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  1. Discordant Lipid Pattern and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque. Importance of Remnant Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Siniawski, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subjects with levels of non-HDL-C 30 mg/dL above those of LDL-C (lipid discordance) or with high remnant cholesterol levels could have a greater residual cardiovascular risk. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population and analyze the clinical variables associated with it;To investigate the association between lipid discordance and remnant cholesterol with the presence of carotid plaque. Methods: Primary prevention patients without diabetes or lipid-lowering therapy were included. Regardless of the LDL-C level, we define “lipid discordance” if the non-HDL-C value exceeded 30 mg/dL that of LDL-C. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C minus LDL-C when triglycerides were < 4.0 mmol/L. Ultrasound was used to assess carotid plaque occurrence. Multiple regression logistic models were performed. Results: The study included 772 patients (mean age 52 ± 11 years, 66% women). The prevalence of lipid discordance was 34%. Male sex and body mass index were independently associated with discordant lipid pattern. The prevalence of carotid plaque was higher in subjects with lipid discordance (40.2% vs. 29.2, p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis showed that the discordant lipid pattern was associated with the greater probability of carotid plaque (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.34, p = 0.02). Similarly, a significant association between calculated remnant cholesterol and carotid plaque was found. Conclusion: Lipid discordance and presence of a higher level of calculated remnant cholesterol are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Our findings could be used to improve the residual cardiovascular risk evaluation. PMID:28699976

  2. Discordant Lipid Pattern and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque. Importance of Remnant Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Siniawski, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Subjects with levels of non-HDL-C 30 mg/dL above those of LDL-C (lipid discordance) or with high remnant cholesterol levels could have a greater residual cardiovascular risk. To determine the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population and analyze the clinical variables associated with it; To investigate the association between lipid discordance and remnant cholesterol with the presence of carotid plaque. Primary prevention patients without diabetes or lipid-lowering therapy were included. Regardless of the LDL-C level, we define "lipid discordance" if the non-HDL-C value exceeded 30 mg/dL that of LDL-C. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C minus LDL-C when triglycerides were colesterol remanescente poderiam ter maior risco cardiovascular residual. determinar a prevalência de discordância lipídica em uma população de prevenção primária e analisar as variáveis clínicas com ela associadas; investigar a associação de discordância lipídica e colesterol remanescente calculado com a presença de placa carotídea. Pacientes de prevenção primária sem diabetes ou sem terapia hipolipemiante foram incluídos. Independentemente do nível de LDL-C, definiu-se "discordância lipídica" como um valor de não HDL-C excedendo em 30 mg/dl aquele de LDL-C. Calculou-se o colesterol remanescente como colesterol total menos HDL-C menos LDL-C na presença de triglicerídeos colesterol remanescente calculado e placa carotídea. Discordância lipídica e presença de nível mais alto de colesterol remanescente calculado acham-se associados com aterosclerose subclínica. Nossos achados podem ser usados para aprimorar a avaliação de risco cardiovascular residual.

  3. Directional spatial frequency analysis of lipid distribution in atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Clyde; Reese, Eric; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert; Russell, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the growth of fibrous plaques due to the retention of cholesterol and lipids within the artery wall, which can lead to vessel occlusion and cardiac events. One way to evaluate arterial disease is to quantify the amount of lipid present in these plaques, since a higher disease burden is characterized by a higher concentration of lipid. Although therapeutic stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport to reduce cholesterol deposits in plaque has not produced significant results, this may be due to current image analysis methods which use averaging techniques to calculate the total amount of lipid in the plaque without regard to spatial distribution, thereby discarding information that may have significance in marking response to therapy. Here we use Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) analysis to generate a characteristic spatial frequency spectrum for atherosclerotic plaques from C57 Black 6 mice both treated and untreated with a cholesterol scavenging nanoparticle. We then use the Cauchy product of these spectra to classify the images with a support vector machine (SVM). Our results indicate that treated plaque can be distinguished from untreated plaque using this method, where no difference is seen using the spatial averaging method. This work has the potential to increase the effectiveness of current in-vivo methods of plaque detection that also use averaging methods, such as laser speckle imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  5. The protein and lipid composition of arterial elastin and its relationship to lipid accumulation in the atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, D M; Franzblau, C; Hollander, W

    1971-08-01

    Elastin preparations from intimal layers and the media of normal and atherosclerotic human aortae were analyzed for protein and lipid content. In atherosclerotic aortae, elastin from plaques was compared with elastin from adjacent normal appearing areas of the same aorta. Arterial elastin purified by alkaline extraction appeared to be a protein-lipid complex containing free and ester cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. The lipid component of normal arterial elastin was small (1-2%). With increasing severity of atherosclerosis, there was a progressive accumulation of lipid in intimal elastin from plaques, reaching a mean lipid content of 37% in severe plaques. The increase in the lipid content of plaque elastic preparations was mainly due to large increases in cholesterol, over 80% of which was cholesteryl ester. This deposition of cholesterol in plaque elastin accounted for 20-34% of the total cholesterol content of the plaque. The increased lipid deposition in plaque elastin was associated with alterations in the amino acid composition of plaque elastin. In elastin from plaque intima, the following polar amino acids were increased significantly: aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, lysine, histidine, and arginine; whereas, cross-linking amino acids: desmosine, isodesmosine, and lysinonorleucine were decreased significantly. The amino acid and lipid composition of elastin from normal appearing aortic areas was comparable to that of normal arterial elastin except for intimal elastin directly adjacent to and medial elastin directly below the most severe plaques.The data indicate that the focal lipid deposition in early atherosclerotic plaques is due to a large extent to lipid accumulations in altered elastin protein of localized intimal areas. Continued lipid deposition in altered elastin appears to contribute substantially to the progressive lipid accumulation in the plaque. The study suggests that elastin of intimal elastic membranes may play

  6. Erythrocyte membrane, plasma and atherosclerotic plaque lipid pattern in coronary heart disease Perfil lipídico de membrana de eritrocito, plasma y placa ateromatosa en la enfermedad coronaria

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    Natalia R. Lausada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque (AP, plasma and erythrocyte membrane (EM in patients with advanced coronary heart disease (CHD. AP were obtained through endarterectomy in 18 patients. Ten normolipemic healthy subjects were selected to obtain the normal lipid pattern profile. Total lipids of AP and EM were determined by HPTLC, and the fatty acid profile from AP, EM and plasma using TLC-FID. The relative amount of the lipid species analyzed in AP was in line with the data in the literature [phospholipids: 23.5 mol% ± 3.5; total cholesterol 68.9 mol% ± 7.9; triglyceride 7.6 mol% ± 3.4]. Plasma and EM from CHD patients compared to controls, showed a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in saturated fatty acids leading to a decrease in the unsaturation index (plasma: 1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.28 ± 0.03, PEl objetivo fue analizar la composición lipídica de las membranas de eritrocitos (ME, plasma y placas ateromatosas (PA en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria avanzada (ECV. Las PA fueron obtenidas de endarterectomías coronarias de 18 pacientes. Fueron seleccionados 10 sujetos sanos, normolipémicos, como grupo control. Los lípidos totales de PA y ME se determinaron utilizando HPTLC, y el perfil de ácidos grasos de las PA, ME y plasma mediante TLC-FID. La cantidad relativa de las especies lipídicas obtenidas de las PA coinciden con la literatura [fosfolípidos 23.5 mol% ± 3.5; colesterol total 68.9 mol% ± 7.9; triglicéridos 7.6 mol% ± 3.4]. En el plasma y en las ME de los pacientes con ECV se observó, comparando con los pacientes controles, una disminución de los ácidos grasos poli-no saturados acompañado de un aumento de los ácidos grasos saturados que provocó el descenso del índice de instauración (plasma: 1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.28 ± 0.03, P<0.05; ME: 2.28 ± 0.04 vs. 1.25 ± 0.010, P<0.05 y el incremento del cociente AG saturados/insaturados (plasma: 0.35 ± 0.02 vs. 0

  7. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

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    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  8. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  9. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  10. Inverse association between size of the lipid-rich necrotic core and vascularization in human carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmgren, Ola; Johansson, Lars; Prahl, Ulrica; Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran M L

    2017-04-12

    To study the relationship between the size of the lipid-rich necrotic core measured by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and the level of plaque vascularization measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, in human carotid plaques. Further, to compare the size of lipid-rich necrotic core from MRI to plaque echogenicity. Thirty-one subjects with carotid plaques underwent standard B-mode ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI. The lipid-rich necrotic core was quantified using MRI. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to measure carotid plaque vascularization. Standard B-mode ultrasound was used to measure plaque echogenicity as greyscale median. The amount of lipid-rich necrotic core correlated inversely with the degree of plaque vascularization (r = -0·40, P = 0·03). There were no correlations between the degree of plaque vascularization and the amount of fibrous tissue or calcifications. There were no correlations between greyscale median and the lipid-rich necrotic core, fibrous tissue or calcifications. We show that more dense plaque vascularization is associated with a lower plaque content of lipid-rich necrotic core. A large lipid-rich necrotic core and high plaque vascularization are both proposed as predictors of vulnerability, and our finding is therefore odds with some earlier observations. Our finding can be explained by the fact that the necrotic core of the plaque contains no viable tissue and therefore less of the plaque can be vascularized if the lipid-rich necrotic core is large. Our study suggests that the true relation between plaque vascularization and other indices of vulnerability is more complex than initially thought. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

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    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aq...

  12. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aq...

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with change in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoshi; Sidharta, Samuel L; Shishikura, Daisuke; Takata, Kohei; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe A; Nguyen, Tracy; Janssan, Alex; Kim, Susan W; Andrews, Jordan; Psaltis, Peter J; Worthley, Matthew I; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2017-08-31

    Little is known about the relation between serum lipid parameters and serial change in plaque composition using in vivo coronary imaging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between serum lipids and change in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We performed serial NIRS-intravascular ultrasound studies in 49 patients who underwent coronary angiography for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable ischemic symptoms. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to evaluate the relationship between serum lipid parameters and change in lipid core burden index at the 4-mm maximal segment (max LCBI4mm). Mean patient age was 61 ± 9 y, 29% were women, 35% had an ACS clinical presentation, 78% received statin therapy at baseline, and median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 101, 43, 174 and 133 mg/dL, respectively. During a median follow-up period of 13 months, max LCBI4mm significantly decreased from 277 to 194 (p = 0.001). On univariable analysis, the percent change in HDL-C negatively associated with the change in max LCBI4mm (β = -3.19, p = 0.004). There were no significant associations between the other lipid parameters and change in max LCBI4mm. On multivariable analysis, percent change in HDL-C remained significantly associated with the change in max LCBI4mm (p = 0.002). Change in HDL-C, but not other lipids parameters, associated with changes in coronary plaque lipid burden assessed by NIRS. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic importance of high-density lipoprotein on serial change in plaque composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.

