disease.

  20. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  1. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  2. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  3. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  4. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance...... material streams....

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection of Wooden Pallet Parts for Grading and Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Michael Morrone; John C. Duke

    1994-01-01

    Wooden pallets are the largest single use of sawn hardwood logs in the USA. Unfortunately, millions of pallets are discarded into landfills annually. High quality wooden pallets, on the other hand, promote longevity and re-use. To build durable pallets requires high quality parts. Manual grading and sorting of pallet parts is not feasible, however, so we are developing...

  6. Spectrometry: photon sorting at the speed of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, H.J.P.; Day, J.P.R.; Volatier, J.B.C.G.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that every spectrometer can sort light by wavelength at the speed of light is intriguing. The field of spectrometry is a long-existing and ever-changing one. The application areas extend from optical communication to possible extraterrestrial life detection, health monitoring, environmental

  7. Sorting and the output loss due to search frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier; C.N. Teulings

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a general search model with on-the-job search (OJS) and sorting of heterogeneous workers into heterogeneous jobs. For given values of non-market time, the relative efciency of OJS, and the amount of search frictions, we derive a simple relationship between the unemployment rate, mismatch

  8. Microbiological air quality at municipal waste sorting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulski Karol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste plants can be a source of biological contamination of the environment, depending on the method of operation and the type of collected waste. The aim of this study was the quantitative characteristics of airborne microorganisms at the Barycz municipal waste sorting plant in Cracow. Bioaerosol measurements of indoor and outdoor air of the municipal waste sorting plant were performed during the summer season using a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor. The highest concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosol was observed in the medium fraction sorting room (129.02×103 cfu·m-3 and 116.21×103 cfu·m-3, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of bacterial and fungal aerosol between indoor and outdoor air. The calculations showed a significant correlation between the concentration of bioaerosol and particulate matter. Based on the analysis of bioaerosol particle size distribution, it was found that the concentration of bacteria and fungi has a maximum value in the diameter range 3.3-7.0 μm. The study confirmed that the municipal waste sorting plants can be causing exposure to microbiological agents.

  9. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard

    2017-01-01

    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and sampl

  10. WHAT DETERMINES WISCONSIN CARD SORTING PERFORMANCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDOES, AJW; VANDENBOSCH, RJ

    1992-01-01

    Deficient performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) by patients with schizophrenia is a consistent finding. Although the test has been found sensitive to frontal lobe damage in neurological patients, it is not certain whether WCST performance in schizophrenia is caused by a structural ab

  11. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard

    2017-01-01

    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and

  12. Effektive ledergrupper eller sorte huller fra top til front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Molly-Søholm, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Effektive ledergrupper Ledergrupper er centrum for organisationers struktur og praksis, men ledergrupper kan også udvikle sig til ’sorte huller’, som driver al energi, effektivitet og trivsel ud af ikke bare den enkelte leder, men ud af hele organisationen. En ny undersøgelse blandt 76 danske led...

  13. An efficient non-dominated sorting method for evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbing; Wang, Qian; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Horstemeyer, Mark F

    2008-01-01

    We present a new non-dominated sorting algorithm to generate the non-dominated fronts in multi-objective optimization with evolutionary algorithms, particularly the NSGA-II. The non-dominated sorting algorithm used by NSGA-II has a time complexity of O(MN(2)) in generating non-dominated fronts in one generation (iteration) for a population size N and M objective functions. Since generating non-dominated fronts takes the majority of total computational time (excluding the cost of fitness evaluations) of NSGA-II, making this algorithm faster will significantly improve the overall efficiency of NSGA-II and other genetic algorithms using non-dominated sorting. The new non-dominated sorting algorithm proposed in this study reduces the number of redundant comparisons existing in the algorithm of NSGA-II by recording the dominance information among solutions from their first comparisons. By utilizing a new data structure called the dominance tree and the divide-and-conquer mechanism, the new algorithm is faster than NSGA-II for different numbers of objective functions. Although the number of solution comparisons by the proposed algorithm is close to that of NSGA-II when the number of objectives becomes large, the total computational time shows that the proposed algorithm still has better efficiency because of the adoption of the dominance tree structure and the divide-and-conquer mechanism.

  14. Prediction of N-terminal protein sorting signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claros, Manuel G.; Brunak, Søren; von Heijne, Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    Recently, neural networks have been applied to a widening range of problems in molecular biology. An area particularly suited to neural-network methods is the identification of protein sorting signals and the prediction of their cleavage sites, as these functional units are encoded by local, linear...

  15. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  17. Suffix-Sorting via Shannon-Fano-Elias Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Adjeroh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence T = t0t1 . . . tn-1 of size n = |T|, with symbols from a fixed alphabet Σ, (|Σ| ≤ n, the suffix array provides a listing of all the suffixes of T in a lexicographic order. Given T, the suffix sorting problem is to construct its suffix array. The direct suffix sorting problem is to construct the suffix array of T directly without using the suffix tree data structure. While algorithims for linear time, linear space direct suffix sorting have been proposed, the actual constant in the linear space is still a major concern, given that the applications of suffix trees and suffix arrays (such as in whole-genome analysis often involve huge data sets. In this work, we reduce the gap between current results and the minimal space requirement. We introduce an algorithm for the direct suffix sorting problem with worst case time complexity in O(n, requiring only (1 2/3 n log n ¡ n log |Σ| + O(1 bits in memory space. This implies 5 2/3 n+O(1 bytes for total space requirment, (including space for both the output suffix array and the input sequence T assuming n ≤ 232, |Σ| ≤ 256, and 4 bytes per integer. The basis of our algorithm is an extension of Shannon-Fano-Elias codes used in source coding and information theory. This is the first time information-theoretic methods have been used as the basis for solving the suffix sorting problem.

