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Sample records for plasma blood

  1. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  2. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  3. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...) Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma AGENCY: Food and... requirements for blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, into one section of the Code of Federal..., and Source Plasma,'' which amended Sec. 606.121(d)(2) by adding ``or in solid black,''...

  4. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  5. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  6. Smart Pipette and Microfluidic Pipette Tip for Blood Plasma Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-01-13

    An integrated method for blood plasma separation is presented by combining a pneumatic device, which is referred to as a "smart pipette," and a hydrophoretic microchannel as a microfluidic pipette tip for whole-blood sample preparation. This method enables hemolysis-free, high-purity plasma separation through smart pipetting of whole blood, potentially providing the means for rapid, inexpensive blood sample preparation for point-of-care testing.

  7. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  8. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  9. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    separation and analyte detection on-chip are reported in the literature [1]. Although versatile, these plasma separation techniques often require sample dilution prior to separation and use low flow rates resulting in longer processing times which greatly hinders their use in commercial systems. Here we......Blood is a complex biological matrix that has a huge potential for diagnostics as it contains various analytes and biomarkers. Traditionally the analysis is performed on plasma and white blood cells separated from venous blood. However, the collection of venous blood samples is painful and requires...... a few milliliters of blood. It has been demonstrated that the blood taken from finger prick contains the same analytes as venous blood in sufficient abundance and could therefore be used for diagnosis as an alternative in many cases. Various approaches towards analysis of finger prick blood with plasma...

  10. Plasma functionalization of titanium surface for repulsion of blood platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Cvelbar, Uros; Modic, Martina; Kovac, J.; Lazovic, S; Filipic, G; Vujosevic, D; Junkar, Ita; Elersic, Kristina; Brühl, S.P.; Canal Barnils, Cristina; Belmonte, Thierry; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    Thrombosis and restenosis are the most common problems during insertion of biocompatible implants like titanium stents into human blood, due to aggregation of platelets on their surfaces. Because of this reason, we studied the response of blood platelets to a plasma treated titanium surface. The aim was to design a functionalized surface which would repel blood platelets or prevent their adhesion. Therefore, we functionalized surfaces with low-temperature inductively coupled oxygen plasma tre...

  11. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  12. Wavelet-analysis for Laser Images of Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELSKY, A.-P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of the local wavelet-analysis of polarization-inhomogeneous laser image of human blood plasma were considered. The set of statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of the distributions of wavelet-coefficients that are characterize different scales of the polarization maps of polycrystalline networks of amino acids of blood plasma were defined. The criteria for the differentiation of the transformation of birefringence optical-anisotropic structures of blood plasma at different scales of their geometric dimensions were determined.

  13. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, ... Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs ... of zinc within the body; notably.

  14. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  15. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veek. 1 990, 20(3). Concentrations of plasma mpper, plasma zinc and blood selenium ... these breeds make them suitable for meat production in arid, cxtonsive regions. ..... effect of high levels of dietary molyMenum and sulphate on SA Mutton ...

  16. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H;

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...

  17. Removal of Chronic Intravascular Blood Clots using Liquid Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Choi, Myeong; Koo, Il; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George

    2011-10-01

    An electrical embolectomy device for removing chronic intravascular blood clots using liquid plasma under saline environment was demonstrated. We employed a proxy experimental blood clot model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and actual equine blood clot. Thermal damage to contiguous tissue and the collagen denaturing via the plasma irradiation were investigated by histological analysis using birefringence of the tissue and verified by FT-IR spectroscopic study, respectively, which showed the high removal rate up to 2 mm per minute at room temperature and small thermal damage less than 200 μm.

  18. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  19. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Damgaard; Karin Magnussen; Christian Enevold; Martin Nilsson; Tim Tolker-Nielsen; Palle Holmstrup; Claus Henrik Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Design Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-sus...

  20. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...... the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA...

  1. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  2. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  3. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  4. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  5. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  6. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  7. Stability of catecholamines in whole blood, plasma, and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T B; Smith, C C; Round, J M; Betteridge, D J

    1986-05-01

    Checking catecholamine stability in whole blood, plasma, and platelets, we found that specimens stored at room temperature or frozen for periods ranging from 1.5 h to three weeks show no significant difference in measured catecholamine concentration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  9. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Savelyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs’ fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  10. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Kuligina, Elena V; Bariakin, Dmitry N; Kozlov, Vadim V; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Richter, Vladimir A; Semenov, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  11. [Differential scanning calorimetry of blood plasma in breast cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, István; Fekecs, Tamás; Moezzi, Medhi; Tizedes, György; Pavlovics, Gábor; Kálmán, Endre; Horváth, Péter Ors; Ferencz, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its incidence has been increasing for many years in economically developed countries. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique which monitors small heat changes between sample and reference materials. This examination is a validly efficient method for the demonstration of structural changes not only in the physical sciences, but in numerous human oncological diseases. The goal of this study was to measure DSC thermogram of blood plasma in breast cancer patients with different stages. Nineteen women with different tumor diameter (0.5-7.5 mm) and with or without regional lymph node metastases were involved in the study. Preoperatively peripheral blood samples were collected from the patients and from healthy controls, and plasma components were analysed by SETARAM micro DSC-II calorimeter. The diameter of the tumor tissue and the number of metastatic lymph nodes were evaluated on the basis of postoperative histological results. In the current study we found difference in changes of the thermal parameters (transition temperature, calorimetric enthalpy) of breast cancer patients' plasma components. Moreover, a tendency has been found for association of these results with tumor size and with the degree of regional lymph node involvement. Preliminary study of the clinical utility of DSC technology arises, even though there is no data in the literature. In cases of breast cancer the blood plasma may be suitable for DSC analysis for diagnosis or staging as well. In order to clarify the relationships we are planning further studies.

  12. Plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood vessels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; K Nalini; J Prakasa Rao

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. While the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. This reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. Heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanide. Denuded aortas retained only 30% of the activity of intact tissue. Our results indicate that the amphibian postcaval vein and aorta exhibit plasma membrane electron transport

  13. Proteins involved in the Vroman effect during exposure of human blood plasma to glass and polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turbill, P.; Beugeling, T.; Poot, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The amounts of fibrinogen adsorbed to glass from various human blood plasmas have been measured as a function of time. The plasmas were 11 single donor plasmas, pooled plasma, a single donor high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma and HMWK-deficient plasma, which had been reconstitut

  14. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2011-09-07

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient's inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400,000 adult and 20,000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  15. CYP1A2 phenotyping in dried blood spots and microvolumes of whole blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2014-01-01

    Phenotyping, using caffeine as probe substrate, is a proper method to assess CYP1A2 activity. We evaluated the utility of dried blood spots (DBS) for CYP1A2 phenotyping. LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitation of caffeine and its metabolite paraxanthine in DBS, whole blood and plasma. All parameters met the pre-established criteria. While recovery, matrix effects and precision were unaffected by hematocrit (Hct), there was a Hct effect on accuracy, although for the evaluated Hct interval (0.36-0.50) it remained within acceptable limits. The phenotyping methods were successfully applied in healthy volunteers. Excellent method performance and highly comparable phenotyping indices in DBS, whole blood and plasma, combined with the benefits of DBS sampling, illustrate the suitability of DBS-based CYP1A2 phenotyping.

  16. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.

  17. Nanoliter viscometer for analyzing blood plasma and other liquid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Davenport, Robertson D; Burns, Mark A

    2005-01-15

    We have developed a microfabricated nanoliter capillary viscometer that quickly, easily, and inexpensively measures the viscosity of liquids. The measurement of viscosity is based on capillary pressure-driven flow inside microfluidic channels (depth approximately 30 microm and width approximately 300 microm). Accurate and precise viscosity measurements can be made in less than 100 s while using only 600 nL of liquid sample. The silicon-glass hybrid device (18 mm by 15 mm) contains on-chip components that measure the driving capillary pressure difference and the relevant geometrical parameters; these components make the nanoliter viscometer completely self-calibrating, robust, and easy to use. Several different microfabricated viscometers were tested using solutions with viscosities ranging from 1 to 5 cP, a range relevant to biological fluids (urine, blood, blood plasma, etc.). Blood plasma samples collected from patients with the symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome were tested on the nanoliter capillary viscometer to an accuracy of 3%. Such self-calibrating nanoliter viscometers may have widespread applications in chemical, biological, and medical laboratories as well as in personal health care.

  18. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  19. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  20. Characterization of thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration. We performed multiple filtration experiments using human blood to compare the influence of three factors on separation efficiency: hematocrit level (40%, 23.2%, and 10.9%), membrane pore size (5 μm, 2 μm, and 1 μm), and flow rate (0.02 ml/min, 0.06 ml/min, 0.1 ml/min). To prevent hemolysis, the pressure within the microchannel was kept below 0.5 bars throughout all filtration experiments. The experimental results clearly demonstrated the following: (1) The proposed microfiltration chip is able to separate white blood cells and red blood cells from whole human blood with a separation efficiency that exceeds 95%; (2) no leakage occurred during any of the experiments, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of bonding a commercial membrane with a thermoplastic substrate using UV adhesive in a ring-shaped structure; (3) separation efficiency can be increased by using a membrane with smaller pore size, by using diluted blood with lower hematocrit, or by injecting blood into the microfiltration chip at a lower flow rate.

  1. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  2. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D

    1984-01-01

    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  3. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  4. Motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist before their first donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van Dongen, Anne

    2013-08-01

    The demand for plasma products has increased rapidly. It is therefore important to understand donating behavior by plasma donors. This study investigates whether motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist at the beginning of a donor career. New donors (n = 4861) were invited to fill out a questionnaire before their first donation (response, 61%). The questionnaire assessed variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and norms), conscientiousness, and donation anxiety. Three years later it was determined who became whole blood or plasma donor. Multivariable linear regression analyses for intention were fitted separately for whole blood and plasma donors. A logistic regression analysis was executed to estimate the effect of intention at the beginning of a donor career on becoming a plasma donor. Plasma donors had a higher intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and conscientiousness and a lower anxiety than whole blood donors. In plasma and whole blood donors, both self-efficacy and cognitive attitude were positively related to intention but with different strength (plasma, β = 0.47 and β = 0.30; whole blood, β = 0.57 and β = 0.17). Having a high level of intention increased the odds of becoming a plasma donor (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.59). Motivational differences already exist between future whole blood and plasma donors before their first donation. Although a feeling of self-efficacy is necessary for all new donors, more favorable cognitions are important for future plasma donors. Recruitment strategies for plasma donors should focus on attracting the more self-confident donors by highlighting the usefulness of plasma donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  6. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  7. Gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, and plasma during long-term chrysotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, S.M.; Graabaek, P M

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, cell-rich plasma, and cell-free plasma were investigated in 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing long-term chrysotherapy. Gold estimations were performed with a graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significant quantities of gold were found in isolated erythrocytes of 12 patients. There was no correlation between erythrocyte gold and therapeutic response, plasma gold, and gold in whole blood. Nor did gold in who...

  8. Steroid concentrations in plasma, whole blood and brain: effects of saline perfusion to remove blood contamination from brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Taves

    Full Text Available The brain and other organs locally synthesize steroids. Local synthesis is suggested when steroid levels are higher in tissue than in the circulation. However, measurement of both circulating and tissue steroid levels are subject to methodological considerations. For example, plasma samples are commonly used to estimate circulating steroid levels in whole blood, but steroid levels in plasma and whole blood could differ. In addition, tissue steroid measurements might be affected by blood contamination, which can be addressed experimentally by using saline perfusion to remove blood. In Study 1, we measured corticosterone and testosterone (T levels in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata plasma, whole blood, and red blood cells (RBC. We also compared corticosterone in plasma, whole blood, and RBC at baseline and after 60 min restraint stress. In Study 2, we quantified corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, T, and 17β-estradiol (E₂ levels in the brains of sham-perfused or saline-perfused subjects. In Study 1, corticosterone and T concentrations were highest in plasma, significantly lower in whole blood, and lowest in RBC. In Study 2, saline perfusion unexpectedly increased corticosterone levels in the rostral telencephalon but not other regions. In contrast, saline perfusion decreased DHEA levels in caudal telencephalon and diencephalon. Saline perfusion also increased E₂ levels in caudal telencephalon. In summary, when comparing local and systemic steroid levels, the inclusion of whole blood samples should prove useful. Moreover, blood contamination has little or no effect on measurement of brain steroid levels, suggesting that saline perfusion is not necessary prior to brain collection. Indeed, saline perfusion itself may elevate and lower steroid concentrations in a rapid, region-specific manner.

  9. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

  11. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  12. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. Fu....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  13. Blood plasma separation in a long two-phase plug flowing through disposable tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Khan, Zeina S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2012-12-21

    We report a simple technique to separate plasma from blood in a flowing immiscible plug. We investigate the effect of various control parameters such as blood dilution, injection flow rate, observation time and fluid properties on plasma separation. We find that the technique works best for diluted blood samples at low plug velocities and long observation times. We postulate that the main mechanism responsible for efficient separation is the sedimentation of blood cells in the plug and their subsequent collection by the moving plug causing a significant accumulation of cells at the rear of the plug. We discuss the time scales determining the sedimentation, advection and collection of a blood cell in the immiscible plug and propose a phase diagram that is able to predict the operating space for effective plasma separation. We demonstrate that the technique allows for the extraction of more than 60% of the plasma by volume from 1 μL of diluted blood. We show the practical significance of this method by compartmentalizing the separated plasma into discrete microfluidic droplets and detecting cholesterol. This technique features low consumption of blood (nL-scale) and low shear rate (∼1 s(-1)). It is inexpensive, easy to use, and has the potential to be developed as an efficient point-of-care device for blood diagnostics in resource-poor environments. More advanced applications could also be envisioned by integrating our plasma separation method into existing microfluidic drop manipulation techniques.

  14. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  15. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  16. Evaluation of blood compatibility of plasma deposited heparin-like films and SF6 plasma treated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanira Antunes Perrenoud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In devices used in open-heart surgery and dialysis, blood must be continuously processed using extracorporeal circuits composed of peristaltic pumps and active components such as specific filters and oxygenators. Several procedures have been employed to avoid blood coagulation induced by contact with the artificial surfaces of such devices. Often heparin, a bioactive protein able to prevent clot formation, is employed. In this work, we have used heparin-containing gas plasmas to evaluate the possibility of depositing adherent anticoagulant films onto PVC and glass surfaces. The films were produced by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from heparin/isopropanol and heparin/hexamethyldisiloxane solutions. In addition, the effects of exposure to SF6 plasmas on the compatibility of such surfaces have also been investigated. The blood compatibility was evaluated through the determination of the density of platelets and fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT and prothrombin times (PT of human blood freshly collected and after contact for 2.5 hours with different surfaces. The deposited films were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and surface energy measurements. The coagulation time of blood, placed in contact with glass substrates coated by PECVD films of heparin/isopropanol mixtures, and in contact with SF6 plasma-treated PVC, increased by about 60 and 20%, respectively, compared to the values measured with untreated samples.

  17. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  18. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  19. THz spectroscopy of whole blood, plasma and cells in mice of SHR line with various pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A.; Tyndyk, M.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Sulatskiy, M.; Kravtsenyuk, O.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to studying of optical properties of whole blood and blood plasma in SHR mice grafted Ehrlich's carcinoma and mice with chronic inflammation at the terahertz frequency range. Additionally physiological saline solution suspension of ascites Ehrlich's carcinoma cells was explored.

  20. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  1. Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2013-11-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active.

  2. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet...... concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing...

  3. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion Is Not Associated With Decreased Red Blood Cell Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Chandran, Arun; Jenkins, Gregory; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill patients frequently receive plasma transfusion under the assumptions that abnormal coagulation test results confer increased risk of bleeding and that plasma transfusion will decrease this risk. However, the effect of prophylactic plasma transfusion remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between prophylactic plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a single academic institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years and an international normalized ratio measured during ICU admission. Multivariable propensity-matched analyses were used to evaluate associations between prophylactic plasma transfusion and outcomes of interest with a primary outcome of red blood cell transfusion in the ensuing 24 hours and secondary outcomes of hospital- and ICU-free days and mortality within 30 days of ICU discharge. A total of 27,561 patients were included in the investigation with 2472 (9.0%) receiving plasma therapy and 1105 (44.7%) for which plasma transfusion was prophylactic in nature. In multivariable propensity-matched analyses, patients receiving plasma had higher rates of red blood cell transfusion (odds ratio: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 3.3-5.7], P plasma in the critically ill was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further investigation examining the utility of plasma transfusion in this population is warranted.

  4. Multiplexing slanted spiral microchannels for ultra-fast blood plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeie, Mehdi; Zhang, Jun; Asadnia, Mohsen; Li, Weihua; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-08-07

    Blood and blood products are critical components of health care. Blood components perform distinct functions in the human body and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components (i.e., plasma and cellular components) is of utmost importance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Although conventional approaches like centrifugation and membrane filtration for blood processing have been successful in generating relatively pure fractions, they are largely limited by factors such as the required blood sample volume, component purity, clogging, processing time and operation efficiency. In this work, we developed a high-throughput inertial microfluidic system for cell focusing and blood plasma separation from small to large volume blood samples (1-100 mL). Initially, polystyrene beads and blood cells were used to investigate the inertial focusing performance of a single slanted spiral microchannel as a function of particle size, flow rate, and blood cell concentration. Afterwards, blood plasma separation was conducted using an optimised spiral microchannel with relatively large dimensions. It was found that the reject ratio of the slanted spiral channel is close to 100% for blood samples with haematocrit (HCT) values of 0.5% and 1% under an optimal flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). Finally, through a unique multiplexing approach, we built a high-throughput system consisting of 16 spiral channels connected together, which can process diluted samples with a total flow rate as high as 24 mL min(-1). The proposed multiplexed system can surmount the shortcomings of previously reported microfluidic systems for plasma separation and cell sorting in terms of throughput, yield and operation efficiency.

  5. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n=105) and cancer (n=75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  6. Gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, and plasma during long-term chrysotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S M; Graabaek, P M

    1980-12-01

    The concentrations of gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, cell-rich plasma, and cell-free plasma were investigated in 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing long-term chrysotherapy. Gold estimations were performed with a graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significant quantities of gold were found in isolated erythrocytes of 12 patients. There was no correlation between erythrocyte gold and therapeutic response, plasma gold, and gold in whole blood. Nor did gold in whole blood or plasma show any correlation with therapeutic responses and toxic reaction. However, all patients (3) with toxic reactions had a significantly higher gold concentration in the erythrocytes than the patients without toxic reactions. This result indicates that erythrocyte gold estimations could provide a useful warning of impeding toxic reactions.

  7. Pentobarbital effects on plasma catecholamines: temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, D; Halter, J B; Taborsky, G J; Porte, D

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intravenous pentobarbital were studied in dogs. Plasma pentobarbital concentrations were inversely related to epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Plasma catecholamines appeared fully suppressed at pentobarbital levels greater than 25-30 micrograms/ml. Furthermore, pentobarbital levels were negatively related to rectal temperature, heart rate, and mean blood pressure. The methods of pentobarbital administration influenced plasma pentobarbital as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. These observations suggest the possibility that pentobarbital inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn may affect temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Because pentobarbital anesthesia affects plasma catecholamine concentrations, the regimen used in animal models requires consideration when interpreting data potentially influenced by the sympathetic nervous system.

  8. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  9. HIV migration between blood plasma and cellular subsets before and after HIV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Chaillon, Antoine; Oh, Jin Ok; Ahn, Jin Young; Ann, Hae Won; Jung, In Young; Ahn, Mi-Young; Jeon, Yong Duk; Ku, Nam Su; Smith, Davey M; Kim, June Myung

    2016-04-01

    The cellular source of HIV RNA circulating in blood plasma remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether sequence analysis of HIV RNA populations circulating before combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HIV DNA populations in cellular subsets (CS) after cART could identify the cellular sources of circulating HIV RNA. Blood was collected from five subjects at cART initiation and again 6 months later. Naïve CD4+ T cells, resting central memory and effector memory CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells were sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. HIV-1 env C2V3 sequences from HIV RNA in blood plasma and HIV DNA in CSs were generated using single genome sequencing. Sequences were evaluated for viral compartmentalization (Fst test) and migration events (MEs; Slatkin Maddison and cladistic measures) between blood plasma and each CS. Viral compartmentalization was observed in 88% of all cellular subset comparisons (range: 77-100% for each subject). Most observed MEs were directed from blood plasma to CSs (52 MEs, 85.2%). In particular, there was only viral movement from plasma to NK cells (15 MEs), monocytes (seven MEs), and naïve cells (five ME). We observed a total of nine MEs from activated CD4 cells (2/9 MEs), central memory T cells (3/9 MEs), and effector memory T cells (4/9 MEs) to blood plasma. Our results revealed that the HIV RNA population in blood plasma plays an important role in seeding various cellular reservoirs and that the cellular source of the HIV RNA population is activated central memory and effector memory T cells.

  10. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    sources, including the HUPO PPP dataset. CONCLUSION: Superior instrumentation combined with rigorous validation criteria gave rise to a set of 697 plasma proteins in which we have very high confidence, demonstrated by an exceptionally low false peptide identification rate of 0.29%.......BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list...

  11. High-throughput blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using spiral inertial microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Ni, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we explored the blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using a spiral inertial microfluidic device. First, the flow-rate and concentration effects on the migration dynamics of blood cells were systematically investigated to uncover the focusing mechanisms and steric crowding effects of cells in Dean-coupled inertial flows. A novel phenomenon that the focusing status of discoid red blood cells (RBCs) changes according to the channel height was discovered. These experimental data may provide valuable insights for the high-throughput processing of blood samples using inertial microfluidics. On the basis of the improved understandings on blood cell focusing, efficient isolation of plasma from whole blood with a 20-fold dilution was achieved at a throughput up to 700 μl/min. The purity of the isolated blood plasma was close to 100 %, and the plasma yield was calculated to be 38.5 %. As compared with previously-reported devices, our spiral inertial microfluidic device provides a balanced overall performance, and has overriding advantages in terms of processing throughput and operating efficiency.

  12. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    ...% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed...

  13. Plasma degradome affected by variable storage of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaisar, Maria; Van Dullemen, Leon F. A.; Thezenas, Marie-Laetitia; Akhtar, M. Zeeshan; Huang, Honglei; Rendel, Sandrine; Charles, Philip D.; Fischer, Roman; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The successful application of-omics technologies in the discovery of novel biomarkers and targets of therapeutic interventions is facilitated by large collections of well curated clinical samples stored in bio banks. Mining the plasma proteome holds promise to improve our understanding o

  14. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  15. Plasma Skimming in a Spiral Groove Bearing of a Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Plasma skimming is a phenomenon in which discharge hematocrit is lower than feed hematocrit in microvessels. Plasma skimming has been investigated at a bearing gap in a spiral groove bearing (SGB), as this has the potential to prevent hemolysis in the SGB of a blood pump. However, it is not clear whether plasma skimming occurs in a blood pump with the SGB, because the hematocrit has not been obtained. The purpose of this study is to verify plasma skimming in an SGB of a centrifugal blood pump by developing a hematocrit measurement method in an SGB. Erythrocyte observation using a high-speed microscope and a bearing gap measurement using a laser confocal displacement meter was performed five times. In these tests, bovine blood as a working fluid was diluted with autologous plasma to adjust the hematocrit to 1.0%. A resistor was adjusted to achieve a pressure head of 100 mm Hg and a flow rate of 5.0 L/min at a rotational speed of 2800 rpm. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was measured using an image analysis based on motion image of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, the measured bearing gap, and a cross-sectional area of erythrocyte. Mean hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was linearly reduced from 0.97 to 0.07% with the decreasing mean bearing gap from 38 to 21 μm when the rotational speed was changed from 2250 to 3000 rpm. A maximum plasma skimming efficiency of 93% was obtained with a gap of 21 μm. In conclusion, we succeeded in measuring the hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB of the blood pump. Hematocrit decreased on the ridge region in the SGB and plasma skimming occurred with a bearing gap of less than 30 μm in the hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

  16. A successful experience of the Iranian blood transfusion organization in improving accessibility and affordability of plasma derived medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegini, Azita; Torab, Seyed Ardeshir; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-01

    Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is estimated 21.6 million liters of plasma collect from Whole blood annually. From these plasma, 4.2 million liters transfuse, 8.1 million liters fractionate, 9.3 million liters waste. Nowadays, blood products and PDM (plasma derived medicine) consider as essential medicine in modern health care and transfusion medicine. Iranian blood transfusion organization as a non-profit organization was established in 1974 in order to centralize all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to distribution of blood components to hospitals. Iran is the only country in EMR region with the rate of 20-29.9 blood donations per 1000 population and reached 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation in 2007. RBCs and platelets demand are much more than FFPs so the IBTO was faced the surplus plasma that could cause surplus plasma wastage. Simultaneously, hospitals need more plasma derived medicine especially albumin, IVIG, factor VIII, factor IX. IBTO was faced the challenges such as Fractionators selection, Plasma volume shipment, Contract duration, Product profile, Multiple External audits, Cold chain maintenance, Transporting plasma across international borders, NAT test. To overcome plasma wastage and storage of PDM. IBTO involved toll manufacturing in 2005 and not only prevents plasma wastage but also save MOH (ministry of health) budget.

  17. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  18. Hemorheological alterations of red blood cells induced by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Chang, Boksoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been introduced in various applications such as wound healing, sterilization of infected tissues, blood coagulation, delicate surgeries, and so on. The non-thermal plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), including ozone. Various groups have reported that the produced ROS influence proliferation and differentiation of cells, as well as apoptosis and growth arrest of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of non-thermal plasma on rheological characteristics of red blood cells (RBC). We experimentally measured the extent of hemolysis, deformability, and aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) with respect to exposure times of non-thermal plasma. RBC morphology was also examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The absorbance of hemoglobin released from the RBCs increased with increasing exposure time of the non-thermal plasma. Values of the elongation index and aggregation index were shown to decrease significantly with increasing plasma exposure times. Therefore, hemorheological properties of RBCs could be utilized to assess the performance of various non-thermal plasmas.

  19. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  20. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  1. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  2. Analysis of whole blood samples with low gas flow inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Künnemeyer, Jens; Terborg, Lydia; Trümpler, Stefan; Günsel, Andreas; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Karst, Uwe; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Low gas flow ICP-OES with a total argon consumption below 0.7 L/min is introduced for the analysis of trace elements in blood samples to investigate the influence of samples containing an organic solvent in a demanding matrix on the performance of this plasma for the first time. Therefore, gadolinium was determined in human plasma samples and mercury in red blood cells, human plasma, and precipitated plasma protein fraction. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined to be in the low microgram per liter range for the analytes and the accuracy of the method was assessed by comparison with a conventional Fassel-type torch-based ICP-OES. It was proven that the low gas flow ICP-OES leads to comparable results with the instrument based on the Fassel-type torch.

  3. Isolation of plasma from whole blood using planar microfilters for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Timothy A; Pizziconi, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    Researchers are actively developing devices for the microanalysis of complex fluids, such as blood. These devices have the potential to revolutionize biological analysis in a manner parallel to the computer chip by providing very high throughput screening of complex samples and massively parallel bioanalytical capabilities. A necessary step performed in clinical chemistry is the isolation of plasma from whole blood, and effective sample preparation techniques are needed for the development of miniaturized clinical diagnostic devices. This study demonstrates the use of passive, operating entirely on capillary action, transverse-flow microfilter devices for the microfluidic isolation of plasma from whole blood. Using these planar microfilters, blood can be controllably fractionated with minimal cell lysis. A characterization of the device performance reveals that plasma filter flux is dependent upon the wall shear rate of blood in the filtration channel, and this result is consistent with macroscale blood filtration using microporous membranes. Also, an innovative microfluidic layout is demonstrated that extends device operation time via capillary action from seconds to minutes. Efficiency of these microfilters is approximately three times higher than the separation efficiencies predicted for microporous membranes under similar conditions. As such, the application of the microscale blood filtration designs used in this study may have broad implications in the design of lab-on-a-chip devices, as well as the field of separation science.

  4. Fibrin glue from stored human plasma. An inexpensive and efficient method for local blood bank preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, W D; Mintz, P D; Avery, N; Bithell, T C; Kaul, S; Nolan, S P

    1987-08-01

    European surgeons have used fibrin glue extensively during thoracic, cardiovascular, and general surgical operations. Until now, however, it has been available only as a commercial preparation made from pooled human plasma, and it has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States because of a high associated risk of hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Methods of obtaining fibrinogen, an essential component of fibrin glue, from cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma have been published recently. However, the cryoprecipitate method results in relatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, which can reduce glue effectiveness. The fresh frozen plasma method is more expensive and does not meet the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks for the "closed" system required for safe handling and management of blood component products. Both the cryoprecipitate and the fresh frozen plasma methods result in waste of unstable clotting factors. These factors are necessary to replace human plasma clotting deficiencies but are not necessary for the production of fibrin glue. The authors have developed an efficient, high-concentration blood bank method for producing and maintaining a local supply of a safer and less expensive but equally effective material derived from stored human plasma. This material is produced using approved blood bank techniques for a "closed" system in blood component production, thus reducing the risks of contamination and infection, and its fibrinogen concentration is higher than that of standard cryoprecipitate. The cost of 1 unit of this fibrin glue is comparable to that for 1 unit of cryoprecipitate and less than that for 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2010-04-19

    Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia. Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. We here compare the effects of four common anesthesia procedures (inhalation anesthesia with ether (EA) or isoflurane (IA) and intraperitoneal injection anesthesia with xylazin/ketamine (XKA) or medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMFA)) on plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and corticosterone in blood obtained from a previously implanted jugular vein (JV) catheter with the effect of JV blood sampling from non-anesthetized, freely-moving rats (JV-NA). Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia (NA), i.e., puncture of the saphenic vein (SV) and tail incision (TI). Whereas the control procedure (JV-NA) did not significantly affect any of the target parameters, plasma glucose increased from 14 (JV-IA) to 44 (JV-MMFA) % (all Ps=0.05 when compared with the control procedure) in all blood samples collected in anesthesia and was 12 and 14% lower (both Pssamples, respectively. Plasma lactate increased from 74 (JV-IA) to 226% (SV-NA) (all Pssampling and anesthesia procedures except for JV-XKA and JV-MMF. Plasma NEFAs increased to 52% (P0.05). Finally, only the JV-EA and the JV-MMFA procedures increased plasma corticosterone (+525 and +353%, respectively, both Pssampling procedures can have profound acute effects on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. This must be considered for the design and interpretation of blood sampling experiments in laboratory animals. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  7. Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassanayake Rohana P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats characterized by cellular accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system and the follicles of peripheral lymphoid tissues. Previous studies have shown that the whole blood and buffy coat blood fraction of scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity. Although PrPSc has been detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma, and more recently within a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, the infectivity status of these cells and plasma in sheep remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether circulating PBMCs, B lymphocytes and platelets from classical scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity using a sheep bioassay. Results Serial rectal mucosal biopsy and immunohistochemistry were used to detect preclinical infection in lambs transfused with whole blood or blood cell fractions from preclinical or clinical scrapie infected sheep. PrPSc immunolabeling was detected in antemortem rectal and postmortem lymphoid tissues from recipient lambs receiving PBMCs (15/15, CD72+ B lymphocytes (3/3, CD21+ B lymphocytes (3/3 or platelet-rich plasma (2/3 fractions. As expected, whole blood (11/13 and buffy coat (5/5 recipients showed positive PrPSc labeling in lymphoid follicles. However, at 549 days post-transfusion, PrPSc was not detected in rectal or other lymphoid tissues in three sheep receiving platelet-poor plasma fraction. Conclusions Prion infectivity was detected in circulating PBMCs, CD72+ pan B lymphocytes, the CD21+ subpopulation of B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma of classical scrapie infected sheep using a sheep bioassay. Combining platelets with B lymphocytes might enhance PrPSc detection levels in blood samples.

  8. Statistical analysis of polarizing maps of blood plasma laser images for the diagnostics of malignant formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  9. The singular approach for processing polarization-inhomogeneous laser images of blood plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, P. O.; Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.; Bodnar, G. B.; Koval, G.; Trifonyuk, L.

    2013-04-01

    We present in this work the results of an investigation to analyse the coordinate distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization (polarization maps) in laser images of blood plasma layers for three groups of patients: healthy (group 1), mastopathy (group 2) and breast cancer (group 3). To characterize polarization maps for all groups of samples we use three groups of parameters: statistical moments of the first to fourth orders, autocorrelation functions and logarithmic dependences for power spectra related to distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization inherent to laser images of blood plasma. We ascertain the criteria for diagnosis and differentiation of pathological changes of the breast.