    1998-01-01

    with elevated levels of fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides (P=.0002 and P=.002), IDL cholesterol (P=.0009 and P=.006), and VLDL/chylomicron remnant cholesterol (P=.0003 and P=.0004) and triglycerides (P=.0003 and P=.003), the area under the plasma triglyceride curve 0 to 4 hours after a fatty meal (P......=.001): and body mass index (P=.0001). On ANCOVA, body mass index, fasting IDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma triglycerides were independent predictors of echo-lucency. Echo-lucency was associated with increased relative plaque lipid content (P=.02). Conclusions-Increased plasma levels of triglyceride......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  15. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aqueous centers accounted for more than 90% of the area occupied by lipid-rich structures in the core region. No foam cells were present. Cholesterol crystals, lipid droplets of a size similar to those in foam cells (0.4 to 6 mu), and larger neutral lipid deposits (greater than 6 mu) together occupied less than 10% of the total area of lipid structures. Abundant lipid vesicles were associated with the nearby presence of cholesterol crystals, whereas small lipid droplets were predominant in areas without crystals. Many droplets had surface defects in the form of pits and vesicular blebs. These morphologic findings are explained most concisely by postulating direct accumulation of extracellular lipid from interstitial lipoproteins as a major process in core region formation. Moreover, a dynamic state of ongoing physical/metabolic transformation of extracellular lipid deposits is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2646938

  16. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

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    Dietel, Barbara; Kuehn, Constanze; Achenbach, Stephan [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Erlangen (Germany); Budinsky, Lubos [Campus Science Support Facilities (CSF), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna (Austria); Uder, Michael [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hess, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup -/-}) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r{sup 2} = 0.775, p < 0.001; vessel lumen: r{sup 2} = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r{sup 2} = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  17. Enhancement patterns in the fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques of the internal carotid artery

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    Rantner, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.rantner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Sojer, Martin, E-mail: martin.sojer@uki.at [Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Cartes-Zumelzu, Fabiola, E-mail: fabiola.cartes-zumelzu@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Fraedrich, Gustav, E-mail: gustav.fraedrich@i-med.ac.at [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: Werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Chemelli-Steingruber, Iris, E-mail: iris.chemelli.steingruber@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Background: The differentiation between stable and vulnerable plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA) remains a matter of interest. With the implementation of contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a more detailed plaque characterization is possible. The study at hand focuses on enhancement patterns of fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques in the ICA. Methods: Between May 2011 and December 2012, 49 patients (39 male) with >50% stenosis of the ICA were consecutively enrolled. In 10 patients with bilateral ICA stenosis, both plaques were included for analysis. We performed a classification of plaques according to Cai and observed 11 type 4–5 plaques, 15 type 6 plaques and 33 type 8 plaques. MRI was performed on a 3 T whole body MR system. The standard 12 channel head coil was combined with the neck extension coil and two bilateral 7 cm loop coils. Post-contrast T1w images were subtracted from pre contrast images to identify late enhancement in fibro cellular tissue. Enhancement patterns were allocated as intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement in different types of plaques. Results: Fibro cellular tissue always exhibited a higher contrast enhancement compared to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. This reflects a higher grade of vascularization of the fibrocellular tissue. Contrast enhancement was present irrespective of the plaque type. In detail, intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement were observed in all types of plaques. Even type 8 plaques, according to the classification of Cai, had a significant contrast enhancement, though supposed to be with low inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Type 8 plaques might not be as stable as postulated. Whether the relevant uptake of contrast agent is due to the fibrous tissue or reflects the inflammatory activity of the plaque should be matter of further investigations.

  18. Effects of insulin sensitizers on plaque vulnerability associated with elevated lipid content in atheroma in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, W T; Wang, Z Q; Schneider, D J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L C; Taatjes, D J; Sobel, B E

    2004-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are generally precipitated by rupture of lipid-laden, relatively acellular, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with thin fibrous caps. We investigated whether a high-fat diet alters insulin sensitivity and whether insulin sensitizers (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) alter the composition of otherwise lipidladen atherosclerotic plaques in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE-knockout mice were fed a high-fat (n=30) or standard chow (n=10) diet for two weeks. Thereafter, those fed the high-fat diet were treated with troglitazone (n=10), rosiglitazone (n=10) or no drug (n=10) for 16 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Carbohydrate metabolism was assessed with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests. Plaque composition was characterised with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The high-fat diet induced insulin resistance in the absence of weight gain. Compared with control animals on the high-fat diet, animals given troglitazone (400 mg/kg/day) or rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/day) had significantly less area under the curve (AUC) for insulin ( p<0.05) and glucose disposal ( p<0.05). Despite significant increases in insulin sensitivity with drug treatment, no change in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, nor reduction in atheroma size or lipid content was noted. Thus, improvement in insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in this animal model of vasculopathy did not alter plaque composition.

  19. Copper and zinc concentrations in atherosclerotic plaque and serum in relation to lipid metabolism in patients with carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Some oligoelements are now investigated as possibly having a role in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of copper and zinc in the serum and carotid plaque and parameters of lipid metabolism in patients with different morphology of carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Methods. Carotid endarterectomy due to the significant atherosclerotic stenosis was performed in 91 patients (mean age 64 ± 7. The control group consisted of 27 patients (mean age 58 ± 9, without carotid atherosclerosis. Atheroscletoric plaques were divided into four morphological groups, according to ultrasonic and intraoperative characteristics. Copper and zinc concentrations in the plaque, carotid artery and serum were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Serum copper concentrations were statistically significantly higher in the patients with hemorrhagic in comparison to those with calcified plaque (1.2 ± 0.9 μmol/L vs 0.7 ± 0.2 μmol/L, respectively; p = 0.021. Zinc concentrations were statistically significantly lower in plaques of the patients with fibrolipid in comparison to those with calcified plaques (22.1 ± 16.3 μg/g vs 38.4 ± 25.8 μg/g, respectively; p = 0.024. A negative significant correlation was found for zinc and triglycerides in the serum in all the patients (r = -0.52, p = 0.025. In the control group we also demonstrated a positive significant correlation for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and copper in the serum (r = 0.54, p = 0.04. Conclusion. The data obtained in the current study are consistent with the hypothesis that high copper and lower zinc levels may contribute to atherosclerosis and its sequelae as factors in a multifactorial disease. Further studies are necessary in order to conclude whether high concentration of copper and zinc in the serum could be risk factors for atherosclesrosis.

  20. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

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    Núria Bargalló

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38, with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65, and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79. The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31 or presence (n = 27 of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques.

  1. Characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of chronic lipid apheresis patients as assessed by In Vivo High-Resolution CMR - a comparative analysis

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    Grimm Jochen M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of carotid atherosclerotic plaques can reliably be identified and quantified using high resolution in vivo 3-Tesla CMR. It is suspected that lipid apheresis therapy in addition to lowering serum lipid levels also has an influence on development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic lipid apheresis (LA on the composition of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Methods 32 arteries of 16 patients during chronic LA-therapy with carotid plaques and stenosis of 1–80% were matched according to degree of stenosis with 32 patients, who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke. Of these patients only the asymptomatic carotid artery was analyzed. All patients underwent black-blood 3 T CMR of the carotids using parallel imaging and dedicated surface coils. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Morphology and composition of carotid plaques were evaluated. For statistical evaluation Fisher’s Exact and unpaired t-test were used. A p-value Results Patients in the LA-group were younger (63.5 vs. 73.9. years, p2, p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that, despite a severer risk profile for cardiovascular complications in LA-patients, chronic LA is associated with significantly lower lipid content in carotid plaques compared to plaques of patients without LA with similar degrees of stenosis, which is characteristic of clinically stable plaques.

  2. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms in coronary CT angiography improve the detection of lipid-core plaque - a comparison with histology

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    Puchner, Stefan B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ferencik, Maros [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Lenduelet Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu [CV Path Institute Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Schlett, Christopher L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate whether iterative reconstruction algorithms improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for detection of lipid-core plaque (LCP) compared to histology. CCTA and histological data were acquired from three ex vivo hearts. CCTA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR) iterative algorithms. Vessel cross-sections were co-registered between FBP/ASIR/MBIR and histology. Plaque area <60 HU was semiautomatically quantified in CCTA. LCP was defined by histology as fibroatheroma with a large lipid/necrotic core. Area under the curve (AUC) was derived from logistic regression analysis as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Overall, 173 CCTA triplets (FBP/ASIR/MBIR) were co-registered with histology. LCP was present in 26 cross-sections. Average measured plaque area <60 HU was significantly larger in LCP compared to non-LCP cross-sections (mm{sup 2}: 5.78 ± 2.29 vs. 3.39 ± 1.68 FBP; 5.92 ± 1.87 vs. 3.43 ± 1.62 ASIR; 6.40 ± 1.55 vs. 3.49 ± 1.50 MBIR; all p < 0.0001). AUC for detecting LCP was 0.803/0.850/0.903 for FBP/ASIR/MBIR and was significantly higher for MBIR compared to FBP (p = 0.01). MBIR increased sensitivity for detection of LCP by CCTA. Plaque area <60 HU in CCTA was associated with LCP in histology regardless of the reconstruction algorithm. However, MBIR demonstrated higher accuracy for detecting LCP, which may improve vulnerable plaque detection by CCTA. (orig.)

  3. Desmosomal plaque-associated vimentin filaments in human ovarian granulosa cell tumors of various histologic patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Czernobilsky, B; Moll, R.; Leppien, G.; Schweikhart, G.; Franke, W W

    1987-01-01

    Proteins of intermediate-sized filaments and desmosomal plaques (desmoplakins) of four human ovarian granulosa cell tumors were studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of microdissected tissue samples. All tumor cells, irrespective of their specific histologic patterns, contained both vimentin and desmoplakins. Cytokeratin-positive structures were absent or very scant in most tumor regions, but more common in trabecular, insular, ...

  4. Induction of cell-rich and lipid-rich plaques in a transfilter coculture system with human vascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, D I; Brehm, B R; Wolburg-Buchholz, K; Betz, E L; Köveker, G; Karsch, K R

    1996-01-01

    Cell-to-cell interactions are mainly involved in the control of the proliferation, migration, differentiation and function of different cell types in a wide range of tissues. In the arterial vessel wall, human arterial endothelial cells (haEC) and smooth muscle cells (haSMC) coexist in close contact with each other. In atherogenesis, haSMC can migrate from the media to the subintimal space to form fibromuscular and atheromatous plaques. In the present study, a transfilter coculture system is described, in which the interface between haSMC and confluent or proliferative haEC can be studied in detail. Cells were cocultured on the opposite sides of a porous filter which separates both cell types like the internal elastic lamina in vivo. In cocultures containing proliferative haEC, haSMC growth was significantly stimulated (33.4 +/- 5.7 cells/section, p cocultures containing confluent haEC (15.6 +/- 2.9 cells/section). If confluent haEC were injured mechanically, haSMC growth increased highly significantly (71.3 +/- 16.8 cells/section, p monocytes to cocultures with arterial media explants and haEC resulted in the formation of lipid-rich, low-cellular structures. After 28 days, characteristic in vitro plaque growth was induced; the plaque contained a lipid core with predominantly necrotic cells, extracellular lipid accumulations, atypically shaped lipid-loaded haSMC and macrophages, similar to in vivo foam cells, as well as an increased amount of extracellular matrix (collagen I, III and IV). These areas were surrounded by typical fibromuscular caps consisting of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive haSMC. Finally, the formation of capillaries by haEC could also be observed within these structures.