  18. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adomavičiūtė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of employees and 11% of students sort all their waste. 8% of employees and 19% of students sort their waste sometimes. 8% of employees and 24% of students do not sort waste at all. 77% of employees and 66% of students think that the main problem caused by waste generation is pollution of the environment. Therefore willingness to reduce an impact on it is the main reason for sorting, while a lack of conditions to keep separated recyclable refuse and a lack of nearby containers are main factors that are distracting people from source-sorting. Growth of environmental awareness and formation of sorting habits that are transmitted to family members are identified as the strengths. Lack of conditions for sorting (e.g. no place to keep sorted waste at home, insufficiently developed waste collection infrastructure, mistrust in a sorted waste collection system (e.g. belief that sorted waste goes to a landfill, and lack of information are the weaknesses. The opportunities comprise development of a convenient waste collection infrastructure, introduction of economic incentives and rise of further awareness. Identified threats for sorting at the source that discourage source sorting are the following: a developed infrastructure will not satisfy real needs; sorting will not become financially rewarding; improper decisions about a waste management system and waste treatment practices made at the state level, no real use of sorting.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2954

  19. Plasma flow in peripheral region of detached plasma in linear plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    A plasma flow structure is investigated using a Mach probe under detached plasma condition in a linear plasma device NAGDIS-II. A reverse flow along the magnetic field is observed in a steady-state at far-peripheral region of the plasma column in the upstream side from the recombination front. These experimental results indicate that plasma near the recombination front should strongly diffuse across the magnetic field, and it should be transported along the magnetic field in the reverse flow direction. Furthermore, bursty plasma density fluctuations associated with intermittent convective plasma transport are observed in the far-peripheral region of the plasma column in both upstream and downstream sides from the recombination front. Such a nondiffusive transport can contribute to the intermittent reverse plasma flow, and the experimental results indicate that intermittent transports are frequently produced near the recombination front.

  20. α-Taxilin interacts with sorting nexin 4 and participates in the recycling pathway of transferrin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakane

    Full Text Available Membrane traffic plays a crucial role in delivering proteins and lipids to their intracellular destinations. We previously identified α-taxilin as a binding partner of the syntaxin family, which is involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. α-Taxilin is overexpressed in tumor tissues and interacts with polymerized tubulin, but the precise function of α-taxilin remains unclear. Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane are internalized, delivered to early endosomes and then either sorted to the lysosome for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that knockdown of α-taxilin induced the lysosomal degradation of transferrin receptor (TfnR, a well-known receptor which is generally recycled back to the plasma membrane after internalization, and impeded the recycling of transferrin. α-Taxilin was immunoprecipitated with sorting nexin 4 (SNX4, which is involved in the recycling of TfnR. Furthermore, knockdown of α-taxilin decreased the number and length of SNX4-positive tubular structures. We report for the first time that α-taxilin interacts with SNX4 and plays a role in the recycling pathway of TfnR.

  1. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular,

  2. Dynamic GLUT4 sorting through a syntaxin-6 compartment in muscle cells is derailed by insulin resistance-causing ceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin P; Klip, Amira

    2014-04-04

    GLUT4 constitutively recycles between the plasma membrane and intracellular depots. Insulin shifts this dynamic equilibrium towards the plasma membrane by recruiting GLUT4 to the plasma membrane from insulin-responsive vesicles. Muscle is the primary site for dietary glucose deposition; however, how GLUT4 sorts into insulin-responsive vesicles, and if and how insulin resistance affects this process, is unknown. In L6 myoblasts stably expressing myc-tagged GLUT4, we analyzed the intracellular itinerary of GLUT4 as it internalizes from the cell surface and examined if such sorting is perturbed by C2-ceramide, a lipid metabolite causing insulin resistance. Surface-labeled GLUT4myc that internalized for 30 min accumulated in a Syntaxin-6 (Stx6)- and Stx16-positive perinuclear sub-compartment devoid of furin or internalized transferrin, and displayed insulin-responsive re-exocytosis. C2-ceramide dispersed the Stx6-positive sub-compartment and prevented insulin-responsive re-exocytosis of internalized GLUT4myc, even under conditions not affecting insulin-stimulated signaling towards Akt. Microtubule disruption with nocodazole prevented pre-internalized GLUT4myc from reaching the Stx6-positive perinuclear sub-compartment and from undergoing insulin-responsive exocytosis. Removing nocodazole allowed both parameters to recover, suggesting that the Stx6-positive perinuclear sub-compartment was required for GLUT4 insulin-responsiveness. Accordingly, Stx6 knockdown inhibited by ∼50% the ability of internalized GLUT4myc to undergo insulin-responsive re-exocytosis without altering its overall perinuclear accumulation. We propose that Stx6 defines the insulin-responsive compartment in muscle cells. Our data are consistent with a model where ceramide could cause insulin resistance by altering intracellular GLUT4 sorting.

  3. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  4. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  5. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  6. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  7. Effect of Wildfire on Sediment Sorting in a Steep Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; O'Hirok, L.; Storesund, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire is an external forcing factor in the landscape. In chaparral environments, wildfire initiates transport of well-sorted fine sediment through dry-ravel processes on hillslopes and facilitates delivery of sediment to stream channels. In turn, this periodic post-fire sediment influx governs sorting of channel-bed material during subsequent floods that mobilize and transport the sediment downstream. We investigated the effects of the May 2013 Springs Wildfire in the Santa Monica Mountains in semi-arid southern California with field measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scanning. Before the fire, sediment sorting within the heterogeneous bed material present in Big Sycamore Creek was controlled by organized step-pool bedforms. Boulders formed steps with relatively finer cobbles, gravel, and sand filling the pools. Before the fire, the grain size distribution present in the substrate between boulder steps was relatively coarse (D84 = 250 mm), in contrast to that in the influx of sediment contributed by post-fire dry-ravel processes deposited at channel margins (D84 = 8 mm). Flow shear stress during one small flood in 2014 (post-fire) was adequate to mobilize fine dry ravel- related sediment. Transport capacity was sufficient to mobilize and transport this sediment within a study reach; however, it was not adequate to flush the fine material downstream. Shear stress required to mobilize sediment contributed by dry ravel was substantially less than that required to transport the substrate material present before the wildfire. The small flood deposited fine sediment (D84 = 16 mm) as flow lost capacity. Resulting deposition buried bedforms, changing the step-pool profile to a plane bed. The relatively poorly sorted, coarse, rough bed changed to a well sorted, fine, smooth, bed. These changes have implications for sediment transport dynamics and aquatic ecology. In steep, semi-arid, chaparral fluvial systems, sediment derived from dry-ravel processes influences the