  10. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from <10 μl whole blood) in 15 min with a purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks. PMID:28256564

  11. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  12. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  13. Capillarity-driven blood plasma separation on paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantimoy; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate capillarity-driven plasma separation from whole blood on simple paper-based H-channels. This methodology, unlike other reported techniques, does not necessitate elaborate and complex instrumentation, and the usage of expensive consumables. We believe that this technique will be ideally suited to be implemented in rapid and portable blood diagnostic devices designed to be operative at locations with limited resources.

  14. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  15. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  16. Development of a simple device for processing whole-blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W F; Walker, W A

    1986-09-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One disk accepts larger capillaries that hold approximately 100 microL of whole blood each. The second disk accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of various internal diameters, which provide exact sample volumes from 1 to 10 microL. The processing rotor contains 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Applying centrifugal force transfers the aliquots of whole blood into their respective compartments, where they are separated into cellular and plasma fractions. As the rotor speed is slowly decreased, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each measuring capillary. The disk containing the 16 measured aliquots of plasma is then removed and placed into a modified rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. This device can entrain and deliver microliter volumes of liquids with precision and accuracy (1-2%) near that of mechanical pipettes. Assays of the separated plasma aliquots also have acceptable precision (e.g., CVs approximately 3% for measurements of serum enzymes).

  17. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...

  18. Modulation of endothelial monolayer permeability induced by plasma obtained from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, A.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Hendriks, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the time course of the permeability response of endothelial monolayers after exposure to plasma obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human whole blood; to investigate the role of apoptosis in monolayer permeability, and to inhibit the permeability inc

  19. Plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate response to graded change in body position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, V; Kem, D C

    1985-12-01

    In this study, 44 human subjects underwent either an orthostatic postural change (supine to stand, n = 17) or a graded change in body position (head-up) on a tilt-table (n = 27). No significant changes in systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure were observed during either maneuver; significant increases, under both conditions, were observed in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations after orthostatic position change increased significantly (supine 181 +/- 14 (S.E.M.) pg X ml-1; stand, 472 +/- 35 pg X ml-1, p less than 0.01). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations during graded postural change increased proportionately with increasing degrees of tilt (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). A significant correlation between plasma norepinephrine and heart rate was observed during both positional change maneuvers (graded tilt-table, r = 0.80, p less than 0.01; orthostatic, r = 0.50, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that the degree of sympathetic nervous system activity for blood pressure regulation during graded postural change is appropriately reflected by plasma norepinephrine concentrations.

  20. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  1. Cancer associated proteins in blood plasma: Determining normal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenemo, Markus; Teleman, Johan; Sjöström, Martin; Grubb, Gabriel; Malmström, Erik; Malmström, Johan; Niméus, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Protein biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis, stratification of patients into treatment cohorts, follow disease progression and treatment response. One distinct group of potential biomarkers comprises proteins which have been linked to cancer, known as cancer associated proteins (CAPs). We determined the normal variation of 86 CAPs in 72 individual plasma samples collected from ten individuals using SRM mass spectrometry. Samples were collected weekly during 5 weeks from ten volunteers and over one day at nine fixed time points from three volunteers. We determined the degree of the normal variation depending on interpersonal variation, variation due to time of day, and variation over weeks and observed that the variation dependent on the time of day appeared to be the most important. Subdivision of the proteins resulted in two predominant protein groups containing 21 proteins with relatively high variation in all three factors (day, week and individual), and 22 proteins with relatively low variation in all factors. We present a strategy for prioritizing biomarker candidates for future studies based on stratification over their normal variation and have made all data publicly available. Our findings can be used to improve selection of biomarker candidates in future studies and to determine which proteins are most suitable depending on study design.

  2. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  3. Diagnosis of breast cancer by polarization cartography of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of polarization-optical diagnostics of plasma protein structures changes, which are connected with the breast pathologies, were investigated. As the main investigation object it has been used the coordinate structure of polarization states distributions of blood plasma images. The results were obtained by means of novel technique of digital polarimetry. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological state of the organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  4. Isolation of plasma from whole blood using a microfludic chip in a continuous cross-flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; CUI DaFu; ZHANG LuLu

    2009-01-01

    A novel microfluidic chip is developed for crossflow filtration plasma from the whole blood which is carried out in a continuous manner. This microfluidic chip was made of a silicon substrate sealed with a compound cover. The silicon substrate fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)technology consisted of microposts array, microchannels and reservoirs. Then the silicon substrate was characterized by Scaning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The performance of the microfiuidic chip was valued by the experiments of plasma isolation. During more than one hour of continuous blood infusion through the chip, there were no problems of jamming or clogging, and the plasma selectivity of 97.78% was achieved. Due to the chip's simple structure and control mechanism with a continuous,real time operating manner, this microfluidic chip is easily expected to be integrated into micro total analytical system (uTAS) which will create a microanalysis system for point-of-care diagnostics.

  5. The Effect of Insulin on the Distribution of Glucose between the Blood Plasma and the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetenyi, G.; Arbus, G. S.

    1962-01-01

    In normal fasted rats whole liver tissue contains as much glucose as the blood plasma, i.e., the ratio of the concentrations is about unity. The concentration of glucose in hepatic intracellular water is about 1.2 times higher than in plasma water. In rats injected with insulin the concentration of glucose in the liver falls to a lesser extent than in the plasma: resulting in a ratio of concentrations higher than unity. If insulin hypoglycemia is prevented by the ingestion of glucose the concentration ratio is less than in hypoglycemic rats but still significantly above unity. In normal rats the specific activities of plasma and hepatic glucose do not differ significantly at 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes after the intravenous injection of C14-labeled glucose. In rats injected with insulin the specific activity of glucose is higher in the plasma than in the liver at 7.5 and 15 minutes, but not at 30 minutes following the injection of tracer. In insulin-treated hypoglycemic rats considerably higher concentrations of labeled glucose are found in hepatic intracellular than in plasma water. The penetration of C14-glucose from plasma into hepatic intracellular water is found to be fast. Excess insulin causes an accumulation of glucose within the liver cells by retaining newly formed glucose and by the taking up of glucose from the plasma against an existing concentration gradient. PMID:13907027

  6. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks.

  7. Interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels of cord blood plasma in term neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ AIM: Umbilical cord blood plasma contain higher hematopoietic stimulatory activities than adult peripheral blood plasma. IL-3 is regarded as multilineage hematopoietic growth factor that acts on primitive pluripotential stem cells and progenitor cells of every lineage except T and B-lymphoid lineage.

  8. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  9. Association of blood lead (Pb and plasma homocysteine: a cross sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High blood lead (Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR blood Pb of 10.82 microg/dL (8.29-13.60. Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels>10 microg/dL was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value=0.05. Mean+/-SD/median (IQR value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13+/-11.2 micromol/L vs 13.28+/-9.7micromol/L/13.15 (10.33-17.81 micromol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31 micromol/L (p value<0.001. Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85 for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  10. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  11. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  12. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between cultural discourses, moral reasoning and silenced uses in the international exchange of Danish blood plasma. Campaigns, policymakers, health professionals working in the blood banks – and even donors – consistently refer to ideals portraying blood....... However, we find that available cultural discourses poorly capture the moral reasoning among many donors. In fact, when informed about the existing forms of tender, plasma trade sounds like a good idea to most of them. Furthermore, they are not particularly interested in information. We argue...... that the silencing of trade is infusing the system with an unnecessary vulnerability that could easily be avoided with a different communication strategy towards donors. To arrive at new and better strategies, however, one must move beyond the immediate words and reactions of donors contemplating trade and seek...

  13. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of /sup 3/H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown.

  14. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  16. In vitro combinations of red blood cell, plasma and platelet components evaluated by thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Kardell, Malin; Ostlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta Taune

    2014-10-01

    Thromboelastography is increasingly used to evaluate coagulation in massively bleeding patients. The aim of this study was to investigate how different combinations of blood components affect in vitro whole blood clotting measured by thromboelastography. Packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets from fresh and old blood components were mixed in vitro, in proportions of 4:4:1, 5:5:2, 8:4:1 and 2:1:0, and analysed with thromboelastography. For the ratio 4:4:1 the experiment was done at both 37 °C and 32 °C. Thromboelastography curves were within normal reference values for the blood component proportions of 4:4:1 and 5:5:2. For 8:4:1, the angle and maximal amplitude were reduced below normal values, indicating low levels of fibrinogen and/or platelets. For the 2:1:0 proportion, all parameters were affected resulting in severely impaired in vitro clot formation. The reaction-time, reflecting the coagulation factor-dependent, initial clot formation, was slightly increased at a low temperature. Prolonged storage of the components did not affect the curve. With the introduction of guidelines on the management of massive bleeding it is important to have tools for the assessment of the new protocols. In vitro evaluation of mixtures of packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets by thromboelastography may be relevant in the prediction of in vivo clot formation and haemostasis.

  17. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  18. The effect of mild endotoxemia during low arginine plasma levels on organ blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, H A; Houdijk, A P; Wiezer, M J; Teerlink, T; van Lambalgen, A A; Thijs, L G; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-06-01

    Arginine is the sole precursor in the generation of the vasodilating agent nitric oxide. Arginine plasma levels are low in situations associated with endotoxemia such as major trauma, sepsis, and experimental obstructive jaundice. The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics at low arginine plasma levels during a low-grade endotoxemia. Randomized, placebo-controlled animal laboratory investigation. Male Wistar rats (n = 29), anesthetized. Rats were randomly assigned to receive (at t = 0 mins) an intravenous infusion of 1.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl (SAL, n = 12) or 1.5 mL of an arginase (3200 IU) solution (ASE, n = 17) over a 20-min period. After the SAL or ASE infusion, rats were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], 150 microg/kg in 1.0 mL of 0.9% NaCl; ASE/LPS, n = 10 and SAL/LPS, n = 6) challenge or a control infusion (1.0 mL of 0.9% NaCl; ASE/SAL, n = 7 and SAL/SAL, n = 6) at t = 30 mins. Organ blood flow was measured at t = 270 mins, using radiolabeled microspheres. At this time point, arginine plasma levels were lower in the ASE-treated rats (ASE/SAL vs. SAL/SAL and ASE/LPS vs. SAL/LPS, both p < .005, respectively). Cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and therefore total peripheral resistance were similar for all groups. In the LPS-treated animals (SAL/LPS and ASE/LPS), cardiac output was maintained by a higher heart rate compensating the lower stroke volume. Organ blood flow to the small intestine and splanchnic blood flow was lower in the ASE/LPS-treated rats (both p < .05 when compared with other groups). Total liver blood flow was similar for all groups; the lower splanchnic blood flow was compensated for by a higher hepatic arterial blood flow. The present study shows that low arginine plasma levels do not influence organ blood flow, whereas, during a low-grade endotoxemia, low arginine plasma levels result in reduced blood flow to the small intestine.

  19. Hemorheological implications of perfluorocarbon based oxygen carrier interaction with colloid plasma expanders and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Diana M; Ortiz, Daniel; Alvarez, Oscar A; Briceño, Juan C; Cabrales, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions used as artificial oxygen carriers lack colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and must be administered with colloid-based plasma expanders (PEs). Although PFC emulsions have been widely studied, there is limited information about PFC emulsion interaction with PEs and blood. Their interaction forms aggregates due to electrostatic and rheological phenomena, and change blood rheology and blood flow. This study analyzes the effects of the interaction between PFC emulsions with blood in the presence of clinically-used PEs. The rheological behavior of the mixtures was analyzed in vitro in parallel with in vivo analysis of blood flow in the microcirculation using intravital microscopy, when PEs were administered in a clinically relevant scenario. The interaction between the PFC emulsion and PE with blood produced PFC droplets and red blood cell (RBCs) aggregation and increased blood viscosity in a shear dependent fashion. The PFC droplets formed aggregates when mixed with PEs containing electrolytes, and the aggregation increased with the electrolyte concentration. Mixtures of PFC with PEs that produced PFC aggregates also induced RCBs aggregation when mixed with blood, increasing blood viscosity at low shear rates. The more viscous suspension at low shear rates produced a blunted blood flow velocity profile in vivo compared to nonaggregating mixtures of PFC and PEs. For the PEs evaluated, human serum albumin produced minimal to undetectable aggregation. PFC and PEs interaction with blood can affect sections of the microcirculation with low shear rates (e.g., arterioles, venules, and pulmonary circulation) when used in a clinical setting, because persistent aggregates could cause capillary occlusion, decreased perfusion, pulmonary emboli or focal ischemia.

  20. Rheological characterization of a gel produced using human blood plasma and alginate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Romero, Dionisio; Hernández, Nicolás; Cardozo, Carmen; Godoy-Silva, Rubén D

    2014-06-01

    Human blood plasma is a material used to generate tissue equivalents due to presence of fibrinogen. However, gels formed using human blood plasma has weak mechanical properties. In this study, different mixtures of sodium alginate and blood plasma were performed and evaluated. By determining ζ potential can be established the stability of the plasma-alginate mixture and by dynamic rheology can determine the most suitable parameters for the gelation of the above mixtures, when calcium chloride is used as a crosslinker. Experimental results evidence an increment in ζ potential at alginate concentrations of 0.8% and 1.6% with a resulting pseudoplastic behavior of evaluated mixtures, which described the homogenization of the mixture. On the other hand, mixtures were gelled by using aspersion of calcium chloride and characterized by dynamic rheology. Solid behavior is dominant in all range of frequency sweep test between 0.1Hz and 100Hz. Finally, the ultimate tensile strength of a gel reach 6.36938±0.24320kPa, which is enough for manual handling of the gel. Between the tasks of the gel would be used for cell entrapment, for controlled release of drugs or in the manufacture of wound dressings.

  1. A Comparison of Blood Factor XII Autoactivation in Buffer, Protein Cocktail, Serum, and Plasma Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Pitakjakpipop, Harit; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. The only plausible explanation consistent with current understanding of coagulation-cascade biochemistry is that procoagulant stimulus arising from the activation complex of the intrinsic pathway is dependent on activator surface area. And yet, it is herein shown that activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (Hageman factor, FXII) dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not exhibit activator surface-area dependence. Instead, a highly-variable burst of procoagulant-enzyme yield is measured that exhibits no measurable kinetics, sensitivity to mixing, or solution-temperature dependence. Thus, FXII activation in both buffer and protein-containing solutions does not exhibit characteristics of a biochemical reaction but rather appears to be a “mechanochemical” reaction induced by FXII molecule interactions with hydrophilic activator particles that do not formally adsorb blood proteins from solution. Results of this study strongly suggest that activator surface-area dependence observed in contact activation of plasma coagulation does not solely arise at the FXII activation step of the intrinsic pathway. PMID:23117212

  2. The Fatty Acid Composition of Blood Plasma and Arterial Wall in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Osipenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the fatty acid balance in the blood plasma, in the fragments of the intact vessels and the vessels showing signs of atherosclerosis.Material and Methods: The article presents the results of the examination of the blood plasma samples of patients with coronary heart disease and coronary atherosclerosis. The control group consisted of 16 healthy individuals. Also, the fragments of the abdominal aorta and the common carotid artery with varying degrees of atherosclerotic lesions were studied. Fatty acid analysis was conducted using capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results: A reduction in the relative linoleic acid level with an increase in almost all the saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in the plasma was noted in patients with coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The relationships between certain fatty acids in patients with atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia showed changes. In patients with atherosclerosis, a marked imbalance was observed between the monounsaturated and correspondingly the saturated fatty acids (with the same number of carbon atoms in the abdominal aorta with significant atherosclerotic lesions, as well as in the intact common carotid arteries. These disorders are probably related to the relatively low content of the linoleic acid in the blood plasma. The reasons for the increased activity of the fatty acid synthase in vessels with significant atherosclerotic lesions are described. It is concluded that most of the fatty acids of the plaque were formed due to the synthetic processes in the smooth muscle cells, and not as a result of their intake from the blood plasma.

  3. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  4. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  5. TD-GC-MS Investigation of the VOCs Released from Blood Plasma of Dogs with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical TD-GC-MS method was developed and used for the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs released from the blood plasma of dogs with/without cancer. VOCs released from 40 samples of diseased blood and 10 control samples were compared in order to examine the difference between both sample groups that were showing qualitatively similar results independent from the disease’s presence. However, mild disturbances in the spectra of dogs with cancer in comparison with the control group were observed, and six peaks (tentatively identified by comparison with mass spectral library as hexanal, octanal, toluene, 2-butanone, 1-octen-3-ol and pyrrole revealed statistically significant differences between both sample groups, thereby suggesting that these compounds are potential biomarkers that can be used for cancer diagnosis based on the blood plasma TD-GC-MS analysis. Statistical comparison with the application of principal component analysis (PCA provided accurate discrimination between the cancer and control groups, thus demonstrating stronger biochemical perturbations in blood plasma when cancer is present.

  6. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  7. Adsorbed plasma proteins modulate the effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on neutrophils in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Barinov, Nikolay A; Kostevich, Valeria A; Smolina, Natalia V; Klinov, Dmitry V; Sokolov, Alexey V

    2016-08-01

    Proteins adsorbed on a surface may affect the interaction of this surface with cells. Here, we studied the binding of human serum albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) and evaluated the impact of PEG-SWCNT treated by these proteins on neutrophils in whole blood samples. Measurements of adsorption parameters revealed tight binding of proteins to PEG-SWCNTs. AFM was employed to directly observe protein binding to sidewalls of PEG-SWCNTs. Fluorescein-labeled IgG was used to ascertain the stability of PEG-SWCNT-IgG complexes in plasma. In blood samples, all plasma proteins mitigated damage of neutrophils observed just after blood exposure to PEG-SWCNTs, while only treatment of PEG-SWCNTs with IgG resulted in dose- and time-dependent enhancement of CNT-induced neutrophil activation and in potentiation of oxidative stress. Our study demonstrates the ability of adsorbed plasma proteins to influence neutrophil response caused by PEG-SWCNTs in whole blood.

  8. Top-down lipidomics reveals ether lipid deficiency in blood plasma of hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Graessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and insulin resistance are integrative constituents of the metabolic syndrome and are major risk factors for hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether hypertension specifically affects the plasma lipidome independently and differently from the effects induced by obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the plasma lipidome of 19 men with hypertension and 51 normotensive male controls by top-down shotgun profiling on a LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer. The analysis encompassed 95 lipid species of 10 major lipid classes. Obesity resulted in generally higher lipid load in blood plasma, while the content of tri- and diacylglycerols increased dramatically. Insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR >3.5 and controlled for BMI, had little effect on the plasma lipidome. Importantly, we observed that in blood plasma of hypertensive individuals the overall content of ether lipids decreased. Ether phosphatidylcholines and ether phosphatidylethanolamines, that comprise arachidonic (20:4 and docosapentaenoic (22:5 fatty acid moieties, were specifically diminished. The content of free cholesterol also decreased, although conventional clinical lipid homeostasis indices remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Top-down shotgun lipidomics demonstrated that hypertension is accompanied by specific reduction of the content of ether lipids and free cholesterol that occurred independently of lipidomic alterations induced by obesity and insulin resistance. These results may form the basis for novel preventive and dietary strategies alleviating the severity of hypertension.

  9. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco; García-Casillas, Perla E.; Godinez-Garcia, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco®), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.

  10. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  11. [Effect of water on silica gel adsorption of blood plasma components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall', L N; Malakhova, M Ia; Melenevskaia, E Iu; Podosenova, N G; Sharonova, L V

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the study of properties of silica gel as an adsorbent for plasmasorption has been performed. Investigations have been realized of the effect of silica gel preliminary treatment conditions and a period of plasma with silica gel contact on plasmasorption characteristics of human blood plasma components, such as protein, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density and low-density one). The results obtained can be used for variation of silica gel adsorption properties, in situ at the adsorbent preparation process. For explanation of the experimental concentration and kinetic (temporal) characteristics of plasmasorption, the model of silica gel grains charging at the hydration was used.

  12. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3...

  13. The plasma protein fibrinogen stabilizes clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flows

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Thiebaud, M; Flormann, D; Verdier, C; Kaestner, L; Laschke, M W; Selmi, H; Benyoussef, A; Podgorski, T; Coupier, G; Misbah, C; Wagner, C

    2014-01-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients and the disposal of metabolic waste in the organs depend strongly on how blood, especially red blood cells, flow through the microvascular network. Macromolecular plasma proteins such as fibrinogen cause red blood cells to form large aggregates, called rouleaux, which are usually assumed to be disaggregated in the circulation due to the shear forces present in bulk flow. This leads to the assumption that rouleaux formation is only relevant in the venule network and in arterioles at low shear rates or stasis. Thanks to an excellent agreement between combined experimental and numerical approaches, we show that despite the large shear rates present in microcapillaries, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of red blood cells, even at haematocrits as low as 1%. Robust aggregates are shown to exist in microcapillaries even for fibrinogen concentrations within the healthy physiological range. These pers...

  14. Use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Immunoaffinity Chromatography to Identify Disease Induced Changes in Human Blood Plasma Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudar, Sandi; Černigoj, Urh; Podgornik, Helena; Kržan, Mojca; Prislan, Iztok

    2017-09-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry provides unique signatures of blood plasma samples. Plasma samples from diseased individuals yield specific thermograms, which differ from each other and from plasma samples of healthy individuals. Thermograms from individuals suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia were measured with DSC. To obtain additional information about thermal behaviour of plasma proteins immunoaffinity chromatography was introduced. An immunoextraction of HSA using a chromatographic column with immobilized anti-HSA was carried out in order to enrich less abundant plasma proteins, which could provide a further insight into disease development. Efficiency of HSA depletion and protein composition of fractionated plasma was validated by SDS-PAGE.

  15. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  16. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  17. Laser statistical polarimetry optical anisotropy of blood plasma of the patients with hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed in this work is a novel method of early laser polarimetric diagnostics of vessels pathologies and hemangioma formation. The generalized model of formation processes of polarization inhomogeneous laser images of experimental samples of biological tissues is presented. It was performed the experimental measurements of polarization states of both biological tissues laser images points and the hemangioma liquids. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

  18. Automated processing of whole blood samples into microliter aliquots of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A rotor that accepts and automatically processes a bulk aliquot of a single blood sample into multiple aliquots of plasma has been designed and built. The rotor consists of a central processing unit, which includes a disk containing eight precision-bore capillaries. By varying the internal diameters of the capillaries, aliquot volumes ranging 1 to 10 μl can be prepared. In practice, an unmeasured volume of blood is placed in a centre well, and, as the rotor begins to spin, is moved radially i...

  19. A continuous flow micro filtration device for plasma/blood separation using submicron vertical pillar gap structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Goo; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ji, Hongmiao; Lim, Pei Yi; Chen, Yu

    2014-08-01

    This work demonstrates a continuous flow plasma/blood separator using a vertical submicron pillar gap structure. The working principle of the proposed separator is based on size exclusion of cells through cross-flow filtration, in which only plasma is allowed to pass through submicron vertical pillars located tangential to the main flow path of the blood sample. The maximum filtration efficiency of 99.9% was recorded with a plasma collection rate of 0.67 µl min-1 for an input blood flow rate of 12.5 µl min-1. The hemolysis phenomenon was observed for an input blood flow rate above 30 µl min-1. Based on the experimental results, we can conclude that the proposed device shows potential for the application of on-chip plasma/blood separation as a part of integrated point-of-care (POC) diagnostics systems.

  20. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  1. Comparison of plasma with whole blood prothrombin time and fibrinogen on the same instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Ferrell, Chris; Chandler, Wayne L

    2010-04-01

    We compared plasma with whole blood (WB) international normalized ratio (INR) and fibrinogen using the same instrument and reagents. WBINRs were 50% higher than plasma INRs. After increasing the WB sample volume 40% and adjusting the International Sensitivity Index, WBINRs were similar to plasma INRs [adjusted WBINR = 0.99(plasma INR) - 0.02; r(2) = 0.98; n = 155], but the average difference in WB vs plasma INR was 4-fold higher than duplicate plasma INRs. Variation in hematocrit was a major determinant of the accuracy of the WBINR, with increased error at high INRs. The WB fibrinogen assay was highly dependent on the sample hematocrit (r(2) = 0.83), even after the sample volume was adjusted. Accurate WB fibrinogen measurements required a mathematical hematocrit correction. We conclude that WBINR and fibrinogen assays can be performed on point-of-care or automated analyzers, but sample volume must be adjusted to account for hematocrit. Accuracy is limited by variations in hematocrit with worsening accuracy for samples with high INRs or low fibrinogen levels.

  2. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  3. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P

  4. Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Wei; Bluestein, Danny; Deng, Yuefan

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately.

  5. Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Zhang, Peng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11790 (United States); Kang, Wei [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bluestein, Danny [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11790 (United States); Deng, Yuefan, E-mail: Yuefan.Deng@StonyBrook.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately.

  6. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Yeast extract with blood plasma in diets for piglets from 21 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Maria Carlos Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of yeast extract as a partial replacemer of blood plasma in piglet diets and its effect on the performance and intestinal morphometry of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred and twenty animals were randomized into blocks, with five diets (4.0% blood plasma; 2.0% blood plasma with 0.0; 1.0; 2.0 or 3.0% yeast extract, six replicates and four pigs per experimental unit. At 35 days of age, one pig per experimental unit was slaughtered in order to evaluate duodenal and jejunal morphometry. The levels of yeast extract had a quadratic impact on daily feed intake and final weight, which increased up to the estimated level of 1.91%. Daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were not affected. A comparison between diets containing different levels of yeast extract and the basal diet showed that the diets containing 2.0% and 1.0% yeast extract provided the highest final weight and the worst feed conversion rate, respectively. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were quadratically affected by yeast extract levels and the best results were achieved with the estimated levels of 1.64 and 1.16%, respectively. The levels of yeast extract provided a linear increase in the duodenal villus:crypt ratio, but did not change the morphometric variables of the jejunum. No difference was found in the morphometric variables of the duodenum and jejunum when diets containing different levels of yeast extract were compared with the basal diet. The results suggest that the inclusion of 1.91% yeast extract allows for a partial replacement for plasma in the diet, decreasing plasma inclusion from 4.0 to 2.0%.

  8. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  9. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  11. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  12. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  13. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  14. Evaluation of cobalt, chromium, and nickel concentrations in plasma and blood of patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoğlu, Saip; Duymuş, Zeynep Yeşil

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the plasma and blood concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni among subjects using removable partial dentures. A comparison was made between subjects with and without RPD treatment history. Control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without dentures. Concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni in subjects' plasma and blood were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, and multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05) was used to identify significant differences between groups. RPD use had a significant effect on the concentrations of Cr (P partial dentures with metal frameworks led to an increase in the concentrations of Cr and Ni in both blood and plasma.

  15. Capture stress and the bactericidal competence of blood and plasma in five species of tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Kevin D; Tieleman, B Irene; Klasing, Kirk C

    2006-01-01

    In wild birds, relatively little is known about intra- or interspecific variation in immunological capabilities, and even less is known about the effects of stress on immune function. Immunological assays adaptable to field settings and suitable for a wide variety of taxa will prove most useful for addressing these issues. We describe a novel application of an in vitro technique that measures the intrinsic bacteria-killing abilities of blood. We assessed the capacities of whole blood and plasma from free-living individuals of five tropical bird species to kill a nonpathogenic strain of E. coli before and after the birds experienced an acute stress. Killing invasive bacteria is a fundamental immune function, and the bacteria-killing assay measures constitutive, innate immunity integrated across circulating cell and protein components. Killing ability varied significantly across species, with common ground doves exhibiting the lowest levels and blue-crowned motmots exhibiting the highest levels. Across species, plasma killed bacteria as effectively as whole blood, and higher concentrations of plasma killed significantly better. One hour of acute stress reduced killing ability by up to 40%. This assay is expected to be useful in evolutionary and ecological studies dealing with physiological and immunological differences in birds.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and cord blood plasma of several northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.J. [Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management Toxic Substances Div., Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) funded by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has carried out a number of baseline studies in Nunavut and the North West Territories of northern Canada (figure 1) to assess the exposure of indigenous peoples to a variety of chemical classes including POPs and metals. These studies, summarized by Walker et al, have used both maternal and cord human blood plasma as the media from sampling which took place in four phases over the years 1994-1999. Small amounts of individual blood plasma have remained from these investigations. We combined these individual samples into 23 composite samples of maternal and cord blood based mainly on the region and ethnicity of the donors. These composites have been used to study the exposure of northern peoples to PBDEs and to estimate, where possible, the influence of ethnicity, region of collection, and time on such exposure. Comparison is also made between the levels in plasma from northern populations and in human milk from those inhabiting the more numerous south.

  17. 2-Methoxyestradiol induce the conversion of human peripheral blood memory B lymphocytes into plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayer, Marie-Pierre; Drouin, Mathieu; Proulx, Maryse; Jung, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an end-metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, is an antiproliferative agent that is currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment. We hereby report that sub-cytotoxic concentrations of 2ME influence the in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood B lymphocytes. More surprisingly, we have observed that 2ME induces the conversion of CD138(-) B lymphocytes into CD138(+) cells of phenotype similar to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells. Normal human B lymphocytes expressing CD138 increased in response to 2ME in a dose-dependent fashion, from 2% at baseline up to 31% in cells cultured in the presence of 0.75 microM 2ME. Moreover, most of the converted cells were also CD27(+) and secreted high levels of IgG (151 microg/10(6)cells/24h). IEF studies revealed that conversion occurred in a polyclonal manner. We then exploited this effect of 2ME to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern changes in transcription factors involved in plasma cells differentiation. Plasma cells generated by 2ME treatment of normal human B lymphocytes expressed elevated levels of IRF4 and reduced levels of Pax5 and Bcl-6. Similarly, levels of XBP-1 and Blimp-1 transcripts were increased. Our results suggest that the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into plasma cells requires a similar modulation of transcription factors expression that for tonsil and bone marrow B lymphocytes.

  18. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  19. Blood and Plasma Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Wild Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Kupar, Caitlin A; Kelley, Meghan D; Finger, John W; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-07-01

    : American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) are one of the most studied crocodilian species in the world, yet blood and plasma biochemistry information is limited for juvenile alligators in their northern range, where individuals may be exposed to extreme abiotic and biotic stressors. We collected blood samples over a 2-yr period from 37 juvenile alligators in May, June, and July to establish reference intervals for 22 blood and plasma analytes. We observed no effect of either sex or blood collection time on any analyte investigated. However, our results indicate a significant correlation between a calculated body condition index and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Glucose, total protein, and potassium varied significantly between sampling sessions. In addition, glucose and potassium were highly correlated between the two point-of-care devices used, although they were significantly lower with the i-STAT 1 CG8+ cartridge than with the Vetscan VS2 Avian/Reptile Rotor. The reference intervals presented herein should provide baseline data for evaluating wild juvenile alligators in the northern portion of their range.

  20. Localization of Short-Chain Polyphosphate Enhances its Ability to Clot Flowing Blood Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ju Hun; Mazinani, Nima; Schlappi, Travis S.; Chan, Karen Y. T.; Baylis, James R.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Donovan, Alexander J.; Kudela, Damien; Stucky, Galen D.; Liu, Ying; Morrissey, James H.; Kastrup, Christian J.

    2017-02-01

    Short-chain polyphosphate (polyP) is released from platelets upon platelet activation, but it is not clear if it contributes to thrombosis. PolyP has increased propensity to clot blood with increased polymer length and when localized onto particles, but it is unknown whether spatial localization of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood. Here, numerical simulations predicted the effect of localization of polyP on clotting under flow, and this was tested in vitro using microfluidics. Synthetic polyP was more effective at triggering clotting of flowing blood plasma when localized on a surface than when solubilized in solution or when localized as nanoparticles, accelerating clotting at 10–200 fold lower concentrations, particularly at low to sub-physiological shear rates typical of where thrombosis occurs in large veins or valves. Thus, sub-micromolar concentrations of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood plasma under flow at low to sub-physiological shear rates. However, a physiological mechanism for the localization of polyP to platelet or vascular surfaces remains unknown.

  1. Selenium in blood, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa of stallions and its relationship to sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmann, H; Keppler, S; Höltershinken, M; Bollwein, H; Behne, D; Alber, D; Bukalis, G; Kyriakopoulos, A; Sieme, H

    2010-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Until now, little data existed regarding the relationship between selenium and sperm quality in the stallion. Selenium, or selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, was determined in red blood cells, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and the percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMS), intact membranes (PMI), altered (positive) acrosomal status (PAS) and detectable DNA damage, determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay, were evaluated in 41 healthy stallions (three samples each). The pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (PRC) served as an estimation of fertility. An adverse effect on stallion fertility caused by low dietary selenium intake was excluded, as all stallions had sufficient selenium levels in their blood. Interestingly, no significant correlations (P > 0.05) between the selenium level in blood and the selenium level in seminal plasma or spermatozoa were found, suggesting that the selenium level in blood is no indicator of an adequate selenium supply for spermatogenesis. The selenium level in spermatozoa (nmol billion(-1)) was correlated with PMI, PMS and PAS (r = 0.40, r = 0.31 and r = -0.42, respectively; P selenium concentration in spermatozoa (nmol g(-1)) was correlated with PRC (r = 0.40, P selenium status for the male equine reproduction requires the analysis of selenium in spermatozoa. Furthermore, selenium is associated with improved sperm quality and fertility in the stallion.