  5. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Picano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque, iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque, and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque. Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging

  6. Three-dimensional imaging MS of lipids in atherosclerotic plaques: Open-source methods for reconstruction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nathan H; Doonan, Robert J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Dufresne, Martin; Lenglet, Sébastien; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Thomas, Aurélien; Chaurand, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional MALDI imaging MS (IMS) is a growing branch of IMS still requiring developments in methodology and technology to make the technique routinely accessible. Many challenges are simply a matter of producing 3D reconstructions and interpreting them in a timely fashion. In this aim and using analysis of lipids from atherosclerotic plaques from a human carotid and mouse aortic sinuses, we describe 3D reconstruction methods using open-source software that provides high-quality visualization and rapid interpretation through multivariate segmentation of the 3D IMS data. Multiple datasets were generated for each sample and we provide insight into simple means to correlate the separate datasets.

  7. Evaluation of combined near-IR spectroscopic (NIRS)-IVUS imaging as a means to detect lipid-rich plaque burden in human coronary autopsy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy L.; Grainger, Stephanie J.; Greiner, Cherry A.; Hendricks, Michael J.; Goode, Meghan M.; Saybolt, Matthew D.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Madden, Sean P.; Muller, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can identify lipid in the coronary arteries, but lacks depth resolution. A novel catheter is currently in clinical use that combines NIRS with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides depth-resolved structural information via the IVUS modality. A measure designated as lipid-rich plaque burden (LRPB) has been proposed as a means to interpret the combined acoustic and optical information of NIRS-IVUS. LRPB is defined as the area created by the intersection of the NIRS lipid-rich arc with the corresponding IVUS-measured plaque burden. We determined the correlation in human coronary autopsy specimens between LRPB, a measure of lipid presence and extent available via intravascular imaging in patients, and the area of lipid-rich plaque as determined by the gold-standard of histology. Fifteen artery segments from 8 human autopsy hearts were imaged with the NIRS-IVUS system (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx Inc., Burlington, MA). Arteries were imaged in a specialty fixture that assured accurate co-registration between imaging and histology. The arteries were then fixed and divided into 2 mm blocks for histological staining. Pathological contouring of lipid-rich areas was performed on the stained thin sections for 54 lipid-rich blocks. Computation of LRPB was performed on transverse NIRS-IVUS frames corresponding to the histologic sections. The quantified LRPB was frequently higher than the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology, because the region denoted by the EEL and lumen within the NIRS lipid-rich arc is not entirely comprised of lipid. Overall, a moderate to strong correlation (R = 0.73) was found between LRPB determined by NIRS-IVUS imaging and the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology. LRPB, which can be measured in patients with NIRS-IVUS imaging, corresponds to the amount of lipid-rich plaque in a coronary artery. LRPB should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials for its ability to

  8. The interaction of serum and arterial lipoproteins with elastin of the arterial intima and its role in the lipid accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, D M; Hollander, W

    1973-02-01

    Arterial elastin appears to be a proteinlipid complex with the lipid component being bound to elastin peptide groups. In atherosclerotic lesions the lipid content of elastin increases progressively with increasing severity of atherosclerosis. The increases in the lipid content of plaque elastin are mainly due to large increases in cholesterol with about 80% of the cholesterol being cholesterol ester. This deposition of cholesterol in elastin accounts for a substantial part of the total cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of all stages. The present in vitro study suggests that the mechanism involved in the deposition of lipids in arterial elastin may be an interaction of the elastin protein with serum or arterial low density or very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) resulting in a transfer of lipids, but not of lipoprotein protein to the elastin. No significant lipid transfer occurred from the high density lipoproteins or chylomicrons. The amount of lipid taken up by plaque elastin was strikingly higher than by normal elastin and consisted mainly of cholesterol with over 80% of the cholesterol being cholesterol ester. The precondition for the lipid accumulation in plaque elastin appeared to be an altered amino acid composition of the elastin protein consisting of an increase in polar amino acids and a reduction in cross-linking amino acids. Subsequent treatment of lipoprotein-incubated arterial elastin with hot alkali and apolipoproteins did not reverse the binding of lipoprotein lipid to diseased elastin.

  9. The effect of lipid regulation with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu XU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the effect of intensive lipid regulation treatment with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction.  Methods Ninety-two patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups: observation group (treated by atorvastatin calcium with the dosage of 20 mg/d, N = 46 and control group (treated by diet without lipid-rich food, N=46. Besides, other drugs given to the patients in two groups were the same. The blood lipid levels and the changes of carotid artery plaques in two groups were analyzed and compared before treatment and 3 months after treatment. Results After treatment, the concentrations of total cholesterol [TC, (4.23 ± 0.92 mmol/L vs (5.24 ± 0.68 mmol/L], triglyceride [TG, (2.46 ± 0.28 mmol/L vs (3.33 ± 0.47 mmol/L], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C, (2.52 ± 0.38 mmol/L vs (4.78 ± 0.86 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group were all decreased and significantly lower than those in the control group (P = 0.000, for all, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C, (1.13 ± 0.41 mmol/L vs (0.85 ± 0.32 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group was increased and significantly than that in the control group (P = 0.003. The carotid artery plaque size [(20.25 ± 0.32 mm2 vs (24.42 ± 10.33 mm2] and thickness [(0.59 ± 0.13 mm vs (1.93 ± 0.23 mm] of carotid artery plaques and intima?media thickness [IMT, (1.32 ± 0.67 mm vs (1.63 ± 0.56 mm] of common carotid artery (CCA in the patients of observation group were all significantly lower than those in patients in the control group (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.010, respectively. Comparing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatinine (Cr levels after treatment with before treatment, there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions

  10. Two-Point Stretchable Electrode Array for Endoluminal Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements of Lipid-Laden Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, René R Sevag; Zhang, XiaoXiao; Luo, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Jen, Nelson; Ma, Jianguo; Demer, Linda L; Zhou, Qifa; Sayre, James W; Li, Rongsong; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2016-09-01

    Four-point electrode systems are commonly used for electric impedance measurements of biomaterials and tissues. We introduce a 2-point system to reduce electrode polarization for heterogeneous measurements of vascular wall. Presence of endoluminal oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and lipids alters the electrochemical impedance that can be measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We developed a catheter-based 2-point micro-electrode configuration for intravascular deployment in New Zealand White rabbits. An array of 2 flexible round electrodes, 240 µm in diameter and separated by 400 µm was microfabricated and mounted on an inflatable balloon catheter for EIS measurement of the oxLDL-rich lesions developed as a result of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Upon balloon inflation, the 2-point electrode array conformed to the arterial wall to allow deep intraplaque penetration via alternating current (AC). The frequency sweep from 10 to 300 kHz generated an increase in capacitance, providing distinct changes in both impedance (Ω) and phase (ϕ) in relation to varying degrees of intraplaque lipid burden in the aorta. Aortic endoluminal EIS measurements were compared with epicardial fat tissue and validated by intravascular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry for plaque lipids and foam cells. Thus, we demonstrate a new approach to quantify endoluminal EIS via a 2-point stretchable electrode strategy.

  11. Morphological and Stress Vulnerability Indices for Human Coronary Plaques and Their Correlations with Cap Thickness and Lipid Percent: An IVUS-Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Multi-patient Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plaque vulnerability, defined as the likelihood that a plaque would rupture, is difficult to quantify due to lack of in vivo plaque rupture data. Morphological and stress-based plaque vulnerability indices were introduced as alternatives to obtain quantitative vulnerability assessment. Correlations between these indices and key plaque features were investigated. In vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS data were acquired from 14 patients and IVUS-based 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI coronary plaque models with cyclic bending were constructed to obtain plaque wall stress/strain and flow shear stress for analysis. For the 617 slices from the 14 patients, lipid percentage, min cap thickness, critical plaque wall stress (CPWS, strain (CPWSn and flow shear stress (CFSS were recorded, and cap index, lipid index and morphological index were assigned to each slice using methods consistent with American Heart Association (AHA plaque classification schemes. A stress index was introduced based on CPWS. Linear Mixed-Effects (LME models were used to analyze the correlations between the mechanical and morphological indices and key morphological factors associated with plaque rupture. Our results indicated that for all 617 slices, CPWS correlated with min cap thickness, cap index, morphological index with r = -0.6414, 0.7852, and 0.7411 respectively (p<0.0001. The correlation between CPWS and lipid percentage, lipid index were weaker (r = 0.2445, r = 0.2338, p<0.0001. Stress index correlated with cap index, lipid index, morphological index positively with r = 0.8185, 0.3067, and 0.7715, respectively, all with p<0.0001. For all 617 slices, the stress index has 66.77% agreement with morphological index. Morphological and stress indices may serve as quantitative plaque vulnerability assessment supported by their strong correlations with morphological features associated with plaque rupture. Differences between the two indices may lead to better plaque

  12. Glycans pattern the phase behaviour of lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Guidotti, Guido; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-02-01

    Hydrated networks of glycans (polysaccharides)—in the form of cell walls, periplasms or gel-like matrices—are ubiquitously present adjacent to cellular plasma membranes. Yet, despite their abundance, the function of glycans in the extracellular milieu is largely unknown. Here we show that the spatial configuration of glycans controls the phase behaviour of multiphase model lipid membranes: inhomogeneous glycan networks stabilize large lipid domains at the characteristic length scale of the network, whereas homogeneous networks suppress macroscopic lipid phase separation. We also find that glycan-patterned phase separation is thermally reversible—thus indicating that the effect is thermodynamic rather than kinetic—and that phase patterning probably results from a preferential interaction of glycans with ordered lipid phases. These findings have implications for membrane-mediated transport processes, potentially rationalize long-standing observations that differentiate the behaviour of native and model membranes and may indicate an intimate coupling between cellular lipidomes and glycomes.

  13. Effect of Xinfuning V combined with western medicine therapy on serum blood viscosity, lipid metabolism and plaque stability in patients with coronary heart disease and angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Feng Ma; Xiang-Yang Wu; Ya-Ning Wang; Jun-De Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of Xinfuning V combined with western medicine therapy on serum blood viscosity, lipid metabolism and plaque stability in patients with coronary heart disease and angina pectoris.Methods: A total of 200 patients with coronary heart disease and angina pectoris were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=100), control group received routine western medicine therapy, observation group received routine western medicine treatment + adjuvant Xinfuning V treatment, and then the differences in with serum blood viscosity, lipid metabolism, plaque stability parameters, etc were compared between the two groups after treatment.Results: The whole blood viscosity under different shear rate (1/s, 5/s, 30/s and 200/s), plasma viscosity and fibrinogen content in peripheral blood of observation group after 4 weeks of treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; lipid metabolism indexes TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB content in serum were lower than those of control group while HDL-C content was higher than that of control group; inflammatory factors Lp-PLA2, sICAM-1, NF-κB, hs-CRP and TNF-α content in serum were lower than those of control group; plaque stability parameters AT, TTP, mTT, PI, BI and EI levels were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Xinfuning V combined with western medicine therapy can optimize the circulating internal environment in patients with coronary heart disease and angina pectoris, and also has a remarkable effect on stabilizing plaque properties.