  8. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  9. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  10. BAR-SH3 sorting nexins are conserved interacting proteins of Nervous wreck that organize synapses and promote neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukken, Fiona P; Bruckner, Joseph J; Weir, Kurt L; Hope, Sarah J; Sison, Samantha L; Birschbach, Ryan M; Hicks, Lawrence; Taylor, Kendra L; Dent, Erik W; Gonsalvez, Graydon B; O'Connor-Giles, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    Nervous wreck (Nwk) is a conserved F-BAR protein that attenuates synaptic growth and promotes synaptic function in Drosophila. In an effort to understand how Nwk carries out its dual roles, we isolated interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. We report a conserved interaction between Nwk proteins and BAR-SH3 sorting nexins, a family of membrane-binding proteins implicated in diverse intracellular trafficking processes. In mammalian cells, BAR-SH3 sorting nexins induce plasma membrane tubules that localize NWK2, consistent with a possible functional interaction during the early stages of endocytic trafficking. To study the role of BAR-SH3 sorting nexins in vivo, we took advantage of the lack of genetic redundancy in Drosophila and employed CRISPR-based genome engineering to generate null and endogenously tagged alleles of SH3PX1. SH3PX1 localizes to neuromuscular junctions where it regulates synaptic ultrastructure, but not synapse number. Consistently, neurotransmitter release was significantly diminished in SH3PX1 mutants. Double-mutant and tissue-specific-rescue experiments indicate that SH3PX1 promotes neurotransmitter release presynaptically, at least in part through functional interactions with Nwk, and might act to distinguish the roles of Nwk in regulating synaptic growth and function.

  11. Rab14 limits the sorting of Glut4 from endosomes into insulin-sensitive regulated secretory compartments in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul Duffield; Habtemichael, Estifanos N; Romenskaia, Irina; Coster, Adelle C F; Mastick, Cynthia Corley

    2016-05-15

    Insulin increases glucose uptake by increasing the rate of exocytosis of the facilitative glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) relative to its endocytosis. Insulin also releases Glut4 from highly insulin-regulated secretory compartments (GSVs or Glut4 storage vesicles) into constitutively cycling endosomes. Previously it was shown that both overexpression and knockdown of the small GTP-binding protein Rab14 decreased Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane (PM). To determine the mechanism of this perturbation, we measured the effects of Rab14 knockdown on the trafficking kinetics of Glut4 relative to two proteins that partially co-localize with Glut4, the transferrin (Tf) receptor and low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Our data support the hypothesis that Rab14 limits sorting of proteins from sorting (or 'early') endosomes into the specialized GSV pathway, possibly through regulation of endosomal maturation. This hypothesis is consistent with known Rab14 effectors. Interestingly, the insulin-sensitive Rab GTPase-activating protein Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) affects both sorting into and exocytosis from GSVs. It has previously been shown that exocytosis of GSVs is rate-limited by Rab10, and both Rab10 and Rab14 are in vitro substrates of AS160. Regulation of both entry into and exit from GSVs by AS160 through sequential Rab substrates would provide a mechanism for the finely tuned 'quantal' increases in cycling Glut4 observed in response to increasing concentrations of insulin.

  12. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  13. Constant-time parallel sorting algorithm and its optical implementation using smart pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louri, Ahmed; Hatch, James A., Jr.; Na, Jongwhoa

    1995-06-01

    Sorting is a fundamental operation that has important implications in a vast number of areas. For instance, sorting is heavily utilized in applications such as database machines, in which hashing techniques are used to accelerate data-processing algorithms. It is also the basis for interprocessor message routing and has strong implications in video telecommunications. However, high-speed electronic sorting networks are difficult to implement with VLSI technology because of the dense, global connectivity required. Optics eliminates this bottleneck by offering global interconnects, massive parallelism, and noninterfering communications. We present a parallel sorting algorithm and its efficient optical implementation. The algorithm sorts n data elements in few steps, independent of the number of elements to be sorted. Thus it is a constant-time sorting algorithm [i.e., O(1) time]. We also estimate the system's performance to show that the proposed sorting algorithm can provide at least 2 orders of magnitude improvement in execution time over conventional electronic algorithms.

  14. A High Performance FPGA-Based Sorting Accelerator with a Data Compression Mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOBAYASHI, Ryohei; KISE, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ... performance machines like embedded systems. In this paper, we present an FPGA-based sorting accelerator combining Sorting Network and Merge Sorter Tree, which is customizable by means of tuning design parameters...

  15. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Deterministic Sorting Algorithms based on Runtime and Count of Various Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyha Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting algorithms find its application in many practical fields of Computer Science. Efficient solving of sorting problem has attracted a great deal of research as it optimizes other algorithms also. The main factor which is taken into consideration while determining the efficiency of a sorting algorithm is the time complexity. Mostly the execution time of algorithms is investigated and compared for analyzing time complexity. This paper presents a comparative analysis of deterministic sorting algorithms. Time complexity of six different algorithms namely, Selection sort, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Quicksort, Heapsort and Mergesort is determined in terms of number of comparisons, swaps and assignment operations in addition to average execution time. Also, the performance of these algorithms on fully and almost sorted lists was also analyzed. The study indicates that determining the operation’s count is essential for analyzing time complexity especially when algorithms are theoretically analyzed.

  17. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements of this ......Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....

  18. Constructing Efficient Dictionaries in Close to Sorting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    -case cost of construction of the structures is proportional to only loglogn times the cost of sorting the input. Our claimed performance bounds are obtained in the word RAM model and in the external memory models; only the involved sorting procedures in the algorithms need to be changed between the models.......The dictionary problem is among the oldest problems in computer science. Yet our understanding of the complexity of the dictionary problem in realistic models of computation has been far from complete. Designing highly efficient dictionaries without resorting to use of randomness appeared...... to be a particularly challenging task. We present solutions to the static dictionary problem that significantly improve the previously known upper bounds and bring them close to obvious lower bounds. Our dictionaries have a constant lookup cost and use linear space, which was known to be possible, but the worst...