  2. The plasma protein fibrinogen stabilizes clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, M.; Aouane, O.; Thiébaud, M.; Flormann, D.; Verdier, C.; Kaestner, L.; Laschke, M. W.; Selmi, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Podgorski, T.; Coupier, G.; Misbah, C.; Wagner, C.

    2014-03-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients and the disposal of metabolic waste in the organs depend strongly on how blood, especially red blood cells, flow through the microvascular network. Macromolecular plasma proteins such as fibrinogen cause red blood cells to form large aggregates, called rouleaux, which are usually assumed to be disaggregated in the circulation due to the shear forces present in bulk flow. This leads to the assumption that rouleaux formation is only relevant in the venule network and in arterioles at low shear rates or stasis. Thanks to an excellent agreement between combined experimental and numerical approaches, we show that despite the large shear rates present in microcapillaries, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of red blood cells, even at haematocrits as low as 1%. Robust aggregates are shown to exist in microcapillaries even for fibrinogen concentrations within the healthy physiological range. These persistent aggregates should strongly affect cell distribution and blood perfusion in the microvasculature, with putative implications for blood disorders even within apparently asymptomatic subjects.

  3. An update on medium- and low-abundant blood plasma proteome of horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyński, A; Ożgo, M; Dratwa-Chałupnik, A; Robak, P; Pyć, A; Zaborski, D; Herosimczyk, A

    2017-07-10

    The main objectives of the study were to: (1) deeply analyse the serum protein composition of Equus caballus, (2) assess the effectiveness of the high-abundant protein depletion and improve the concentration of medium- and low-abundant proteins. The analysis were performed on the blood plasma of three healthy part-Arabian mares. The implementation of two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation - time of flight mass spectrometry allowed us to establish a horse plasma proteome map. Serum proteins were resolved at pH 4 to 7, followed by 12% SDS-PAGE. As a result 136 spots were successfully identified, representing the products of 46 unique genes. Of these, 22 gene products have not been previously identified in horse serum/plasma samples using proteomic tools. Gene ontology analysis showed that almost 30% of all identified gene products belong to the coagulation and complement cascades. These results can undoubtedly serve as a useful and prospective prerequisite for the future analysis of horse plasma proteome changes in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The use of the medium- and low-abundant protein enrichment tool increased their abundance and allowed us to identify a higher number of protein gene products. The highest depletion efficiency was observed for the most abundant plasma proteins, that is albumin, IgG heavy chains and serotransferrin.

  4. The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Javadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.

  5. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol of the blood plasma of rabbit under arginine acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hopanenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholi­pids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids­ and esterified cholesterol is normali­zed and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  6. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  7. Proteomic methodological recommendations for studies involving human plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Susan J; Polley, Abigael C J; Mulholland, Francis; Bouwman, Freek G; Heim, Carolin; Rucklidge, Garry J; Johnson, Ian T; Mariman, Edwin C; Daniel, Hannelore; Elliott, Ruan M

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to develop, optimize and validate protocols for blood processing prior to proteomic analysis of plasma, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to determine analytical variation of a single sample of depleted plasma, platelet and PBMC proteins within and between four laboratories each using their own standard operating protocols for 2D gel electrophoresis. Plasma depleted either using the Beckman Coulter IgY-12 proteome partitioning kit or the Amersham albumin and IgG depletion columns gave good quality gels, but reproducibility appeared better with the single-use immuno-affinity column. The use of the Millipore Filter Device for protein concentration gave a 16% ( p appears as a single abundant spot. The average within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the matched spots after automatic matching using either PDQuest or ProteomWeaver software ranged between 18 and 69% for depleted plasma proteins, between 21 and 55% for platelet proteins, and between 22 and 38% for PBMC proteins. Subsequent manual matching improved the CV with on average between 1 and 16%. The average between laboratory CV for each of the matched spots after automatic matching ranged between 4 and 54% for depleted plasma proteins, between 5 and 60% for platelet proteins, and between 18 and 70% for PBMC proteins. This variation must be considered when designing sufficiently powered studies that use proteomics tools for biomarker discovery. The use of tricine in the running buffer for the second dimension appears to enhance the resolution of proteins especially in the high molecular weight range.

  8. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56......), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid...

  9. Aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis: blood mononuclear cell gene expression and plasma protein levels of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Havemose-Poulsen, Anne; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti-inflammatory c......BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti...

  10. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  11. Quantitative dynamic nuclear polarization-NMR on blood plasma for assays of drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R; Hustvedt, Svein-Olaf; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    Analytical platforms for the fast detection, identification and quantification of circulating drugs with a narrow therapeutic range are vital in clinical pharmacology. As a result of low drug concentrations, analytical tools need to provide high sensitivity and specificity. Dynamic nuclear polarization-NMR (DNP-NMR) in the form of the hyperpolarization-dissolution method should afford the sensitivity and spectral resolution for the direct detection and quantification of numerous isotopically labeled circulating drugs and their metabolites in single liquid-state NMR transients. This study explores the capability of quantitative in vitro DNP-NMR to assay drug metabolites in blood plasma. The lower limit of detection for the anti-epileptic drug (13)C-carbamazepine and its pharmacologically active metabolite (13)C-carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide is 0.08 µg/mL in rabbit blood plasma analyzed by single-scan (13)C DNP-NMR. An internal standard is used for the accurate quantification of drug and metabolite. Comparison of quantitative DNP-NMR data with an established analytical method (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) yields a Pearson correlation coefficient r of 0.99. Notably, all DNP-NMR determinations were performed without analyte derivatization or sample purification other than plasma protein precipitation. Quantitative DNP-NMR is an emerging methodology which requires little sample preparation and yields quantitative data with high sensitivity for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  12. Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis (BS is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P<0.001. Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction.

  13. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  14. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusova, N. V., E-mail: Bochkarevanv@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tamkovich, S. N., E-mail: s.tamk@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 8, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Stakheeva, M. N., E-mail: StakheyevaM@oncology.tomsk.ru; Afanas’ev, S. G., E-mail: Afanasievsg@oncology.tomsk.ru; Kondakova, I. V., E-mail: Kondakova@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Frolova, A. Y., E-mail: Frolovalenya@mail.ru [Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  15. EDTA-treated cotton-thread microfluidic device used for one-step whole blood plasma separation and assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Maylina, Leni; Noviana, Deni; Wicaksono, Dedy Hermawan Bagus

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to observe the wicking and separation characteristics of blood plasma in a cotton thread matrix functioning as a microfluidic thread-based analytical device (μTAD). We investigated several cotton thread treatment methods using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant solution for wicking whole blood samples and separating its plasma. The blood of healthy Indonesian thin tailed sheep was used in this study to understand the properties of horizontal wicking and separation on the EDTA-treated μTAD. The wicking distance and blood cell separation from its plasma was observed for 120 s and documented using a digital phone camera. The results show that untreated cotton-threads stopped the blood wicking process on the μTAD. On the other hand, the deposition of EDTA anticoagulant followed by its drying on the thread at room temperature for 10 s provides the longest blood wicking with gradual blood plasma separation. Furthermore, the best results in terms of the longest wicking and the clearest on-thread separation boundary between blood cells and its plasma were obtained using the μTAD treated with EDTA deposition followed by 60 min drying at refrigerated temperature (2-8 °C). The separation length of blood plasma in the μTADs treated with dried-EDTA at both room and refrigerated temperatures was not statistically different (P > 0.05). This separation occurs through the synergy of three factors, cotton fiber, EDTA anticoagulant and blood platelets, which induce the formation of a fibrin-filter via a partial coagulation process in the EDTA-treated μTAD. An albumin assay was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of this plasma separation method during a one-step assay on the μTAD. Albumin in blood is an important biomarker for kidney and heart disease. The μTAD has a slightly better limit of detection (LOD) than conventional blood analysis, with an LOD of 114 mg L(-1) compared to 133 mg L(-1), respectively. However, the μTAD performed

  16. Changes in blood plasma of professional football players during the continuous training-emulative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any physical activity is accompanied by speed changing of metabolic processes in the organism, peculiar changing of their directivities and accordingly, the emergence of biochemical changes in the muscles that perform work, in the internal organs, as well as in blood system. Aim. To determine the changes that occur in blood plasma of professional footballers during continuous physical activity, 84 professional players were examined. Methods and results. We have determined the direction and peculiarity of the cumulative effect of the impact of physical activity on changes in the blood of sportsmen during continuous period of an educational-training session (ETS. It was established that under the conditions of intensive or continuous physical load a steady prevalence of catabolic processes in the organism wes observed. The given changes, specified by the fact that during ETS sportsmen’s tension of adaptation processes is gradually increasing. Moderate hyper-thrombotonin background in blood of the most sportsmen were observed in the beginning of ETS. Increase of permittivity membrane erythrocytes that reflected sorption capacity growth of the red blood cells was detected in individual sportsmen. Cell membrane structures damage of during intensive or continuous training is of generalized character and takes place almost in all organs and tissues. Also serum AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine transaminase and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase activity was studied in footballers during the ETS. Conclusions. The specified level of activity of certain enzymes indicates hypoxic / ischemic state due to the training load during ETS.

  17. Detection of prion protein particles in blood plasma of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Bannach

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also accidentally, e.g. by blood transfusion, which has raised serious concerns about blood product safety and emphasized the need for a reliable diagnostic test. In this report we present a method based on surface-FIDA (fluorescence intensity distribution analysis, that exploits the high state of molecular aggregation of PrP as an unequivocal diagnostic marker of the disease, and show that it can detect infection in blood. To prepare PrP aggregates from blood plasma we introduced a detergent and lipase treatment to separate PrP from blood lipophilic components. Prion protein aggregates were subsequently precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, immobilized on a glass surface by covalently bound capture antibodies, and finally labeled with fluorescent antibody probes. Individual PrP aggregates were visualized by laser scanning microscopy where signal intensity was proportional to aggregate size. After signal processing to remove the background from low fluorescence particles, fluorescence intensities of all remaining PrP particles were summed. We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep. Applying simultaneous intensity and size discrimination, ten out of ten samples from scrapie sheep could be differentiated from uninfected sheep. The implications for ante mortem diagnosis of prion diseases are discussed.

  18. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-04-18

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL.

  19. Performance study of microfluidic devices for blood plasma separation—a designer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Bala Varun Kumar, Y. V.; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-08-01

    In this work, design and experiments on various blood plasma microdevices based on hydrodynamic flow separation techniques is carried out. We study their performance as a function of dependent governing parameters such as flow rate, feed hematocrit, and microchannel geometry. This work focuses on understanding separation phenomena in simple geometries; subsequently, individual simple geometrical parameters and biophysical effects are combined to fabricate hybridized designs, resulting in higher separation efficiencies. The distinctive features of our microfluidic devices are that they employ elevated dimensions (of the order of hundreds of microns), and thereby can be operated continuously over sufficient duration without clogging, while simplicity of fabrication makes them cost effective. The microdevices have been experimentally demonstrated over the entire range of hematocrit (i.e. from Hct 7% to Hct 45%). A high separation efficiency of about (78.34  ±  2.7)% with pure blood is achieved in our best hybrid design. We believe that the theory and experimental results presented in this study will aid designers and researchers working in the field of blood plasma separation microdevices.

  20. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  1. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, Linda M. [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Foerlin, Lars [Department of Zoology/Zoophysiology, Goeteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Karlsson, Goeran [Swedish NMR Centre at Goeteborg University, Box 465, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha [Institute of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, D.G. Joakim [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se

    2006-07-20

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE{sub 2}, which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants.

  2. Plasma protein fractions in healthy blood donors quantitated by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof

    2006-09-01

    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important alternative to traditional analysis of serum and plasma proteins by agarose or celluloseacetate electrophoresis. CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. For laboratory work, it is important to have reference values from healthy individuals. Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the beta1-beta2+ buffer. Albumin concentrations in samples are measured using nephelometry in order to assign protein concentrations to each peak. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput.

  3. Surface-mediated molecular events in material-induced blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik

    Coagulation and thrombosis persist as major impediments associated with the use of blood-contacting medical devices. We are investigating the molecular mechanism underlying material-induced blood-plasma coagulation focusing on the role of the surface as a step towards prospective development of improved hemocompatible biomaterials. A classic observation in hematology is that blood/blood-plasma in contact with clean glass surface clots faster than when in contact with many plastic surfaces. The traditional biochemical theory explaining the underlying molecular mechanism suggests that hydrophilic surfaces, like that of glass, are specific activators of the coagulation cascade because of the negatively-charged groups on the surface. Hydrophobic surfaces are poor procoagulants or essentially "benign" because they lack anionic groups. Further, these negatively-charged surfaces are believed to not only activate blood factor XII (FXII), the key protein in contact activation, but also play a cofactor role in the amplification and propagation reactions that ultimately lead to clot formation. In sharp contrast to the traditional theory, our investigations indicate a need for a paradigm shift in the proposed sequence of contact activation events to incorporate the role of protein adsorption at the material surfaces. These studies have lead to the central hypothesis for this work proposing that protein adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces attenuates the contact activation reactions so that poorly-adsorbent hydrophilic surfaces appear to be stronger procoagulants relative to hydrophobic surfaces. Our preliminary studies measuring the plasma coagulation response of activated FXII (FXIIa) on different model surfaces suggested that the material did not play a cofactor role in the processing of this enzyme dose through the coagulation pathway. Therefore, we focused our efforts on studying the mechanism of initial production of enzyme at the procoagulant surface. Calculations for the

  4. Nitrite-induced methemoglobinaemia affects blood ionized and total magnesium level by hydrolysis of plasma adenosine triphosphate in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Hong, Chul-Un; Lee, Young-Up; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO(2))-induced methemoglobinaemia on plasma ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and corresponding changes of blood-ionized magnesium (iMg(2+)) as well as total magnesium (tMg(2+)) in a time-dependent manner. This study was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to which NaNO(2) was injected (10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce methemoglobinaemia. Methemoglobin (MetHb) in blood was measured before (0 min.) and after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. of NaNO(2) injection. At respective time points, the tMg(2+), blood ions and gases were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion selective electrode, respectively. Haematological parameters were checked by automatic blood cell count, and blood films were observed under light microscope. Plasma ATP was measured by bioluminescence assay using a luminometer, and plasma proteins were measured by an automatic analyser. Blood cell count (RBC, WBC and platelet), haematocrit, and haemoglobin were found to be decreased with the advancement of MetHb concentration. With the gradual increase of MetHb concentration, the plasma ATP decreased and blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) increased significantly as time passed by in comparison with the pre-drug values. A significant decrease of the ratio of ionized calcium to iMg(2+), Na(+) and increase of K(+) was observed. In conclusion, NaNO(2)-induced methemoglobinaemia is a cause of hydrolysis of plasma ATP which is responsible for the increase of blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) in rats.

  5. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  6. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  7. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  8. Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Onur; Elbuken, Caglar; Ermek, Erhan; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Erdem Alaca, B; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Urey, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor. MEMS cantilevers are made of electroplated nickel and actuated remotely with magnetic field using an electro-coil. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. Only few nanometer cantilever deflection is sufficient due to interferometric sensitivity of the readout. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. The viscosities of liquid samples are obtained through the measurement of the cantilever's frequency change with respect to a reference measurement taken within a liquid of known viscosity. We performed measurements with glycerol solutions at different temperatures and validated the repeatability of the system by comparing with a reference commercial viscometer. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader's theory and agreed reasonably well. Afterwards viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23°C and 37°C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured. The proposed method is capable of measuring viscosities from 0.86 cP to 3.02 cP, which covers human blood plasma viscosity range, with a resolution better than 0.04 cP. The sample volume requirement is less than 150 μl and can be reduced significantly with optimized cartridge design. Both the actuation and sensing are carried out remotely, which allows for disposable sensor cartridges. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  10. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheva, A.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.; Lyng, F.

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  11. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  12. [Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmolovskiĭ, A A; Kreĭer, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2012-01-01

    Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers.

  13. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  14. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wancke Reiniger, Ingrid; Fonseca de Oliveira, Joelma; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with {sup 99m}Tc was studied. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  15. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  16. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems.

  17. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer using blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Suresh Kumar, Murugesan; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Blood plasma possesses the biomolecules released from cells/tissues after metabolism and reflects the pathological conditions of the subjects. The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the collection of samples, easy to transport, multiple sampling for regular screening of the disease and being less invasive to the patients. Hence, the intention of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2500-3400 cm-1) for the diagnosis of oral malignancy using blood plasma. From the Raman spectra it is observed that the biomolecules protein and lipid played a major role in the discrimination between groups. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal components analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with the leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method on HW Raman spectra yielded a promising results in the identification of oral malignancy. The details of results will be discussed.

  18. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Gu [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China)], E-mail: Gjin@ustc.edu.cn; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); AnHui Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, HeFei, 230001 (China)

    2008-12-01

    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application.

  19. Determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and their major metabolites in blood or plasma by spectrophotodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronjny, N; Bratin, K; Brooks, M A; de Silva, J A

    1977-07-01

    An analytical procedure was developed for the determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and their major metabolites in blood or plasma. Demoxepam, a metabolite of chlordiazepoxide, is determined by spectrofluorometry after extraction. The remaining compounds are determined by spectrophotodensitometry after thin-layer chromatographic separation. The sensitivity limit of the spectrofluorometric determination of demoxepam is 0.1 to 0.2 microgram while that of the spectrophotodensitometric determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and their N-desmethyl metabolites is 0.05 to 0.2 microgram. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay renders it suitable for monitoring plasma levels of chlordiazepoxide and its major metabolites following single or chronic oral administration of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. The sensitivity limit for diazepam and nordiazepam, its major metabolite, renders the assay useful only for the determination of plasma concentrations resulting from high dosage of diazepam. The assay was used to determine chlordiazepoxide and its metabolites following oral administration of Librium. The data showed a significant correlation to those obtained on the same specimens by differential pulse polarography and by radioimmunoassay.

  20. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Malinowska, Paulina; Żuchowski, Jerzy; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and the generation of superoxide anion (O2 (-∙)) in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin) were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals). The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5- 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2 (-∙) in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL). The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  1. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  2. Association of plasma Aß peptides with blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles; Dallongeville, Jean; Ellis, Kathryn A; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Lui, James; Laws, Simon; Dumont, Julie; Richard, Florence; Cottel, Dominique; Berr, Claudine; Ames, David; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Szoeke, Cassandra; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Buée, Luc; Martins, Ralph; Amouyel, Philippe

    2011-04-15

    Aß peptides are often considered as catabolic by-products of the amyloid ß protein precursor (APP), with unknown physiological functions. However, several biological properties have been tentatively attributed to these peptides, including a role in vasomotion. We assess whether plasma Aß peptide levels might be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (SBP and DBP, respectively). Plasma Aß(1-40) and Aß(1-42) levels were measured using an xMAP-based assay in 1,972 individuals (none of whom were taking antihypertensive drugs) from 3 independent studies: the French population-based 3C and MONA-LISA (Lille) studies (n = 627 and n = 769, respectively) and the Australian, longitudinal AIBL study (n = 576). In the combined sample, the Aß(1-42)/ Aß(1-40) ratio was significantly and inversely associated with SBP (p = 0.03) and a similar trend was observed for DBP (p = 0.06). Using the median age (69) as a cut-off, the Aß(1-42)/Aß(1-40) ratio was strongly associated with both SBP and DBP in elderly individuals (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03, respectively). Consistently, a high Aß(1-42)/ Aß(1-40) ratio was associated with a lower risk of hypertension in both the combined whole sample (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.90) and (to an even greater extent) in the elderly subjects (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.75). Lastly, all these associations appeared to be primarily driven by the level of plasma Aß(1-40). The plasma Aß(1-42)/Aß(1-40) ratio is inversely associated with SBP, DBP and the risk of hypertension in elderly subjects, suggesting that Aß peptides affect blood pressure in vivo. These results may be particularly relevant in Alzheimer's disease, in which a high Aß(1-42)/Aß(1-40) plasma ratio is reportedly associated with a decreased risk of incident disease.

  3. Association of plasma Aß peptides with blood pressure in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Lambert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aß peptides are often considered as catabolic by-products of the amyloid ß protein precursor (APP, with unknown physiological functions. However, several biological properties have been tentatively attributed to these peptides, including a role in vasomotion. We assess whether plasma Aß peptide levels might be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (SBP and DBP, respectively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma Aß(1-40 and Aß(1-42 levels were measured using an xMAP-based assay in 1,972 individuals (none of whom were taking antihypertensive drugs from 3 independent studies: the French population-based 3C and MONA-LISA (Lille studies (n = 627 and n = 769, respectively and the Australian, longitudinal AIBL study (n = 576. In the combined sample, the Aß(1-42/ Aß(1-40 ratio was significantly and inversely associated with SBP (p = 0.03 and a similar trend was observed for DBP (p = 0.06. Using the median age (69 as a cut-off, the Aß(1-42/Aß(1-40 ratio was strongly associated with both SBP and DBP in elderly individuals (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03, respectively. Consistently, a high Aß(1-42/ Aß(1-40 ratio was associated with a lower risk of hypertension in both the combined whole sample (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.90 and (to an even greater extent in the elderly subjects (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.75. Lastly, all these associations appeared to be primarily driven by the level of plasma Aß(1-40. CONCLUSION: The plasma Aß(1-42/Aß(1-40 ratio is inversely associated with SBP, DBP and the risk of hypertension in elderly subjects, suggesting that Aß peptides affect blood pressure in vivo. These results may be particularly relevant in Alzheimer's disease, in which a high Aß(1-42/Aß(1-40 plasma ratio is reportedly associated with a decreased risk of incident disease.

  4. Mechanism of platelet activation induced by endocannabinoids in blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantl, S Annette; Khandoga, Anna L; Siess, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and circulating endocannabinoids might modulate platelet function. Previous studies concerning effects of anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on platelets, mainly performed on isolated cells, provided conflicting results. We therefore investigated the action of three main endocannabinoids [anandamide, 2-AG and virodhamine (arachidonoylethanolamine)] on human platelets in blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). 2-AG and virodhamine induced platelet aggregation in blood, and shape change, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in PRP. The EC50 of 2-AG and virodhamine for platelet aggregation in blood was 97 and 160 µM, respectively. Lower concentrations of 2-AG (20 µM) and virodhamine (50 µM) synergistically induced aggregation with other platelet stimuli. Platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine resembled arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation: shape change, the first platelet response, ATP secretion and aggregation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine were all blocked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or the specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) antagonist daltroban. In addition, platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine in blood and PRP were inhibited by JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). In contrast to 2-AG and virodhamine, anandamide, a substrate of fatty acid amidohydrolase, was inactive. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) agonists lacked stimulatory as well as inhibitory platelet activity. We conclude that 2-AG and virodhamine stimulate platelets in blood and PRP by a MAGL-triggered mechanism leading to free AA and its metabolism by platelet cyclooxygenase-1/thromboxane synthase to TXA2. CB1, CB2 or non-CB1/CB2 receptors are not involved. Our results imply that ASA and MAGL inhibitors will protect platelets from activation by high endocannabinoid levels, and that

  5. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  6. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SQ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ShuQi Wang,1 Dusan Sarenac,1 Michael H Chen,1 Shih-Han Huang,1 Francoise F Giguel,2 Daniel R Kuritzkes,3 Utkan Demirci1,41Bio-acoustic MEMS in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 3Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care testing. To the best of our knowledge, there is not an existing on-chip virus isolation technology that does not use complex fluidic pumps. Here, we presented a lab-on-a-chip filter device to isolate plasma and viruses from unprocessed whole blood based on size exclusion without using a micropump. We demonstrated that viruses (eg, HIV can be separated on a filter-based chip (2-µm pore size from HIV-spiked whole blood at high recovery efficiencies of 89.9% ± 5.0%, 80.5% ± 4.3%, and 78.2% ± 3.8%, for viral loads of 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.7% ± 6.7% of red blood cells and 89.5% ± 2.4% of white blood cells were retained on 2 µm pore–sized filter microchips. We also tested these filter microchips with seven HIV-infected patient samples and observed recovery efficiencies ranging from 73.1% ± 8.3% to 82.5% ± 4.1%. These results are first steps towards developing disposable point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring devices for resource-constrained settings, as well as hospital and primary care settings.Keywords: microchip, filtration, virus isolation, plasma separation, point-of-care

  7. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil.

  8. Central and peripheral blood pressures in relation to plasma advanced glycation end products in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q-F; Sheng, C-S; Kang, Y-Y; Zhang, L; Wang, S; Li, F-K; Cheng, Y-B; Guo, Q-H; Li, Y; Wang, J-G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the association of plasma AGE (advanced glycation end product) concentration with central and peripheral blood pressures and central-to-brachial blood pressure amplification in a Chinese population. The study subjects were from a newly established residential area in the suburb of Shanghai. Using the SphygmoCor system, we recorded radial arterial waveforms and derived aortic waveforms by a generalized transfer function and central systolic and pulse pressure by calibration for brachial blood pressure measured with an oscillometric device. The central-to-brachial pressure amplification was expressed as the central-to-brachial systolic blood pressure difference and pulse pressure difference and ratio. Plasma AGE concentration was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and logarithmically transformed for statistical analysis. The 1051 participants (age, 55.1±13.1 years) included 663 women. After adjustment for sex, age and other confounding factors, plasma AGE concentration was associated with central but not peripheral blood pressures and with some of the pressure amplification indexes. Indeed, each 10-fold increase in plasma AGE concentration was associated with 2.94 mm Hg (P=0.04) higher central systolic blood pressure and 2.39% lower central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio (P=0.03). In further subgroup analyses, the association was more prominent in the presence of hypercholesterolemia (+8.11 mm Hg, P=0.008) for central systolic blood pressure and in the presence of overweight and obesity (-4.89%, P=0.009), diabetes and prediabetes (-6.26%, P=0.10) or current smoking (-6.68%, P=0.045) for central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio. In conclusion, plasma AGE concentration is independently associated with central systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure amplification, especially in the presence of several modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  10. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  11. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  12. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  13. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  14. The negative correlation between plasma adiponectin and blood pressure depends on obesity: a family-based association study in SAPPHIRe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hung-Yuan; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hwu, Chii-Min; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Hung, Yi-Jen; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Quertermous, Thomas; Curb, J David; Tai, Tong-Yuan; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2008-04-01

    The association between plasma adiponectin level and blood pressure remains inconclusive. Because obese subjects may have different mechanisms to regulate blood pressure, we hypothesized that obesity may be an important modifier. In order to minimize confounding effects from unidentified factors, a family-based design was employed to explore the relationship. A total of 1,048 subjects from 478 Chinese or Japanese families with a mean age of 50.4 +/- 9.0 years were included (the SAPPHIRe (Stanford-Asian Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance) cohort). Blood pressure was recorded automatically and the average of the last two out of three consecutive readings was used in the analysis. A subject with "hypertension" was defined as one with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or =140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or =90 mm Hg, or who was already on medication for hypertension. Obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) > or =25 kg/m(2). The updated homeostasis model assessment was used for calculating the indices of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2 %S). Fasting plasma adiponectin was determined using radioimmunoassay. Subjects with hypertension had significantly lower plasma adiponectin levels than those without hypertension (5.99 +/- 3.64 microg/ml vs. 6.65 +/- 3.86 microg/ml, P < 0.01). Plasma adiponectin level correlated negatively with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, and HOMA2%S (odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.98). In subjects without hypertension (n = 349), the plasma adiponectin level correlated negatively with SBP in those who were obese, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and HOMA2 %S (beta = -0.58, P = 0.03). The association was not significant in those without obesity. Plasma adiponectin level correlates negatively with hypertension. In subjects without hypertension, the relationship between plasma adiponectin level and SBP depends on the presence of obesity.

  15. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction.

  16. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  17. Comparison of a new blood sampling device with the vacuum tube system for plasma and hematological analyses in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Geffre, Anne; Germain, Claude; Lefebvre, Hervé P

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric devices based on a capillary system may provide an alternative to vacuum tubes for canine blood sampling. The potential advantages are absence of vein collapse, limited blood volume sampled, and improved safety. The aim of this study was to compare routine plasma and hematological variables in seven healthy dogs using both techniques. Five biochemical analytes were measured, and a complete hematological examination and plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test were performed. No clinically relevant difference between the two techniques was observed for any variable or functional test assessed.

  18. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarina, Tatyana; Proskurnin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II) complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5-6.3) is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 - 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02-0.10). Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  19. Coarse-grained model of adsorption of blood plasma proteins onto nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Hender

    2016-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained model for evaluation of interactions of globular proteins with nanoparticles. The protein molecules are represented by one bead per aminoacid and the nanoparticle by a homogeneous sphere that interacts with the aminoacids via a central force that depends on the nanoparticle size. The proposed methodology is used to predict the adsorption energies for six common human blood plasma proteins on hydrophobic charged or neutral nanoparticles of different sizes as well as the preferred orientation of the molecules upon adsorption. Our approach allows one to rank the proteins by their binding affinity to the nanoparticle, which can be used for predicting the composition of the NP-protein corona. The predicted ranking is in good agreement with known experimental data for protein adsorption on surfaces.

  20. Tb(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-phase model was developed and Tb(Ⅲ) speciation in human blood plasma was studied. At a concentration below 3.744×10-4mol/L (or at the concentration), Tb(Ⅲ) is mostly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of TbPO4. As the concentration of Tb(Ⅲ) increases,phosphate is exceeded and another kind of precipitate of Tb2(CO3)3 appears. Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb(Ⅲ) mainly distribute in [Tb (Tf)] at low concentration and in [Tb (HSA)], [Tb2(Tf], [Tb (IgG)], [Tb (Lactate)]2+, [Tb (CitArgH)] and free Tb(Ⅲ) at high concentration.

  1. Fabrication of All Glass Bifurcation Microfluidic Chip for Blood Plasma Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation was fabricated by a cost-effective glass molding process using an amorphous carbon (AC mold, which in turn was fabricated by the carbonization of a replicated furan precursor. To compensate for the shrinkage during AC mold fabrication, an enlarged photoresist pattern master was designed, and an AC mold with a dimensional error of 2.9% was achieved; the dimensional error of the master pattern was 1.6%. In the glass molding process, a glass microchannel plate with negligible shape errors (~1.5% compared to AC mold was replicated. Finally, an all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip was realized by micro drilling and thermal fusion bonding processes. A separation efficiency of 74% was obtained using the fabricated all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip.

  2. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuck, Claus-Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylate (PAA adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw of the polyanion ligand. Ca++ and Mg++ inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  3. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, Claus-Chr

    2011-01-24

    Polyacrylate (PAA) adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw) of the polyanion ligand. Ca(++) and Mg(++) inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  4. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly....... There was a significant inverse relationship between superficial nephron ED(NaCl) and PRC. We conclude that ED(Na) decreases during osmotic diuresis, suggesting that the increase in PRC was mediated by the macula densa. The results suggest that the natriuresis during osmotic diuresis is a result of impaired sodium...