  14. Ability of combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Intravascular Ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging to detect lipid core plaques and estimate cap thickness in human autopsy coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, S. J.; Su, J. L.; Greiner, C. A.; Saybolt, M. D.; Wilensky, R. L.; Raichlen, J. S.; Madden, S. P.; Muller, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to determine plaque cap thickness during catheterization is thought to be of clinical importance for plaque vulnerability assessment. While methods to compositionally assess cap integrity are in development, a method utilizing currently available tools to measure cap thickness is highly desirable. NIRS-IVUS is a commercially available dual imaging method in current clinical use that may provide cap thickness information to the skilled reader; however, this is as yet unproven. Ten autopsy hearts (n=15 arterial segments) were scanned with the multimodality NIRS-IVUS catheter (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx, Inc.) to identify lipid core plaques (LCPs). Skilled readers made predictions of cap thickness over regions of chemogram LCP, using NIRS-IVUS. Artery segments were perfusion fixed and cut into 2 mm serial blocks. Thin sections stained with Movat's pentachrome were analyzed for cap thickness at LCP regions. Block level predictions were compared to histology, as classified by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 arterial segments, 117 chemogram blocks were found by NIRS to contain LCP. Utilizing NIRSIVUS, chemogram blocks were divided into 4 categories: thin capped fibroatheromas (TCFA), thick capped fibroatheromas (ThCFA), pathological intimal thickening (PIT)/lipid pool (no defined cap), and calcified/unable to determine cap thickness. Sensitivities/specificities for thin cap fibroatheromas, thick cap fibroatheromas, and PIT/lipid pools were 0.54/0.99, 0.68/0.88, and 0.80/0.97, respectively. The overall accuracy rate was 70.1% (including 22 blocks unable to predict, p = 0.075). In the absence of calcium, NIRS-IVUS imaging provided predictions of cap thickness over LCP with moderate accuracy. The ability of this multimodality imaging method to identify vulnerable coronary plaques requires further assessment in both larger autopsy studies, and clinical studies in patients undergoing NIRS-IVUS imaging.

  15. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  16. Impact of combined lipid lowering and blood pressure control on coronary plaque: myocardial ischemia treated by percutaneous coronary intervention and plaque regression by lipid lowering and blood pressure controlling assessed by intravascular ultrasonography (MILLION) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Sakata, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenshi; Gamou, Tadatsugu; Kanaya, Honin; Miwa, Kenji; Ueda, Kosei; Higashikata, Toshinori; Mizuno, Sumio; Michishita, Ichiro; Namura, Masanobu; Nitta, Yutaka; Katsuda, Shoji; Okeie, Kazuyasu; Hirase, Hiroaki; Tada, Hayato; Uchiyama, Katsuharu; Konno, Tetsuo; Ino, Hidekazu; Nagase, Keisuke; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2016-10-31

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the aggressive reduction of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) reduced coronary atherosclerotic plaque volume compared with a standard treatment of LDL-C and BP in Japanese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study is a prospective, randomized, and open-labelled with a blind-endpoint evaluation study. A total of 97 patients (81 men, mean age 62.0 ± 9.6) with CAD undergoing intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized, and 68 patients had IVUS examinations at baseline and at 18-24 months follow-up. Patients were randomly assigned to standard or aggressive strategies targeting LDL-C and a BP of 100 mg/dL and 140/90 mmHg vs. 70 mg/dL and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The primary endpoint was the percent change in coronary plaque volume. Both standard and aggressive strategies succeeded to achieve target levels of LDL-C and BP; 74.9 ± 14.7 vs. 63.7 ± 11.9 mg/dL (NS) and 124.1 ± 9.4/75.8 ± 7.7 vs. 113.6 ± 9.6/65.8 ± 9.4 mmHg (systolic BP; NS, diastolic BP; p < 0.05), respectively. Both groups showed a significant reduction in the coronary plaque volume of -9.4 ± 10.7% and -8.7 ± 8.6% (NS) in standard and aggressive therapies, respectively. Both standard and aggressive intervention significantly regressed coronary plaque volume by the same degree, suggesting the importance of simultaneous reductions of LDL-C and BP for prevention of CAD.

  17. Shear-Driven Circulation Patterns in Lipid Membrane Vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Woodhouse, Francis G; 10.1017/jfm.2012.118

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that when a near-hemispherical lipid vesicle attached to a solid surface is subjected to a simple shear flow it exhibits a pattern of membrane circulation much like a dipole vortex. This is in marked contrast to the toroidal circulation that would occur in the related problem of a drop of immiscible fluid attached to a surface and subjected to shear. This profound difference in flow patterns arises from the lateral incompressibility of the membrane, which restricts the observable flows to those in which the velocity field in the membrane is two-dimensionally divergence free. Here we study these circulation patterns within the simplest model of membrane fluid dynamics. A systematic expansion of the flow field based on Papkovich--Neuber potentials is developed for general viscosity ratios between the membrane and the surrounding fluids. Comparison with experimental results [C. V\\'ezy, G. Massiera, and A. Viallat, Soft Matter 3, 844 (2007)] is made, and it is shown how such studies ...

  18. A study of the prevalence of diabetes, insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickson R Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between psoriasis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease remains largely unelucidated in the Indian population. Aims: To study the prevalence of diabetes, insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and ninety two age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study over a period of one year. Clinical and biometric data were noted and fasting venous blood samples were collected. Nondiabetic patients were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g glucose and postprandial venous blood samples collected at 120 mins. The fasting glucose, insulin, lipid levels, postprandial glucose and postprandial insulin levels were measured in samples from nondiabetic patients whereas fasting lipid levels only were measured in diabetic patients. Results: The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus in psoriatics was 5.2%, 9.1%, and 32.5%, respectively, as compared to 6.5%, 3.3%, and 15.2%, respectively, in the controls. The difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio of having an abnormal glucose metabolism in psoriasis was 2.63. Smoking had a positive association with insulin resistance in psoriatic cases. The serum cholesterol levels were elevated in 29 (37.7% cases with a mean of 186.27 ± 43.18 and 34 (37% controls with a mean of 194.38 ± 57.20. The serum HDL-cholesterol levels were reduced in 50 (64.9% cases with a mean of 53.29 ± 15.90 as compared to 71 (74.7% in controls with a mean of 48.76 ± 12.85. The serum LDL-cholesterol levels were elevated in 38 (49.4% cases with a mean of 102.56 ± 44.02 and 36 controls with a mean of 115.62 ± 54.37. The serum triglyceride levels were elevated in 25 (32.5% cases with a mean of 129.99 ± 61.32 and 38 (41.3% controls with a mean of 141.04 ± 80.10. The differences

  19. Corneal mucus plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  20. Stimulation pattern dependent contractions of myocardial preparations after lipid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, J; Oppelt, F; Storch, E; Thamm, E

    1986-01-01

    Lipid diets modify the electro-mechanical coupling. To characterize the regulation of the supply of Ca for the activation of the contraction the influence of the stimulation pattern on the development of tension was investigated after diets containing cholesterol (Ch), rape oil (RO) and cholesterol-oil (ChO). The sequence of increasing inotropic states produced was compared with a control group (C). In ChO high resting potentiation, low postextrastimulatory potentiation (PEP) and a delayed Ca supply for interpolated extra contractions (EC) are typical features. The positive inotropic effect of rising extracellular Ca grows parallel to the sequence of the inotropic states. The maximum rate of contraction and relaxation correlates linearly with the tension development. Some of the results are similar in RO. In both groups a more pronounced involvement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the Ca regulation should be responsible for the effects. Especially in C the Ca loading effect of paired stimulation shortens the latent period and increases the rate of contraction and relaxation. In Ch the highest values of PEP are reached. These results reflect the involvement of a high sarcolemmal fraction of Ca in the activation.

  1. Counterion-mediated pattern formation in membranes containing anionic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slochower, David R; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Most lipid components of cell membranes are either neutral, like cholesterol, or zwitterionic, like phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Very few lipids, such as sphingosine, are cationic at physiological pH. These generally interact only transiently with the lipid bilayer, and their synthetic analogs are often designed to destabilize the membrane for drug or DNA delivery. However, anionic lipids are common in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes. The net charge per anionic phospholipid ranges from -1 for the most abundant anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine, to near -7 for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, although the effective charge depends on many environmental factors. Anionic phospholipids and other negatively charged lipids such as lipopolysaccharides are not randomly distributed in the lipid bilayer, but are highly restricted to specific leaflets of the bilayer and to regions near transmembrane proteins or other organized structures within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights some recent evidence that counterions, in the form of monovalent or divalent metal ions, polyamines, or cationic protein domains, have a large influence on the lateral distribution of anionic lipids within the membrane, and that lateral demixing of anionic lipids has effects on membrane curvature and protein function that are important for biological control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Bisphenol A Exposure May Induce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation via Reprogramming the DNA Methylation Patterns of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns.

  3. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Reinés

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria may modify their surface to evade the host innate immune response. Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature. At 21°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule. In this work, by combining genetic and mass spectrometric analysis, we establish that Y. enterocolitica encodes a lipid A deacylase, LpxR, responsible for the lipid A structure observed at 37°C. Western blot analyses indicate that LpxR exhibits latency at 21°C, deacylation of lipid A is not observed despite the expression of LpxR in the membrane. Aminoarabinose-modified lipid A is involved in the latency. 3-D modelling, docking and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that LpxR D31 reduces the active site cavity volume so that aminoarabinose containing Kdo(2-lipid A cannot be accommodated and, therefore, not deacylated. Our data revealed that the expression of lpxR is negatively controlled by RovA and PhoPQ which are necessary for the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Next, we investigated the role of lipid A structural plasticity conferred by LpxR on the expression/function of Y. enterocolitica virulence factors. We present evidence that motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells were reduced in the lpxR mutant grown at 21°C. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the expressions of flhDC and rovA, regulators controlling the flagellar regulon and invasin respectively, were down-regulated in the mutant. In contrast, the levels of the virulence plasmid (pYV-encoded virulence factors Yops and YadA were not affected in the lpxR mutant. Finally, we establish that the low inflammatory response associated to Y. enterocolitica infections is the sum of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by pYV-encoded YopP and the

  4. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2, leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and different levels of cytokines were induced. Compared with wild type hexa-acylated LPS, penta-acylated, tetra-acylated and tri-acylated LPS induced lower levels of cytokines. These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. The results would be useful for redesigning the bacterial membrane structure and for developing lipid A vaccine adjuvant.

  5. Lipid biomarker patterns of phosphogenic sediments from upwelling regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arning, Esther T.; Birgel, Daniel; Schultz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2008-01-01

    a high density of sulfide oxidizers in the sediments was observed. The distribution of lipid biomarkers attributed to sulfate reducers (10MeC16:0 fatty acid, ai-C15:0 fatty acid, and mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers) compared to the distribution of sulfide oxidizers indicate a close association between...... these bacteria. As a consequence, the distributions of sulfate reducers in sediments of Namibia, Peru, and Chile are closely related to differences in the motility of the various sulfide oxidizers at the three study sites. Depth profiles of mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers have been found to correlate best...