  19. Sorting and Manipulation of Magnetic Droplets in Continuous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Hatt, Oliver J.; Vojtíšek, Martin; Tarn, Mark D.; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2010-12-01

    We report the rapid on-chip generation and subsequent manipulation of magnetic droplets in continuous flow. Magnetic droplets were formed using aqueous-based ferrofluid as the dispersed phase and fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. Droplet manipulation was demonstrated with simple permanent magnets using two microfluidic platforms: (i) flow focusing droplet generation followed by their splitting into daughter droplets containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles, and (ii) droplet generation at a T-junction and their downstream deflection across a chamber for sorting based on the applied magnetic field and magnetite loading of the droplet. Both systems show great potential for performing a wide range of high throughput continuous flow processes including sample dilution, cell sorting and screening, and microparticle fabrication.

  20. Neural Network Based Color Recognition for Bobbin Sorting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Winding is a key process in the manufacturing process of textile industry. The normal and effective operation of winding process plays a very important role on the textiles’ quality and economic effects. At present, a large proportion of bobbins which collected from winder still have yarn left over. The bobbin recycling is severely limited and quick running of winder is seriously restricted, the invention of the the automatic bobbin sorting machine has solved this problem. The ability to distinguish bobbin which has yarn left over from the rest and the classification accuracy of color are the two important performance indicators for bobbin sorting machine. According to the development and application of the color recognition technology and the artificial intelligence method, this study proposes a novel color recognition method that based on BP neural networks. The result shows that the accuracy of color recognition reaches 98%.  

  1. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays.

  2. Gallium Nitride Electrical Characteristics Extraction and Uniformity Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyr-Long Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the output electrical characteristics—current-voltage (I-V output, threshold voltage, and parasitic capacitance—of novel gallium nitride (GaN power transistors. Experimental measurements revealed that both enhanced- and depletion-mode GaN field-effect transistors (FETs containing different components of identical specifications yielded varied turn-off impedance; hence, the FET quality was inconsistent. Establishing standardized electrical measurements can provide necessary information for designers, and measuring transistor electrical characteristics establishes its equivalent-circuit model for circuit simulations. Moreover, high power output requires multiple parallel power transistors, and sorting the difference between similar electrical characteristics is critical in a power system. An isolated gate driver detection method is proposed for sorting the uniformity from the option of the turn-off characteristic. In addition, an equivalent-circuit model for GaN FETs is established on the basis of the measured electrical characteristics and verified experimentally.

  3. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  4. Particle sorting using a porous membrane in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huibin; Chueh, Bor-han; Wu, Huiling; Hall, Eric W; Li, Cheuk-wing; Schirhagl, Romana; Lin, Jin-Ming; Zare, Richard N

    2011-01-21

    Porous membranes have been fabricated based on the development of the perforated membrane mold [Y. Luo and R. N. Zare, Lab Chip, 2008, 8, 1688-1694] to create a single filter that contains multiple pore sizes ranging from 6.4 to 16.6 µm inside a monolithic three-dimensional poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic structure. By overlapping two filters we are able to achieve smaller pore size openings (2.5 to 3.3 µm). This filter operates without any detectable irreversible clogging, which is achieved using a cross-flow placed in front of each filtration section. The utility of a particle-sorting device that contains this filter is demonstrated by separating polystyrene beads of different diameters with an efficiency greater than 99.9%. Additionally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this particle-sorting device by separating whole blood samples into white blood cells and red blood cells with platelets.

  5. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Erfan; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet-droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios.

  6. Control of a brain-computer interface without spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Chase, Steven M.; Whitford, Andrew; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2009-10-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a cursor using neural activity recorded with silicon arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the primary motor cortex. We have developed a method to extract movement information from the recorded single and multi-unit activity in the absence of spike sorting. By setting a single threshold across all channels and fitting the resultant events with a spline tuning function, a control signal was extracted from this population using a Bayesian particle-filter extraction algorithm. The animals achieved high-quality control comparable to the performance of decoding schemes based on sorted spikes. Our results suggest that even the simplest signal processing is sufficient for high-quality neuroprosthetic control.

  7. What about inhibition in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Houssemand, Claude

    2011-05-01

    The commercially available Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing executive functions within clinical settings. Importantly, however, it remains relatively unclear exactly what processes are assessed by the test. Conceptually, increased perseverative errors in sorting cards are usually related to deficient inhibition processes. Empirically, evidence supporting this conclusion is limited. In a sample of 38 healthy adults we addressed the question to what extent inhibition mechanisms assessed by the go/no-go and the stop-signal paradigm are related to WCST performances. Inhibition-related scores were found to predict non-perseverative errors better than perseverative errors. Consequently we conclude that the non-perseverative errors score reflects processes that are partly dependent on inhibition functions.

  8. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  9. Automatic sorting of point pattern sets using Minkowski Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Joshua; van de Raa, Matthias; van der Meer, Devaraj; Samelson, Lawrence E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Point pattern sets arise in many different areas of physical, biological, and applied research, representing many random realizations of underlying pattern formation mechanisms. These pattern sets can be heterogeneous with respect to underlying spatial processes, which may not be visually distinguishable. This heterogeneity can be elucidated by looking at statistical measures of the patterns sets and using these measures to divide the pattern set into distinct groups representing like spatial processes. We introduce here a numerical procedure for sorting point pattern sets into spatially homogeneous groups using Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA) applied to the approximated Minkowski functionals of each pattern. We demonstrate that this procedure correctly sorts pattern sets into similar groups both when the patterns are drawn from similar processes and when the 2nd-order characteristics of the pattern are identical. We highlight this routine for distinguishing the molecular patterning of fluoresc...