  5. Fast differentiation of SIRS and sepsis from blood plasma of ICU patients using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ute; Trenkmann, Sabine; Bocklitz, Thomas; Schmerler, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    Currently, there is no biomarker that can reliable distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, such a biomarker would be of utmost importance for early identification and stratification of patients at risk to initiate timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Within this proof of principle study, the high potential of Raman spectroscopy for the fast differentiation of non-infectious SIRS and sepsis is demonstrated. Blood plasma collected from 70 patients from the intensive care unit (31 patients with sepsis and 39 patients classified with SIRS without infection) was analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. A PCA-LDA based classification model was trained with Raman spectra from test samples and yielded for sepsis a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.82. These results have been confirmed with an independent dataset (prediction accuracy 80%). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Biological effects of bacterial pigment undecylprodigiosin on human blood cells treated with atmospheric gas plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Saša; Leskovac, Andreja; Petrović, Sandra; Senerovic, Lidija; Krivokapić, Nevena; Mitrović, Tatjana; Božović, Nikola; Vasić, Vesna; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    It is known that some bacterial species are more resilient to different kinds of irradiation due to the naturally developed protective mechanisms and compounds such as pigments. On the other hand, reasoned tissue engineering using plasma remains a critical task and requires very precise control of plasma parameters in order to mitigate its potential detrimental effects. Here we isolated a natural protective agent, microbially produced undecylprodigiosin ((5'Z)-4'-methoxy-5'-[(5-undecyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene]-1H,5'H-2,2'-bipyrrole), and investigated its effects on human blood cells independently and in combination with plasma. Two approaches were applied; the first, undecylprodigiosin (UP pigment) was added to the blood cultures, which then were exposed to plasma (pre-treatment); and the second- the blood cultures were exposed to plasma and then treated with pigment (post-treatment). The interactions of plasma and UP pigment with blood cells were investigated by conducting a series of biological tests providing the information regarding their genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and redox modulating activities. The exposure of cells to plasma induced oxidative stress as well as certain genotoxic and cytotoxic effects seen as elevated micronuclei incidence, decreased cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. In blood cultures treated with UP pigment alone, we found that both cytotoxic and protective effects could be induced depending on the concentration used. The highest UP pigment concentration increased lipid peroxidation and the incidence of micronuclei by more than 70% with maximal suppression of cell proliferation. On the contrary, we found that the lowest UP pigment concentration displayed protective effects. In combined treatments with plasma and UP pigment, we found that UP pigment could provide spatial shielding to plasma exposure. In the pre-treatment approach, the incidence of micronuclei was reduced by 35.52% compared to control while malondialdehyde level

  7. Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)], E-mail: wkreagen@mmm.com; Ellefson, Mark E. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences (United States); State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI (United States); School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2008-11-03

    Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been reported to occur in human blood. Accurate risk assessments require accurate measurements of exposures, but identification and quantification of PFCs in biological matrices can be affected by both ion suppression and enhancement in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques (LC/MS-MS). A study was conducted to quantify potential biases in LC/MS-MS quantification methods. Using isotopically labeled perfluorooctanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA), and ammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate ([{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS) spiked tissues, ion-pairing extraction, solid-phase extraction, and protein precipitation sample preparation techniques were compared. Analytical accuracy was assessed using both solvent calibration and matrix-matched calibration for quantification. Data accuracy and precision of 100 {+-} 15% was demonstrated in both human sera and plasma for all three sample preparation techniques when matrix-matched calibration was used in quantification. In contrast, quantification of ion-pairing extraction data using solvent calibration in combination with a surrogate internal standard resulted in significant analytical biases for all target analytes. The accuracy of results, based on solvent calibration was highly variable and dependent on the serum and plasma matrices, the specific target analyte [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA, [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA, or [{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS, the target analyte concentration, the LC/MS-MS instrumentation used in data generation, and the specific surrogate internal standard used in quantification. These results suggest that concentrations of PFCs reported for human blood using surrogate internal standards in combination with external solvent calibration can be inaccurate unless biases are accounted for in data quantification.

  8. Impact of special aviation gymnastics instruments training on selected hormones in cadets' blood serum and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Sobiech, Krzysztof

    2017-06-19

    This study has aimed at investigating the impact of the Special Aviation Gymnastics Instruments (SAGI) training scheme on the blood serum cortisol, testosterone, insulin, and plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine in comparison with a control group. Fifty-five cadets, aged 20 years old, participated in the study. Cadets were divided into 2 groups: A (N = 41) - the SAGI-trained, and B (N = 14) - the control group. In both groups, blood was the examined material, sampled twice: before the training session (BT) and after the training session (AT), at the beginning (training session I), during (training session II), and after completion of the SAGI training session (training session III). Commercially available kits were used for assaying serum cortisol, testosterone, and insulin as well as plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Cadets' physical fitness was assessed by means of Aero-Synthetic Efficiency Tests. In group A, a significant decrease in serum cortisol (training session III) and insulin in three training sessions AT in comparison with the values BT was seen. A statistically significant increase in testosterone and catecholamines was noted in all 3 training sessions AT in comparison with the values BT. In group B, a statistically significant increase in cortisol (training session II), testosterone, and catecholamines was observed in all 3 training sessions AT vs. the values in training session BT. In group B, serum levels of all assayed hormones were higher in training session III than those in group A. In the examined group, the SAGI training produced fewer hormonal changes dependent on the intensity and exercise type and physical efficiency improvement than in the control group. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):655-664.

  9. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of (/sup 14/C)Indapamide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with /sup 14/C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with (/sup 14/C)indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of (/sup 14/C)indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding.

  10. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  11. Αlpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma from LRRK2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gorostidi

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD remains primarily a clinical issue, based mainly on phenotypic patterns. The identification of biomarkers capable of permitting the preclinical detection of PD is critically needed. α-Synuclein is a key protein in PD, with missense and multiplication mutations in the gene encoding α-synuclein (SNCA having been reported in familial cases of PD, and accumulation of the protein identified in Lewy bodies (LBs and Lewy neurites (LNs in affected brain regions. With the objective of validating the use of α-synuclein as a clinical or progressive biomarker in an accessible tissue, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to measure α-synuclein levels in the peripheral blood plasma of idiopathic PD and LRRK2 mutation carrier patients and compared our findings with healthy control subjects. Compared to healthy controls, we found a significant decrease in plasma total α-synuclein levels in idiopathic PD (iPD patients (n = 134, p = 0.010. However, the reduction was less significant in patients who were LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 32, p = 0.133. This lack of significance could be due to the small number of individuals employed in this group. No predictive value of total α-synuclein in the diagnosis of PD was found in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Although this is a pilot study requiring corroboration on a larger cohort of patients, our results highlight the possible use of plasma α-synuclein as a biomarker for PD.

  12. [Recent circumstances in the supply and demand of various blood products in Japan, and appropriate use of blood components or plasma protein derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, H

    1986-10-01

    In Japan, as in the United States and several other advanced countries, the use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and albumin has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Especially in Japan the increase has been at least tenfold, and half of this usage has been for surgery. Most reviews of albumin usage acknowledge that there is a high ratio of wastage, or use in clinical circumstances without a firm scientific basis. Recently Japan has imported an enormous volume of various plasma fraction products such as albumin, Factor VIII etc., or plasma as raw material from foreign countries, especially the United States. As a result, Japan has come to monopolized a quarter of the albumin manufactured in the world, and has therefore received much internal and external criticism from or ethical standpoint. As countermeasures against shortage of these blood products, it will be necessary for doctors to use these blood products more sparingly and to increase the yield of volunteer donor's blood, especially plasma. More red blood cell concentrate should be utilized for hemorrhage in routine surgical operations. Because whole blood transfusion is rarely used except in cases of massive bleeding that cannot be stopped immediately, exchange transfusion has been performed in the United States and European countries recently. Transfusion of FFP is appropriately used only for replacement of coagulation factor deficiencies, massive transfusion etc. in the United States. It should be particularly noted that these carry the risk of transmission of diseases such as hepatitis and possibly AIDS. Albumin is an effective oncotic agent in the treatment of acute shock and in the maintenance of intravascular volume and cardiac output. However, albumin and FFP have no demonstrable effect in the general supportive management of chronic hypoproteinemia and undernutrition.

  13. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein and the mesen......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... and the mesenteric artery and a flow probe around the portal vein to allow assessment of nutrient absorption using Fick's principle. In Exp. 1, six sows (mean LW = 202 ± 28 kg) were fed three diets containing 517, 216 or 225 g/kg DM of starch, respectively. In Exp. 2, six female pigs (mean LW = 59 ± 2 kg) were fed...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  14. Hierarchical zwitterionic modification of a SERS substrate enables real-time drug monitoring in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Galvan, Daniel David; Jain, Priyesh; Li, Bowen; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with molecular specificity, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, in critical diagnostic media including blood, nonspecific protein adsorption coupled with weak surface affinities and small Raman activities of many analytes hinder the TDM application of SERS. Here we report a hierarchical surface modification strategy, first by coating a gold surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) designed to attract or probe for analytes and then by grafting a non-fouling zwitterionic polymer brush layer to effectively repel protein fouling. We demonstrate how this modification can enable TDM applications by quantitatively and dynamically measuring the concentrations of several analytes--including an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), several TDM-requiring antidepressant and anti-seizure drugs, fructose and blood pH--in undiluted plasma. This hierarchical surface chemistry is widely applicable to many analytes and provides a generalized platform for SERS-based biosensing in complex real-world media.

  15. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  16. Universal pooled plasma (Uniplas(®)) does not induce complement-mediated hemolysis of human red blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Andrea; Brandstätter, Hubert; Prager, Bettina; Brainovic, Janja; Cortes, Rhoda; Römisch, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Pooling of plasma of different blood groups before large scale manufacturing of Uniplas(®) results in the formation of low levels of soluble immune complexes (CIC). The aim of this study was to investigate the level and removal of CIC during Uniplas(®) manufacturing. In addition, an in vitro hemolysis assay should be developed and investigate if Uniplas(®) does induce complement-mediated hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBC). In-process samples from Uniplas(®) (universal plasma) and Octaplas(LG)(®) (blood group specific plasma) routine manufacturing batches were tested on CIC using commercially available ELISA test kits. In addition, CIC was produced by admixing heat-aggregated immunoglobulins or monoclonal anti-A/anti-B antibodies to plasma and removal of CIC was followed in studies of the Uniplas(®) manufacturing process under down-scale conditions. The extent of RBC lysis was investigated in plasma samples using the in-house hemolysis assay. Levels of CIC in Uniplas(®) are within the normal ranges for plasma and comparable to that found in Octaplas(LG)(®). Down-scale experiments showed that both IgG/IgM-CIC levels are significantly removed on average by 40-50% during Uniplas(®) manufacturing. Uniplas(®) does not induce hemolysis of RBCs in vitro. Hemolysis occurs only after spiking with high titers of anti-A/anti-B antibodies and depends on the antibody specificity (i.e. titer) in the plasma sample. The results of this study confirm the safety of Uniplas(®) regarding transfusion to patients of all ABO blood groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  18. Effects of garcinol and guttiferone K isolated from Garcinia cambogia on oxidative/nitrative modifications in blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Masullo, Milena; Olas, Beata; Piacente, Sonia; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The effects of garcinol and guttiferone K, two polyisoprenylated benzophenones occurring a food plant called Garcinia cambogia, on oxidative/nitrative protein damage (determined by parameters such as levels of protein carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were studied in vitro. We also investigated the effects of garcinol and guttiferone K on lipid peroxidation in blood platelets and plasma induced by ONOO(-) (100 microM). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to peroxynitrite (100 microM) resulted in an increased level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues in proteins, and an increase of lipid peroxidation measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). In the presence of garcinol and guttiferone K (0.1-25 microg/ml), a distinct reduction in the formation of carbonyl groups in plasma and platelet proteins together with the decrease of TBARS caused by 100 microM peroxynitrite, was observed. However, garcinol and guttiferone K did not inhibit plasma and platelet protein nitration induced by peroxynitrite. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones present in human diet such as garcinol or guttiferone K in vitro have protective effects against lipid and protein oxidation and may have some promising effects in vivo because they are good antioxidants in the tested models in vitro. Garcinol and guttiferone K can be also useful as protecting factors against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  19. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  20. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    2001-01-01

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The subs

  1. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  2. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  3. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  4. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  5. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  6. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed t

  7. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  8. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine and whole blood glutathione levels in healthy, non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Eva Maria; Raijmakers, Maarten T M; Peters, Wilbert H M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2002-05-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine supplementation in nine young healthy females induced a quick and highly significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels and an increase in whole blood concentration of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetylcysteine impresses as an efficient drug in lowering homocysteine concentration and might be beneficial for individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  10. Feed deprivation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles: effects on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Arjona, Francisco Jesús; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luís E C

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prolonged feed deprivation were assessed on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels in Solea senegalensis. Juvenile specimens were maintained at two experimental conditions (24 h fasted and 21 days feed-deprived). In feed-deprived fish, relative growth rate and hepatosomatic index as well as plasma triglycerides and proteins levels were significantly lower. However, plasma cortisol levels were higher in feed-deprived fish, while plasma glucose and lactate values were not significantly different between treatments. Furthermore, feed-deprived fish showed higher levels of total plasma free amino acids than 24 h fasted fish. In 21 days feed-deprived sole, an increase in plasma cortisol levels may suggest a functional role in mobilizing energy due to the catabolic action of this hormone in teleosts. Higher levels of glutamine, arginine and ornithine in 21 days feed-deprived fish may be indicative of a dual role for these amino acids: ammonia detoxification and carbon source for gluconeogenesis. The increased plasma glucogenic and branched-chain amino acid levels, together with the maintenance of plasma glucose in 21 days feed-deprived sole, suggest active liver gluconeogenic processes supported by tissue proteolysis.

  11. Hepatitis G Viral RNA Co-infection in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuli; ZENG Linglan; LUO Duande; LIU Wei; GUO Jingsong; YANG Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of the co-infection of hepatitis G virus (HGV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) and its clinical implication was investigated and the difference in the positive rate of HGV RNA and HCV RNA between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) observed. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in plasma and PBMCs of 72 patients with hepatitis C was detected. It was showed that HGV RNA was positive in plasma of 11 patients, in PBMCs of 15 patients, and simultaneously in both of plasma and PBMCs of 10 patients with the co-infection rate being 22.2 %. Nine patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in plasma, 11 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in PBMC, and 6 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in both plasma and PBMC with the positive rate being 12.4 %, 15.3 % and 8.3 % respectively. The positive rate of both HGV RNA and HCV RNA in PBMCs was higher than in plasma. It was concluded that the HGV co-infection rate in the patients with hepatitis C was 22. 2 %. Simultaneous examination of plasma and PBMC can improve clinically detectable rate.

  12. Acute phase response of selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood plasma before and after total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defi, Irma Ruslina; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakazawa, Minato; Shinya, Yanagisawa; Sato, Naoki; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Several studies show the consistent results of the decrease in plasma or serum selenium (Se) after surgery, and the change is suggested to be a negative acute phase response of Se to the surgical inflammation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is included in the acute phase response proteins, is a selenoenzyme. However, previous studies failed to show any changes in GPx activity before and after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the Se- and selenoenzyme responses that accompany the acute inflammatory reactions during and following major surgery. Patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty surgery due to knee osteoarthritis at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Gunma University Hospital in Japan were studied. The plasma Se concentration was determined, and the activity of plasma GPx was measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and white blood cell (WBC) count were also analysed. Increases in the inflammatory biomarkers of CRP and WBC showed inflammatory reactions with the surgery. A significant increase in plasma GPx activity (p production of other series of acute phase proteins, the present results suggest that there is a redistribution of plasma Se to GPx that occurs as an acute phase response, and the source of Se for GPx could be, at least partly, from albumin.

  13. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  14. Isolation of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis from Blood Cultures by Plasma Purification and Immunomagnetic Separation Accelerates Antibiotic Susceptibility Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni-Grinstein, Ronit; Schuster, Ofir; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Aftalion, Moshe; Maoz, Sharon; Steinberger-Levy, Ida; Ber, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y. pestis on solid media, isolation by plating blood culture samples on proper agar plates may require several days. Thus, improving the isolation procedure prior to antibiotic susceptibility determination is a major clinically relevant need. In this study, we developed a rapid, selective procedure for the isolation of F. tularensis and Y. pestis from blood cultures. We examined drop-plating and plasma purification followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) as alternative isolation methods. We determined that replacing the classical isolation method with drop-plating is advantageous with respect to time at the expense of specificity. Hence, we also examined isolation by IMS. Sub-localization of F. tularensis within blood cultures of infected mice has revealed that the majority of the bacteria are located within the extracellular fraction, in the plasma. Y. pestis also resides within the plasma. Therefore, the plasma fraction was isolated from blood cultures and subjected to an IMS procedure using polyclonal anti-F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or anti-Y. pestis antibodies conjugated to 50-nm nano-beads. The time required to reach an inoculum of sufficient bacteria for AST was shortest when using the plasma and IMSs for both bacteria, saving up to 2 days of incubation for F. tularensis and 1 day for Y. pestis. Our isolation procedure provides a proof of concept for the clinical relevance of rapid isolation for AST from F. tularensis- and Y. pestis

  15. Both high and low plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D increase blood pressure in a normal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Z; Knaus, Steven J; Bohaychuk, Kaylee; Singh, Jaswant; Vatanparast, Hassan A; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-12-01

    The lower threshold plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level for optimal cardiovascular health is unclear, whereas the toxicity threshold is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiovascular-vitamin D dose-response curve in a normal rat model. Doses of cholecalciferol ranged from deficiency to toxic levels (equivalent to human doses of 0, 0·015, 0·25 and 3·75mg/d) for 4 weeks, and then cardiovascular health was examined using blood pressure telemetry and high-resolution ultrasound in normal male rats (n 16/group, 64 rats total). After 1 month, only the 0·25mg/d group had plasma 25(OH)D that was within current recommended range (100-125 nmol/l), and all groups failed to change plasma Ca or phosphate. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly (10-15 mmHg) in the rat groups with plasma 25(OH)D levels at both 30 and 561 nmol/l (groups fed 0 and 3·75mg/d) compared with the group fed the equivalent to 0·015mg/d (43 nmol/l 25(OH)D). Although not significant, the group fed the equivalent to 0·25mg/d (108 nmol/l 25(OH)D) also showed a 10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure. Carotid artery diameter was significantly smaller and wall thickness was larger, leading to higher peak carotid systolic blood velocity in these two groups. Despite these vascular changes, cardiac function did not differ among treatment groups. The key finding in this study is that arterial stiffness and systolic blood pressure both showed a U-shaped dose-response for vitamin D, with lowest values (best cardiovascular health) observed when plasma 25(OH)D levels were 43 nmol/l in normal male rats.

  16. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.).

  17. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... was positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose and inversely with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride. Association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index were inconsistent...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...

  18. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB).

  19. Changes in red blood cell osmotic fragility induced by total plasma and plasma fractions obtained from rats bearing progressive and regressive variants of the Walker 256 tumor

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    Cavalcanti T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two variants (A and B of the widely employed Walker 256 rat tumor cells are known. When inoculated sc, the A variant produces solid, invasive, highly metastasizing tumors that cause severe systemic effects and death. We have obtained a regressive variant (AR whose sc growth is slower, resulting in 70-80% regression followed by development of immunity against A and AR variants. Simultaneously with the beginning of tumor regression, a temporary anemia developed (~8 days duration, accompanied by marked splenomegaly (~300% and changes in red blood cell osmotic fragility, with mean corpuscular fragility increasing from 4.1 to 6.5 g/l NaCl. The possibility was raised that plasma factors associated with the immune response induced these changes. In the present study, we identify and compare the osmotic fragility increasing activity of plasma fractions obtained from A and AR tumor bearers at different stages of tumor development. The results showed that by day 4 compounds precipitating in 60% (NH42SO4 and able to increase red blood cell osmotic fragility appeared in the plasma of A and AR tumor bearers. Later, these compounds disappeared from the plasma of A tumor bearers but slightly increased in the plasma of AR tumor bearers. Furthermore, by day 10, compounds precipitating between 60 and 80% (NH42SO4 and with similar effects appeared only in plasma of AR tumor bearers. The salt solubility, production kinetics and hemolytic activity of these compounds resemble those of the immunoglobulins. This, together with their preferential increase in rats bearing the AR variant, suggest their association with an immune response against this tumor.

  20. COMPARING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND VITAMIN C VALUES BETWEEN UMBILICAL CORD AND MATERNAL BLOOD PLASMA AND THOSE IN NEWBORNS WITH HYPOXIA

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    H. Bazmamoun MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOxygen intoxication plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some fetal diseases such as encephalopathy, ischemia& hypoxia. Antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage in newborns. The object of this research was measuring total value of antioxidant and vitamin C in blood sample of pregnant women before delivery, and also in umbilical cord blood of their newborn, and repeating these measurements 48 hours after birth in newborns with hypoxia and controlling group.Materials & MethodsThe sample included 32 healthy pregnant women presented for delivery & also their newborns. The total values of antioxidant & vitamin C in plasma were measured by staining methods.ResultsThere was no statistical meaningful difference in total values of antioxidants & vitamin C in women's blood & their newborn's cord blood. Also totalvalues of antioxidant & vitamin C meaningfully increased in newborns with hypoxia after 48 hours.Conclusiontotal values of antioxidant & vitamin C in blood plasma of newborn, increase in oxidative damage as a defense mechanism.Key words:Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Hypoxia , Umbilical cord blood.

  1. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  2. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  3. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  4. CORRELATION OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN WITH BLOOD PRESSURE, BMI, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCEMIC STATUS IN TYPE II D M

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    Suresh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder all over the world3.The incidence of diabetes is showing an alarming rise in developing countries, particularly in India. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form in India and constitutes more than 95% of the cases.9 During the past decade, the potential role of haemostatic factors particularly fibrinogen in various disorders and their complication has gained considerable interest. Plasma fibrinogen is a important marker in type 2 Diabetes, but its correlation with smoking, age, sex, hypertension, obesity, family history lipids, has not been evaluated in large studies. In view of paucity of data from Indian studies, we attempt to correlate plasma fibrinogen with blood pressure, BMI, lipid profile and glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 100, known and newly detected type-2 diabetic patients with and without associated hypertension of more than 40 years of age belonging to both sexes were included. All these patients were registered cases in Basaveshwar Teaching & General Hospital, Gulbarga as outpatients and in-patients. Type-2 diabetic patients associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis, malignancy, secondary hypertension and pregnancy were excluded from this study. After a detailed clinical examination, the following investigations were done: For diabetes mellitus: Random blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin (ERBA Kit. Renal profile: Blood urea and serum creatinine. Serum lipids: Cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL by commercially available kits (ERBA Kit. Routine urine examination: Sugar and albumin. Estimation of plasma fibrinogen: The plasma fibrinogen was estimated by thrombin-clotting method by using FIBROQUANT KIT [Tulip Diagnostics (P Ltd.]. OBJECTIVES: To know the fibrinogen levels in patients

  5. Nonlinear and Robust Control Strategy Based on Chemotherapy to Minimize the HIV Concentration in Blood Plasma

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    Ricardo Aguilar-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear PI-type control strategy is designed in order to minimize the HIV concentration in blood plasma, via medical drug injection, under the framework of bounded uncertain input disturbances. For control design it is considered a simplified mathematical model of the virus infection as a benchmark. The model is based on mass balances of healthy cells, infected cells, and the virus concentrations. The proposed controller contains a nonlinear feedback PI structure of bounded functions of the regulation error. The closed-loop stability of the system is analyzed via Lyapunov technique, in which robustness against system disturbances is demonstrated. Numerical experiments show a satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology as a HIV therapy, in which the virion particles and the infected CD4+T cells are minimized and, as an interesting result, the drug dosage can be suspended, thus avoiding drug resistance from the virus. Finally, the proposed controller is compared to a standard sliding-mode and hyperbolic tangent controllers showing better performance.

  6. Plasma protein induced clustering of red blood cells in micro capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Aouane, Othmane; Flormann, Daniel; Thiebaud, Marine; Verdier, Claude; Coupier, Gwennou; Podgorski, Thomas; Misbah, Chaouqi; Selmi, Hassib

    2013-11-01

    The plasma molecule fibrinogen induces aggregation of RBCs to clusters, the so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates in bulk flow can break them up which results in the pronounced shear thinning of blood. This led to the assumption that rouleaux formation does not take place in the microcapillaries of the vascular network where high shear rates are present. However, the question is of high medical relevance. Cardio vascular disorders are still the main cause of death in the western world and cardiac patients have often higher fibrinogen level. We performed AFM based single cell force spectroscopy to determine the work of separation. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the adhesion strength and we found that cluster formation is strongly enhanced by fibrinogen at physiological concentrations, even at shear rate as high as 1000 1/s. Numerical simulations based on a boundary integral method confirm our findings and the clustering transition takes place both in the experiments and in the simulations at the same interaction energies. In vivo measurements with intravital fluorescence microscopy in a dorsal skin fold chamber in a mouse reveal that RBCs indeed form clusters in the micrcapillary flow. This work was supported by the German Science Foundation research imitative SFB1027.

  7. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

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    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  8. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios.

  9. Suspension model for blood flow through a catheterized arterial stenosis with peripheral layer of plasma free from cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponalagusamy, R.

    2016-06-01

    The present article describes the blood flow in a catheterized artery with radially symmetric and axially asymmetric stenosis. To understand the effects of red cell concentration, plasma layer thickness and catheter size simultaneously, blood is considered by a two-layered model comprising a core region of suspension of all the erythrocytes (particles) supposed to be a particle-fluid mixture and a peripheral zone of cell-free plasma. The analytical expressions for flow features, such as fluid phase and particle phase velocities, flow rate, wall shear stress and resistive force are obtained. It is witnessed that the presence of the catheter causes a substantial increase in the frictional forces on the walls of arterial stenosis and catheter, shear stress and flow resistance, in addition to that, have occurred due to the presence of red cells concentration (volume fraction density of the particles) and the absence of peripheral plasma layer near the wall of the stenosed artery. The introduction of an axially asymmetric nature of stenosis and plasma layer thickness causes significant reduction in flow resistance. One can notice that the two-phase fluid (suspension model) is more profound to the thickness of peripheral plasma layer and catheter than the single-phase fluid.

  10. The effect of corn trypsin inhibitor and inhibiting antibodies for FXIa and FXIIa on coagulation of plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K M; Nielsen, S; Elg, M; Deinum, J

    2014-10-01

    Corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI), an inhibitor of FXIIa, is used to prevent plasma coagulation by contact activation, to specifically investigate tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation. In the present work the specificity of CTI for factor (F) XIIa is questioned. In the commercial available plasma coagulation assays CTI was found to double activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at a plasma concentration of 7.3 ± 1.5 μm CTI (assay concentration 2.4 μm). No effect was found on the prothrombin time (PT) when high TF concentrations were used. Also, with specific antibodies for FXIIa and for FXIa only APTT was found to be extended but not PT. With specific enzyme assays using chromogenic substrates CTI was shown to be a strong inhibitor of FXIIa and a competitive inhibitor of FXIa with Ki  = 8.1 ± 0.3 μm, without effect on the coagulation factors FVIIa, FIXa, FXa and thrombin. In thrombin generation and coagulation (free oscillation rheometry, FOR) assays, initiated with low TF concentrations, no effect of CTI (plasma concentrations of 4.4 and 13.6 μm CTI, 25 resp. 100 mg L(-1) in blood) was found with ≥ 1 pm TF. At ≤ 0.1 pm TF in the FOR whole blood assay the coagulation time (CT) concentration dependently increased while the plasma CT became longer than the observation time. To avoid inhibition of FXIa and the thrombin feedback loop we recommend that for coagulation assays the concentration of CTI in blood should be below 20 mg L(-1) (1.6 μm) and in plasma below 3 μm. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  12. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyai, Tamás; Herczeg, Kata; Onódi, Zsófia; Voszka, István; Módos, Károly; Marton, Nikolett; Nagy, György; Mäger, Imre; Wood, Matthew J; El Andaloussi, Samir; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Kumar, Vikas; Nagy, Péter; Kittel, Ágnes; Buzás, Edit Irén; Ferdinandy, Péter; Giricz, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described. Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4°C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4°C, or UC performed at 37°C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin. Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield.

  13. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods.

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    Tamás Baranyai

    Full Text Available Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described.Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC.Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4°C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4°C, or UC performed at 37°C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin.Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield.

  14. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    approaches allowed predicting a range of glycan structures for each of the main peaks of HPLC profiles of plasma free oligosaccharides and managing ways for their future experimental analysis. In the case of cardiovascular disorders, HPLC profiles of FOS revealed a changing pattern of heterogeneity, depending on the severity of the disease. Three main enlarged glycan species in the netral fraction and one peak in the charged fraction distinguished the FOS of the patients from those of the healthy volunteers. It has been revealed that the neutral marker peaks were represented by polimannose glycans with 5–7 mannose residues and 1–2 residues of N-acetylglucosamine, and one of the major peaks of the charged fraction – by two-antennary complex N-glycan with two sialic acid residues. The study of free oligosaccharides of blood plasma is a new field of glycobiology allowing an evaluation of an organism state at the level of the cell organelle functional status and openning up broad prospects for finding early diagnostic and prognostic markers of cardiac insufficiency.

  15. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  16. Plasma Renin Activity Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to β-Blocker and Thiazide Diuretic as Monotherapy and Add-On Therapy for Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen T.; Schwartz, Gary L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Gums, John G.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie A.; Bailey, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a β-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain. METHODS We evaluated predictors of blood pressure response in 363 men and women ≤65 years of age with primary hypertension (152 blacks, 211 whites), 86 of whom (24%) were untreated and 277 of whom (76%) were withdrawn from previous antihypertensive drugs before randomization to either atenolol followed by addition of hydrochlorothiazide (N = 180) or hydrochlorothiazide followed by addition of atenolol (N = 183). Responses were determined by home blood pressure averages before and after each drug administration. Race, age, plasma renin activity, and other characteristics including pretreatment blood pressure levels were incorporated into linear regression models to quantify their contributions to prediction of blood pressure responses. RESULTS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level consistently contributed to prediction of systolic and diastolic responses to each drug administered as mono- and as add-on therapy. Higher plasma renin activity was consistently associated with greater blood pressure responses to atenolol and lesser responses to hydrochlorothiazide. The predictive effects of plasma renin activity were statistically independent of race, age, and other characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level predict blood pressure responses to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide administered as mono- and as add-on therapy in men and women ≤65 years of age. PMID:20725057

  17. Levels of vitamin C In the blood plasma patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting increases significantly after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Modzelewska, Beata; Lisowska, Anna; Buzun, Leszek; Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    One strong risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the levels of vitamin C in the blood is cigarette smoking. The supplementary effects of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is smoking cessation by patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the level of vitamin C in the blood plasma one day before and one month after CABG. Human blood were collected from 20 patients (men); 1day before and 1 month after CABG. All patients were smoker and after CABG they declared their not smoking. The concentration of vitamin C in the blood plasma was assayed by FIA method with spectrophotometric detection. The mean value of the vitamin C concentration 1day before CABG was 12.36±2.84μmol/L (mean±SD), 1 month after CABG 40.07±10.95μmol/L (mean±SD). The average increase in the concentration of vitamin C was 3.27±0.73 times (mean±SD) and showed significant positive correlations (Pearson r=0.657, p=0.002). It should be consider incorporating the recommendations of preoperative smoking cessation for at least one month prior to CABG and/or additional supplementation. In addition it would be relevant to monitor the level of vitamin C in the patients' blood in the preoperative period.

  18. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  20. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) was funded by the Nordea Foundation....

  1. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  2. Preferential adsorption of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood plasma/polymer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantjes, A.; Breemhaar, W.; Beugeling, T.; Brinkman, E.; Ellens, D.J

    1985-01-01

    A few studies on the adsorption of plasma proteins to polymeric surfaces show that major plasma proteins: albumin (Alb), fibrinogen (Fb) and immunoglobulin (IgG) are adsorbed in much smaller quantities from plasma than from protein solutions (1,2). Present results show that this difference in adsorp

  3. Mechanism of Copper Uptake from Blood Plasma Ceruloplasmin by Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ramos

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin, the main copper binding protein in blood plasma, has been of particular interest for its role in efflux of iron from cells, but has additional functions. Here we tested the hypothesis that it releases its copper for cell uptake by interacting with a cell surface reductase and transporters, producing apoceruloplasmin. Uptake and transepithelial transport of copper from ceruloplasmin was demonstrated with mammary epithelial cell monolayers (PMC42 with tight junctions grown in bicameral chambers, and purified human (64Cu-labeled ceruloplasmin secreted by HepG2 cells. Monolayers took up virtually all the (64Cu over 16h and secreted half into the apical (milk fluid. This was partly inhibited by Ag(I. The (64Cu in ceruloplasmin purified from plasma of (64Cu-injected mice accumulated linearly in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs over 3-6h. Rates were somewhat higher in Ctr1+/+ versus Ctr1-/- cells, and 3-fold lower at 2 °C. The ceruloplasmin-derived (64Cu could not be removed by extensive washing or trypsin treatment, and most was recovered in the cytosol. Actual cell copper (determined by furnace atomic absorption increased markedly upon 24h exposure to holoceruloplasmin. This was accompanied by a conversion of holo to apoceruloplasmin in the culture medium and did not occur during incubation in the absence of cells. Four different endocytosis inhibitors failed to prevent 64Cu uptake from ceruloplasmin. High concentrations of non-radioactive Cu(II- or Fe(III-NTA (substrates for cell surface reductases, or Cu(I-NTA (to compete for transporter uptake almost eliminated uptake of (64Cu from ceruloplasmin. MEFs had cell surface reductase activity and expressed Steap 2 (but not Steaps 3 and 4 or dCytB. However, six-day siRNA treatment was insufficient to reduce activity or uptake. We conclude that ceruloplasmin is a circulating copper transport protein that may interact with Steap2 on the cell surface, forming apoceruloplasmin, and Cu(I that

  4. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A;

    2014-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urin...... summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs.......Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine...