  6. Fasting consequences during Ramadan on lipid profile and dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Pirsaheb

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the effects on lifestyle and lipid profile while fasting during holy month of Ramadan. Material and Methods: An interventional cohort study designed with 160 subjects who were fasting during Ramadan recruited from different mosques in Kermanshah. Data were collected in three stages at the beginning and at the end of Ramadan as well as one month following Ramadan using demographic and FFQ questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured and a 5 ml blood sample was collected in order to measure BUN, Creatinine, and lipid profile analysis. Results: Significant increases was observed in total cholesterol (P=0.02, LDL-C (P=0.001, HDL-C (P=0.001, and BUN (P=0.002 following Ramadan compared with earlier measurements. Triglyceride (TG level decreased following Ramadan (P=0.04 but returned to the same level one month later. Systolic blood pressure increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased during fasting period. There was a significant decrease in cereals, dairy products, and meat consumption while consumption of fruits and vegetables have been increased during Ramadan (P=0.003. Conclusion: Our results revealed increased levels of T-Chol and LDL-C in fasting as well as HDL-C. Increased HDL-C may prevent the side effects of T-Chol and LDL-C in healthy subjects. Given the metabolic changes that occurred during Ramadan, healthy eating and intake of low fat and low sugar diet during Ramadan are highly recommended.

  7. Fasting Consequences during Ramadan on Lipid Profile and Dietary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Pirsaheb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the effects on lifestyle and lipid profile while fasting during holy month of Ramadan. Material and Methods: An interventional cohort study designed with 160 subjects who were fasting during Ramadan recruited from different mosques in Kermanshah. Data were collected in three stages at the beginning and at the end of Ramadan as well as one month following Ramadan using demographic and FFQ questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured and a 5 ml blood sample was collected in order to measure BUN, Creatinine, and lipid profile analysis. Results: Significant increases was observed in total cholesterol (P=0.02, LDL-C (P=0.001, HDL-C (P=0.001, and BUN (P=0.002 following Ramadan compared with earlier measurements. Triglyceride (TG level decreased following Ramadan (P=0.04 but returned to the same level one month later. Systolic blood pressure increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased during fasting period. There was a significant decrease in cereals, dairy products, and meat consumption while consumption of fruits and vegetables have been increased during Ramadan (P=0.003. Conclusion: Our results revealed increased levels of T-Chol and LDL-C in fasting as well as HDL-C. Increased HDL-C may prevent the side effects of T-Chol and LDL-C in healthy subjects. Given the metabolic changes that occurred during Ramadan, healthy eating and intake of low fat and low sugar diet during Ramadan are highly recommended.

  8. Langmuir films of chiral lipid molecules and Pattern Formation .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Prem; Mann, Elizabeth; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2009-03-01

    Langmuir films of 1,2-bis(10,12 Tricosadiynoyl)-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine form spiral and target patterns when compressed between two movable barriers in a Langmuir trough above 30^0C, up to the chain-melting transition at ˜37^0C. The critical pressure, at which spirals appear, increases with temperature. The patterns themselves also depend on temperature, with single-armed spirals with many defects forming near 30^0C and defect-free target patterns at higher temperatures. The mechanism of spiral formation could be a competition among elasticity, chirality, and the boundary conditions at the core of the domains. Optical anisotropy and the growth rate of internal structures test this suggested mechanism. .

  9. Advanced shotgun lipidomics for characterization of altered lipid patterns in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) is a powerful technology platform among current lipidomics practices due to its high efficiency, sensitivity, and reproducibility, as well as its broad coverage. This platform has been broadly used to determine the altered lipid profiles induced by diseases, injury, genetic manipulations, drug treatments, and aging, among others. Herein, we summarized the principles underlying this platform and presented a protocol for analysis of many of the lipid classes and subclasses covered by MDMS-SL directly from lipid extracts of brain samples. We believe that this protocol could aid the researchers in the field to determine the altered lipid patterns in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury. PMID:26235081

  10. Intravenous lipid emulsion in wide complex arrhythmia with alternating bundle branch block pattern from cocaine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ria; Almasri, Hamzeh; Moza, Ankush; Ghose, Abhimanyu; Assaly, Ragheb

    2013-01-01

    We describe the management of a young patient who had experienced a cocaine overdose. The patient presented with altered mental status and seizures and subsequently developed a wide complex arrhythmia with a rare alternating bundle branch block pattern. Intravenous lipid emulsion was administered following initial resuscitation and endotracheal intubation, because conservative methods of treating the persistent cardiac arrhythmias failed.

  11. Vulnerable Plaques, Inflammation and Newer Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, inflammation is considered to be the central player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It leads to the formation of multiple plaques in the arterial beds including coronary vasculature. Recent studies using the latest imaging techniques have shown that in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS multiple plaques are ruptured and have thrombus formation on them. Various factors make these plaques unstable, these include structural components of plaque like thin fibrous cap, high lipid content of the plaque core and inflammation, both localized and generalized. It has been shown that most of the ACS are caused by plaques causing non-critical stenosis as seen on traditional X-ray angiography. Also, the phenomenon of remodelling makes angiography a poor technique for plaque visualization. Hence newer modalities are required to identify these 'vulnerable plaques'. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS, thermography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are a few such promising techniques. Here we review the invasive and non-invasive modalities that can be helpful in the identification of these plaques before they become unstable and cause ACS, and also the available therapies to stabilize these plaques.

  12. Automated classification of atherosclerotic plaque from magnetic resonance images using predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Russell W; Stomberg, Christopher; Hahm, Charles W; Mani, Venkatesh; Samber, Daniel D; Itskovich, Vitalii V; Valera-Guallar, Laura; Fallon, John T; Nedanov, Pavel B; Huizenga, Joel; Fayad, Zahi A

    2007-01-01

    The information contained within multicontrast magnetic resonance images (MRI) promises to improve tissue classification accuracy, once appropriately analyzed. Predictive models capture relationships empirically, from known outcomes thereby combining pattern classification with experience. In this study, we examine the applicability of predictive modeling for atherosclerotic plaque component classification of multicontrast ex vivo MR images using stained, histopathological sections as ground truth. Ten multicontrast images from seven human coronary artery specimens were obtained on a 9.4 T imaging system using multicontrast-weighted fast spin-echo (T1-, proton density-, and T2-weighted) imaging with 39-mum isotropic voxel size. Following initial data transformations, predictive modeling focused on automating the identification of specimen's plaque, lipid, and media. The outputs of these three models were used to calculate statistics such as total plaque burden and the ratio of hard plaque (fibrous tissue) to lipid. Both logistic regression and an artificial neural network model (Relevant Input Processor Network-RIPNet) were used for predictive modeling. When compared against segmentation resulting from cluster analysis, the RIPNet models performed between 25 and 30% better in absolute terms. This translates to a 50% higher true positive rate over given levels of false positives. This work indicates that it is feasible to build an automated system of plaque detection using MRI and data mining.

  13. Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

    2014-12-15

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  14. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar A. Bojic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  15. Patterning silver nanocubes in monolayers using phase separated lipids as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Nur; Prezgot, Daniel; Ianoul, Anatoli, E-mail: anatoli_ianoul@carleton.ca [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Strategies for assembling silver nanocubes (NCs) into distinct 2D patterns on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are demonstrated using two different lipid mixtures as vehicles: (1) raft mixtures containing 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol in different mole ratios (2:2:1 and 1:1:1) and (2) 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) at a 1:3 mol ratio. Atomic force microscopy was employed to unveil the mechanisms of such pattern formation in the LB film. The results demonstrate that aggregation of NCs into round-like pattern is governed by preferential localization of NCs within the liquid condensed (LC) domains of DOPC/SPM/Cholesterol mixture. Cholesterol was found to govern the size and shape of the rounded islands. On the other hand, incorporation of NCs within the liquid expanded (LE) phase of DPPC/DLPC mixture produced linear-branched chains, oriented normal to the Langmuir film transfer direction. The as engineered patterns of silver NCs exhibited characteristic plasmonic signatures. Our results reveal the potential in assembling plasmonic metal nanoparticles into diverse patterns on solid substrates by exploiting their preferential localization either in LC or LE phase of appropriate lipid mixture in Langmuir film.

  16. Influence of high-dose lipid lowering treatment compared to low-dose lipid lowering treatment on plaque composition assessed by intravascular ultrasound virtual histology in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, Rasmus; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2013-01-01

    -naive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomised to 5 mg or 40 mg rosuvastatin. The volume of each plaque component (necrotic core, fibrous tissue, fibro-fatty, and dense calcium) was assessed at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Baseline low-density lipoprotein...

  17. Plasma lipid pattern and red cell membrane structure in β-thalassemia patients in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seruni K.U. Freisleben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last 10 years, we have investigated thalassemia patients in Jakarta to obtain a comprehensive picture of iron overload, oxidative stress, and cell damage.Methods: In blood samples from 15 transfusion-dependent patients (group T, 5 non-transfused patients (group N and 10 controls (group C, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, lipid-soluble vitamin E, malondialdehyde (MDA and thiol status were measured. Isolated eryhtrocyte membranes were investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy using doxyl-stearic acid and maleimido-proxyl spin lables. Data were analyzed statistically with ANOVA.Results: Plasma triglycerides were higher and cholesterol levels were lower in thalassemic patients compared to controls. Vitamin E, group C: 21.8 vs T: 6.2 μmol/L and reactive thiols (C: 144 vs. T: 61 μmol/L were considerably lower in transfused patients, who exert clear signs of oxidative stress (MDA, C: 1.96 vs T: 9.2 μmol/L and of tissue cell damage, i.e., high transaminases plasma levels. Non-transfused thalassemia patients have slight signs of oxidative stress, but no significant indication of cell damage. Erythrocyte membrane parameters from EPR spectroscopy differ considerably between all groups. In transfusion-dependent patients the structure of the erythrocyte membrane and the gradients of polarity and fluidity are destroyed in lipid domains; binding capacity of protein thiols in the membrane is lower and immobilized.Conclusion: In tranfusion-dependent thalassemic patients, plasma lipid pattern and oxidative stress are associated with structural damage of isolated erythrocyte membranes as measured by EPR spectroscopy with lipid and proteinthiol spin labels. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:178-84Keywords: electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, erythrocyte membrane, lipoproteins, oxidative stress, thalassemia, plasma lipids.

  18. Food patterns associated with blood lipids are predictive of coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Brunner, Eric J

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the epidemiological effects of overall dietary patterns offers an alternative approach to the investigation of the role of diet in CHD. We analysed the role of blood lipid-related dietary patterns using a two-step method to confirm the prospective association of dietary pattern with incident CHD. Analysis is based on 7314 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to derive dietary pattern scores using baseline serum total and HDL-cholesterol, and TAG levels as dependent variables. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and incident CHD (n 243) over 15 years of follow-up. Increased CHD risk (hazard ratio (HR) for top quartile: 2.01 (95% CI 1.41, 2.85) adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and energy misreporting) was observed with a diet characterised by high consumption of white bread, fried potatoes, sugar in tea and coffee, burgers and sausages, soft drinks, and low consumption of French dressing and vegetables. The diet-CHD relationship was attenuated after adjustment for employment grade and health behaviours (HR for top quartile: 1.81; 95% CI 1.26, 2.62), and further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (HR for top quartile: 1.57; 95% CI 1.08, 2.27). Dietary patterns are associated with serum lipids and predict CHD risk after adjustment for confounders. RRR identifies dietary patterns using prior knowledge and focuses on the pathways through which diet may influence disease. The present study adds to the evidence that diet is an important risk factor for CHD.