  10. Selective Sorting of Cargo Proteins into Bacterial Membrane Vesicles*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haurat, M. Florencia; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Rangarajan, Minnie; Dorobantu, Loredana; Gray, Murray R.; Curtis, Michael A.; Feldman, Mario F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the well established multiple cellular roles of membrane vesicles in eukaryotic cell biology, outer membrane vesicles (OMV) produced via blebbing of prokaryotic membranes have frequently been regarded as cell debris or microscopy artifacts. Increasingly, however, bacterial membrane vesicles are thought to play a role in microbial virulence, although it remains to be determined whether OMV result from a directed process or from passive disintegration of the outer membrane. Here we establish that the human oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has a mechanism to selectively sort proteins into OMV, resulting in the preferential packaging of virulence factors into OMV and the exclusion of abundant outer membrane proteins from the protein cargo. Furthermore, we show a critical role for lipopolysaccharide in directing this sorting mechanism. The existence of a process to package specific virulence factors into OMV may significantly alter our current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:21056982

  11. Image coding based on energy-sorted wavelet packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin-Wen; Lay, Kuen-Tsair

    1995-04-01

    The discrete wavelet transform performs multiresolution analysis, which effectively decomposes a digital image into components with different degrees of details. In practice, it is usually implemented in the form of filter banks. If the filter banks are cascaded and both the low-pass and the high-pass components are further decomposed, a wavelet packet is obtained. The coefficients of the wavelet packet effectively represent subimages in different resolution levels. In the energy-sorted wavelet- packet decomposition, all subimages in the packet are then sorted according to their energies. The most important subimages, as measured by the energy, are preserved and coded. By investigating the histogram of each subimage, it is found that the pixel values are well modelled by the Laplacian distribution. Therefore, the Laplacian quantization is applied to quantized the subimages. Experimental results show that the image coding scheme based on wavelet packets achieves high compression ratio while preserving satisfactory image quality.

  12. Sorting on Skills and Preferences: Tinbergen Meets Sattinger

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an assignment model where sorting occurs on attributes that are simultaneously a skill (Sattinger, 1979) and a preference (Tinbergen, 1956). The key feature of this model is that the wage function admits both jobs'' and workers'' attributes as arguments. Since this function is generically nonlinear (Ekeland et al., 2004), even under positive assortative matching, the correlation between the contribution of workers'' attributes to wages and that of jobs'' attributes can var...

  13. Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

  14. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... their expressiveness, comparative to interval-based logics, and the complexity of their satisfiability problems. In particular, we identify some previously not studied and potentially interesting interval logics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V....

  15. Sorting Through Affirmative Action: Two Field Experiments in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Affirmative action is a subject of intense debate. Supporters point to the increased representation of women and minority groups while critics contend that affirmative action can lead to inefficiencies. In this paper we present results from two field experiments that were designed to test how applicants sort in response to affirmative action rules that favor of women. Our results suggest that the criticism of affirmative action is misplaced. We find that affirmative action does not lead to lo...

  16. Are Korean Industry-Sorted Portfolios Mean Reverting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongman Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the weak-form efficient market hypothesis for Korean industry-sorted portfolios. Based on a panel variance ratio approach, we find significant mean reversion of stock returns over long horizons in the pre Asian currency crisis period but little evidence in the post-crisis period. Our empirical findings are consistent with the fact that Korea accelerated its integration with international financial market by implementing extensive capital liberalization since the crisis.

  17. Parallel Sorted Neighborhood Blocking with MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Lars; Thor, Andreas; Rahm, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Cloud infrastructures enable the efficient parallel execution of data-intensive tasks such as entity resolution on large datasets. We investigate challenges and possible solutions of using the MapReduce programming model for parallel entity resolution. In particular, we propose and evaluate two MapReduce-based implementations for Sorted Neighborhood blocking that either use multiple MapReduce jobs or apply a tailored data replication.

  18. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodar; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    We study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint, providing a generalization of the previous algorithmic models for MapReduce. We present optimal solutions for the fundamental problems of all-prefix-sums, sorting and multi-searching. Additionally, we design optimal simulations...... of the the well-established PRAM and BSP models in MapReduce, immediately resulting in optimal solutions to the problems of computing fixed-dimensional linear programming and 2-D and 3-D convex hulls....

  19. Physiology and Pathology of Endosome-to-Golgi Retrograde Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-directional traffic between the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal system sustains the functions of the trans Golgi network (TGN) in secretion and organelle biogenesis. Export of cargo from the TGN via the anterograde pathways depletes the organelle of sorting receptors, processing proteases, SNARE molecules, and other factors that are subsequently retrieved from endosomes via the retrograde pathway. Recent studies indicate that retrograde trafficking is vital to early metazoan development,...

  20. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  1. Hierarchical structure of moral stages assessed by a sorting task

    OpenAIRE

    Van Boom, J; Brugman, D.; Heijden, P.G.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    Following criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral judgment, an empirical re-examination of hierarchical stage structure was desirable. Utilizing Piaget’s concept of reflective abstraction as a basis, the hierarchical stage structure was investigated using a new method. Study participants (553 Dutch university students and 196 Russian high school students) sorted statements in terms of moral sophistication. These statements were typical for the different stages of moral development as defined ...

  2. The Generation of a Sort of Fractal Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钹; 张铃; 等

    1995-01-01

    We present an approach for generating a sort of fractal graphs by a simple probabilistic logic neuron network and show that the graphs can be represented by a set of compressed codings.An algorithm for quickly finding the codings,i.e.,recognizing the corresponding graphs,is given.The codings are shown to be optimal.The results above possibly give us the clue for studying image compression and pattern recognition.

  3. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Evidence for an intracellular sorting taking place in, or shortly after, exit from the Golgi complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1985-01-01

    the Mg2+-precipitated fraction were equally well protected from proteolytic cleavage (in the absence of Triton X-100). This indicates that the basolateral plasma membrane is unlikely to be involved in the post-Golgi transport of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N and suggests instead a direct delivery...... that for microvillar enzymes, the aspects of sorting studied take place in, or shortly after exit from, the Golgi complex....