  5. Plasma cytokine concentration and the cytokine producing ability of whole blood cell cultures from healthy females with pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenský, J; Lackovic, V; Veselková, Z; Horváthová, M; Koska, J; Blazícková, S; Vigas, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on plasma cytokine concentration and blood leukocyte cytokine production in healthy female volunteers. No changes were found in the plasma concentration of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-13 during hyperprolactinemia when compared with control values. Using unseparated blood leukocytes, we found that the spontaneous production of IL-6 (4-8 h) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (2-4 h) was significantly decreased and that the in vitro stimulated production of IFN-gamma (2-8 h) and TNF (4 h) was significantly increased compared with control. Our data concerning the increased IFN-gamma and TNF producing capacity of unseparated leukocytes during pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia strongly support the possibility that the lymphocyte production of these cytokines can be rapidly amplified by prolactin via a priming mechanism.

  6. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  7. Molecular distribution of gold(I) in human blood plasma after treatment with the antiarthritic disodium aurothiomalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M H; Grootveld, M; Sadler, P J

    1989-01-01

    On-line separation and detection of both high- and low-molecular-weight gold species in human blood plasma treated with disodium aurothiomalate were achieved by a technique incorporating a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 254 nm and eluant gold concentration by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fate of gold (40 microM disodium aurothiomalate) in human blood plasma was monitored over a period of 24 h. Results obtained indicated that more than 50% of the gold is associated with a peak identified as albumin after a 5 min incubation period at 37 degrees C, and by 30 min more than 90% is found to be associated with albumin. This novel analytical combination enables the rapid, selective and sensitive determination of gold(I) and its biotransformation products (both protein--and non-protein-bound) in biological fluids.

  8. Effects of parental hypertension on longitudinal trends in blood pressure and plasma metabolic profile: mixed-effects model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumata, Kaneto; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism underlying the association of parental hypertension with cardiovascular events in offspring remains unclear. In this study, the effects of parental hypertension on longitudinal trends of blood pressure and metabolic parameters were examined by mixed-effects model analysis. From 1977 to 2006, 5198 subjects participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, and we selected 2607 subjects (1095 men and 1512 women) for whom data on parental history of hypertension were available. In both men and women with and without parental hypertension, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels consistently increased from the third to eighth decades of life, whereas diastolic blood pressure and serum triglyceride levels followed biphasic (inverted U shape) time courses during that period. However, the relationships between the parameters and age were significantly shifted upward (by ≈5.3 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, 2.8 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure, 0.30 mmol/L in blood glucose, and 0.09 mmol/L in triglyceride) in the group with parental hypertension compared with those in the group without parental hypertension. Both paternal and maternal histories of hypertension were determinants of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and there was no significant interaction between the sides of parental history. There were no significant effects of parental hypertension on age-dependent or body mass index-dependent changes in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The present results indicate that parental hypertension has an age-independent impact on elevation of blood pressure, plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels, which may underlie the reported increase in cardiovascular events by family history of hypertension.

  9. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  10. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    .001) compared to control in intention-to-treat-analyses (n=823). Waist circumference and BMI increased 0.5 cm (0.3;0.7) (P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  11. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag—In vitro assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, M. T.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2007-06-01

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  12. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag-In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, M.T. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: M.Khorasani@ippi.ac.ir; Mirzadeh, H. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  13. High hydrostatic pressure treatment for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalain, Nolwennig; Roquain, Jean; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Maurel, Jean-Paul; Largeteau, Alain; Ivanovic, Zoran; Demazeau, Gérard

    2012-02-15

    For the past 30years, pressure inactivation of microorganisms has been developed in biosciences, in particular for foods and more recently for biological products, including pharmaceutical ones. In many past studies, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processes on pathogens focused mainly on the effect of an increase of the pressure value. To assure the safety of pharmaceutical products containing fragile therapeutic components, development of new decontamination processes at the lowest pressure value is needed to maintain their therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of the process parameters characterizing high-pressure treatments [such as the pressurization rate (PR) and the application mode (AM)] on the inactivation of pathogens, in particular to determine how these parameters values could help decrease the pressure value necessary to reach the same inactivation level. The effect of these physical parameters was evaluated on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 which is an opportunistic pathogen of important relevance in the medical, pharmaceutical and food domains. Human blood plasma was chosen as the suspension medium because of its physiological importance in the transfusion field. It was shown that the optimization of all the selected parameters could lead to a high inactivation level (≈5log(10) decrease of the initial bacterial load) at a pressure level as low as 200MPa, underlining some synergistic effects among these parameters. Complete inactivation of the initial bacterial population was achieved for the following conditions: PR=50MPas(-1), AM=5×2min, T≈-5°C and P=300MPa.

  14. Relationship between urinary concentrating ability, arginine vasopressin in plasma and blood pressure after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1985-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in plasma before and after a 24-h period of water deprivation in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), 14 patients with normal blood pressure after renal transplantation (group II), and 16 healthy control subjects (group III). Urine was collected in four periods of 6 h each for measurement of urine volume (V), urine osmolality (Uosm) and tubular capacity for reabsorption of water (Tc water). AVP and Sosm increased significantly in all groups. The AVP levels were the same in groups I and II, but higher in group I than III both before and after water deprivation. In group II, AVP was higher than in group III only after water deprivation; V was significantly reduced in all groups. In groups I and II, V, Tc water and Uosm were the same. In group III, V was significantly lower than in groups I and II in the last three 6-h periods, and in group III, Tc water was higher in the first 6-h period than in groups I and II. There was a significant positive correlation between AVP and Sosm in all groups. In conclusion, renal water excretion cannot be reduced as rapidly and to the same degree in renal transplant recipients as in control subjects because of a decreased renal capacity for reabsorption of water. The higher AVP level in the transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon for the decreased responsiveness of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidneys. The sensitivity of the osmoreceptors to changes in osmotic stimuli was normal.

  15. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  16. Centrifugation:an important pre-analytic procedure that influences plasma microRNA quantification during blood processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Zheng; Cui Cui; Xin-Xi Zhou; Yi-Xin Zeng; Wei-Hua Jia

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs are robustly present in plasma or serum and have become a research focus as biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. Centrifugation is a necessary procedure for obtaining high-quality blood supernatant. Herein, we investigated one-step and two-step centrifugations, two centrifugal methods routinely used in microRNA study, to explore their effects on plasma microRNA quantification. The microRNAs obtained from one-step and two-step centrifugations were quantified by microarray and TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Dynamic light scattering was performed to explore the difference underlying the two centrifugal methods. The results from the microarray containing 1,347 microRNAs showed that the signal detection rate was greatly decreased in the plasma sample prepared by two-step centrifugation. More importantly, the microRNAs missing in this plasma sample could be recovered and detected in the precipitate generated from the second centrifugation. Consistent with the results from microarray, a marked decrease of three representative microRNAs in two-step centrifugal plasma was validated by Q-PCR. According to the size distribution of all nanoparticles in plasma, there were fewer nanoparticles with size >1,000 nm in two-step centrifugal plasma. Our experiments directly demonstrated that different centrifugation methods produced distinct quantities of plasma microRNAs. Thus, exosomes or protein complexes containing microRNAs may be involved in large nanoparticle formation and may be precipitated after two-step centrifugation. Our results remind us that sample processing methods should be first considered in conducting research.

  17. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma viscosity, and whole blood viscosity by the application of pulsed corona discharges and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin M.; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.; Cho, Young I.

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of applying pulsed corona discharges to blood plasma to reduce the viscosity of blood plasma and whole blood. Blood plasma was separated from blood cells, treated with corona discharges, and filtered before it was re-mixed with blood cells. Plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-c concentration were measured before and after the corona treatment and filtration. Both PV and WBV increased in the case of the corona treatment only, whereas both of them decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration. In particular, the LDL-c decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration by 31.5% from the baseline value. The effect of the corona treatment on the reduction of the WBV was significant at low shear rates, but not at high shear rates, suggesting that the precipitation of the molecules in blood plasma by the corona treatment and subsequent removal may suppress the aggregation of erythrocytes and improve rheological properties of blood.

  18. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma viscosity, and whole blood viscosity by the application of pulsed corona discharges and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin M; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J; Cho, Young I

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of applying pulsed corona discharges to blood plasma to reduce the viscosity of blood plasma and whole blood. Blood plasma was separated from blood cells, treated with corona discharges, and filtered before it was re-mixed with blood cells. Plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-c concentration were measured before and after the corona treatment and filtration. Both PV and WBV increased in the case of the corona treatment only, whereas both of them decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration. In particular, the LDL-c decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration by 31.5% from the baseline value. The effect of the corona treatment on the reduction of the WBV was significant at low shear rates, but not at high shear rates, suggesting that the precipitation of the molecules in blood plasma by the corona treatment and subsequent removal may suppress the aggregation of erythrocytes and improve rheological properties of blood.

  19. Protective action of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts against oxidative/nitrative damages of blood platelet and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Głowacki, Rafał; Olas, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative/nitrative stress induced by different factors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Proanthocyanidins have antioxidative properties and may protect biomolecules (lipids, DNA, and proteins) exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The effects of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts on oxidative/nitrative protein damages (determined by such parameters as level of thiol groups, carbonyl groups, and nitrotyrosine residues) and on the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status; using HPLC) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite were studied in vitro. The preincubation of blood platelets and plasma with proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts (0.5-50 µg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, diminished oxidation of thiol groups, and decreased the level of carbonyl groups in proteins caused by 100 µM peroxynitrite. An action of tested plant fraction and ONOO(-) evoked a significant increase of GSH in platelets and plasma in comparison with platelets and plasma treated with ONOO(-) only. The proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts can be useful as a protecting factor against oxidative/nitrative stress associated with different diseases (cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases) and proanthocyanidins of M. argun nuts may be promising antioxidants.

  20. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  1. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics.

  2. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  3. A filtration-based protocol to isolate human plasma membrane-derived vesicles and exosomes from blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ryan; Ansa-Addo, Ephraim; Stratton, Dan; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Jorfi, Samireh; Kholia, Sharad; Krige, Lizelle; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel

    2011-08-31

    The methods of Plasma Membrane-derived Vesicle (PMV) isolation and quantification vary considerably in the literature and a new standard needs to be defined. This study describes a novel filtration method to isolate PMVs in plasma, which avoids high speed centrifugation, and to quantify them using a Becton Dickinson (BD) FACS Calibur™ flow cytometer, as annexin V-positive vesicles, larger than 0.2 μm in diameter. Essentially microvesicles (which comprise a mixture of PMVs and exosomes) from citrate plasma were sonicated to break up clumped exosomes, and filtered using Millipore 0.1 μm pore size Hydrophilic Durapore membranes in Swinnex 13 mm filter holders. Phosphatidylserine-positive PMVs detected with annexin V-PE were quantified using combined labelling and gating strategies in conjunction with Polysciences Polybead Microspheres (0.2 μm) and BDTrucount tubes. The PMV absolute count was calculated on the analysis template using the Trucount tube lot number information and expressed in PMV count/ml. Having estimated a normal reference range (0.51×10(5)-2.82×10(5) PMVs/ml) from a small sample of human donors, using the developed method, the effect of certain variables was investigated. Variations such as freezing of samples and gender status did not significantly alter the PMV absolute count, and with age plasma PMV levels were only marginally reduced. Smokers appeared to have reduced PMV levels. Nicotine, as for calpeptin was shown to dose-dependently (from 10 up to 50 μM) reduce levels of early apoptosis in THP-1 monocytes and to decrease the level of PMV release. Fasting individuals had 2-3 fold higher PMV absolute counts compared to non-fasting subjects.

  4. Relation of blood cyanide to plasma cyanocobalamin concentration after a fixed dose of hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houeto, P; Hoffman, J R; Imbert, M; Levillain, P; Baud, F J

    1995-09-02

    Hydroxocobalamin combines with cyanide to form cyanocobalamin. We hypothesised that the amount of cyanocobalamin formed after a fixed dose of hydroxocobalamin given for cyanide poisoning would correlate with initial blood cyanide concentration. We determined blood cyanide concentration in 12 patients exposed to residential fires, and compared this with markers of the amount of cyanocobalamin formed after treatment with 5 g intravenous hydroxocobalamin. All relationships were highly correlated (r2 0.79-0.95), for the whole group, and there appeared to be an almost linear relationship for the 9 patients with initial cyanide concentration below 40 mumol/L. Above this concentration, no further cyanocobalamin was formed from a single 5 g dose of hydroxocobalamin. In one patient with initial blood cyanide concentration of 96 mumol/L, however, plasma cyanocobalamin concentration approximately doubled after a second 5 g dose of hydroxocobalamin. 5 g of hydroxocobalamin appears capable of binding all available cyanide ions for blood cyanide concentrations up to about 40 mumol/L. Beyond this, more hydroxocobalamin must be given for remaining cyanide ions to be bound. This information will allow clinicians to use rapidly measurable plasma cyanocobalamin concentrations to gauge severity of exposure and evaluate adequacy of treatment.

  5. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: gllf@hotmail.com; Lima, Glaydes M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Catanho, Maria T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in BC (95.08 {+-}1.94 to 80.68 {+-} 3.35), in IF-P (74.42 {+-}4.50 to 39.94{+-} 5.51) and in IF-BC (89.91{+-} 3.91 to 79.54 {+-} 5.42) in presence of PHY. These results suggest that the chelating property of PHY can modify the labeling of the BC, although other effects of PHY could be responsible. As PHY is found in many food and it could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  6. [New approaches to the measurement of the concentration and peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase in human blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, I V; Cherkalina, O S; Sokolov, A V; Pulina, M O; Zakharova, E T; Vasil'ev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for spectrometrical measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma with o-dianisidine (DA) as a substrate is proposed. We have determined the optimal conditions, including the pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration, under which MPO is the main contributor to DA oxidation in plasma. Specific MPO inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid or (4-aminobenzoyl)hydrazide, are added to measure the activity of other heme-containing peroxidases (mainly hemoglobin and its derivatives) and subtract their contribution from the total plasma peroxidase activity. Plasma MPO concentrations are quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by us and based on the use of antibodies raised in rats and rabbits. The sensitivity of this ELISA is high: 0.2-250 ng/ml. A direct and significant (P < 0.0001) correlation was observed between the MPO activities measured spectrometrically and by ELISA in blood samples from 38 healthy donors. The proposed approaches to MPO measurement in plasma can be used to evaluate the enzyme activity and concentration, as well as the efficacy of mechanisms by which MPO is regulated under physiological conditions and against the background of various inflammatory diseases.

  7. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  8. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  9. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  10. Profiling clinical platelet and plasma use to inform blood supply and contingency planning: PUPPY, the prospective utilization of platelets and plasma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Pasquale L; Polizzotto, Mark N; Grigoriadis, George; Waters, Neil; Comande, Mary; Borosak, Marija; Portbury, David; Wood, Erica M

    2016-10-01

    Demand for platelet (PLT) and plasma transfusions is increasing. Improved clinical supply and contingency planning requires greater understanding of usage profiles and urgency of clinical requirement. This study was a random-sample survey of PLT and plasma units produced in Victoria, Australia, to determine product disposition, recipient demographics, clinical indications for transfusion, and urgency (or "deferability") of need. PLTs and fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) were tagged with a case report form before distribution. A total of 1252 PLT and 1837 FFP units were tagged, comprising 8.3 and 13.3% of all products issued during the study period. The fate of 1243 PLT and 1808 FFP units was determined. Of products issued, 72.2% of PLTs and 87.8% of FFP were transfused. Hematologic and oncologic disorders accounted for 63.9% of PLT transfusions, with acute myeloid leukemia alone accounting for 26%. Conversely, surgical patients received the largest proportion of FFP (40.4%), predominantly for cardiothoracic, solid organ transplant, and vascular surgery. Approximately 15% of PLT transfusions and 35% of plasma transfusions were required within 1 hour, and 80% of PLT transfusions and 90% of FFP transfusions were required within 24 hours. Wastage rates were higher in regional blood banks. The PUPPY study is a comprehensive and detailed population-based assessment of PLT and plasma usage, including urgency of use. It identifies specific clinical areas with high demand for PLT and FFP transfusion and demonstrates the high urgency of need for both products. These data inform clinical supply and contingency planning activities. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Lipid emulsion solution: A novel cause of hemolysis in serum and plasma blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaben, Elizabeth A; Koch, Christopher D; Karon, Brad S

    2011-02-01

    After several hemolyzed blood samples were received in the laboratory, we investigated lipid emulsion/TPN as a novel cause of hemolysis. Whole blood was spiked with lipid emulsion and TPN. Hemolysis was proportional to the amount of lipid emulsion present in whole blood, with less hemolysis occurring in blood gas syringes compared to vacutainer tubes. Collection of specimens in blood gas syringes may prevent hemolysis in patients on lipid emulsion. Copyright © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. GRAVIMETRIC-DETERMINATION OF THE WATER CONCENTRATION IN WHOLE-BLOOD, PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES AND CORRELATIONS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL AND CLINICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIJNEMA, TH; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JAGER, J; MACKOR, AJ; GIPS, CH

    1993-01-01

    We have assessed gravimetric methods for determination of intravascular water, established whole blood-, plasma- and erythrocyte water reference values in a healthy volunteer group (n = 97, 48 females) and correlated these variables with 30 simultaneous hematological, clinicochemical and body parame

  13. Validation of the CALUX bioassay for PCDD/F analyses in human blood plasma and comparison with GC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, N; Windal, I; Vanderperren, H; Eppe, G; Xhrouet, C; Massart, A-C; Debacker, N; Sasse, A; Baeyens, W; De Pauw, E; Sartor, F; Van Oyen, H; Goeyens, L

    2004-08-08

    Following the dioxin crisis of 1999, several studies were conducted to assess the impact of this crisis on the dioxin body burden in the Belgian population. The Scientific Institute of Public Health identified a population from whom plasma samples were available and from whom, during the follow up survey, plasma samples were obtained in 2000. In total, 496 samples were collected for GC-HRMS and CALUX analyses to verify statistical assessment conclusions. This study was seen as an opportunity to validate the CALUX bioassay for biological sample analysis and to compare toxic equivalency (TEQ) values obtained by the reference GC-HRMS technique and by the screening method. This article focuses on the validation results of the CALUX bioassay for the analyses of the dioxin fractions of blood plasma. The sample preparation is based on a liquid-liquid extraction, followed by an acid silica in series with an activated carbon clean-up. A good recovery (82%) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation less than 25%) were found for this method. Based on 341 plasma samples, a significant correlation was established between the bioassay and chemical method (R = 0.64). However, a proportional systematic error was observed when the results obtained with the CALUX bioassay were regressed with the results from the GC-HRMS analyses. The limit of quantification (LOQ) used to calculate TEQ values from the GC-HRMS determinations, the use of the relative potency values instead of the toxic equivalent factor and the potential of CALUX bioassay to measure all compounds with affinity for the AhR may partly explain this proportional systematic error. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a promising valid screening method for human blood plasma analyses.

  14. Pro-inflammatory alterations and status of blood plasma iron in a model of blast-induced lung trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, N V; McFaul, S J; Januszkiewicz, A; Atkins, J L

    2005-01-01

    Impact of blast shock waves (SW) with the body wall produces blast lung injuries characterized by bilateral traumatic hemorrhages. Such injuries often have no external signs, are difficult to diagnose, and therefore, are frequently underestimated. Predictive assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome in SW-related accidents should be based on experimental data from appropriate animal models. Blood plasma transferrin is a major carrier of blood iron essential for proliferative "emergency" response of hematopoietic and immune systems as well as injured tissue in major trauma. Iron-transferrin complexes (Fe3+ TRF) can be quantitatively analyzed in blood and tissue samples with low-temperature EPR techniques. We hypothesized that use of EPR techniques in combination with assays for pro-inflammatory cytokines and granulocytes in the peripheral blood and BAL would reveal a pattern of systemic sequestration of (Fe3+)TRF that could be useful for development of biomarkers of the systemic inflammatory response to lung injury. With this goal we (i) analyzed time-dependent dynamics of (Fe3+)TRF in the peripheral blood of rats after impacts of SW generated in a laboratory shock-tube and (ii) assayed the fluctuation of granulocyte (PMN) counts and expression of CD11b adhesion molecules on the surface of PMNs during the first 24 h after SW induced injury. Sham-treated animals were used as control. Exposure to SW led to a significant decrease in the amount of blood (Fe3+)TRF that correlated with the extent of lung injury and developed gradually during the first 24 h. Thus, sequestration of (Fe3+)TRF occurred as early as 3 h post-exposure. At that time, the steady state concentration of (Fe3+)TRF in blood samples decreased from 19.7+/-0.6 microM in controls to 7.5+/-1.3 microM in exposed animals. The levels of (Fe3+)TRF remained decreased throughout the entire study period. PMN counts increased 5-fold and 3.5-fold over controls respectively, at 3 and 6 h postexposure

  15. Differential scanning calorimetry of blood plasma for clinical diagnosis and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; Helm, C William; Jenson, A Bennett; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2009-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provides a useful method to study the unfractionated plasma proteome. Plasma from healthy individuals yields a reproducible signature thermogram which results from the weighted sum of the thermal denaturation of the most abundant plasma proteins. Further investigation of the thermogram for healthy individuals showed it to be sensitive to ethnicity and gender. DSC analysis of plasma from diseased individuals revealed significant changes in the thermogram which are suggested to result not from changes in the concentration of the major plasma proteins but from interactions of small molecules or peptides with these proteins. Closer examination of the diseased thermograms showed a thermogram characteristic of each disease. For cervical cancer, the DSC method yields a progressively shifted thermogram as the disease advances from pre-invasive conditions to late stage cancer. Our application of the DSC method has provided a potential tool for the early diagnosis, monitoring and screening of cancer patients.

  16. [Deep frozen fresh plasma in blood component therapy: preparation--quality control--indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, K; Stampe, D; Kubanek, B

    1981-10-01

    Fresh frozen plasma is prepared within 6 hrs after collection in a double bag system. A second centrifugation at 4600 x g is necessary to obtain a platelet poor plasma. A special bag freezing system fitted to a conventional cryostat and cooled with ethanol to -50 degrees C was developed to reach the required cooling rate. It is possible to freeze 25 plasma bags simultaneously within 30 min in this new apparatus. Fresh frozen plasma prepared in this manner contains all coagulation factors and inhibitors with almost normal activities. Freezing at -40 degrees C in the air, prolonged storage of the starting material, or insufficient cooling of the frozen product deteriorate its quality. The influence of these variables with the discussed in detail. Indications of fresh frozen plasma, especially for dilution- and posttraumatic consumption coagulopathy as well as liver disease, are presented.

  17. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  18. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  19. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  20. Identification of squalamine in the plasma membrane of white blood cells in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2007-12-01

    It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated.

  1. Plasma endothelin in coronary venous blood from patients with either stable or unstable angina.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, J T; Nisbet, J A; Davies, M J

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that the active coronary endothelial lesions in unstable angina raise the endothelin concentration in coronary venous blood. DESIGN--Systemic and coronary venous blood samples were obtained from unselected patients with the clinical syndromes of either stable or unstable angina at the time of cardiac catheterisation and coronary arteriography. Control venous blood samples were obtained from healthy laboratory workers and from patients with chronic renal...

  2. In Vitro and in Vivo Wound Healing Properties of Plasma and Serum from Crocodylus siamensis Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangpromma, Nisachon; Preecharram, Sutthidech; Srilert, Thanawan; Maijaroen, Surachai; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Nualkaew, Natsajee; Daduang, Sakda; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-06-28

    The plasma and serum of Crocodylus siamensis have previously been reported to exhibit potent antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. During wound healing, these biological properties play a crucial role for supporting the formation of new tissue around the injured skin in the recovery process. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing properties of C. siamensis plasma and serum. The collected data demonstrate that crocodile plasma and serum were able to activate in vitro proliferation and migration of HaCaT, a human keratinocyte cell line, which represents an essential phase in the wound healing process. With respect to investigating cell migration, a scratch wound experiment was performed which revealed the ability of plasma and serum to decrease the gap of wounds in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with the in vitro results, remarkably enhanced wound repair was also observed in a mouse excisional skin wound model after treatment with plasma or serum. The effects of C. siamensis plasma and serum on wound healing were further elucidated by treating wound infections by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 on mice skin coupled with a histological method. The results indicate that crocodile plasma and serum promote the prevention of wound infection and boost the re-epithelialization necessary for the formation of new skin. Therefore, this work represents the first study to demonstrate the efficiency of C. siamensis plasma and serum with respect to their wound healing properties and strongly supports the utilization of C. siamensis plasma and serum as therapeutic products for injured skin treatment.

  3. Concentration and Methylation of Cell-Free DNA from Blood Plasma as Diagnostic Markers of Renal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Liudmyla; Onyshchenko, Kateryna; Kashparova, Olena; Nikolaienko, Oleksii; Panasenko, Grigory; Vozianov, Sergii; Romanenko, Alina; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The critical point for successful treatment of cancer is diagnosis at early stages of tumor development. Cancer cell-specific methylated DNA has been found in the blood of cancer patients, indicating that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the blood is a convenient tumor-associated DNA marker. Therefore methylated cfDNA can be used as a minimally invasive diagnostic marker. We analysed the concentration of plasma cfDNA and methylation of six tumor suppressor genes in samples of 27 patients with renal cancer and 15 healthy donors as controls. The cfDNA concentrations in samples from cancer patients and healthy donors was measured using two different methods, the SYBR Green I fluorescence test and quantitative real-time PCR. Both methods revealed a statistically significant increase of cfDNA concentrations in cancer patients. Hypermethylation on cfDNA was detected for the LRRC3B (74.1%), APC (51.9%), FHIT (55.6%), and RASSF1 (62.9%) genes in patients with renal cancer. Promoter methylation of VHL and ITGA9 genes was not found on cfDNA. Our results confirmed that the cfDNA level and methylation of CpG islands of RASSF1A, FHIT, and APC genes in blood plasma can be used as noninvasive diagnostic markers of cancer.

  4. Selected complete blood cell count and plasma protein electrophoresis parameters in pet psittacine birds evaluated for illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Rosenthal, Karen L; Shofer, Frances S

    2010-06-01

    Veterinarians rely on results of both the complete blood cell count (CBC) and plasma protein electrophoresis (EPH) in conjunction with the results of the plasma biochemical analysis to evaluate the health status of avian patients. Because the CBC and protein EPH measure different aspects of the immune response to disease, both tests are recommended in avian patients to rule out infectious or inflammatory disease. To evaluate results of the CBC and protein EPH in pet psittacine birds, the records of 144 pet psittacine birds, comprising 11 genera, that were presented for suspected illness were reviewed. Results of the CBC (total white blood cell count and packed cell volume) and protein EPH (alpha, beta, and gamma globulin concentrations) from submitted blood samples from each bird were evaluated. Of the 144 birds, 63 (43.8%) had abnormal CBC results, and 25 (17.4%) had abnormal EPH measurements. Results of the CBC and protein EPH were within reference ranges in 73 birds (50.7%). Abnormal results of the CBC in conjunction with normal EPH results were present in 46 birds (31.9%), compared with 8 birds (5.6%) with normal results of the CBC and abnormal EPH results. The findings of this study could aid practitioners in evaluating psittacine patients and prioritizing the value of individual diagnostic tests.

  5. Concentration and Methylation of Cell-Free DNA from Blood Plasma as Diagnostic Markers of Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypkina, Inessa; Tsyba, Liudmyla; Onyshchenko, Kateryna; Morderer, Dmytro; Kashparova, Olena; Nikolaienko, Oleksii; Panasenko, Grigory; Vozianov, Sergii; Romanenko, Alina; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The critical point for successful treatment of cancer is diagnosis at early stages of tumor development. Cancer cell-specific methylated DNA has been found in the blood of cancer patients, indicating that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the blood is a convenient tumor-associated DNA marker. Therefore methylated cfDNA can be used as a minimally invasive diagnostic marker. We analysed the concentration of plasma cfDNA and methylation of six tumor suppressor genes in samples of 27 patients with renal cancer and 15 healthy donors as controls. The cfDNA concentrations in samples from cancer patients and healthy donors was measured using two different methods, the SYBR Green I fluorescence test and quantitative real-time PCR. Both methods revealed a statistically significant increase of cfDNA concentrations in cancer patients. Hypermethylation on cfDNA was detected for the LRRC3B (74.1%), APC (51.9%), FHIT (55.6%), and RASSF1 (62.9%) genes in patients with renal cancer. Promoter methylation of VHL and ITGA9 genes was not found on cfDNA. Our results confirmed that the cfDNA level and methylation of CpG islands of RASSF1A, FHIT, and APC genes in blood plasma can be used as noninvasive diagnostic markers of cancer.

  6. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery disease patients by in vitro high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Malik; Uma Sharma; R Lakshmy; Rajiv Narang; Naranamanglam R Jagannathan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and controls (n=13) comprising angiography normal individuals. In vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of these blood plasma samples was carried out at 400 MHz, and intensity data were analysed with partial least square discriminant analysis. Categorization of subjects as controls or CAD patients and the patients further as single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) was done at the end of the study based on their angiography reports. Raised levels of lipids, alanine (Ala) and isoleucine/leucine/valine (Ile/Leu/Val) were observed in CAD patients compared with controls. Partial least square discriminant analysis showed separation between controls vs CAD patients. TVD patients showed increased levels of Ile/Leu/Val and Ala compared with controls and SVD. Alanine, Ile/Leu/Val, and LDL/VLDL appear as possible biomarkers for distinguishing between controls and patients with SVD and TVD. A metabolic adaptation of myocardium may play a role in raising the Ala level.

  7. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ... omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p

  8. Label-Free Optical Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction Based on Blood Plasma Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Chen, M. W.; Lin, J. Y.; Lai, W. Q.; Huang, W.; Chen, H. Y.; Weng, G. X.

    2016-11-01

    This study is intended to explore the potential of silver (Ag) nanoparticle-based plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for providing a rapid and simple "Yes/No" assessment to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A simple, rapid, and accurate method of diagnosing AMI is critical to reduce mortality and improve prognosis. Techniques such as electrocardiography examination and use of cardiac troponins have not yet met the current clinical need. Therefore, alternative approaches need to be developed. Plasma samples from 32 patients with AMI and 32 healthy control (Clt) subjects were assessed. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component (PC) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), were employed to develop a diagnostic algorithm for differentiating between patients with AMI and Clt subjects. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic was tested to evaluate the performance of the PCA-LDA algorithm for AMI detection. Each plasma sample was mixed with an equal volume of Ag colloidal solution, and the SERS measurement of each plasma sample was performed. The plasma SERS spectrum showed much stronger and sharper peaks compared with the normal Raman spectrum. Tentative assignments of Raman spectroscopy bands showed specific biomolecular (e.g., proteins, adenosine, adenine, and uric acid) changes. PC analysis and LDA were employed to discriminate patients with AMI from Clt subjects, yielding a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 93.8%. The findings of this study suggest that plasma SERS has a great potential for improving AMI in the future, and this will certainly reduce the difficulty, time to draw blood, and patients' pain to a great extent.

  9. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  10. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  11. Post-operative corticosterone levels in plasma and feces of mice subjected to permanent catheterization and automated blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbom, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of surgical placement of permanent arterial catheters on plasma corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone excretion and body weight in male BALB/c/Sca mice. In addition, the effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight on these parameters were studied. A catheter was placed in the carotid artery during isoflurane anesthesia. Immediately after surgery, the mice were connected to an AccuSampler® μ and blood samples for plasma corticosterone quantification were collected automatically during the first 24 h postoperatively. All fecal boli produced 24 h before and 24 h after surgery were collected for fecal corticosterone excretion measures and the pre- and post-operative body weights were registered. Plasma corticosterone levels were in the range of 150-300 ng/ml after the surgical procedure and the body weight was significantly lower 24 h after surgery compared to its pre-operative value. Contrary to what was expected, the total fecal corticosterone excretion was significantly reduced 24 h after surgery, as was the defecation. Buprenorphine treatment significantly lowered the plasma corticosterone levels, but had no effect on fecal corticosterone excretion or body weight change. It was concluded that surgical placement of an arterial catheter induces a significant stress response, as judged by its effect on plasma corticosterone and body weight. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine improved postoperative recovery by lowering plasma corticosterone concentrations. Neither fecal corticosterone excretion nor body weight change seems suitable for postoperative stress assessment in mice in the present experimental setup.

  12. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites.