  19. [Is regression of atherosclerotic plaque possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, José A; Civeira, Fernando

    As it is well-known, a thrombus evolving into a disrupted/eroded atherosclerotic plaque causes most acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization via reduction of the lipid core and/or thickening of the fibrous cap is one of the possible mechanisms accounted for the clinical benefits displayed by different anti-atherosclerotic strategies. The concept of plaque stabilization was developed to explain how lipid-lowering agents could decrease adverse coronary events without substantial modifications of the atherosclerotic lesion ('angiographic paradox'). A number of imaging modalities (vascular ultrasound and virtual histology, MRI, optical coherence tomography, positron tomography, etc.) are used for non-invasive assessment of atherosclerosis; most of them can identify plaque volume and composition beyond lumen stenosis. An 'aggressive' lipid-lowering strategy is able to reduce the plaque burden and the incidence of cardiovascular events; this may be attributable, at least in part, to plaque-stabilizing effects. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The spatiotemporal pattern of Src activation at lipid rafts revealed by diffusion-corrected FRET imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Lu

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET have been widely applied to visualize the molecular activity in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, the rapid diffusion of biosensor proteins hinders a precise reconstruction of the actual molecular activation map. Based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments, we have developed a finite element (FE method to analyze, simulate, and subtract the diffusion effect of mobile biosensors. This method has been applied to analyze the mobility of Src FRET biosensors engineered to reside at different subcompartments in live cells. The results indicate that the Src biosensor located in the cytoplasm moves 4-8 folds faster (0.93+/-0.06 microm(2/sec than those anchored on different compartments in plasma membrane (at lipid raft: 0.11+/-0.01 microm(2/sec and outside: 0.18+/-0.02 microm(2/sec. The mobility of biosensor at lipid rafts is slower than that outside of lipid rafts and is dominated by two-dimensional diffusion. When this diffusion effect was subtracted from the FRET ratio images, high Src activity at lipid rafts was observed at clustered regions proximal to the cell periphery, which remained relatively stationary upon epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulation. This result suggests that EGF induced a Src activation at lipid rafts with well-coordinated spatiotemporal patterns. Our FE-based method also provides an integrated platform of image analysis for studying molecular mobility and reconstructing the spatiotemporal activation maps of signaling molecules in live cells.

  1. LC-ESI-MS/MS identification of polar lipids of two thermophilic Anoxybacillus bacteria containing a unique lipid pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomáš; Kambourova, Margarita; Derekova, Anna; Kolouchová, Irena; Sigler, Karel

    2012-07-01

    Phospholipids and glycolipids from two recently described species belonging to the thermophilic genus Anoxybacillus were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of total lipids from the facultatively anaerobic A. bogrovensis on a HILIC (Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography) column succeeded in separating diacyl- and plasmalogen phospholipids. The LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of the strict aerobe A. rupiensis revealed the presence of different unique polar lipids, predominantly alanyl-, lysyl-, and glucosyl-phosphatidylglycerols and cardiolipins. Each of the classes of polar lipids was then analyzed by means of the ESI-MS/MS and more than 140 molecular species of six lipid classes from A. bogrovensis and nearly 200 molecular species of nine classes of polar lipids from A. rupiensis were identified. Five classes of unidentified polar lipids were detected in both strains. Plasmalogens were thus determined for the first time in a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, i.e. A. bogrovensis.

  2. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  3. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  4. 血脂检测结果比值在颈动脉粥样斑块中的预测价值%Value of serum lipids ratio detection in carotid artery plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石群; 沈卫星; 苏春燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of serum lipids ratio detection in carotid artery plaque.Methods 2 420 healthy subjects were collected.The main history of subjects was collected and subjects had stroke risk were screened out.Carotid artery plaque were detected by carotid ultrasound,and according to the test re-sults,subjects were divided into the carotid plaque group and the control group .Detection of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)and other biochemical markers were undertaken and analyzed.Results The hypertension ratio,TC,LDL-C,HDL-C,TC/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C in the carotid artery plaque group were significantly different from those of the control group,and the rest test results had no statistic difference.TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were the independent risk factors for populations generated carotid plaque.LDL-C,TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in stroke high-risk popula-tion were significantly higher than those of the control group .Stepwise logistic regression analysis for factors affect-ing the carotid artery plaque showed that TC/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C entered into regression equation in atheroscle-rosis stroke risk population,with OR = 3.754 and 4.325,respectively.Conclusion In the general and high-risk stroke population,TC/HDL-C,and LDL-C/HDL-C are more valuable than the individual detection of clinical lipid in-dicators to predict carotid artery plaque.%目的:探讨血脂检测结果比值在颈动脉粥样斑块中的预测价值。方法选择健康体检的人群共2420例,收集纳入对象的主要病史资料,筛选脑卒中高危人群。颈动脉超声探查颈动脉粥样斑块,并根据检查结果分组(颈动脉粥样斑块组和对照组)。检测总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)等生化指标并分析。结果颈动脉粥样斑块组人群高血

  5. Fatty acid pattern of lipids in normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, D; Reichmann, G; Egger, E; Olthoff, D; Döhler, K

    1975-11-21

    The fatty acid distribution of the main lipid fractions: triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylcholine (PCh), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (Sph) of muscle from 6 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (p.m.d.), Duchenne, 8 to 12 years old was estimated and compared with normal controls of different age. In view of the results of several authors about varied fatty acid distribution in immature muscle a third group comprising samples of neonatal muscle was studied. 1. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions TG, Sph, and PE from muscle of patients with p.m.d. shows no important variation in comparison to normal controls. In contrast to this the fatty acid distribution in PCh is extremely varied: the percentage of 18:2 is decreased and corrrespondingly the content of 18:1 is increased. In view of the high percentage (nearly 10%) in which linoleic acid is substituted by oleic acid in PCh, effects on the plasma membrane are to be expected. 2. The fatty acid pattern in neonatal muscle shows in narly all positions of the fractions TG, Sph, PE, and PCh a different distribution from normal or dystrophic muscle. In view of the most important variation in dystrophic muscle it must be stated that generally 18:2 is decreased. This deficit was replaced by an increase of all other fatty acids (not only at a substitution by 18:1 as given in p.m.d.). Therefore the diminished content of linoleic acid in PCh of neonatal and dystrophic muscle cannot be interpreted as expression of a corresponding or similar lipid metabolism in both tissues. The results were seen as signs of significant qualitative alterations especially of PCh in p.m.d. They were discussed as proof of our thesis that the basic defect in p.m.d. concerns the specific acylation of PCh with linoleic acid.

  6. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and docu

  7. Patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids in ants - implications for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosumek, Félix B; Brückner, Adrian; Blüthgen, Nico; Menzel, Florian; Heethoff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental aspect of ecosystem functioning, but often difficult to observe directly. Several indirect techniques, such as fatty acid analysis, were developed to assess these interactions. Fatty acid profiles may indicate dietary differences, while individual fatty acids can be used as biomarkers. Ants are among the most important terrestrial animal groups, but little is known about their lipid metabolism, and no study so far used fatty acids to study their trophic ecology. We set up a feeding experiment with high- and low-fat food to elucidate patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFAs) assimilation in ants. We asked whether dietary fatty acids are assimilated through direct trophic transfer, how diet influences NLFA total amounts and patterns over time, and whether these assimilation processes are similar across species and life stages. Ants fed with high-fat food quickly accumulated specific dietary fatty acids (C18:2n6, C18:3n3 and C18:3n6), compared to ants fed with low-fat food. Dietary fat content did not affect total body fat of workers or amounts of fatty acids extensively biosynthesized by animals (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9). Larval development had a strong effect on the composition and amounts of C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9. NLFA compositions reflected dietary differences, which became more pronounced over time. Assimilation of specific dietary NLFAs was similar regardless of species or life stage, but these factors affected dynamics of other NLFAs, composition and total fat. We showed that ants accumulated certain dietary fatty acids via direct trophic transfer. Fat content of the diet had no effect on lipids stored by ants, which were able to synthesize high amounts of NLFAs from a sugar-based diet. Nevertheless, dietary NLFAs had a strong effect on metabolic dynamics and profiles. Fatty acids are a useful tool to study trophic biology of ants, and could be applied in an ecological context, although factors that

  8. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  9. Curcuma oil attenuates accelerated atherosclerosis and macrophage foam-cell formation by modulating genes involved in plaque stability, lipid homeostasis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Rana, Minakshi; Jain, Manish; Singh, Niharika; Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.

  10. 血脂指标比值对颈动脉粥样斑块预测价值的比较%Comparison of the Value of Serum Lipids Index Ratio in the Prediction of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋川; 郑延松; 王丽凤; 陈志来; 郭民法

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨总胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TC/HDL-C)比值和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C/HDL-C)比值对颈动脉粥样斑块的预测价值.方法 选取2010年5月-2011年10月在我院健康医学中心进行健康体检并接受颈部血管超声检查和血脂检测的4 282例体检者作为研究对象,对颈动脉粥样斑块与相关因素[年龄、性别、教育程度、吸烟、饮酒、腰围、体质指数、血压和血糖、血红蛋白、血尿酸、TC、三酰甘油(TG)、LDL-C、HDL-C、超敏C反应蛋白水平及糖尿病、高血压、冠心病、脑卒中家族史]进行分析.结果 4 282例体检者中1 438例(33.6%)存在颈动脉粥样斑块,2 844例(66.4%)未发现明显的颈动脉粥样斑块.年龄、性别、吸烟、血糖、收缩压、LDL-C、HDL-C、超敏C反应蛋白均为颈动脉粥样斑块的危险因素.若用LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C分别替代LDL-C、HDL-C或者TC和HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C比值仍为颈动脉粥样斑块的危险因素.与TC/HDL-C比值(β=0.1760)相比,LDL-C/HDL-C比值的偏回归系数(β=0.3292)更高.结论 当用于预测颈动脉粥样斑块时,LDL-C/HDL-C比值比TC/HDL-C比值更具临床使用价值.%Objective To explore the value of the ratio of TC to HDL - C and the ratio of LDL - C to HDL - C ( LDL - C/HDL - C ) in the prediction of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Methods 4 282 subjects registered for health examination and underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound scan and serum lipids test in the department of health science center in our hospital from May 2010 to October 2011 were involved into the study. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques and related factors ( age, gender, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, hemoglobin, blood uric acid, TC, TG, LDL - C, HDL - C, hs - CRP, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and family history of stroke ) were analyzed. Results

  11. Modification of structure and pattern of lipid monolayer on water and solid surfaces in presence of globular protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Bijay Kumar; Kundu, Sarathi

    2017-05-01

    Langmuir monolayers of phospholipids at the air-water interface are well-established model systems for mimicking biological membranes and hence are useful for studying lipid-protein interactions. In the present work, phases and phase transformations occurring in the lipid (DMPA) monolayer in the presence of globular protein (BSA) at neutral subphase pH (≈7.0) are highlighted and the corresponding in-plane pattern and morphology are explored from the surface pressure (π) - specific molecular area (A) isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) both at air-water and air-solid interfaces. Films of pure lipid and lipid-protein complexes are deposited on solid surfaces by Langmuir-Blodgett method. Due to the presence of BSA molecules, phases and domain pattern changes in comparison with that of the pure DMPA. Moreover, accumulations of globular proteins in between lipid domains are also visible through BAM. AFM shows that the mixed film has relatively bigger globular-like morphology in comparison with that of pure DMPA domains. Combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between protein and lipid are responsible for such modifications.