  4. TRAM is involved in IL-18 signaling and functions as a sorting adaptor for MyD88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Ohnishi

    Full Text Available MyD88, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, mediates signals from the Toll-like receptors (TLR or IL-1/IL-18 receptors to downstream kinases. In MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling, the function of MyD88 is enhanced by another TIR domain-containing adaptor, Mal/TIRAP, which brings MyD88 to the plasma membrane and promotes its interaction with the cytosolic region of TLR4. Hence, Mal is recognized as the "sorting adaptor" for MyD88. In this study, a direct interaction between MyD88-TIR and another membrane-sorting adaptor, TRAM/TICAM-2, was demonstrated in vitro. Cell-based assays including RNA interference experiments and TRAM deficient mice revealed that the interplay between MyD88 and TRAM in cells is important in mediating IL-18 signal transduction. Live cell imaging further demonstrated the co-localized accumulation of MyD88 and TRAM in the membrane regions in HEK293 cells. These findings suggest that TRAM serves as the sorting adaptor for MyD88 in IL-18 signaling, which then facilitates the signal transduction. The binding sites for TRAM are located in the TIR domain of MyD88 and actually overlap with the binding sites for Mal. MyD88, the multifunctional signaling adaptor that works together with most of the TLR members and with the IL-1/IL-18 receptors, can interact with two distinct sorting adaptors, TRAM and Mal, in a conserved manner in a distinct context.

  5. Liver 4DMRI: A retrospective image-based sorting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133 (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133, Italy and Department of Health Sciences, Università di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is an emerging technique in radiotherapy treatment planning for organ motion quantification. In this paper, the authors present a novel 4DMRI retrospective image-based sorting method, providing reduced motion artifacts than using a standard monodimensional external respiratory surrogate. Methods: Serial interleaved 2D multislice MRI data were acquired from 24 liver cases (6 volunteers + 18 patients) to test the proposed 4DMRI sorting. Image similarity based on mutual information was applied to automatically identify a stable reference phase and sort the image sequence retrospectively, without the use of additional image or surrogate data to describe breathing motion. Results: The image-based 4DMRI provided a smoother liver profile than that obtained from standard resorting based on an external surrogate. Reduced motion artifacts were observed in image-based 4DMRI datasets with a fitting error of the liver profile measuring 1.2 ± 0.9 mm (median ± interquartile range) vs 2.1 ± 1.7 mm of the standard method. Conclusions: The authors present a novel methodology to derive a patient-specific 4DMRI model to describe organ motion due to breathing, with improved image quality in 4D reconstruction.

  6. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. Reda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  8. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  9. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  10. Towards high-throughput microfluidic Raman-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Peiran; Gou, Honglei; Mou, Chunbo; Huang, Wei E; Yang, Menglong; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-21

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) is a promising single-cell analysis technology that is able to identify and isolate individual cells of targeted type, state or environment from an isogenic population or complex consortium of cells, in a label-free and non-invasive manner. However, compared with those widely used yet labeling-required or staining-dependent cell sorting technologies such as FACS and MACS, the weak Raman signal greatly limits the further development of the existing RACS systems to achieve higher throughput. Strategies that can tackle this bottleneck include, first, improvement of Raman-acquisition efficiency and quality based on advanced Raman spectrometers and enhanced Raman techniques; second, development of novel microfluidic devices for cell sorting followed by integration into a complete RACS system. Exploiting these strategies, prototypes for a new generation of RACS have been demonstrated, such as flow-based OT-RACS, DEP-RACS, and SERS/CARS flow cytometry. Such high-throughput microfluidic RACS can provide biologists with a powerful single-cell analysis tool to explore the scientific questions or applications that have been beyond the reach of FACS and MACS.

  11. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  12. Aqueous Self-Sorting in Extended Supramolecular Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization and self-sorting processes are responsible for the regulation and control of the vast majority of biological processes that eventually sustain life on our planet. Attempts to unveil the complexity of these systems have been devoted to the investigation of the binding processes between artificial molecules, complexes or aggregates within multicomponent mixtures, which has facilitated the emergence of the field of self-sorting in the last decade. Since, artificial systems involving discrete supramolecular structures, extended supramolecular aggregates or gel-phase materials in organic solvents or—to a lesser extent—in water have been investigated. In this review, we have collected diverse strategies employed in recent years to construct extended supramolecular aggregates in water upon self-sorting of small synthetic molecules. We have made particular emphasis on co-assembly processes in binary mixtures leading to supramolecular structures of remarkable complexity and the influence of different external variables such as solvent and concentration to direct recognition or discrimination processes between these species. The comprehension of such recognition phenomena will be crucial for the organization and evolution of complex matter.

  13. Association Sorting Algorithm Design for Error Searching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Zhenghong; Li, Mengwei

    2017-02-01

    For the searching results of error searching system for Integrated Decision Information System (IDIS), this paper proposed a method to carry out association sorting according to degree of association of searched results by keywords, which can priorily recommend user interested searching results. Errors of IDIS platform are occurred very often. Because those errors belong to different stages like setup, configuration, and operation, or those errors may occurred in different services, applications, or IP ports, or may be happened in different system software, different version of software, and those errors are also can be classified into different types. As there will be many error information are searched out, it is required to sort them according to degree of association, and provide user interested results. This paper proposed a method to carry out association sorting for the searching results according to the times of searched repeated results by keywords, which effectively put results with high degree of association in the front and increase the searching efficiency.

  14. Structural determinants allowing endolysosomal sorting and degradation of endosomal GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Ruth A; Oeste, Clara L; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Ramos, Irene; Herrera, Mónica; Boya, Patricia; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2010-09-01

    Rapid control of protein degradation is usually achieved through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We recently found that the short-lived GTPase RhoB is degraded in lysosomes. Moreover, the fusion of the RhoB C-terminal sequence CINCCKVL, containing the isoprenylation and palmitoylation sites, to other proteins directs their sorting into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and rapid lysosomal degradation. Here, we show that this process is highly specific for RhoB. Alteration of late endosome lipid dynamics produced the accumulation of RhoB, but not of other endosomal GTPases, including Rab5, Rab7, Rab9 or Rab11, into enlarged MVB. Other isoprenylated and bipalmitoylated GTPases, such as H-Ras, Rap2A, Rap2B and TC10, were not accumulated into MVB and were stable. Remarkably, although TC10, which is highly homologous to RhoB, was stable, a sequence derived from its C-terminus (CINCCLIT) elicited MVB sorting and degradation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-chimeric protein. This led us to identify a cluster of basic amino acids (KKH) in the TC10 hypervariable region, constituting a secondary signal potentially involved in electrostatic interactions with membrane lipids. Mutation of this cluster allowed TC10 MVB sorting and degradation, whereas inserting it into RhoB hypervariable region rescued this protein from its lysosomal degradation pathway. These findings define a highly specific structural module for entering the MVB pathway and rapid lysosomal degradation.