  13. Emtricitabine seminal plasma and blood plasma population pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected men in the EVARIST ANRS-EP 49 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Elodie; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Lui, Gabrielle; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Assoumou, Lambert; Viard, Jean-Paul; Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Ghosn, Jade

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected men, assess its penetration in the male genital tract, and evaluate its impact on seminal plasma HIV load (spVL) detection. Men from the EVARIST ANRS EP49 study receiving combined antiretroviral therapy with FTC and with suppressed BP viral load were included in the study. A total of 236 and 209 FTC BP and SP concentrations, respectively, were available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.4. The impact of FTC seminal exposure on spVL detection was explored by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and mixed-effects logistic regressions. FTC BP pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model. The addition of an effect compartment with different input and output constants best described FTC SP pharmacokinetics. No covariates were found to explain the variability in SP. FTC exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) were higher in SP than in BP (median AUC0-24, 38.04 and 12.95 mg · liter(-1) · h, respectively). The median (range) SP-to-BP AUC0-24 ratio was 2.91 (0.84 to 10.08). Less than 1% of FTC AUC0-24 ratios were lower than 1. The impact of FTC SP AUC0-24 or FTC SP-to-BP AUC0-24 ratio on spVL detection was not significant (P = 0.943 or 0.893, respectively). This is the first population model describing FTC pharmacokinetics simultaneously in both BP and SP. FTC distributes well in the male genital tract with higher FTC concentrations in SP than in BP. FTC seminal plasma exposures were considered efficient in the majority of men.

  14. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  15. Blood Plasma Thermograms Dataset Analysisby Means of InterCriteria and Correlation Analyses for the Case of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Todinova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of InterCriteria Analysis and Correlation Analysis are applied to a dataset of calorimetric and statistical parameters obtained from blood plasma proteome thermograms of colorectal cancer patients. The analysis was performed for four individual predefined subsets of calorimetric profiles. Specific interrelations between the studied criteria were identified that were found to differ among the different calorimetric subsets. For three of the subsets the enthalpy of the thermal profiles was in strong consonance with the excess heat capacity of the immunoglobulins assigned thermal transition. For the calorimetric subsets that differed most from the control healthy set a strong interrelation between the excess heat capacities of the main plasma proteins (albumin and immunoglobulins was additionally evident. Our results demonstrate that these mathematical approaches can complement the analysis of calorimetric datasets generated for a variety of diseases.

  16. Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (δ(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer.

  17. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  18. Blood Plasma of Patients with Parkinson's Disease Increases Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Yang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS). Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn. This was supported by the observations that phosphorylated α-syn oligomers entered neurons, rapidly increased accumulated thioflavin S-positive inclusions, and induced a series of metabolic changes that included activation of polo-like kinase 2, inhibition of glucocerebrosidase and protein phosphatase 2A, and reduction of ceramide levels, all of which have been shown to promote α-syn phosphorylation and aggregation. We also analyzed neurotoxicity of α-syn oligomers relative to plasma from different patients. Neurotoxicity was not related to age or gender of the patients. However, neurotoxicity was positively correlated with H&Y staging score. The modification in the plasma may promote spreading of α-syn aggregates via an alternative pathway and accelerate progression of PD. PMID:27965913

  19. Blood Plasma of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Increases Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS. Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn. This was supported by the observations that phosphorylated α-syn oligomers entered neurons, rapidly increased accumulated thioflavin S-positive inclusions, and induced a series of metabolic changes that included activation of polo-like kinase 2, inhibition of glucocerebrosidase and protein phosphatase 2A, and reduction of ceramide levels, all of which have been shown to promote α-syn phosphorylation and aggregation. We also analyzed neurotoxicity of α-syn oligomers relative to plasma from different patients. Neurotoxicity was not related to age or gender of the patients. However, neurotoxicity was positively correlated with H&Y staging score. The modification in the plasma may promote spreading of α-syn aggregates via an alternative pathway and accelerate progression of PD.

  20. Assessment of the toxic potential of engineered metal oxide nanomaterials using an acellular model: citrated rat blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; MacCormack, Tyson James; Dieni, Christopher Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Citrated Sprague-Dawley rat blood plasma was used as a biologically relevant exposure medium to assess the acellular toxic potential of two metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), zinc oxide (nZnO), and cerium oxide (nCeO2). Plasma was incubated at 37 °C for up to 48 h with ENM concentrations ranging between 0 and 200 mg/L. The degree of ENM-induced oxidation was assessed by assaying for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels using dichlorofluorescein (DCF), pH, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), lipase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (PC). Whereas previous in vitro studies showed linear-positive correlations between ENM concentration and oxidative damage, our results suggested that low concentrations were generally pro-oxidant and higher concentrations appeared antioxidant or protective, as indicated by DCF fluorescence trends. nZnO and nCeO2 also affected pH in a manner dependent on concentration and elemental composition; higher nZnO concentrations maintained a more alkaline pH, while nCeO2 tended to decrease pH. No other biomarkers of oxidative damage (FRAP, MDA, PC, lipase activity) showed changes at any ENM concentration or time-point tested. Differential dissolution of the two ENMs was also observed, where as much as ∼31.3% of nZnO was instantaneously dissolved to Zn(2+ )and only negligible nCeO2 was degraded. The results suggest that the direct oxidative potential of nZnO and nCeO2 in citrated rat blood plasma is low, and that a physiological or immune response is needed to generate appreciable damage biomarkers. The data also highlight the need for careful consideration when selecting a model for assessing ENM toxicity.

  1. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A

    1980-01-01

    present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due......Nine patients with chronic obstructive lung disease underwent right heart catheterization. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated, but none of the patients had clinical signs of cardiac failure. Mean arterial oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide tension were 89% and 47 mmHg, respectively...

  2. Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

  3. 血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉及血粉三者之间的差异%Differences Among the Plasma Protein Powder Blood Protein Powder and Blood Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄百花; 杨朝旭; 张玉民; 高荣玲; 李伟; 刘飞

    2012-01-01

    The differences among the plasma protein powder, blood protein powder and blood meal from sens-es, processing, chemical composition and freshness. The results showed that the plasma protein powder nutrition val-ue higher, blood protein powder protein content was higher, including plasma, blood protein powder processing tech-nology and safety science than blood meal, the freshness of plasma protein pouder and blood protein powder was al- so significantly higher than the blood meal, more safety.%文章主要从感官、加工工艺、化学组成和新鲜度4个方面分析比较血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉和血粉的差异。结果表明,血浆蛋白粉的营养价值较高,血球蛋白粉蛋白含量较高,其中血浆、血球蛋白粉的加工工艺比血粉科学及安全,前两者的新鲜度也明显高于血粉,更易保存。

  4. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  5. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  6. Effects of argon laser on in vitro aggregation of platelets in platelet rich plasma and whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerger, P.T.; Glueck, H.I.; McGill, M.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of an Argon laser on platelet aggregation were studied, since platelets may be exposed to laser energy when used intravascularly. Various preparations of platelets in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, with or without aspirin, were tested with the aggregating agents ADP, collagen, thrombin, and epinephrine. Simultaneous release of ATP was also measured in PRP. At relatively low levels of irradiation, platelet aggregation was potentiated. Enhancement was evidenced by an increase in percent aggregation, earlier onset of the reaction, and reduction in the amount of aggregating agent required. In PRP, the mechanism of laser potentiation appeared to be the release of endogenous ATP from platelets. At relatively high levels of irradiation, platelets were destroyed and aggregation abolished. In whole blood, the mechanism was somewhat more complicated since release of ATP occurred from RBCs as well as platelets. Spontaneous aggregation following laser treatment occurred in isolated instances in PRP and in every trial in whole blood preparations. Aspirin ingestion inhibited the laser's effects in PRP but not in whole blood. These results may have important clinical implications for laser angioplasty, and the potentiated aggregation response may prove useful in laboratory studies of platelet function.

  7. Influence of plasma DNA on acid-base balance, blood gas measurement, and oxygen transport in health and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorova, Irina L; Veiko, Natalya N; Novikov, Viktor E

    2008-08-01

    Hyperoxia and alkalemia, as a result of pulmonary hyperventilation and elevation of plasma DNA (pDNA), are seen during the first 24 h after ischemic stroke. In this study we have examined the correlation between pDNA and these blood parameters in health and stroke. Acid-base equilibrium, oxygen status, hemoglobin affinity to oxygen and concentration of pDNA in arterial blood were measured after the intravenous injection of homologous long-chain DNA to healthy rats and rats subjected to common carotid arterial occlusion. In addition the effect of adding homologous DNA to human and rat venous blood samples was studied in vitro. Hyperoxia, alkalemia, and an increase in hemoglobin affinity to oxygen were seen in rats with artificial stroke. A marked decrease in pulmonary hyperventilation and hemoglobin affinity to oxygen was observed after injection of homologous genomic DNA (10(-6) g/mL of blood). After the DNA injection, blood gas measurement and concentration of pDNA were correlated. Addition of DNA at a concentration of 10(-7) g/mL to venous blood samples in vitro increased oxygen saturation that disappeared when the dose of the DNA increased 10-fold. Thus, a change of pDNA concentration or size can alter acid-base equilibrium, oxygen status, and oxygen transport. These results may be important for a better understanding of the mechanisms of stroke and other diseases associated with the elevation of pDNA concentration, and they open the possibility of new therapeutic approaches.

  8. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tilborgh, A.J.W.; Touw, D.J.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Zijlker-Jansen, P.Y.; Hudig, F.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side effects and incidents associated with the transfusion of labile blood products. The findings are publicly reported in annual hemovigilance reports. The category of anaphylactic reaction, defined as allergic

  9. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tilborgh, A.J.W.; Touw, D.J.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Zijlker-Jansen, P.Y.; Hudig, F.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side effects and incidents associated with the transfusion of labile blood products. The findings are publicly reported in annual hemovigilance reports. The category of anaphylactic reaction, defined as allergic

  10. COST IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PLASMA IN THE BLOOD BANK OF CIENFUEGOS CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost information is an indispensable tool for planning, monitoring and timely decisions making in the organizations and is one of the most important elements for the internal management and analysis. The accurately knowledge of production and services allows the asses and analysis of the procedures, activities and productions return. The Blood Bank of Cienfuegos is unable to determinate the costs of their individual productions, which are derived from blood drawn and require different processes to obtain the final product. The objective of this work is to establish a procedure for determining the costs of production arising from the blood in the Blood Bank of Cienfuegos; this is achieved by designing and implementing a process costing accounting techniques linking management function of providing elements necessary for decision making. This shows that the currently costing that the entity applies is inadequate because it generates a single cost for all their products when in fact each involves a different cost.

  11. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Osaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism.

  12. Plasma protein, haematologic and blood chemistry changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) experimentally infected with bornavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högemann, Charlotte; Richter, Rüdiger; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rinder, Monika

    2017-10-01

    Bornaviruses are considered to be the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. In order to detect haematological and blood chemistry changes during the development of PDD and a possible correlation with clinical signs and the virological status, six African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were experimentally infected with parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) by subcutaneous route. All six parrots developed clinical signs of varying extent and successful infection was confirmed in all the birds by seroconversion or detection of RNA of the PaBV-4 infection strain. Based on population-based and intra-individual reference ranges established during 12 months prior to experimental infection, only minor haematological changes were detected in individual birds after infection. Changes in blood chemistry were restricted to aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, total protein, glucose and uric acid. Plasma protein electrophoresis revealed marked changes starting 10 weeks post infection characterized by an increase in the γ-globulin fraction and a gradual decrease to normal values during weeks 22-34. Indications of an acute-phase reaction at the initial stages of infection were not detected. While three birds suffered from clinical signs of PDD, which included weight loss and neurological disorders and died before development of haematological and plasma protein changes, recovery of clinical disease was paralleled in the remaining birds by an increase in γ-globulins and bornavirus-specific antibody titres.

  13. Analyzing the adsorption of blood plasma components by means of fullerene-containing silica gels and NMR spectroscopy in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenevskaya, E. Yu.; Mokeev, M. V.; Nasonova, K. V.; Podosenova, N. G.; Sharonova, L. V.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    The results from studying the adsorption of blood plasma components (e.g., protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins of low and high density) using silica gels modified with fullerene molecules (in the form of C60 or the hydroxylated form of C60(OH) x ) and subjected to hydration (or, alternatively, dehydration) are presented. The conditions for preparing adsorbents that allow us to control the adsorption capacity of silica gel and the selectivity of adsorption toward the components of blood plasma, are revealed. The nature and strength of the interactions of the introduced components (fullerene molecules and water) with functional groups on the silica surface are studied by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy (NMR-SS). Conclusions regarding the nature of the centers that control adsorption are drawn on the basis of NMR-SS spectra in combination with direct measurements of adsorption. The interaction of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of silica gel with fullerene, leading to the formation of electron-donor complexes of C60-H, C60-OH, or C60-OSi type, is demonstrated by the observed changes in the NMR-SS spectra of silica gels in the presence of fullerene.

  14. Concomitant increase in blood plasma levels of immunoreactive hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin following long distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glämsta, E L; Mørkrid, L; Lantz, I; Nyberg, F

    1993-11-19

    Hemorphins are endogenous opioids derived by enzymatic degradation of hemoglobin, a protein released in blood plasma during long distance running. We examined levels of beta-endorphin and the heptapeptide hemorphin-7, in heparinized venous blood plasma from 15 sedentary controls (8 males, 7 females) and from 15 age- and sex-matched marathon runners at baseline and after running 42 km or 21 km. Baseline levels of beta-endorphin (range 0.2-4.3 fmol/ml) were neither dependent upon weight, body mass index weight/height, running status nor sex. Baseline levels of hemorphin-7 (range 0.2-6.9 pmol/ml) were lower in women (P < 0.04) and covariated positively with body weight (P = 0.06), explaining lower levels in runners by their lower body weight. Covariation with body mass index was positive, but not significant (P = 0.10), however, here the dependence upon sex appeared stronger (P = 0.014). Running induced significant and correlated increases in hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin (r = 0.74; P < 0.002), possibly indicating a functional relationship between these two peptides.

  15. Comparison of two molecular assays for detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in whole blood and plasma samples from transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristina; Sidoti, Francesca; Mantovani, Samantha; Gregori, Gabriella; Proietti, Alex; Ghisetti, Valeria; Cavallo, Rossana

    2016-07-01

    In immunosuppressed patients, pre-emptive therapy and a strict follow-up of CMV infection are the standard of care for the prevention of CMV disease. Several real-time PCR assays for CMV DNA quantification on whole blood (WB) and plasma (PL) are commercially available. This study compared and correlated CMV viral loads obtained by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) platform on plasma specimens with those obtained on corresponding whole blood specimens by the real-time PCR assay (ELITe MGB-CMV) in 185 sequential samples from 41 immunosuppressed patients. Correlation between the two assays was good. Kinetics of CMV DNA within the same patient was similar, but PL viral load was constantly 1 log lower than WB. In patients under antiviral therapy, low level of CMV DNA persisted in WB, while it was absent in PL. The good correlation between CMV DNA detected on both PL and WB supports the reliability of the two matrices for viral monitoring and the therapeutic management of CMV infection. Nevertheless, due to significant quantification differences between PL and WB CMV DNA, the same biological specimen should be used for a sequential and reliable follow-up of patients at high risk of CMV infection.

  16. Impact of sex and diet on hematological and blood plasma biochemical profiles and liver histology of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakęś Zdzisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of diet and sex on the hematological and blood plasma biochemical profiles and the liver histology of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L. reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS (initial mean body weight (BW 1.35 kg. The proximate composition of the two commercial feeds used were (protein/lipid/nitrogen-free extracts (P/L/NFE P505/L118/NFE294 g kg−1 (group I and P471/L141/NFE290 g kg−1 (group II. Neither diet nor sex had a significant impact on final fish body weight (≈ 2.0 kg. Sex was noted to significantly impact glucose content (Glu – higher in males and cholesterol (Chol – higher in females in the blood plasma. Diet was confirmed to have a significant impact on levels of hematocrit (Ht, hemoglobin (Hb, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and the values of these indicators were higher in group I. Sex had a significant impact on Ht, Hb, MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, with higher values in male pikeperch. Diet and sex had significant impacts on the values of the pikeperch hepatosomatic index (HSI, hepatocyte size and that of their nuclei, and the values of the nucleocytoplasmic index (NCI.

  17. Some biochemical parameters of blood plasma of turkey-hens following administration of 1,2,4-triasole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, M; Truchliński, J; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M

    2007-01-01

    The present study involved 180 slaughter turkey-hens of heavy Big-6 type divided into four groups (in triplicate repetition for 15 birds). All the birds were fed with the same standard full-dose mixtures in 5-stage system. The turkey-hens of groups I, II and III were given 1,2,4-triasole derivative (3-(2-pyridil)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triasole-5-carboxylic acid), which has antibacterial, antifungal and immunomodulating properties, in amount of 50, 75 and 100 microg per 1 dm3 of water. Group IV--control was given water without the additive. The 1,2,4-triasole derivative was given to drinking water, starting from the first day of bird's life and for the whole rearing period. The present results of biochemical analysis of blood plasma showed that addition of examined substance significantly reduced concentration of protein, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid as compared to control. It was stated that tested 1,2,4-triasole derivative elevated the level of HDL fraction percentage and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma.

  18. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  19. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    as ‘beyond trade’. This stands in remarkable contrast to the fact that the donated plasma is sold to an international pharmaceutical company in consequence of rules of tender set by the European Union. Donors are not aware of this, and when asked in hypothetical terms about trade, they strongly oppose it...

  20. ACTIVATION OF PLASMA SYSTEMS AND BLOOD-CELLS BY ENDOTOXIN IN RABBITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, NJG; VANOEVEREN, W; HOITING, BH; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    Endotoxin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septicaemia by activation of cellular and plasmatic systems. This study was performed to investigate the effects of infusion of endotoxin in rabbits by measuring the activation of cellular and plasma systems. Endotoxin was infused at a rate of

  1. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  2. Endosome-to-Plasma Membrane Recycling of VEGFR2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Endothelial Function and Blood Vessel Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Helen M; Odell, Adam F; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Latham, Antony M; Frankel, Paul; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Walker, John H; Zachary, Ian C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-04-29

    Rab GTPases are implicated in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling, but how such membrane traffic regulators control vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) dynamics and function are not well understood. Here, we evaluated two different recycling Rab GTPases, Rab4a and Rab11a, in regulating endothelial VEGFR2 trafficking and signalling with implications for endothelial cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes. Expression of a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab4a S22N mutant caused increased VEGFR2 accumulation in endosomes. TfR and VEGFR2 exhibited differences in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in the presence of chloroquine. Depletion of Rab4a, but not Rab11a, levels stimulated VEGF-A-dependent intracellular signalling. However, depletion of either Rab4a or Rab11a levels inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration. Interestingly, depletion of Rab4a levels stimulated VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Rab4a and Rab11a were also both required for endothelial tubulogenesis. Evaluation of a transgenic zebrafish model showed that both Rab4 and Rab11a are functionally required for blood vessel formation and animal viability. Rab-dependent endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of VEGFR2 is important for intracellular signalling, cell migration and proliferation during angiogenesis.

  3. Clinical value of cancer cells joint detection in peripheral blood plasma of thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu ; Youxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and polymorphic epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) expression in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients, and investigate the clinical value of it as a diagnostic marker for circulating blood micrometastases. Methods:The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect and analyze CK19 and MUC1-expressing cel s in peripheral blood of 491 thyroid cancer patients. Results:CK19 and MUC1 expression showed no statistical y significant dif-ference with gender and age in thyroid cancer patients (P>0.05), while had statistical y significant dif erence with tumor size, lymph node stage and distant metastasis (P<0.01). The expression of CK19 and MUC1 were positively correlated (r=0.628, P=0.00). Conclusion:CK19 is closely related to MUC1 expression, tumor size, extent of invasion and distant metastasis in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients. The circulating blood CK19 and MUC1 tests can help predict thyroid cancer micrometastases and prognosis.

  4. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  5. Oral mucosal blood flow, plasma epinephrine and haemodynamic responses after injection of lidocaine with epinephrine during midazolam sedation and isoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Y; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between oral mucosal blood flow and plasma epinephrine concentration, and the effects of conscious sedation vs general anaesthesia on haemodynamic responses after submucosal epinephrine injection in 14 subjects. The same seven patients were studied both as controls and after sedation. For sedation, midazolam i.v. was used. Another seven patients underwent orthognathic surgery with isoflurane anaesthesia. All subjects received a submucosal injection of epinephrine 0.8 microgram kg-1, given as 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine 12.5 micrograms ml-1. Baseline mucosal blood flow and peak increase in plasma epinephrine concentration in the general anaesthesia and sedation groups were approximately 2.0 and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than those in the control group. Mean plasma epinephrine concentration reached a maximum 3 min after administration of epinephrine in all groups. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.65) between baseline mucosal blood flow and the maximum increase in plasma epinephrine concentration. There were no differences in haemodynamic changes except for heart rate, between the three groups. These results suggest that plasma epinephrine concentration after submucosal injection depends on the initial mucosal blood flow in the injected area. Haemodynamic changes, except heart rate, in the sedation and general anaesthesia groups were similar despite different changes in maximum plasma epinephrine concentration.

  6. Effect of Pyramidal Training on Plasma Lipid Profile and Fibrinogen, and Blood Viscosity of Untrained Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of progressive exercise (pyramidal short-term program on plasma fibrinogen, lipid profile and blood viscosity in untrained young men. Changes and imbalances in homeostasis lead to cause of heart attacks. There is conflicting information about the effect of exercise on these factors. 19 young healthy untrained men were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n = 10 and controls (n = 9 groups. Exercise training group with increasing severity of heart maximum 25 to 100 percent began to run the practice (pyramid in 42-minute sessions, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between the parameters of body composition, control, and training groups. Levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein density and viscosity of the blood significantly decreased in the training group compared with the control group (p value, respectively is 0.001, 0.001 and 0.035. The changes in the concentration of fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in both groups are not significant in both groups (p value, respectively is 0.645, 0.993 and 0.421. The present results show that it is possible that progressive training (pyramidal short-term program changed the levels of cardiovascular risk factors by reducing blood viscosity.

  7. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  8. [Hormone content of the blood plasma of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of ACTH, insulin, glucagon, glucose, epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine was measured in plasma of the rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129. As a result of the flight, the concentration of insulin, thyrotrophic hormone, and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased. It is suggested that the above changes have been induced by an acute stress associated with biosatellite reentry and touchdown.

  9. Microparticles (MPs), tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor inhibitor (TFPI) in cord blood plasma. A preliminary study and literature survey of procoagulant properties of MPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszyński, Mieczysław; Zekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Waldemar; Kuczyński, Jarosław; Zyliński, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    In the working hypothesis we assumed that the procoagulant activity of microparticles (MPs) is associated with the concentration of tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI), and that these three components together affect fetal hemostasis. The aim of the study was to check whether MPs are present in the cord blood, to compare their concentration with that in the maternal blood, as well as to measure the concentrations of TF antigen and TFPI antigen in the cord blood and maternal blood. The study group consisted of 28 healthy parturient women who gave normal delivery, and their 28 babies. Blood from the umbilical vein was collected immediately after delivery, still prior to omphalotomy, whereas mother's blood was obtained from the antecubital vein. The concentration of MPs as well as TF antigen and TFPI antigen were measured using ELISA method. The level of MPs in cord blood plasma was found to be 6.25 times higher than in the mother's blood plasma (median: 26.76 nM PS; range: 22.90-34.41 nM PS vs. median: 4.26 nM PS; range: 2.68-5.37 nM PS respectively, p=0.0022), whereas the level of TF antigen was 1.94 times higher in the fetus than in the mother (median: 238.03 pg/ml; range: 192.25-283.10 pg/ml vs. median: 122.4 pg/ml, range: 52.71-176.74 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.0012). On the other hand, the level of TFPI antigen was lower in cord blood plasma than in maternal blood plasma, accounting for 33.95% of the value noted in the mother (median: 30.04 ng/ml, range: 24.84-35.12 ng/ml vs. median: 88.48 ng/ml; range: 78.64-107.20 ng/ml, respectively, pMPs) are constituent components of cord blood plasma; their concentration is significantly higher than that in mother's blood plasma. In the fetus, MPs may play a role of a powerful procoagulant, thus facilitating thrombin generation (TF-dependent thrombin generation, which may take place on their surface); this hypothesis is based on literature data and our own evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  10. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn...

  11. Synthetic pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

    2013-04-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h.

  12. Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelets-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal brain disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent, and is accompanied by the accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Although collection of a blood...

  13. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborgh-de Jong, A.J.W.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Touw, D.J.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side-effects and incidents associated with transfusion of labile blood products. Anaphylactic reactions accounted for the largest number of serious transfusion reactions in the period 2008-2012. In

  14. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborgh-de Jong, A.J.W.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Touw, D.J.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side-effects and incidents associated with transfusion of labile blood products. Anaphylactic reactions accounted for the largest number of serious transfusion reactions in the period 2008-2012. In

  15. Micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic sensor for plasma and whole blood coagulation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Song, Shuren; Ma, Jilong; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Weihui; Guo, Qiuquan

    2017-05-15

    Monitoring blood coagulation is an important issue in the surgeries and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the blood coagulation monitoring based on a micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic resonator. The resonator was excited by a lateral electric field and operated under the shear mode with a frequency of 1.9GHz. According to the apparent step-ladder curves of the frequency response to the change of blood viscoelasticity, the coagulation time (prothrombin time) and the coagulation kinetics were measured with the sample consumption of only 1μl. The procoagulant activity of thromboplastin and the anticoagulant effect of heparin on the blood coagulation process were illustrated exemplarily. The measured prothrombin times showed a good linear correlation with R(2)=0.99969 and a consistency with the coefficient of variation less than 5% compared with the commercial coagulometer. The proposed film bulk acoustic sensor, which has the advantages of small size, light weight, low cost, simple operation and little sample consumption, is a promising device for miniaturized, online and automated analytical system for routine diagnostics of hemostatic status and personal health monitoring.

  16. The effect of polycarboxylate shell of magnetite nanoparticles on protein corona formation in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Turcu, R.; Tombácz, Etelka

    2017-04-01

    The development of protein corona around nanoparticles upon administration to the human body is responsible in a large part for their biodistribution, cell-internalization and toxicity or biocompatibility. We studied the influence of the chemical composition of polyelectrolyte shells (citric acid (CA) and poly(acrylic-co-maleic acid) (PAM)) of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on the evolution of protein corona in human plasma (HP). The aggregation state and zeta potential of the particles were measured in the range of HP concentration between 1 and 80 (v/v)% 3 min and 20 h after dispersing the particles in HP diluted with Tris buffered saline. Naked MNPs aggregated in HP solution, but the carboxylated MNPs became stabilized colloidally at higher plasma concentrations. Significant differences were observed at low plasma concentration. CA@MNPs aggregated instantly while the hydrodynamic diameter of PAM@MNP increased only slightly at 1-3 v/v % HP concentrations. The observed differences in protein corona formation can be explained by the differences in the steric effects of the polycarboxylate shells. It is interesting that relatively small but systematic changes in zeta potential alter the aggregation state significantly.

  17. The basel cocktail for simultaneous phenotyping of human cytochrome P450 isoforms in plasma, saliva and dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Massimiliano; Derungs, Adrian; Serratore, Maria-Giovanna; Noppen, Christoph; Nezic, Lana; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Haschke, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Phenotyping cocktails use a combination of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-specific probe drugs to simultaneously assess the activity of different CYP isoforms. To improve the clinical applicability of CYP phenotyping, the main objectives of this study were to develop a new cocktail based on probe drugs that are widely used in clinical practice and to test whether alternative sampling methods such as collection of dried blood spots (DBS) or saliva could be used to simplify the sampling process. In a randomized crossover study, a new combination of commercially available probe drugs (the Basel cocktail) was tested for simultaneous phenotyping of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Sixteen subjects received low doses of caffeine, efavirenz, losartan, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in different combinations. All subjects were genotyped, and full pharmacokinetic profiles of the probe drugs and their main metabolites were determined in plasma, dried blood spots and saliva samples. The Basel cocktail was well tolerated, and bioequivalence tests showed no evidence of mutual interactions between the probe drugs. In plasma, single timepoint metabolic ratios at 2 h (for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) or at 8 h (for the other isoforms) after dosing showed high correlations with corresponding area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (AUC0-24h parent/AUC0-24h metabolite) and are proposed as simple phenotyping metrics. Metabolic ratios in dried blood spots (for CYP1A2 and CYP2C19) or in saliva samples (for CYP1A2) were comparable to plasma ratios and offer the option of minimally invasive or non-invasive phenotyping of these isoforms. This new combination of phenotyping probe drugs can be used without mutual interactions. The proposed sampling timepoints have the potential to facilitate clinical application of phenotyping but require further validation in conditions of altered CYP activity. The use of DBS or saliva samples seems feasible for phenotyping of the

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  19. Single-Beam Acoustic Trapping of Red Blood Cells and Polystyrene Microspheres in Flowing Red Blood Cell Saline and Plasma Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiao-Chuan; Li, Ying; Chen, Ruimin; Jung, Hayong; Shung, K Kirk

    2017-02-21

    Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBATs) represent a new technology for particle and cell trapping. The advantages of SBATs are their deep penetration into tissues, reduction of tissue damage and ease of application to in vivo studies. The use of these tools for applications in drug delivery in vivo must meet the following conditions: large penetration depth, strong trapping force and tissue safety. A reasonable penetration depth for SBATs in the development of in vivo applications was established in a previous study conducted in water with zero velocity. However, capturing objects in flowing fluid can provide more meaningful results. In this study, we investigated the capability of SBATs to trap red blood cells (RBCs) and polystyrene microspheres in flowing RBC suspensions. Two different types of RBC suspension were prepared in this work: an RBC phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) suspension and an RBC plasma suspension. The results indicated that SBATs successfully trapped RBCs and polystyrene microspheres in a flowing RBC PBS suspension with an average steady velocity of 1.6 cm/s in a 2-mm-diameter polyimide. Furthermore, SBATs were found able to trap RBCs in a flowing RBC PBS suspension at speeds as high as 7.9 cm/s in a polyimide tube, which is higher than the velocity in capillaries (0.03 cm/s) and approaches the velocity in arterioles and venules. Moreover, the results also indicated that polystyrene microspheres can be trapped in an RBC plasma suspension, where aggregation is observed. This work represents a step forward in using this tool in actual in vivo experimentation.

  20. Correlation between propranolol in plasma and urine, renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, O L; Andreasen, F; Bjerregaard, P

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension, and a fixed elevation of diastolic blood pressure, were randomly allocated to three groups and treated with propranolol 40 mg x 4 (Group 1), 80 mg x 4 (group 2) and 160 mg x 4 (Group 3). Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), total plasma propranolol (tPP), free plasma propranolol (fPP), and 24 h urinary propranolol excretion (UP) were determined at the end of four consecutive periods: (A) after four weeks without any treatment; (B) after two to three weeks during which the propranolol dose was gradually increased to the intended level; (C) after four weeks, and (D) after eight weeks of unchanged treatment. The maximum reduction in diastolic BP occurred after period B, and in systolic BP after Period C, for Groups 2 and 3, and for all groups together; for Group 1, however, the maximum diastolic BP reduction was first seen after period C. PR was reduced to the same level in all groups after period B. After period B, PRA an PAC fell in all groups, and remained reduced during C and D Group 1. After periods C and D, PRA and PAC in Groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly from the levels after period A; tPP, fPP and UP were significantly correlated with the propranolol dose, and were lowest in Group 1 and highest in Group 3; UP was negatively correlated with systolic but not diastolic BP in Periods B, C and D. In contrast neither fPP nor tPP were correlated with systolic or diastolic BP. There was no significant correlation between PRA, PAC and changes in PRA or PAC on the one hand and tPP, fPP, UP, BP or changes in BP on the other. It was concluded that propranolol effectively reduced BP, but diastolic BP reduction was most rapidly obtained at 320 and 640 mg daily, that the activity of the renin -aldosterone system was initially suppressed in all group, but for unknown reasons it increased towards the control level after seven to eleven

  1. A blood-based screening tool for Alzheimer's disease that spans serum and plasma: findings from TARC and ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid E O'Bryant

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine, and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status data. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES: Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN = 0.54 and specificity (SP = 0.78, which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92. However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91. The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+ = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49-14.47, the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR- = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22-5.71, and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86-69.47. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses.