  12. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    Aterosklerose er den hyppigste årsag til død og svær invaliditet i verden. Sygdommen danner aterosklerotiske plaques, som består af lipidkerner dækket af en fibrøs kappe. Såfremt kappen brister, dannes overliggende tromber, som kan føres med blodstrømmen og forårsage strokes hvis kappen brister i...... mekaniske kræfter, som påvirker den fibrøse kappe, for at være en medvirkende årsag til plaqueruptur. Endvidere er stress-niveauerne i den fibrøse kappe en risikomarkør, som påvirkes af såvel den fibrøse kappetykkelse som lipid kerne størrelsen, blodtryk og graden af forsnævring. Imidlertid har hidtidige...... for at få fjernet deres plaques (carotis endarterektomi). Dernæst blev skanningerne segmenteret i lipid-kerne, fibrøs kappe, blodbane, karvæg og calcificationer. Endvidere blev blodets hastighed, blodtryk og karvægs deformationer målt. Disse data blev benyttet til longitudinelle fluid-struktur interaktions...

  13. How membranes organize during seed germination: three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling define chilling resistance and affect plastid biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiamei; Li, Aihua; Li, Weiqi

    2016-01-01

    Imbibitional chilling injury during germination causes agricultural losses but this can be overcome by osmopriming. It remains unknown how membranes reorganize during germination. Herein, we comparatively profiled changes of membrane lipids during imbibition under normal and chilling temperatures in chilling-tolerant and -sensitive soybean seeds. We found three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling during the three phases of germination. Pattern 1 involved a gradual increase in plastidic lipids during phases I and II, with an abrupt increase during phase III. This abrupt increase was associated with initiation of photosynthesis. Pattern 3 involved phosphatidic acid (PA) first decreasing, then increasing, and finally decreasing to a low level. Pattern 1 and 3 were interrupted in chilling-sensitive seeds under low temperature, which lead a block in plastid biogenesis and accumulation of harmful PA respectively. However, they were rescued and returned to their status under a normal temperature after polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmopriming. We specifically inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated PA formation in chilling-sensitive seeds of soybean, cucumber, and pea and found their germination under low temperature was significantly improved. These results indicate that membranes undergo specific and functional reorganization of lipid composition during germination and demonstrate that PLD-mediated PA causes imibibitional chilling injury. PMID:25474382

  14. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  15. Dental plaque identification at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where plaque builds up. ...

  16. The association of serum lipids with the histological pattern of rectosigmoid adenoma in Taiwanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Feng-Hwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate of colorectal cancer ranks third behind lung and hepatic cancer in Taiwan. Colorectal cancer mostly arises from adenomatous polyps of left colon. The aim of our study was to examine the association of serum lipids with the histological pattern of rectosigmoid adenoma. Methods There were 2,506 eligible examinees aged 20 and above who underwent sigmoidoscopy as a screening examination in National Cheng Kung University Hospital between January 2003 and October 2006. They were classified into three groups: tubular adenoma (333 subjects, villous-rich (tubulovillous/villous adenoma (53 subjects and normal (2,120 subjects. We defined high total cholesterol (TC as a level ≧200 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C as a level Results Among the study population, 333 subjects (13.3% had tubular adenomas and 53 subjects (2.1% had villous-rich adenomas. The odds ratio (OR for villous-rich adenoma in subjects with TG≧200 mg/dL compared to those with TG Conclusions Our study showed that subjects with high serum TG tended to have a higher risk of tubulovillous/villous adenoma in rectosigmoid colon. Therefore, reducing the serum TG level might be one method to prevent the incidence of colorectal cancer.

  17. Pattern formation in fatty acid-nanoparticle and lipid-nanoparticle mixed monolayers at water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, M.; Datta, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Janaki, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are self-organized in two different amphiphilic monolayers one of which is a single-tailed fatty acid Stearic acid (StA) and the other a double-tailed lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). In the StA-AuNP film the AuNPs self-organize to form an interconnected network of nanoclusters on compression while in the DMPC-AuNP film the AuNPs aggregate to form random, isolated clusters in the film. The long time evolution of the films at constant surface pressure reveals ring structures in the former and diffusion limited aggregates in the latter that with time evolve into an irregular porous maze of AuNPs in the DMPC film. The difference in structure of the AuNP patterns in the two films can be attributed to a difference in the lipophilic interactions between the NPs and the amphiphilic molecules. The mean square intensity fluctuations f(ln) calculated along a typical line for the 2D structures in both the films at initial and final stages of long time evolution reflect the structural changes in the films over time.

  18. Differential Amino Acid, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Perpetuations Involved in a Subtype of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Chinese Medicine Cold Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is a key approach in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, and it is used to classify the patients for intervention selection accordingly. TCM cold and heat patterns, two main patterns of rheumatoid arthritis (RA had been explored with systems biology approaches. Different regulations of apoptosis were found to be involved in cold and heat classification in our previous works. For this study, the metabolic profiling of plasma was explored in RA patients with typical TCM cold or heat patterns by integrating liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS platforms in conjunction with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software. Three main processes of metabolism, including amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid were focused on for function analysis. The results showed that 29 and 19 differential metabolites were found in cold and heat patterns respectively, compared with healthy controls. The perturbation of amino acid metabolism (increased essential amino acids, carbohydrate metabolism (galactose metabolism and lipid metabolism, were found to be involved in both cold and heat pattern RA. In particular, more metabolic perturbations in protein and collagen breakdown, decreased glycolytic activity and aerobic oxidation, and increased energy utilization associated with RA cold pattern patients. These findings may be useful for obtaining a better understanding of RA pathogenesis and for achieving a better efficacy in RA clinical practice.

  19. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND LIPID PROFILE PATTERN IN PATIENTS OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawgam Umbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke. OBJECTIVE To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients. METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016 included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58% patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic, high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic, high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic. Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No

  20. Copepod omnivory in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay) during autumn: spatial patterns in lipid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Deibel, Don; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2004-11-01

    To deduce spatial patterns in copepod lipid composition and feeding strategy (i.e., degree of omnivory) in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay), three dominant species were sampled extensively over a broad geographical area (∼75-78°N; 77-69°W). Calanus hyperboreus CV, C. glacialis CV and Metridia longa females were collected in shallow and deep strata at 16 stations during autumn 1999 (August-October). Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that all species fed omnivorously in the southeastern (SE) region of the polynya. Here, copepods generally had elevated levels of carnivorous (e.g., 18 : 1 (n - 9)), dinoflagellate (e.g., 18 : 4 (n - 3) ; 22 : 6 (n - 3)) and bacterial fatty acid markers (e.g., odd-numbered and/or branched; 18:1(n - 7)). Copepods in the SE contained low proportions of diatom (e.g., 16 : 4 (n - 1) ; 20 : 5 (n - 3)) and phytoplankton (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids) markers, relative to animals from northwest stations. Values of the omnivory index 'UC' (i.e., unsaturation coefficient) were also low in SE copepods, which implied reduced phytoplankton ingestion. Spatial patterns in seston fatty acid composition resembled the dietary signatures in that dinoflagellate and bacterial indices were highest in SE waters. Estimates of primary production, particulate organic carbon, carbon to chlorophyll ratios, and abundances of diatoms, dinoflagellates and bacteria, provided further evidence of the importance of the microbial loop at SE stations. Comparable spatial patterns in feeding strategy were observed in both sampling layers, indicating that copepods from the entire water column were feeding on a similar food source. Several interesting species-specific trends also emerged from the PCA. In general, C. hyperboreus fed the most herbivorously, followed by C. glacialis and M. longa. C. glacialis showed a stronger connection to the microbial food web than the other two species, and M. longa fed herbivorously throughout much of the polynya

  1. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P<0.05 for all). However, having a diet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

  2. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  3. Stress analysis of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques: crack propagation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani-Sharif, Alireza; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam

    2016-12-09

    Traditionally, the degree of luminal obstruction has been used to assess the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. However, recent studies have revealed that other factors such as plaque morphology, material properties of lesion components and blood pressure may contribute to the fracture of atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques based on the mechanical stress distribution and fatigue analysis by means of numerical simulation. Realistic models of type V plaques were reconstructed based on histological images. Finite element method was used to determine mechanical stress distribution within the plaque. Assuming that crack propagation initiated at the sites of stress concentration, crack propagation due to pulsatile blood pressure was modeled. Results showed that crack propagation considerably changed the stress field within the plaque and in some cases led to initiation of secondary cracks. The lipid pool stiffness affected the location of crack formation and the rate and direction of crack propagation. Moreover, increasing the mean or pulse pressure decreased the number of cycles to rupture. It is suggested that crack propagation analysis can lead to a better recognition of factors involved in plaque rupture and more accurate determination of vulnerable plaques.

  4. Discrimination of Basic Taste Solutions and Soft Drinks on Electrical and Optical Response Patterns of Artificial Lipid Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Arisawa, Junji

    In this paper, electrical and optical characteristics of artificial lipid membrane for basic taste solutions and tea drinks were examined. The possibility of taste sensing on the electrical and optical response patterns of a single membrane was also discussed. As a result, in case of sour and sweet solutions with different concentration, the patterns of taste response were similar in shape. In case of the tea drinks on some commercial goods, the different shapes among the sample solutions were obtained. Furthermore, the strength of sour taste was reflected in the electrical axis of response pattern and the strength of sweet taste was reflected in the optical axis of response pattern. Therefore, it was found that the possibility of taste sensing using electrical and optical response patterns was obtained from a single membrane.

  5. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque detection using a multiwavelength handheld photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Susumu; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Patients affected by diseases caused by arteriosclerosis are increasing. Atherosclerosis, which is becoming an especially difficult health problem, forms plaques from lipids such as cholesterol located in walls of the aorta, cerebral artery, and coronary artery. Because lipid-rich plaques are vulnerable and because arterial rupture causes acute vascular occlusion, early detection is crucially important to prevent plaque growth and rupture. Ultrasound systems can detect plaques but cannot discriminate between vulnerable and equable plaques. To evaluate plaques non-invasively and easily, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging device. Its usefulness was verified in phantom experiments with a bovine aorta in which mimic plaque had been embedded. Photoacoustic images taken at wavelengths that produce high light absorbance by lipids show strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary of the mimic plaque. Results confirmed that our system can evaluate plaque properties by analysis with the photoacoustic spectrum. The effects of surrounding tissues and tissue components on plaque evaluation were investigated using a layered phantom. The mimic plaque located under a 6 mm blood layer was also evaluated. Results of these analyses demonstrate the system's usefulness.