  15. Exosome and Exosomal MicroRNA:Trafficking, Sorting, and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Sha Li; Lu Li; Meng Li; Chongye Guo; Jun Yao; Shuangli Mi

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are 40–100 nm nano-sized vesicles that are released from many cell types into the extracellular space. Such vesicles are widely distributed in various body fluids. Recently, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in exosomes, which can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and subsequently modulate recipient cells. This suggests an active sort-ing mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, since the miRNA profiles of exosomes may differ from those of the parent cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in disease progression, and can stimu-late angiogenesis and facilitate metastasis in cancers. In this review, we will introduce the origin and the trafficking of exosomes between cells, display current research on the sorting mechanism of exo-somal miRNAs, and briefly describe how exosomes and their miRNAs function in recipient cells. Finally, we will discuss the potential applications of these miRNA-containing vesicles in clinical settings.

  16. Digestibility Improvement of Sorted Waste with Alkaline Hydrothermai Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; WANG Hongtao; LU Wenjing; ZHAO Yan

    2009-01-01

    The digestibility of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) is often limited by the high content of structured green waste. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sorted waste and to analyze the biogas production of different parts of the waste. The waste was hydrothermally pretreated in a dilute alkali solution. The hydrolysis product was then incubated in a 500 mL saline bottle to determine the biochemical methane potential (BMP) under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The optimum hydrothermal condition was 170℃ at 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 13 936 mg/L and the methane yield was 164 mL/g volatile solid (VS) for 6 days incubation at the optimum conditions. The biogas production was increased more than 50% over the control, with the methane conversion ratio on a carbon basis enhanced to 30.6%. The organic part of the sorted waste was mainly kitchen garbage and leaves. Model kitchen garbage completely liquified at 130℃ for one hour had a methane yield of 276 mL/g VS. The alkali addition slightly enhanced the hydrolyzation rate and methane yield. The biogas potential of leaves was improved by pre-treatment at above 150℃ under alkaline conditions.

  17. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao

    2014-12-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied.

  18. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  19. Flux Control in Networks of Diffusion Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-07-08

    A class of optimization problems in networks of intersecting diffusion domains of a special form of thin paths has been considered. The system of equations describing stationary solutions is equivalent to an electrical circuit built of intersecting conductors. The solution of an optimization problem has been obtained and extended to the analogous electrical circuit. The interest in this network arises from, among other applications, an application to wave-particle diffusion through resonant interactions in plasma.

  20. Machine Vision System for Color Sorting Wood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang Lu; S. Srikanteswara; W. King; T. Drayer; Richard Conners; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "better" color given specified color uniformity and priority defined by management. The real-time color sorting system software and hardware are briefly...

  1. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  2. Lazarus's BASIC ID: Making Initial Client Assessments Using Q-Sorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents overview of Lazarus's multimodal therapy model and the Q-sort, an observer-evaluation scoring instrument. Outlines feasibility of integrating Q-sort within multimodal model. Describes both a preliminary attempt using expert raters to categorize Q-sort cards within the model and a case study on how to assess client by incorporating Q-sort…

  3. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  4. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary...... but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently, we find that unsorted barley demonstrates great potential for brewing with added enzymes and its use may help to improve sustainability of the brewing process....

  5. 血浆抗内皮细胞抗体检测在弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎中的临床价值%The Clinical Value of Plasma Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies in Patients with Diffuse Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天新; 谢耀盛; 陈波; 丁晓凯; 张挺; 许菲菲

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the correlation between plasma anti - endothelial cell antihody( AECA ) and the diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.Methods :39 patients with SLE were divided into two group, one group with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis and the other without it.The positive rate and concentration of AECA in the two groups were detected using indirect immunofluorescence technique.Results : AECA positive rate was 38.5% in all 39 lupus nephritis patients.The group with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis had higher AECA positive rate and plasma concentration than another group without diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis,hut the difference was no significance.The area under the ROC curve of AECA for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis was 0.63( 95%Confidence Interval 0.45 ~ 0.81 , P = 0.20 ).Conclusion : Positive rate of AECA was relatively higher in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.AECA was not a good predictive factor for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.%目的:探讨抗内皮细胞抗体与弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎的相关性.方法:将39例狼疮患者分为弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组和非弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组.用间接免疫荧光法检测上述两组血浆抗内皮细胞抗体的阳性率及浓度.结果:在39例狼疮患者中,抗内皮细胞抗体的阳性率为38.5%.弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组AECA的阳性率和浓度均高于非弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组,但差异无统计学意义.AECA预测弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎的ROC曲线下面积为0.63,95%可信区间为0.45~0.81,P=0.20.结论:血浆抗内皮细胞抗体在弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎中有较高的阳性率,但不能作为预测指标.

  6. Limiting Index Sort: A New Non-Dominated Sorting Algorithm and its Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    dominé (NSGA-II). Nous introduisons l’algorithme Limiting Index Sort (LIS) et démontrons sa supériorité pour le tri des données positivement corrélés ou...et démontrons sa supériorité pour le tri des données positivement corrélées ou décorrélées. LIS indexe les solutions individuelles sur la base de...Limiting Index Sort (LIS) et démontrons sa supériorité pour le tri des données positivement corrélés ou décorrélés. LIS indexe les solutions individuelles

  7. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  8. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  9. Bubble-sort图和Modified Bubble-sort图的自同构群%Automorphism Groups of Bubble-sort Graphs and Modified Bubble-sort Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 黄琼湘

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs are two classes of Cayley graphs which are widely studied for their application in network construction. In this paper, we determine the full automorphism groups of bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs.%Bubble-Sort图和Modified Bubble-Sort图是两类特殊的Cayley图,由于其在网络构建中的应用而受到广泛关注.本文完全确定了这两类图的自同构群.