  2. Effect of Sex and Prior Exposure to a Cafeteria Diet on the Distribution of Sex Hormones between Plasma and Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that steroid hormones are carried in the blood free and/or bound to plasma proteins. We investigated whether blood cells were also able to bind/carry sex-related hormones: estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone. Wistar male and female rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days, which induced overweight. The rats were fed the standard rat diet for 15 additional days to minimize the immediate effects of excess ingested energy. Controls were always kept on standard diet. After the rats were killed, their blood was used for 1) measuring plasma hormone levels, 2) determining the binding of labeled hormones to washed red blood cells (RBC), 3) incubating whole blood with labeled hormones and determining the distribution of label between plasma and packed cells, discounting the trapped plasma volume, 4) determining free plasma hormone using labeled hormones, both through membrane ultrafiltration and dextran-charcoal removal. The results were computed individually for each rat. Cells retained up to 32% estrone, and down to 10% of testosterone, with marked differences due to sex and diet (the latter only for estrogens, not for DHEA and testosterone). Sex and diet also affected the concentrations of all hormones, with no significant diet effects for estradiol and DHEA, but with considerable interaction between both factors. Binding to RBC was non-specific for all hormones. Estrogen distribution in plasma compartments was affected by sex and diet. In conclusion: a) there is a large non-specific RBC-carried compartment for estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone deeply affected by sex; b) Prior exposure to a cafeteria (hyperlipidic) diet induced hormone distribution changes, affected by sex, which hint at sex-related structural differences in RBC membranes; c) We postulate that the RBC compartment may contribute to maintain free (i.e., fully active) sex hormone levels in a way similar to plasma proteins non-specific binding. PMID:22479617

  3. [Pooled Umbilical Cord Blood Plasma for Culturing UCMSC and Ex Vivo Expanding Umbilical Cord Blood CD34⁺ Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Ying; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jin-Song; Wu, Shao-Qing; Tang, Xue-Wei; Li, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of umbilical cord blood plasma (UCP) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from umbilical cord, and to observe the supporting effects of these cells (served as a feeder layer) on ex vivo expanding of human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units were suitable if the Guangzhou cord blood bank donor selection criteria strictly were fulfilled. UCP were ready to use after the collection from the plasma depletion/reduction during the processing and pooling of suitable UCB units (at least 30 units were screened for pathogens and microorganisms, and qualified). Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) were harvested from the umbilical cord tissue of health full-term newborns after delivery by enzyme digestion and divided into 3 groups: group 1 and 2 were cultured in the presence of DMEM/F12 containing either FBS or UCP; and group 3 was cultured in serum-free medium (StemPro® MSC SFM CTS™). Morphology, proliferation and surface marker expression were examined by flow cytometry, and the differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was used for investigating the effect of media on UCMSC after 3-5 passages. Next, the cells cultured in the three different media were cryopreserved and thawed, then prepared as feeder layers with the name of UCMSC(FBS), UCMSC(UCP), and UCMSC(SFM), respectively. The CD34⁺ cells were separated from UCB by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and divided into 4 groups cultured in StemPro(-34) SFM medium added with hematopoietic cytokine combination (StemSpan® CC100). The control group included only CD34⁺ cells as group A (blank control) and experimental groups included UCMSC(FBS) + CD34⁺ cells as group B, UCMSC(UCP) + CD34⁺ cells as group C, UCMSC(SFM) + CD34⁺ cells as group D, and cells in all groups were cultured ex vivo for 7 days. The nucleated cell (NC) number was counted by cell counter, CD34

  4. The role of carrier number on the procoagulant activity of tissue factor in blood and plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, G. W.; Rugonyi, S.; Gruber, A.; McCarty, O. J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein cofactor of activated blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIa) that is required for hemostatic thrombin generation at sites of blood vessel injury. Membrane-associated TF detected in circulating blood of healthy subjects, referred to as intravascular or circulating TF has been shown to contribute to experimental thrombus propagation at sites of localized vessel injury. Certain disease states, such as metastatic cancer, are associated with increased levels of intravascular TF and an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. However, the physiological relevance of circulating TF to hemostasis or thrombosis, as well as cancer metastasis, is ill-defined. This study was designed to assess whether the spatial separation of intravascular TF carriers in blood, demonstrated with TF-inducible human monocytic cell line U937 or TF-coated polymer microspheres, affected procoagulant activity and hence thrombogenic potential. Experiments were performed to characterize the effects of TF-carrier number on the kinetics of clot formation in both open and closed systems. The procoagulant activity of TF carriers was found to correlate with spatial separation in both closed, well-mixed systems and open, flowing systems. TF carriers enhanced the amidolytic activity of FVIIa toward the chromogenic substrate, S-2366, as a function of carrier count. These results suggest that TF-initiated coagulation by circulating TF is kinetically limited by mass transport of TF-dependent coagulation factors to the TF-bearing surface, a constraint that may be unique to circulating TF. Spatial separation of circulating TF carriers is therefore a critical determinant of the procoagulant activity of circulating TF.

  5. Strength of family history in predicting levels of blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, G; Paccaud, F; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Bochud, M

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available on the quantitative relationship between family history and the corresponding underlying traits. We analyzed these associations for blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol levels. Data were obtained from 6,102 Caucasian participants (2,903 men and 3,199 women) aged 35-75 years using a population-based cross-sectional survey in Switzerland. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured, and the corresponding family history was self-reported using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of a positive family history (in first-degree relatives) was 39.6% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes, and 29.0% for hypercholesterolemia. Family history was not known for at least one family member in 41.8% of participants for hypertension, 14.4% for diabetes, and 50.2% for hypercholesterolemia. A positive family history was strongly associated with higher levels of the corresponding trait, but not with the other traits. Participants who reported not to know their family history of hypertension had a higher systolic blood pressure than participants with a negative history. Sibling histories had higher positive predictive values than parental histories. The ability to discriminate, calibrate, and reclassify was best for the family history of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia was strongly associated with the corresponding dichotomized and continuous phenotypes. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Interday variation and effect of transportation on indirect blood pressure measurements, plasma endothelin-1 and serum cortisol in Standardbred and Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söder Josefin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic hypertension is a prominent feature in humans with metabolic syndrome (MS and this is partly caused by an enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction. There are indications that systemic hypertension might be a feature in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS but if ET-1 is involved in the development of hypertension in horses is not known. Increased levels of cortisol have also been found in humans with MS but there are no reports of this in horses. Before blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol can be evaluated in horses with EMS, it is necessary to investigate the interday variation of these parameters on clinically healthy horses. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the interday variation and influence of transportation on systemic blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol in healthy Standardbred and Icelandic horses, and to detect potential breed differences. Methods Nine horses of each breed were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected between 6 and 9 am on two separate days. Eight of the horses (four of each breed were transported to a new stable were they stayed overnight. The next morning, the sampling procedure was repeated. Results The interday variation was higher for plasma ET-1 (37% than for indirect pressure measurements (8-21% and serum cortisol (18%. There were no differences in systemic blood pressure between the two breeds. The Icelandic horses had significantly lower serum cortisol and significantly higher plasma ET-1 concentrations compared to the Standardbred horses. Plasma ET-1 was significantly elevated after transportation, but systemic blood pressure and serum cortisol did not differ from the values obtained in the home environment. Conclusions Indirect blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol are of interest as markers for cardiovascular dysfunction in horses with EMS. The elevated plasma ET-1

  7. A Fast Response Highly Selective Probe for the Detection of Glutathione in Human Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Strongin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent probe for glutathione (GSH detection was developed. Our study indicates a possible mechanism which couples a conjugate addition and micelle-catalyzed large membered ring formation/elimination sequence. This method enables excellent selectivity towards GSH over other biological thiols such as cysteine (Cys and homocysteine (Hcy. The proposed method is precise with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D lower than 6% (n = 3 and has been successfully applied to determine GSH in human plasma with recoveries between 99.2% and 102.3%.

  8. Comparative blood and seminal plasma oxidant/antioxidant status of Arab stallions with different ages and their relation to semen quality

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant/oxidant levels in blood serum and seminal plasma of Arab stallion with different ages and their relation to semen quality. Methods: Healthy Arabian stallions (n = 57), were divided into three groups. Young (5–10years), Moderate (11–16 years) and Old stallions (>16 years) were subjected to semen evaluation. Seminal plasma and blood samples were collected and stored at −20 °C for measuring glutathione reduced, nitric oxide, Malondialdehyde, ascorbic ...

  9. Non-thermal plasma with 2-deoxy-D-glucose synergistically induces cell death by targeting glycolysis in blood cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Tae Gyu; Baik, Ku Youn; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the selective and efficient anti-cancer effects of plasma (at a low dose) when cell metabolic modifiers are also included. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was used with effective doses of non-thermal plasma, synergistically attenuating cell metabolic viability and inducing caspase-dependent and independent cell death. The combination treatment decreased the intracellular ATP and lactate production in various types of blood cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that 2-DG enhances the efficacy and selectivity of plasma and induces the synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth by targeting glycolysis and apoptosis. Specifically, this treatment strategy demonstrated an enhanced growth inhibitory effect of plasma in the presence of a metabolic modifier that was selective against cancer cells, not non-malignant cells. This is the first study to report the advantage of combining plasma with 2-DG to eradicate blood cancer cells. Finally, we conclude that 2-DG with non-thermal plasma may be used as a combination treatment against blood cancer cells.

  10. Negative association between plasma aldosterone concentration/plasma renin activity and morning blood pressure surge in never-treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sun; Ihm, Sang Hyun; Jang, Sung-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Choi, Yun-Seok; Shin, Dong-Il; Seo, Suk Min; Park, Mahn-Won; Kim, Gee Hee; Her, Sung-ho; Kim, Chan Joon; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kang, Min Kyu; Chang, Kiyuk; Park, Chan Seok

    2014-01-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MS) has been known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. Currently, few studies have evaluated the underlying mechanism underlying MS, which may include neurohormonal factors and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). This study aimed to examine plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) and BP parameters with or without MS in never-treated subjects with essential hypertension. This cross-sectional study included a total of 261 patients (mean age: 48.8 years; 60.5% male) with never-treated essential hypertension who were registered in a working group at The Catholic University of Korea. The patients were divided into the MS group, which was defined as having the highest quartile of morning BP increase from sleep (>31 mmHg; n = 66) and the non-MS group (≤31 mmHg; n = 195). We collected 24-h ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index, PAC and PRA from all patients. The measured PAC and PRA were lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (PAC: 9.0 ± 5.4 ng/dl versus 12.2 ± 8.7 ng/dl, p < 0.001; PRA: 1.7 ± 1.3 ng/ml/h versus 2.6 ± 3.6 ng/ml/h, p = 0.002). The MS group had greater variations in daytime, nighttime and 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBPs) than the non-MS group (24-h SBP: 15.6 ± 4.4 mm Hg for the non-MS group and 18.9 ± 4.9 mmHg for the MS group; p < 0.001 for each). It is generally accepted that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the regulation of BP variability. Therefore, further studies on sympathetic nervous system activation in hypertensives with extreme MS are needed. MS in enrolled patients who were at relatively low risk in this study may be less affected by the RAAS.

  11. Multiple myeloma detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Huang, Meizhen; Zou, Ye; Song, Biao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Kehui; Li, Xia; Liu, Xi; Chen, Xiaofan; Li, Feng; Zhan, Yanxia

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for multiple myeloma (MM) detection is investigated in this work. SERS measurements of silver nanoparticle mixed blood plasma samples are performed using a low-cost and portable Raman spectrometer. The tentative assignment of Raman peaks indicates an increase in amino acids, nucleic acid base content and a decrease in cholesterol ester in the MM group. Combined with the multivariate analysis method of principle component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA), a diagnosis result for 32 samples with a sensitivity of 93.75% and specificity of 87.5% is achieved. The performance of the corresponding receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.957. It is a potential rapid and non-invasive method for preliminary MM screening.

  12. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  13. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  14. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  15. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    ), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid...... were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while...... it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles....

  16. TK Modeler version 1.0, a Microsoft® Excel®-based modeling software for the prediction of diurnal blood/plasma concentration for toxicokinetic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alene T; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; Saghir, Shakil A

    2012-07-01

    TK Modeler 1.0 is a Microsoft® Excel®-based pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling program created to aid in the design of toxicokinetic (TK) studies. TK Modeler 1.0 predicts the diurnal blood/plasma concentrations of a test material after single, multiple bolus or dietary dosing using known PK information. Fluctuations in blood/plasma concentrations based on test material kinetics are calculated using one- or two-compartment PK model equations and the principle of superposition. This information can be utilized for the determination of appropriate dosing regimens based on reaching a specific desired C(max), maintaining steady-state blood/plasma concentrations, or other exposure target. This program can also aid in the selection of sampling times for accurate calculation of AUC(24h) (diurnal area under the blood concentration time curve) using sparse-sampling methodologies (one, two or three samples). This paper describes the construction, use and validation of TK Modeler. TK Modeler accurately predicted blood/plasma concentrations of test materials and provided optimal sampling times for the calculation of AUC(24h) with improved accuracy using sparse-sampling methods. TK Modeler is therefore a validated, unique and simple modeling program that can aid in the design of toxicokinetic studies.

  17. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE OF FENGCHI (GB 20) ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND SERUM IL-6 and PLASMA ET LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture of Fengchi (风池 GB 20) on blood pressure,serum IL-6 and plasma endothelin (ET) contents in patients with hypertension. Methods: Thirty cases of hypertension patients were made up of treatment group and treated with acupuncture of Fengchi (GB 20); while 20 healthy subjects were made up of control group. Blood pressure was determined before and after the treatment. Fasting blood samples were taken from the cubital venous vessel for detecting serum interleukin (IL)-6 and plasma ET contents with radioimmunoassay before and after acupuncture treatment. Results: Before the treatment, in hypertension patients, serum IL-6 and plasma ET levels were significant higher than those in healthy subjects (P < 0.01 ); while after the treatment, blood pressure of treatment group declined significantly ( P < 0.01 ), serum IL-6 and plasma ET levels decreased considerably ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion:Acupuncture of Fengchi (GB 20) can lower blood pressure, regulate cellular immunity and secretion functions of the vascular endothelial cells in hypertension patients.

  18. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration......, and extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) were isotopically determined at day 6. Blood samples were obtained regularly. Diurnal blood pressure was recorded and 24-h urinary samples were collected at days 0, 6 and 14. ECV (l) was increased by GH (placebo, 19.58 +/- 0.82; 3 IU m-2, 20.77 +/- 1.22; 6 IU m...... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  19. Joint associations of blood plasma proteins with overwinter survival of a large mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Romain; Cheung, Christopher K; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Graham, Andrea L

    2017-02-01

    In many wild animal populations, hosts are at risk of parasites and malnutrition and resource costs of defence may be difficult to afford. We postulate that proteins, important in homeostasis and immunity, play a complex but central role in condition dependence and resource costs of mammalian immune defence. To test this, we measured plasma concentrations of albumin, total proteins. Self-reactive antibodies and parasite-specific IgG in female Soay sheep. Using a principal component analysis, we found a new metric of condition reflecting individual variation in acquisition, assimilation and/or recycling of plasma proteins that predicted overwinter survival. Controlling for this metric, an age-dependent trade-off between antibody titres and protein reserves emerged, indicating costs of mounting an antibody response: younger individuals survived best when prioritising immunity while older individuals fared better when maintaining high-protein nutritional plane. These findings suggest fascinating roles for protein acquisition and allocation in influencing survival in wild animal populations.

  20. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  1. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowski, Stevan; Singh, Manindra; Puertas, Juan; Pate, Michelle; Goodrum, Kenneth; Benencia, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  2. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Walkowski

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  3. [Comparative study on the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection acquired by blood transfusion and paid plasma donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Zhao, Hong-Ru; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Bao-Jun; Zhao, Cui-Ying; Bai, Guang-Yi; Liang, Liang; Wang, Wei

    2012-08-01

    To study the effect of HAART in patients with AIDS acquire by blood transfusion and paid plasma donation. All AIDS patients whose disease was caused by blood transfusion and commercial plasma donation came from the domicile of Hebei Province. In the group of cases of blood transfusion in whom the infection was caused by one-time blood transfusion before and after 1995, there were 189 cases, of whom 105 cases on HAART were designated as observation group, and 84 cases who were not on HAART were designated as control group. The group of AIDS patients who were former commercial plasma donors (FCPDs) had 120 patients who were identified in the survey of 1995, of whom 63 cases on HAART were designated as observation group and 57 cases who were not on HAART were as control group. Onset dates were defined as the dates into the queue. Death due to AIDS was regarded as an outcome event. Subjects who were enrolled into the observation group and control group were epidemiologically followed up regularly. Observation was ended on December 31, 2010. Mortality of patients after HAART from groups of FCPDs and blood recipients were 4.42/100 person-years and 6.13/100 person-years, respectively. The survival rates of HAART groups were 80% in FCPDs for 110 months and 72% in blood recipients for 90 months, respectively. Meanwhile the mortality of no HAART groups were 182.05/100 person-years and 250.66/100 person-years, respectively. Mean survival of patients whose disease was caused by plasma donation and blood transfusion were 4 months and 3 months, respectively. Whether the HIV infection was caused by plasmapheresis or blood transfusion, the effects of HAART did not show difference. HAART cold reduce the death intensity and prolong survival.

  4. Is Platelet-rich plasma superior to whole blood in the management of chronic tennis elbow: one year randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Hassanabadi, Hossein; Rahimi, Rosa; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rostami, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral humeral epicondylitis, or ‘tennis elbow’, is a common condition with a variety of treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Autologous Whole Blood (AWB) represent new therapeutic options for chronic tendinopathies including tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the long term effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in patients with chronic tennis elbow. Methods Seventy six patients with chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis wi...

  5. A longitudinal study of arterial blood pressure in chronic haemodialysis patients with different levels of plasma renin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Fredsted, B; Pedersen, R S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the value of regular measurements of plasma renin concentration (PRC) in selecting those chronic haemodialysis patients suitable for bilateral nephrectomy to prevent development of uncontrollable hypertension. Regular measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and PRC were performed during one year in 31 patients undergoing regular haemodialysis because of end-stage renal disease. Among 18 patients with PRC greater than or equal to 100 micro Goldblatt units per ml plasma (microGU/ml) systolic and/or diastolic hypertension persisted or developed in 12. In contrast, among 13 patients with PRC greater than 100microGU/ml, BP became normal in all but one, who had a slightly increased systolic BP. However, hypertension was mild and easily controlled by conventional therapy in all except one, who probably had an overlying volume-dependent hypertension. Therefore, bilateral nephrectomy was not necessary in any case. The results indicate that hypertension in the majority of chronic haemodialysis patients with high PRC can be adequately controlled without surgical intervention and that regular measurements of PRC have no practical value in forecasting the development of uncontrollable hypertension in chronic haemodialysis patients.

  6. Binding of human myeloperoxidase to red blood cells: Molecular targets and biophysical consequences at the plasma membrane level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, Irina V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Mironova, Elena V; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Gusev, Sergey A; Gusev, Alexander A; Chekanov, Andrey V; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-producing enzyme that can also bind to cellular surface proteins. We found that band 3 protein and glycophorins A and B were the key MPO-binding targets of human red blood cells (RBCs). The interaction of MPO with RBC proteins was mostly electrostatic in nature because it was inhibited by desialation, exogenic sialic acid, high ionic strength, and extreme pH. In addition, MPO failed to interfere with the lectin-induced agglutination of RBCs, suggesting a minor role of glycan-recognizing mechanisms in MPO binding. Multiple biophysical properties of RBCs were altered in the presence of native (i.e., not hypochlorous acid-damaged) MPO. These changes included transmembrane potential, availability of intracellular Ca(2+), and lipid organization in the plasma membrane. MPO-treated erythrocytes became larger in size, structurally more rigid, and hypersensitive to acidic and osmotic hemolysis. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the plasma MPO concentration and RBC rigidity index in type-2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease. These findings suggest that MPO functions as a mediator of novel regulatory mechanism in microcirculation, indicating the influence of MPO-induced abnormalities on RBC deformability under pathological stress conditions.

  7. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  8. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burin M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  9. [Electrolyte makeup of the blood plasma and skeletal muscles of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-690 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, V P; Tigranian, R A

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in the functionally different muscles (soleus, plantaris, diaphragm muscles) and plasma of the rats flown for 20.5 days aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 did not show any significant changes as compared with the controls. At the same time a decrease of the K+/Na+ ratio and a similar shift of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in plasma of irradiated rats as compared with these of non-irradiated animals demonstrated that the combined effects of space flight factors and gamma-irradiation influenced the system of ionic homeostasis in the blood. In the animals sacrificed on the R + 1 day the K+/Na+ ratio in the soleus muscle changed in favor of Na+ and in the plantaris muscle in favor of K+, and remained essentially unchanged in the diaphragm. The comparison of the flight experiments with the ground-based controls showed that ion changes in muscles occurred due to ionizing radiation rather than due to weightlessness.

  10. UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS and multivariate data analysis for blood plasma and serum metabolomics: effect of experimental artefacts and anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barri, Thaer; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    agents, e.g. heparin, EDTA and citrate. In the present study, we looked into metabolite and other differences in matched serum and plasma samples and different plasma preparations by using untargeted UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS profiling and multivariate data analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Metabolite differences...... between serum and plasma samples were mainly related to small peptides reflecting presence or absence of coagulation. Only subtle metabolite differences between the different plasma preparations were noticed, which were primarily related to ion suppression or enhancement caused by citrate and EDTA...... anticoagulants. For the first time, we also report that anticoagulant counter cation (Na+ or K+) in Na-citrate and K-EDTA plasma can make some metabolites more dominant in ESI-MS. Polymeric material residues originating from blood collection tubes for serum preparation were observed only in serum samples...

  11. Change in blood coagulation indices as a function of the incubation period of plasma in a constant magnetic field. [considering heparin tolerance and recalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepishina, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of a constant magnetic field (CMF) with a strength of 250 and 2500 oersteds on the recalcification reaction and the tolerance of plasma to heparin was studied as a function of the exposure time of the plasma to the CMF. The maximum and reliable change in the activation of the coagulatory system of the blood was observed after a 20-hour incubation of the plasma in a CMF. As the exposure time increased, the recalcification reaction changed insigificantly; the difference between the mean arithmetic of the experiment and control values was not statistically reliable. The tolerance of the plasma to heparin as a function of the exposure time to the CMF of the plasma was considerably modified, an was statistically reliable.

  12. The Role of Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma on Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh-Sara; Mahmoodi, Mahdokht; Rafati, Ali Reza; Manafi, Farzad; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process following damage in tissue structures. Due to extensive skin damage caused by burn injuries, this study determined the role of human adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and migration in human skin fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma (5, 10, 15, 20 and 50% PRP) from human umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood were provided and added to fibroblasts cultured from a human skin sample. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts were assessed in comparison to 10% FBS and by the fibroblast responses to a concentration gradient. All components of the umbilical cord blood PRP significantly stimulated the growth of fibroblasts when compared to the negative control. Fibroblast growth was enhanced in a dose dependent manner. All fibroblast cultures retained normal morphology. No significant difference was noted between umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood PRP preparations regarding cell proliferation and migration, but the difference to 10% FBS was significant. 1% and 50% PRP reduced cellular proliferation. The 20% umbilical cord blood PRP and 10% adult peripheral blood PRP had a significant stimulatory effect on the migration of the skin fibroblast cells in comparison with 10% FBS. As PRP could promote the migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, it can be safely added in cultures when treatment of chronic wounds without triggering the immune response is needed.

  13. Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Minami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D-Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN∙HCl is an endogenous amino monosaccharide synthesized from glucose that is useful in the treatment of joint diseases in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism in dogs after oral administration of GlcN∙HCl. Accelerated fumarate respiration and elevated plasma levels of lactic acid and alanine were observed after administration. These results suggest that oral administration of GlcN∙HCl induces anaerobic respiration and starvation in cells, and we hypothesize that these conditions promote cartilage regeneration. Further studies are required to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β.

  14. Fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system: a novel system for blood purification to remove albumin bound substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhagen, D; Strobl, W; Vogt, G; Schrefl, A; Linsberger, I; Gerner, F J; Schoenhofen, M

    1999-01-01

    The removal of albumin bound substances has gained increasing interest in different diseases, especially in acute and chronic liver disease. Therefore, a new system, the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) system, was developed based on combined membrane and adsorbent blood purification techniques. The most important contribution to the FPSA system was the development of a new polysulfone hollow-fiber filter, which is characterized by a sieving coefficient of 0.89 for human serum albumin (HSA) but only of 0.17 for fibrinogen, and 0 (zero) for IgM immunoglobulins. Using a closed filtrate circuit connected to the new polysulfone filter which integrates 1 or 2 adsorption columns and also a high flux dialyzer adapted to a dialysis machine, the FPSA system opens excellent possibilities for the relatively specific removal of albumin bound substances from the blood such as albumin bound bilirubin or even tryptophan. In comparison to other systems (for example, the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System [MARS] and albumin dialysis systems), the FPSA system enables much higher elimination of strongly bound albumin substances. The first clinical investigations have recently started based on a modified dialysis machine designed with all necessary safety measures.

  15. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants fluctuate in paired plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells among patient cohorts during different chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disease phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, C S; Osiowy, C; Gao, S; Nishikawa, S; van der Meer, F; van Marle, G

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus is classically considered a hepatotropic virus but also infects peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chronic hepatitis B has different disease phases modulated by host immunity. We compared HBV variability, drug resistance and immune escape mutations in the overlapping HBV polymerase/surface gene in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in different disease phases. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 22 treatment naïve patient cohorts (five inactive, six immune-active, nine HBeAg negative and two immune-tolerant). HBV was genotyped via line probe assay, hepatitis B surface antigen titres were determined by an in-house immunoassay, and HBV DNA was quantified by kinetic PCR. The HBV polymerase/surface region, including full genome in some, was PCR-amplified and cloned, and ~20 clones/sample were sequenced. The sequences were subjected to various mutational and phylogenetic analyses. Clonal sequencing showed that only three of 22 patients had identical HBV genotype profiles in both sites. In immune-active chronic hepatitis B, viral diversity in plasma was higher compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mutations at residues, in a minority of clones, associated with drug resistance, and/or immune escape were found in both compartments but were more common in plasma. Immune escape mutations were more often observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of immune-active CHB carriers, compared with other disease phases. During all CHB disease phases, differences exist between HBV variants found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma. Moreover, these data indicate that HBV evolution occurs in a compartment and disease phase-specific fashion.

  16. Highlights of PBTI Coimbra Conference on PRT of Plasma & Current Opinions on Pathogen Reduction Treatment of Blood Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Gracinda; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    Two experts from Octapharma and from Cerus addressed, in very concise ways, the concerns about non-viral inactivated FFP and how they managed to obtain highest standard of safety margin for pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. The session was moderated by Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation (PIBT) consultant advisor [Jerard Seghatchian] with long standing familiarity and international recognition in PR technologies for plasma, platelets and WB/red cells. The focus of conference was mainly on the criteria of acceptability of PRT-FFP; added values of having diversity in choice without fears of liability, as both of PRT technologies provide an excellent safeguard margins, for more than a decade of usage. In most European countries, it is believed that patients' safety come first followed by the safe usage initiatives, in particular using locally available products. Portugal is finally going forward with the implementation PRT plasma using its own FFP for their clinical use. The round table Q&A session focused on the impacts of the additional processing, which is still continuously improving, on the residual/emerging pathogen infectivity; eliminating the clinical impacts of donors viable leukocytes; the degree of altered product potency in particular cold activation of FVII; and loss of endothelial permeability factors during fluid storage of plasma. Both speakers highlighted their product safety and clinical efficacy using both routine in vitro, including the modern proteomic tests to establish the relevant changes in various parameters and in the overall clinical outcomes. The advancements in pharmacovigilance and hemovigilance, regulatory aspects and cost effectiveness were also highlighted. A local speaker [from the PIBT] described the state of the art of local processing issues and overall required standards used both during validation and the intercept process scale up, which is going ahead smoothly to providing the highest safety standards

  17. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  18. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  19. Addition of thrombin reduces the recovery of extracellular vesicles from blood plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anush Arakelyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are widely studied as a system of intercellular communication, as markers of various diseases, as well as a vehicle for delivery of various bioactive molecules to various cells. Investigation of EVs’ structure and function requires their isolation and precise quantification. However, in the current literature, there are significant discrepancies in the estimated numbers of EVs in different body fluids. In part, this discrepancy is due to the difference in EVs isolation protocols used by different investigators. A common protocol that includes ExoQuick ™ is often used to isolate EVs from body fluids and culture medium. Here, we show that in the case of isolation of EVs from blood, thrombin should be omitted from the protocol as clots formed due to the thrombin-triggered coagulation may entrap many EVs thus leading to the underestimation of their numbers.

  20. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS.

  1. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  2. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    scale. Clinical observations and blood samples were obtained before transfusion was started, and were repeated 2-8 h after transfusion of the 2nd unit. Measured plasma parameters included IL- 1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-a. Results: There were no significant differences between group S and L (ns...... relieved self-estimated fatigue, independent of blood storage time. Thrombocyte count decreased after transfusion, probably due to dilution by transfused blood. Aged red cells may not, or only sparsely, directly trigger the interleukin cascade....

  3. Measurement of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of human blood plasma during clotting in the frequency range of 8 to 22 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calor-Filho, Marcos Muniz; Machado, João Carlos

    2006-07-01

    The blood coagulation mechanism consists of a series of concatenated chemical reactions, governed by the coagulation factors present in the blood plasma, after the activation of the clot mechanism. The last reaction corresponds to the fibrinogen conversion into fibrin, followed by the fibrin polymerisation and production of a stable fibrin network. During the clotting process, there is a sol-gel transformation of the medium. The subject of the present paper is the measurement of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient for human blood plasma during the coagulation process, in the frequency range of 8 to 22 MHz. The clot was obtained after the procedure to measure the prothrombin time (approximately 12 s): mixing 150 microL of reconstituted lyophilised normal plasma with 300 microL of reconstituted lyophilised thromboplastin immersed in a water bath with the temperature controlled at 36.5 degrees C. The attenuation coefficient for pure plasma remained constant within the measurement period of 10 s and at frequencies of 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 21 and 22 MHz. On the other hand, there is a detectable time-decay of the attenuation coefficient for samples of plasma going through the coagulation process and at frequencies of 8, 9, 10 and 15 MHz. The time-decay becomes less and less detectable as the frequency increases and it becomes completely undetectable at 20, 21 and 22 MHz.

  4. Sensitivities of selenite, selenate, selenomethionine and trimethylselenonium ion in aqueous solution and in blood plasma - ETAAS compared with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Larsen, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous solutions and blood plasma spiked with selenite (Se(IV)), selenate (Se(VI)), selenomethionine (SeMet) or trimethylselenonium (TMSe) iodide were analyzed by Zeeman-corrected electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using palladium as a chemical modifier, and by inductively cou...

  5. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part II: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method development, comparison to immunoassay and pharmacokinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A new liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) method with on-line sample clean-up for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is presented. This technique is compared to a previously introduced enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  6. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  7. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  8. Patient-specific errors in agreement between International Normalized Ratios measured by a whole blood coagulometer and by a routine plasma-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermann, Jørn; Andersen, Niels T; Korsgaard, Helle; Maegaard, Marianne; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2004-04-01

    We applied a new statistical method to improve comparisons between systems measuring prothrombin time (PT) by splitting disagreement into systematic errors, which can be eliminated, and random errors, which can not. We found that the disagreement between International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements based on plasma and whole blood was significantly patient-dependent.

  9. Plasma, blood and liver tissue sample preparation methods for the separate quantification of liposomal-encapsulated prednisolone phosphate and non-encapsulated prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Evelien A W; Soetekouw, José A; Bakker, Peter F A; Baijens, Bart J H; Vromans, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Besides the development of sample preparation methods for the determination of separate liposomal-encapsulated prednisolone phosphate and non-encapsulated prednisolone concentrations in murine plasma and blood, this article also presents the first description of an accurate sample preparation method

  10. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  11. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  12. Comparison of Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Using Plasma and Serum Separation Tubes for Outpatient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Won, Dahae; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail

    2015-01-01

    Background To rapidly obtain outpatient results, we use plasma separation tubes (PST) for chemistry analysis. If lactate dehydrogenase measurement is required, serum separation tubes (SST) are used. There has been no evaluation of hemolysis with these tubes. We compared the hemolytic index (HI) obtained by using PST and SST and applied this for choosing appropriate tubes for clinical laboratories. Methods The HI of specimens obtained from outpatients visiting Asan Medical Center between July and December 2012 was analyzed. The HI was scored from 0 to 10 by using the Toshiba 200FR (Toshiba Medical Systems Co., Japan). HI was classified by sample tube type, and significant hemolysis was defined as a HI of 2 or more. For significant hemolysis cases, medical records were reviewed to identify the causes. Results Among 171,519 specimens, significant hemolysis was observed in 0.66% of specimens (0.68% of PST specimens, 0.46% of SST specimens). The mean HI in PST was 0.18 (SD: 0.43) and that in SST was 0.14 (SD: 0.37). The proportion of significant hemolysis was significantly higher in PST than in SST (P=0.001). The cause of significant hemolysis was identified as chemotherapy and prosthetic valve in 48.1% of specimens. Complex sampling errors may have caused significant hemolysis in the remaining 51.9% of specimens. Conclusions The incidence of hemolysis was slightly higher for PST than SST, although both were sample volume, and less risk of random errors due to fibrin strands. PMID:25729720

  13. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, S.; Saito, K.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    Utilizing /sup 125/I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated /sup 125/I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and /sup 125/I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of /sup 125/I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs.