  10. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  11. On extreme points of the diffusion polytope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. J.; Schiff, J.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-05-01

    We consider a class of diffusion problems defined on simple graphs in which the populations at any two vertices may be averaged if they are connected by an edge. The diffusion polytope is the convex hull of the set of population vectors attainable using finite sequences of these operations. A number of physical problems have linear programming solutions taking the diffusion polytope as the feasible region, e.g. the free energy that can be removed from plasma using waves, so there is a need to describe and enumerate its extreme points. We review known results for the case of the complete graph Kn, and study a variety of problems for the path graph Pn and the cyclic graph Cn. We describe the different kinds of extreme points that arise, and identify the diffusion polytope in a number of simple cases. In the case of increasing initial populations on Pn the diffusion polytope is topologically an n-dimensional hypercube.

  12. The Chern-Simons diffusion rate in improved holographic QCD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gürsoy, U; Iatrakis, I; Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F; O’Bannon, A

    2013-01-01

    ... ], with F the YM field strength. The Chern-Simons diffusion rate is a crucial ingredient for many CP-odd phenomena, including the chiral magnetic effect in the quark-gluon plasma. We compute Γ...

  13. Depth optimal sorting networks resistant to k passive faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrow, M. [Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of constructing a sorting network that is tolerant to faults and whose running time (i.e. depth) is as small as possible. We consider the scenario of worst-case comparator faults and follow the model of passive comparator failure proposed by Yao and Yao, in which a faulty comparator outputs directly its inputs without comparison. Our main result is the first construction of an N-input, k-fault-tolerant sorting network that is of an asymptotically optimal depth {theta}(log N+k). That improves over the recent result of Leighton and Ma, whose network is of depth O(log N + k log log N/log k). Actually, we present a fault-tolerant correction network that can be added after any N-input sorting network to correct its output in the presence of at most k faulty comparators. Since the depth of the network is O(log N + k) and the constants hidden behind the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} notation are not big, the construction can be of practical use. Developing the techniques necessary to show the main result, we construct a fault-tolerant network for the insertion problem. As a by-product, we get an N-input, O(log N)-depth INSERT-network that is tolerant to random faults, thereby answering a question posed by Ma in his PhD thesis. The results are based on a new notion of constant delay comparator networks, that is, networks in which each register is used (compared) only in a period of time of a constant length. Copies of such networks can be put one after another with only a constant increase in depth per copy.

  14. Preliminary Results on Sediment Sorting Under Intense Bedload Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Vautin, D.; Mathews, S. L.; Kuprenas, R.; Viparelli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous experiments show that parallel-laminated deposits are emplaced under upper plane bed regime by the migration of small-amplitude, long-wavelength bedforms. The present research focuses on how sediment is sorted under upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes, and whether parallel-lamination is inhibited during sheet flow transport. The problem of studying the sorting of sediment under so intense transport conditions is plagued by the uncertainties related to flow resistances and bedload transport rates. We simplify the problem by first running the experiments with uniform sediment, to establish a baseline that will aid in the design of the experiments with poorly sorted material. We are running experiments at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, in a unidirectional sediment-feed flume, 9 meters long by 0.2 meters wide, of which 7 meters are used as test section. During the experiments, water surface and bed elevations are periodically measured to characterize the global parameters of the flow, e.g. mean flow velocity and bed shear stress. When the flow and the sediment transport reach conditions of mobile bed equilibrium, bed elevation fluctuations are measured with ultrasonic transducer systems at six fixed locations. Channel bed aggradation is then induced by slowly raising the tail gate of the flume such that there is no change in transport regime, as confirmed by additional measurements of water surface and bed elevation and bed elevation fluctuations. Preliminary observations under upper plane bed regime show the formation of the small-amplitude and long-wavelength bedforms, as well as hints of parallel lamination in the deposits. In the near future we aim to achieve sheet flow transport conditions with both uniform and non-uniform grain size distributions to look at the internal structure of the emplaced deposit.

  15. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  16. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikic Ivan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts.

  17. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M.; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained “ground truth” data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data. PMID:27536990

  18. BSSSN: Bit String Swapping Sorting Network for Reversible Logic Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced the notion of UselessGate and ReverseOperation. We have also given an algorithm to implement a sorting network for reversible logic synthesis based on swapping bit strings. The network is constructed in terms of n*n Toffoli Gates read from left to right and it has shown that there will be no more gates than the number of swappings the algorithm requires. The gate complexity of the network is O(n2). The number of gates in the network can be further reduced by template reduction technique and removing UselessGate from the network.

  19. Study for standardization of the lighting system in fruit sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. F. S.; Baldner, F. O.; Costa, P. B.; Guedes, M. B.; Oliveira, I. A. A.; Leta, F. R.

    2016-07-01

    Sorting is a very important step in the fruit processing. The attributes definition and characterization are important for both marketing and end user, making it necessary to establish regulations for classification and standardization in order to unify the language of the market and enabling a more efficient market and also increase consumer awareness. For this end, it is necessary to standardize the technical criteria that can change the perception of the product. Studies have been developed in order to standardize a methodology to determine the subclass of fruit ripening, evaluating the influence of different light sources in the subclass evaluation.

  20. A Special Sort of Forgetting: Negation in Freud and Augustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengart, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The development from a positive, dualistic theory of memory and forgetting to a concept of memory that includes forgetting as a variety of remembering is traced in two thinkers. Freud's concept of repression is discussed as a complex negation of both remembering and forgetting, and the development of this construct is shown in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess. A close reading of Augustine of Hippo's Confessions shows a similar concept of a special sort of forgetting, in which what is forgotten is remembered nonetheless. Finally, the limits of the comparison are discussed, and a reading of Freud's "Negation" reveals ways in which the unconscious is fundamentally unlike Augustine's interiority.