  14. Diabetic ketoacidosis: difference between potassium determined by blood gas analysis versus plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fernando César; Laguna Neto, Daniel; Dias, Fábio Guirado; Spressão, Márcia; Matos, Priscila Nascimbeni; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pires, Antônio Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of potassium concentrations measured by blood gas analysis (PBG) compared with laboratory serum potassium (LSP), in the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Fifty three patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. PBG was carried out using the Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Copenhagen(®)), and results were compared with LSP ADVIA 1650 Chemistry system (Siemens(®)), the gold standard method. Both methods are based on potentiometry. Mean PBG was 3.66 mmol/L and mean LSP was 4.79 mmol/L. Mean difference between PBG and LSP was -1.13 mmol/L (p < 0.0005, 95% CI, -1.39 to -0,86). Lin concordance correlation coefficient was rc = 0.28 (95% CIb, 0.10 to 0.45), demonstrating low concordance between the methods. Although PBG measurement is faster and easier, it should not be used as a surrogate for LSP in the clinical treatment of DKA.

  15. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56% among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure.

  16. Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. Application to a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrimaviciūte, Violeta; Breton, Hélène; Mathieu, Olivier; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-Claude; Bressolle, Françoise M M

    2006-11-07

    A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed for the first time for the determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. The method involved solid phase extraction of the compounds and the internal standard (fluorescein) from the two matrices using OasisHLB columns. LC separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XD8 C8 column (5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing 0.02% (v/v) trimethylamine and 2mM ammonium formate buffer. MS data were acquired in single ion monitoring mode at m/z 311.2, 297.2 and 332.5 for ibogaine, noribogaine and fluorescein, respectively. The drug/internal standard peak area ratios were linked via a quadratic relationship to plasma (0.89-179 microg/l for ibogaine; 1-200 microg/l for noribogaine) and to whole blood concentrations (1.78-358 microg/kg for ibogaine; 2-400 microg/kg for noribogaine). Precision ranged from 4.5 to 13% and accuracy was 89-102%. Dilution of the samples had no influence on the performance of the method. Extraction recoveries were > or =94% in plasma and > or =57% in whole blood. The lower limits of quantitation were 0.89 microg/l for ibogaine and 1 microg/l for noribogaine in plasma, and 1.78 microg/kg for ibogaine and 2 microg/kg for noribogaine in whole blood. In frozen plasma samples, the two drugs were stable for at least 1 year. In blood, ibogaine and noribogaine were stable for 4h at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and 2 months at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully used for the analysis of a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.

  17. Development and validation of a multi-analyte LC-MS/MS approach for quantification of neuroleptics in whole blood, plasma, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenarh, Deborah; Hopf, Markus; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2016-10-01

    Based on a similar approach for quantification of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and z-drugs, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-analyte approach with simple liquid-liquid extraction was extended for fast target screening and quantification of neuroleptics in whole blood, plasma, and serum. As this method is part of a multi-analyte procedure for over 100 analytes from different drug classes and as the extracts were additionally used in the authors' laboratory for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, one universal stable-isotope-labelled internal standard (SIL-IS) was used to save time and resource. The method was validated with respect to international guidelines. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed with ranges from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations. Selectivity problems could not be observed, but matrix effects ranged from 68 to 211% in all samples. For the low quality control (QC), recovery ranged from 32 to 112%, process efficiency from 31 to 165% and for the high QC recovery from 42 to 141%, process efficiency from 29 to 154%. In addition statistical data evaluation of the variances of the recovery, matrix effects, and process efficiency data between whole blood vs. plasma, whole blood vs. serum, and plasma vs. serum were done. The presented LC-MS/MS approach was applicable for selective detection of 33 neuroleptics as well as accurate and precise quantification of 25 neuroleptics in whole blood, 19 in plasma, and 17 in serum. More significant matrix effects (ME) for neuropletic drugs overall in plasma and serum as compared with whole blood were detected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Selectivity in the potentiation of antibacterial activity of α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics and antimicrobial peptides by human blood plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M.; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for novel antibiotics; however, their activity is often compromised under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of alpha-peptide/beta-peptoid peptidomimetics and AMPs against Escherichia coli...... and Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of human blood-derived matrices and immune effectors. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of two peptidomimetics against E. coli decreased by up to one order of magnitude when determined in 50% blood plasma as compared to MHB media. The MIC of a membrane-active AMP......, LL-I/3, also decreased, whereas two intracellularly acting AMPs were not potentiated by plasma. Blood serum had no effect on activity against E. coli and neither matrix had an effect on activity against S. aureus. Unexpectedly, physiological concentrations of human serum albumin did not influence...

  19. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  20. Associations of plasma uric acid and purine metabolites with blood pressure in children: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Boonen, Annelies; Pijnenburg, Wieke; Bierau, Jörgen; Staessen, Jan A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Thijs, Carel; Arts, Ilja C W

    2017-05-01

    Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 246 children (46% boys; mean age 7.1 years) from the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Purine metabolites were determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During a home visit, a nurse collected a blood sample and measured BP three times; in addition, parents measured their child's BP on three consecutive days, in the morning and evening. Generalized estimating equations were used for analyses while controlling for variables such as sex, age, BMI, physical activity, and dietary intake. In multivariable analysis, uric acid (per SD of 38 μmol/l) was associated with DBP z-scores [sβ 0.07; confidence interval (CI), 0.01-1.14], but not with SBP z-scores. Higher ratios of uric acid/xanthine (per SD of 138) (sβ 0.09; CI, 0.01-0.17) and xanthine/hypoxanthine (per SD of 321) (sβ 0.08; CI, 0.02-0.17) were associated with higher DBP z-scores, but not with SBP z-scores. In school-age children, uric acid and the ratios of uric acid/xanthine and xanthine/hypoxanthine were significantly associated with DBP z-scores. Suggesting that, both uric acid concentration and increased XO activity are associated with BP.

  1. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  2. Metformin's Intrinsic Blood-to-Plasma Partition Ratio (B/P): Reconciling the Perceived High In Vivo B/P > 10 with the In Vitro Equilibrium Value of Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Ke, Alice B; Bowers, Gary D; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2015-08-01

    Blood cells are considered an important distributional compartment for metformin based on the high blood-to-plasma partition ratio (B/P) in humans (>10 at Cmin). However, literature reports of metformin's intrinsic in vitro B/P values are lacking. At present, the extent and rate of metformin cellular partitioning was determined in incubations of fresh human and rat blood with [(14)C]metformin for up to 1 week at concentrations spanning steady-state plasma Cmin, Cmax, and a concentration associated with lactic acidosis. The results showed that metformin's intrinsic equilibrium B/P was ∼0.8-1.4 in blood, which is <10% of the reported clinical value. Kinetics of metformin partitioning into human blood cells and repartitioning back into plasma were slow (repartitioning half-life ∼32-39 hours). These data, along with in vivo rapid and efficient renal clearance of plasma metformin (plasma renal extraction ratio ∼90%-100%), explain why the clinical terminal half-life of metformin in plasma (6 hours) is 3- to 4-fold shorter than the half-life in whole blood (18 hours) and erythrocytes (23 hours). The rate constant for metformin repartitioning from blood cells to plasma (∼0.02 h(-1)) is far slower than the clinical renal elimination rate constant (0.3 h(-1)). Blood distributional rate constants were incorporated into a metformin physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, which predicted the differential elimination half-life in plasma and blood. The present study demonstrates that the extent of cellular drug partitioning in blood observed in a dynamic in vivo system may be very different from the static in vitro values when repartitioning from blood cells is far slower than clearance of drug in plasma.

  3. Effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring gut metabolic hormones in fasted and fed blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Anders, Krista; Apenteng, Bettye; Lanio, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (3-36) [PYY(3-36)], amylin, ghrelin, insulin, and leptin are thought to act as hormonal signals from periphery to brain to control food intake. Here, we determined the effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring these hormones in blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats. Individual enzyme-linked immunoassays and a multiplex assay were used to measure active GLP-1, total PYY, active amylin, active ghrelin, insulin, leptin, and total GIP in response to (1) addition of known amounts of the peptides to lean and obese plasma, (2) a large meal in lean and obese rats, and (3) intravenous infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), amylin, and leptin in lean rats. Extraction of lean and obese plasma prior to assays produced consistent recoveries across assays for GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin, reflecting losses inherent to the extraction procedure. Plasma extraction prior to assays generally revealed larger meal-induced changes in plasma GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin in lean and obese rats. Plasma extraction and the multiplex assay were used to compare plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY, and amylin after a large meal with plasma levels produced by IV infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin. Infusions produced dose-dependent increases in plasma peptide levels, which were well above their postprandial levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin are sufficient to decrease food intake by an endocrine mechanism.

  4. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C.; McConnachie, Lisa A.; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D.; Collier, Ann C.; Ho, Rodney J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs – tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) – in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Design: Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. Results: For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Conclusions: A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes. PMID:28099191

  6. Development of a Fibrinogen-Specific Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Microarray Assay for Distinguishing Between Blood Plasma and Serum Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Zhang, Qibin; Zangar, Richard C.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a fibrinogen-specific sandwich ELISA microarray assay for use in qualitatively distinguishing between blood plasma and serum samples. Three capture antibodies, 49D2, HPA001900, and F8512, were evaluated in conjunction with 1D6 as detection antibody, and the data show that 49D2 and, to a lesser extent, F8512 successfully identify previously unknown plasma and serum samples based upon a ~28-fold difference in signal intensity between the sample types. This assay has utility in rapidly identifying previously archived clinical samples with incomplete annotation in a high throughput manner prior to proteomics analyses.

  7. The clinical significance of EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with or without EBV diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Jennifer A; Hegde, Aparna M; Durand, Christine M; Massie, Allan B; Greer, Amy E; Ambinder, Richard F; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a latent infection within the host and in some cases can lead to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, solid tumors, and other diseases. We studied the clinical significance of detecting EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2146 patients who had blood specimens sent to the Johns Hopkins Hospital clinical laboratory for viral quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay over a 5-year period. Within this largely immunocompromised and hospitalized cohort, 535 patients (25%) had EBV detected in plasma or PBMCs. When EBV was detected in the absence of an EBV(+)disease (n = 402), it was present only in PBMCs in 69% of cases. Immunocompromised patients were less likely to have EBV in plasma than in PBMCs in the absence of EBV(+)disease. In patients with active, systemic EBV(+)diseases (n = 105), EBV was detected in plasma in 99% of cases but detected in PBMCs in only 54%. Across a range of copy number cutoffs, EBV in plasma had higher specificity and sensitivity for EBV(+)disease as compared with EBV in PBMCs. EBV copy number in plasma distinguished untreated, EBV(+)lymphoma from EBV(+)lymphoma in remission and EBV(-)lymphoma, and also distinguished untreated, EBV(+)posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) from EBV(+)PTLD in remission and EBV(-)PTLD. EBV copy number quantification is a useful diagnostic marker across the spectrum of EBV(+)diseases, even among immunocompromised patients, with plasma specimens more indicative of EBV(+)disease than PBMCs.

  8. Remarkable effect of mobile phase buffer on the SEC-ICP-AES derived Cu, Fe and Zn-metalloproteome pattern of rabbit blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Elham Zeini; White, Wade; Wu, Qiao; Yamdagni, Raghav; Gailer, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The development of an analytical method to quantify the major Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloproteins in mammalian plasma has been recently reported. This method is based on the separation of plasma proteins by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by the on-line detection of the metalloproteins by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). To assess whether the mobile phase buffer can affect the SEC-ICP-AES-derived metalloproteome pattern, thawed rabbit plasma was analyzed using phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer (0.15 M, pH 7.4), Tris-buffer (0.1 and 0.05 M, pH 7.4), Hepes-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4) or Mops-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4). In contrast to the Cu-specific chromatograms, the Fe and Zn-specific chromatograms that were obtained with Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer were considerably different from those attained with PBS-buffer. The Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer mediated redistribution of ~25% plasma Zn(2+) from 100-600 kDa plasma proteins and to a smaller extent to a Hepes and Mops-buffer redistributed ~20% of plasma Fe(3+) from the 600 kDa elution range. Based on these results and considering that the utilization of PBS-buffer has previously resulted in the detection of a number of Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloentities in rabbit plasma that was most consistent with literature data, this mobile phase buffer is recommended for metallomic studies regarding mammalian blood plasma.

  9. Assessment of violations of the proteomic profile in blood plasma in children being under inhalation exposure to fine dust containing vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and evaluation of the protein profile in blood plasma in children, that have been exposed to long-term effect of fine dust containing vanadium in the zone of influence of metallurgical production sources, are demonstrated. It was established that under conditions of poor air quality in the residential area due to vanadium pentoxide dust content at the level up to 1.2 mean daily MAC (34 RfC chr , by the suspended solids – up to 0.6 mean daily MAC (1.2 RfC chr , there is vanadium concentration in blood of the exposed 4–7 aged children, that exceeds up to 6 times the reference level. The technology of the proteomic analysis showed that children with high content of vanadium in blood have changes in proteomic profile in blood plasma in the type of increase of the relative volume of acid glycoprotein alpha-1; reduction of clusterin, apolipoprotein A-IV, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, that are associated with vanadium concentration in blood. In the absence of timely primary and secondary prevention and the preservation of vanadium sustained exposure the revealed cell-molecular abnormalities allow us to predict further development of functional disturbances on tissue and organ levels as the early development of osteoporosis and osteoarticular pathology, atherosclerotic vascular changes, autoimmune allergic processes on the background of disorders of immune regulation, oncology diseases.

  10. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  11. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration...... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  12. High Plasma Levels of Neuropeptide Y Correlate With Good Clinical Outcome But are not Correlated to Cerebral Blood Flow or Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Stavngaard, Trine; Jessing, Iben R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a serious and frequent complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatments with convincing effect are lacking and the pathophysiology behind DCI remains poorly understood. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor...... and a role of NPY in the development of DCI has been proposed. This study investigated the relationship between plasma-NPY and cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vasospasm, DCI, and clinical outcome. METHODS: In 90 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, NPY was measured in peripheral blood days 2 to 11. Any...... occurrence of DCI was recorded and CBF was quantified day 3 and day 8 using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. CT angiography was performed day 8. Clinical outcome was assessed after 3 months. RESULTS: No correlation was found between plasma-NPY and CBF or angiographic vasospasm. The correlation between...

  13. Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for efficient and repetitive removal of low density lipoprotein in plasma and on blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Juan; Yue, Danyang; Fan, Yijuan; Yi, Caixia; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Mengxue; Pan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis therapy, which directly removes LDL from plasma by LDL-adsorbents in vitro is found to be clinically effective and safe to lower the LDL content in blood to prevent cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing excellent LDL adsorbents are becoming more and more attractive. Herein, functional Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile and eco-friendly two-step method. Not only do they possess high LDL adsorption (in PBS/plasma as well as on blood vessels) and favorable magnetic targeting ability but they can also be reused conveniently, which offer the Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites significant potential in the removal of LDL in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Study on discrimination of oral cancer from normal using blood plasma based on fluorescence steady and excited state at excitation wavelength 280 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, Pachaiappan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Many research works based on fluorescence spectroscopy have proven its potential in the diagnosis of various diseases using the spectral signatures of the native key fluorophores such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin. These fluorophores distribution, concentration and their conformation may be changed depending upon the pathological and metabolic conditions of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt to characterize the blood plasma of normal subject and oral cancer patients by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed by employing the multivariate statistical method - linear discriminant analyses (LDA) using leaves one out cross validation method. The results illustrate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy technique in the diagnosis of oral cancer using blood plasma.

  15. Complex polarization-phase and spatial-frequency selections of laser images of blood-plasma films in diagnostics of changes in their polycrystalline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Angelskii, P. O.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Karachevtsev, A. O.; Sidor, M. I.; Mintser, O. P.; Oleinichenko, B. P.; Bizer, L. I.

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical formalism of correlation phase analysis of laser images of human blood plasma with spatial-frequency selection of manifestations of mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence of albumin and globulin polycrystalline networks. Comparative results of the measurement of coordinate distributions of the correlation parameter—the modulus of the degree of local correlation of amplitudes—of laser images of blood plasma taken from patients of three groups—healthy patients (donors), rheumatoid-arthritis patients, and breast-cancer patients—are presented. We investigate values and ranges of change of statistical (the first to fourth statistical moments), correlation (excess of autocorrelation functions), and fractal (slopes of approximating curves and dispersion of extrema of logarithmic dependences of power spectra) parameters of coordinate distributions of the degree of local correlation of amplitudes. Objective criteria for diagnostics of occurrence and differentiation of inflammatory and oncological states are determined.

  16. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological...... then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...

  17. [Indices of total lipids in erythrocyte membranes and blood plasma in patients with gingivitis in the presence of concomitant diseases and after antioxidant therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirova, V G

    2001-01-01

    Enrolled in this study were those children of both sexes (n=82) from ecologically unfavourable zones who had been admitted to the Yevpatoriya sanatorium "Druzhba" (Frendship) for the rehabilitative period, their age ranging between 11 to 14 years. Our objective in this examination was to study total lipids in red cell membranes and blood plasma in using the antioxidant erbisol to treat inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa in the presence of concomitant illnesses. The performed analysis of the data obtained permitted reaching the conclusion that treatment of parodontal disorders having developed in the presence of concomitant troubles using in a complex therapy erbisol class antioxidants results in a decrease of activation of lipid peroxidation processes in red cell membranes and blood plasma, which fact has found confirmation in an apparent therapeutic effect.

  18. Characterization and biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells of V(IV)O(2+) complexes formed by ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daniele; Fabbri, Davide; Serra, Maria; Buglyó, Péter; Bíró, Linda; Ugone, Valeria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2015-06-01

    The coordination mode and geometry in aqueous solution of oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by a third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone (H3cef), were studied by spectroscopic (EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance), pH-potentiometric and computational (DFT, density functional theory) methods. The behavior of the model systems containing 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (H2hmtdt) and 3-benzylthio-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (Hbhmt) was examined for comparison. The stability of the tautomers of ceftriaxone and 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one in the neutral, mono- and bi-anionic form was calculated by DFT methods, both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, and the electron density on the oxygen atoms of the hydroxytriazinone ring was related to the pKa of the ligands. The data demonstrate that ceftriaxone coordinates V(IV)O(2+) forming mono- and bis-chelated complexes with (Oket, O(-)) donor set and formation of five-membered chelate rings. The geometry of the bis-chelated complex, cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), is cis-octahedral and this species can deprotonate, around physiological pH, to form the corresponding mono-hydroxido cis-[VO(Hcef)2(OH)](3-). The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with apo-transferrin (apo-hTf) was studied and the results suggest that V(IV)O(2+) distributes between (VO)apo-hTf/(VO)2apo-hTf and cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), whereas mixed complexes are not formed for charge and steric effects. The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with red blood cells shows that ceftriaxone helps V(IV)O(2+) ion to cross the erythrocyte membrane. Inside the cell cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) decomposes and the same species formed by inorganic V(IV)O(2+) are observed. The relationship between the biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells and the potential pharmacological activity of V(IV)O(2+) species of ceftriaxone is finally discussed.

  19. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  20. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  1. Prognostic Correlations between ABO Blood Group and Pre-Treatment Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prognostic value of ABO blood group in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed the data on 1397 patients with non-metastatic, newly diagnosed NPC treated using IMRT. Patient survival between different ABO blood groups were compared using log-rank test. Cox hazards model was adopted to establish independent prognostic factors. In our study, the distribution of the A, B, AB and O blood groups was 26.6% (372/1397), 26.2% (366/1397), 5.2% (73/1397) and 42.0% (586/1397), respectively. The cut-off value of pre-treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA based on disease-free survival (DFS) was 1355 copies/ml (area under curve [AUC], 0.649; sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.496) for the whole cohort. Estimated four-year DFS, overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates were 81.7%, 89.2%, 89.4% and 92.3% for blood group A; 82.1%, 89.3%, 89.0% and 92.0% for group B; 83.3%, 88.1%, 86.2% and 95.5% for group AB, 80.9%, 90.7%, 88.4% and 90.2% for group O (P > 0.05 for all rates). Multivariate analysis revealed ABO blood group was not an independent prognostic factor for DFS, OS, DMFS or LRRFS (P > 0.05 for all rates) after adjusting for plasma EBV DNA in either the whole cohort or subgroup analysis by gender. The prognostic value of ABO blood group may be limited for patients with NPC in the era of IMRT, and no substantial correlation between ABO blood group and plasma EBV DNA was observed.

  2. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of age on the blood plasma metabolome in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Tran, ViLinh; Wachtman, Lynn M; Green, Cara L; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-04-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived for their size with humans being the longest lived of all primates. There are compelling reasons to understand the underlying age-related processes that shape human lifespan. But the very fact of our long lifespan that makes it so compelling, also makes it especially difficult to study. Thus, in studies of aging, researchers have turned to non-human primate models, including chimpanzees, baboons, and rhesus macaques. More recently, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, has been recognized as a particularly valuable model in studies of aging, given its small size, ease of housing in captivity, and relatively short lifespan. However, little is known about the physiological changes that occur as marmosets age. To begin to fill in this gap, we utilized high sensitivity metabolomics to define the longitudinal biochemical changes associated with age in the common marmoset. We measured 2104 metabolites from blood plasma at three separate time points over a 17-month period, and we completed both a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the metabolome. We discovered hundreds of metabolites associated with age and body weight in both male and female animals. Our longitudinal analysis identified age-associated metabolic pathways that were not found in our cross-sectional analysis. Pathways enriched for age-associated metabolites included tryptophan, nucleotide, and xenobiotic metabolism, suggesting these biochemical pathways might play an important role in the basic mechanisms of aging in primates. Moreover, we found that many metabolic pathways associated with age were sex specific. Our work illustrates the power of longitudinal approaches, even in a short time frame, to discover novel biochemical changes that occur with age.

  3. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  4. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okafor OY; Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Owolabi FO; Kosoko SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results: Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions: The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  5. Changes in Plasma Angiotensin II and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome Before and After Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ling Wang; Qing-zeng Liu; Yu Wang; Ying Zhang; Yun-dai Chen; Xin-chun Wang; Zhi-xuan Liu; Guo-li Jing; Hai-feng Tong; Yuan Tian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes in plasma angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and circadian rhythm of blood pressure among hypertensive patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or surgical treatment. Methods A total of 180 essential hypertension patients were enrolled in our study. The determination of plasma Ang Ⅱ concentration, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), and polysomnography (PSG) monitoring were performed before and 3 months after CPAP or surgical treatment.Results Patients were dassified into three groups by their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): essential hypertension group (EH group, n=72; AHI<5), essential hypertension with mild SAS group (EH+mild SAS group, n=60, 5≤AHI<20), and essential hypertension with moderate and severe SAS group (EH+moderate-severe SAS group, n=48, AHI≥20). The concentrations of plasma Ang Ⅱ in the above three groups were 13.42±3.27, 16.17±3.82, and 18.73±4.05 ng/mL respectively before treatment, and AngⅡ concentration in EH patients combined with SAS was significantly higher than that in EH group (all P<O.05).After treatment the values in the latter two groups significantly decreased to 14.67±2.56 and 15.03±3.41 ng/mL respectively (P<0.05). The incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in EH patients was 31.9%,and those in hypertensive patients with mild SAS and moderate-severe SAS were 51.7% and 58.3%, respectively before treatment. The incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in the EH patients with mild SAS was significantly higher than that of patients with EH alone (P<0.05). After CPAP treatment or surgery, the incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in the two SAS groups was significantly decreased to 38.3% and 39.6%, respectively (P<0.05).Condusions Ang Ⅱ might phy a role in blood pressure variability in patients with obstructive SAS. CPAP or surgical treatment can improve blood pressure disorder and decrease plasma Ang

  6. Effects of plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio on blood pressure circadian rhythms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weiying; Yue Hongmei; Zhang Jiabin; Pu Jiayuan; Yu Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is strongly associated with obesity and with cardiovascular disease.Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptides from the same source but have opposite roles.Both of them can affect feeding and regulate vascular tune.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin,obestatin,the ratio of ghrelin and obestatin (G/O) and sleep parameters and blood pressure circadian rhythms in patients with OSAS.Methods This study enrolled 95 newly diagnosed over-weight OSAS patients (OSAS group),30 body mass index (BMI)-match non-OSAS adults (over-weight group) and 30 non-OSAS normal weight adults (control group).Polysomnography (PSG) was performed in the OSAS group and over-weight group.Blood pressure of all subjects was monitored by means of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.The concentration of plasma ghrelin and obestatin was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Plasma ghrelin levels in the OSAS group and over-weight group were significantly lower than that of the control group (P <0.05).Plasma obestatin levels were lower in the over-weight group and OSAS group,but there was no significant difference among the three groups.The blood pressure in OSAS patients was higher,and there was a significant difference in all blood pressure parameters compared to the control group,and in the daytime average diastolic blood pressure (DBP),nocturnal average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP,DBP variability values as compared to over-weight subjects.Furthermore,there were significantly more non-dipper patterns of blood pressure (including hypertension and normotension) in the OSAS group than in the other two groups (P <0.01).Correlation analysis showed that ghrelin levels had a significant correlation with BMI and nocturnal average DBP but not with PSG parameters.In contrast,the G/O ratio had a negative correlation with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P <0.05),as well as a

  7. Study on plasma pre-functionalized PVC film grafted with TiO2/PVP to improve blood compatible and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arjunan; Shanmugavelayutham, Gurusamy; Serra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Research into the design of new biopolymers/polymer functionalized with nanoparticles is of tremendous interest to the medical sector, particularly with regard to blood-contacting devices. In this present study, a steady blood compatible and active antibacterial coating was fabricated by the grafting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/polyvinylpyyrolidone (PVP) onto a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film surface via the direct-current glow discharge plasma method. To enhance the chemical interaction between TiO2/PVP and PVC, the surfaces of the PVC films were functionalized by different plasmas (air, argon, and oxygen) before coating. In this study, the plasma parameters were varied, such as treatment time of about 5–20 min for a constant power of 100 W, potential 300 V, and a constant gas pressure of 2 Pa for air, argon, and oxygen gas environment. Then, the different plasma treatments on the PVC films, TiO2/PVP were grafted using a simple dip-coating method. In addition, the TiO2/PVP-grafted PVC films were characterized by contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Importantly, TiO2/PVP is grafted onto the PVC surface due to the plasma-based retained functionality and demonstrates adhesive efficiency, which was observed by XPS. The bio-stability of the TiO2/PVP-modified PVC film was evaluated by in vitro platelet activation analysis and protein adsorption analysis. Then, the antibacterial properties were evaluated by the agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli. The result reveals that the grafting of TiO2/PVP was slightly higher for the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC, which significantly decreases the platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC with TiO2/PVP-grafted film is also greatly improved compared with an air- and argon

  8. Haemostasis monitored in stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates in the proportion of 4 :  4 :  1 diluted with crystalloids and colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Ambrosio, Daniela; Gryfelt, Gunilla; Östlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate haemostasis analysed with thromboelastometry and blood gas and blood count variables, in stored blood components and the effects after dilution with Ringer[Combining Acute Accent]s acetate, albumin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES). Aliquots from stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates were mixed in the proportion of 4 : 4 : 1 and analysed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), blood count [haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, platelet count] and blood gas (pH, calcium, sodium, potassium, glucose levels). The blood mix was thereafter diluted 20 and 33% with Ringer's acetate, albumin or HES. The stored blood component mix in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 had a low pH (7.11 ± 0.03, mean ± standard deviation), nonmeasurable calcium level, and high concentrations of sodium, potassium and glucose but ROTEM curves within normal range after recalcification. With Ringer's acetate dilution, the ROTEM variables changed almost linearly with increasing dilution volume. When albumin was used in the 33% dilution, the clot firmness of the fibrin clot (FibTEM) was further reduced, and with HES dilution, there was a pronounced impairment. The stored blood mix had a low pH and calcium level, both of which might have a significant influence on the coagulation process but normal ROTEM curves after recalcification. Dilution with Ringer's acetate and albumin resulted in moderate deterioration, while dilution with HES showed severely impaired haemostasis.

  9. Characterization of the gp120 of circulating HIV type 1 in a group of infected Chinese blood/plasma donors with asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Craigo, Jodi K; Ding, Ming; Guo, Yan; Shen, Shengli; Zhou, Yushen; Wu, Hao; Gupta, Phalguni

    2006-11-01

    The C2-V5 regions of the HIV envelope gene were cloned and sequenced from DNA samples of four asymptomatic and five AIDS patients from a cohort of HIV-1-infected Chinese plasma and blood donors. Sequence analysis revealed that regardless of the stage of disease, all the patient's HIV-1 belonged to either clade B' or circulating recombinant form 15 (CRF15) subtype. However, since these blood donors were infected at a time when circulating CRF15 was not known in that region, it is likely these HIV-1 types belong to clade B'. However, the C2-V5 sequences from AIDS patients clustered differently in the phylogenetic tree than those present in asymptomatic patients and showed a significantly higher divergence and lower diversity compared to those from asymptomatic patients. In addition, more syncytia-inducing viral genotypes were present in AIDS patients than in asymptomatic patients. These results contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of circulating HIV-1 in infected Chinese plasma and blood donors, warrant additional investigation of the possible presence of CRF15 in Chinese blood donors, and may have important implications in the future design of therapeutic strategies for treating these infected patients.

  10. 急性胰腺炎中白细胞、白蛋白及血糖的研究%Research of White Blood Cell,Plasma Albumin and Blood Glucose in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霖; 施红宁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰腺炎(AP)白细胞计数、血浆白蛋白和血糖的变化及其临床意义.方法 分别测定34例轻型急性胰腺炎(MAP)和35例重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)患者第0,1,3,7,10天的白细胞计数、血浆白蛋白及血糖水平,并对所测得的结果进行比较、统计学分析.结果 AP患者的白细胞计数及血糖均有显著的升高,且SAP组白细胞计数及血糖水平与MAP组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);SAP组的血浆白蛋白水平与MAP组比较显著降低(P<0.05).SAP组白细胞计数、血糖升高及白蛋白较低的发生率显著高于MAP组(P<0.05).结论 白细胞计数、血浆白蛋白及血糖可以作为评价急性胰腺炎严重程度及疗效的指标,其临床监测更简便、直观,值得广泛应用.%Objective To investigate white blood cell count,plasma albumin and changes of blood glucose and its clinical significance about acute pancreatitis( AP). Methods White blood cell count, plasma albumin and changes of blood glucose were measured in 34 cases of mild acute pancreatitis( MAP) and 35 cases of severe acute pancreatitis( SAP) patients on 0 d, 1 d,3d, 7 d, 10 d,the results were compared,and the statistical analysis was conducted. Results White blood cell count and blood sugar in patients with AP increased significantly,and white blood cell count and blood sugar levels in MAP group compared with SAP group had significant difference(P<0.05) ;the plasma albumin level was significantly lower in SAP compared with group MAP (P < 0.05). SAP group of white blood cell count, blood glucose and albumin lower incidence rates were significantly higher than that of MAP group(P<0.05). Conclusion White blood cell count,plasma albumin and bloud sugar can be used as indicators to evaluate the severity of acute pancreatitis,clinical monitoring was simple and intuitive,it was worth the extensive application.

  11. Age-specific discrimination of blood plasma samples of healthy and ovarian cancer prone mice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikechi, Noureddine; Markushin, Yuri; Connolly, Denise C.; Lasue, Jeremie; Ewusi-Annan, Ebo; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality rates are strongly correlated with the stage at which it is diagnosed. Detection of EOC prior to its dissemination from the site of origin is known to significantly improve the patient outcome. However, there are currently no effective methods for early detection of the most common and lethal subtype of EOC. We sought to determine whether laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and classification techniques such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and random forest (RF) could classify and differentiate blood plasma specimens from transgenic mice with ovarian carcinoma and wild type control mice. Herein we report results using this approach to distinguish blood plasma samples obtained from serially bled (at 8, 12, and 16 weeks) tumor-bearing TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and wild type cancer-free littermate control mice. We have calculated the age-specific accuracy of classification using 18,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra of the blood plasma samples from tumor-bearing mice and wild type controls. When the analysis is performed in the spectral range 250 nm to 680 nm using LDA, these are 76.7 (± 2.6)%, 71.2 (± 1.3)%, and 73.1 (± 1.4)%, for the 8, 12 and 16 weeks. When the RF classifier is used, we obtain values of 78.5 (± 2.3)%, 76.9 (± 2.1)% and 75.4 (± 2.0)% in the spectral range of 250 nm to 680 nm, and 81.0 (± 1.8)%, 80.4 (± 2.1)% and 79.6 (± 3.5)% in 220 nm to 850 nm. In addition, we report, the positive and negative predictive values of the classification of the two classes of blood plasma samples. The approach used in this study is rapid, requires only 5 μL of blood plasma, and is based on the use of unsupervised and widely accepted multivariate analysis algorithms. These findings suggest that LIBS and multivariate analysis may be a novel approach for detecting EOC.

  12. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red