  6. Effect Of Gossypol, Apogossypol And Gossypolone On Fatty Acids Pattern Of Lipid Fractions In Rat Serum And Seminal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    El sharaky, A. S. [احمد صبحي الشراكي; Sewedy, S. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; El-Shahawy, I. N.

    1994-01-01

    he fatty acids pattern of the total lipid fractions of male rat serum and seminal fluids were studied under the effect of gossypol and some of its metabolites (Apogossypol and gossypolone). The applied dose of gossypol and its derivatives exhibits some metabolic effects such as significant decrease of the saturated fatty acids and a significant increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the serum, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) in sterylester fraction was significantly increased under the eff...

  7. Spectroscopy to improve identification of vulnerable plaques in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Janneke L M; Meerwaldt, Robbert; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Lefrandt, Joop D; Slart, Riemer H J A; Tio, René A; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-01-01

    Many apparent healthy persons die from cardiovascular disease, despite major advances in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are able to predict cardiovascular events in the long run, but fail to assess current disease activity or nearby cardiovascular events. There is a clear relation between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and the presence of so-called vulnerable plaques. These vulnerable plaques are characterized by active inflammation, a thin cap and a large lipid pool. Spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique which depicts the interaction between light and tissues, and thereby shows the biochemical composition of tissues. In recent years, impressive advances have been made in spectroscopy technology and intravascular spectroscopy is able to assess the composition of plaques of interest and thereby to identify and actually quantify plaque vulnerability. This review summarizes the current evidence for spectroscopy as a measure of plaque vulnerability and discusses the potential role of intravascular spectroscopic imaging techniques.

  8. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Prabhudas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. AIMS : The present study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in untreated head and neck cancer patients as well as patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC and its association with habit of tobacco consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This hospital-based case control study included 184 head and neck cancer patients, 153 patients with OPC and 52 controls. Plasma lipids including: (i Total cholesterol, (ii LDL cholesterol (LDLC, (iii HDL cholesterol (HDLC (iv VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC and (v triglycerides were analysed by spectrophotometric kits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Student′s t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. RESULTS : A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC was observed in cancer patients (P=0.008 and P=0.000 respectively as well as in patients with OPC (P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively as compared to the controls. The plasma VLDL and triglycerides levels were significantly lower in cancer patients as compared to the patients with OPC (P=0.04 and controls (P=0.059. The tobacco habituates showed lower plasma lipid levels than the non-habituates. Our data strengthen the evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and head and neck malignancies as well as OPC. CONCLUSION :The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in head neck cancer patients.

  9. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  10. The effect of nutrition pattern alteration on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth, lipid biosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhua; Cui, Yanbin; Zhou, Yang; Wan, Minxi; Wang, Weiliang; Xie, Jingli; Li, Yuanguang

    2014-07-01

    Heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition leads to the accumulation of lipids in Chlorella, which has potential to produce both healthy food and biofuels. Therefore, it is of key interest to study the metabolism shift and gene expression changes that influenced by the transition. Both total and neutral lipids contents were increased rapidly within 48 h after the switch to light environment, from 24.5% and 18.0% to 35.3% and 27.4%, respectively, along with the sharp decline of starch from 42.3% to 10.4% during 24h photoinduction phase. By analyzing the correlation between lipid content and gene expression, results revealed several genes viz. me g3137, me g6562, pepc g6833, dgat g3280 and dgat g7566, which encode corresponding enzymes in the de novo lipid biosynthesis pathway, are highly related to lipid accumulation and might be exploited as target genes for genetic modification. These results represented the feasibility of lipid production through trophic converting cultivation.

  11. Spinal epidural en-plaque meningioma with an unusual pattern of calcification in a 14-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messori, A.; Salvolini, U. [Department of Neuroradiology, Universita degli Studi di Ancona (Italy); Rychlicki, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Universita degli Studi di Ancona (Italy)

    2002-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl who presented with a severe sensory-motor-sphincter syndrome was found to be harboring an epidural tumor situated posteriorly in the spinal canal from C5 through C7 levels. The mass had computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features suggesting an unusual stratified architecture, with a conspicuous highly calcific component firmly adherent to the dura and a non-calcific mass surrounding it posteriorly and laterally. Although meningiomas have a low incidence in the first two decades of life, and in the spine they rarely have entirely extradural location at any age, a meningioma was suspected. Intraoperative biopsy confirmed the tumor to be benign, and careful total resection including the whole large dural implant was carried out; the wide dural defect was grafted with fascia lata. A meningothelial meningioma with a largely calcified psammomatous component was diagnosed. The girl made a complete recovery, and is tumor-free 9 years postoperatively. Outcome from surgery for spinal meningiomas can be good, despite the severity of the preoperative condition; however, en-plaque and highly calcific tumors still bear a poorer prognosis. Complete resection is mandatory in children, in whom they are extremely rare. Modern imaging techniques help in making a correct initial diagnosis and optimizing surgery in order to provide good results, even in more-challenging cases. (orig.)

  12. Lipid lowering treatment patterns and goal attainment in Nordic patients with hyperlipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svilaas, A.; Strandberg, T.; Eriksson, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Observational studies and surveys have shown that lipid-lowering treatment is not optimal neither with regard to number of patients treated nor with number of patients achieving recommended goals. To address this issue in the Nordic countries, we evaluated the published literature on ...... inhibitor or niacin is often needed Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  13. Lipid lowering treatment patterns and goal attainment in Nordic patients with hyperlipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svilaas, A.; Strandberg, T.; Eriksson, M.

    2008-01-01

    are inadequately treated and have not achieved recommended treatment goals of total cholesterol cardiovascular disease, previous cardiovascular...... disease, age, and gender. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable need to improve standards of preventive cardiology. Statins have to be given evidence based to achieve treatment goals according to lipid levels, and higher doses of statins or combination therapy with a statin and a cholesterol absorption...

  14. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  15. Functional Expression of Dental Plaque Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Norman Peterson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota’s transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  16. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  17. Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lu; Yu-fen Wang; Wen-jun Li; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population.Methods:A total of 116 cases of high-risk stroke treated in our hospital from March 2014 to September 2015 were included in study and divided into stable plaque group 32 cases, unstable plaque group 45 cases and mixed plaque group 39 cases according to plaque features after carotid artery ultrasonography. Differences in serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), adhesion molecule, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, lipid, cell fibronectin, and so on were compared among groups, and the correlation between serum Hcy and plaque feature-related indicators was further analyzed.Results: Serum Hcy, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, hs-CRP, TC, TG, LDL-C and c-Fn values of unstable plaque group were significantly higher than those of stable plaque group and mixed plaque group, and HDL-C value was significantly lower than that of stable plaque group and mixed plaque group (P<0.05); serum Hcy levels in high-risk stroke population were positively correlated with sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, hs-CRP, TC, TG, LDL-C and c-Fn values, and negatively correlated with HDL-C value.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia can promote the instability of carotid plaque features in high-risk stroke population, and is a high-risk factor of stroke.

  18. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  19. Comparison of carotid plaque tissue characteristics in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina pectoris: assessment by iPlaque, transcutaneous carotid ultrasonography with integrated backscatter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Mika; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Kusunose, Kenya; Fukuda, Daiju; Amano, Rie; Tamai, Rina; Torii, Yuta; Hirata, Yukina; Nishio, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Koji; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-07-25

    The association of the tissue characteristics of carotid plaques with coronary artery disease has attracted interest. The present study compared the tissue characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with those in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) using the iPlaque system, which is based on ultrasound integrated backscatter. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed in 26 patients with ACS, and 38 age- and gender-matched patients with SAP. Neither plaque area nor maximal intima-media thickness differed significantly between the two groups. However, the average integrated backscatter value within the plaque was greater in the ACS patients than in the SAP patients. iPlaque analysis revealed that the percentage blue area (lipid pool) was greater in the ACS patients than in the SAP patients (43.4 ± 11.2 vs 18.3 ± 10.3%, p < 0.0001), and that the percentage green area (fibrosis) was lower in the ACS than in the SAP patients (7.5 ± 7.5% vs 20.7 ± 11.7%, p < 0.0001). The lipid component of carotid plaques is greater in ACS patients than in SAP patients. Our iPlaque system provides a useful and feasible method for the tissue characterization of carotid plaques in the clinical setting.

  20. Cystatin C is Associated With Plaque Phenotype and Plaque Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The relationship between carotid artery plaque burden, phenotype and serum cystatin C at normal and impaired renal function is still unclear. Methods: Demographic characteristics, carotid ultrasonography and other relevant information of 1,477 patients were collected. The association of carotid artery plaque burden, plaque phenotype with serum cystatin C was evaluated by strategy analysis based on renal function. Results: Serum cystatin C (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.83-2.29, POR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.43-1.78, POR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.10-1.32, P Conclusion: In normal renal function, serum cystatin C may confer stability of plaques. In mildly impaired renal function, serum cystatin C is a risk predictor of plaques. In normal renal function circumstances, serum cystatin C may benefit to the stability of plaques. In mild impaired renal function circumstances, serum cystatin C are a risk predictors of plaques.

  1. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  2. Interaction of a patterned amphiphilic polyphenylene dendrimer with a lipid monolayer: electrostatic interactions dominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masanari; Mezger, Markus; Stangenberg, René; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H G

    2015-02-17

    Dendrimeric macromolecules with defined shape and size are promising candidates for delivering drug or DNA molecules into cells. In this work we study the influence of an amphiphilic polyphenylene dendrimer on a model cell membrane consisting of a condensed 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer. A small surface pressure decrease is observed when the dendrimer solution is injected into the aqueous phase below the monolayer. X-ray reflectivity measurements show that the surface monolayer remains intact. The molecular-scale picture is obtained with sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. With this technique, we observe that the tails of the surfactant molecules become less ordered upon interaction with the amphiphilic polyphenylene dendrimer. In contrast, the water molecules below the DPPC layer become more ordered. Our observations suggest that electrostatic interactions between the negative charge of the dendrimer and the positively charged part of the DPPC headgroup keep the dendrimer located below the headgroup. No evidence of dendrimer insertion into the membrane has been observed. Apparently before entering the cell membrane the dendrimer can stick at the hydrophilic part of the lipids.

  3. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P < 0.001). Mean gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in the presence of gingival inflammation for both groups (P = 0.001), whereas smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P < 0.001). Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  4. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  5. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  6. Influence of Atorvastatin/Probucol Combination on Blood Lipid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid and Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with. Cerebral Infarction ... analyzed the influence of atorvastatin combined ... Comparison of blood fat level of two groups before and after .... plaque focuses on lipid regulation, oxidation.

  7. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J. (Essen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1984-06-15

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. 21 refs.

  8. Consumption pattern of lipids and the factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Pasdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing appropriate edible oils and right consumption amounts play an important role in the promotion of public health and prevention of chronic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate the consumption level of various edible oils and factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 families selected from six different areas using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face to face interview using a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about consumption of different edible oils. Descriptive statistics and regression and chi-square tests were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean of edible oil consumption was 69.75±3.8 g/day per capita, more than half of which (34.7±2.2 g/day was supplied by hydrogenated fat. 31.4% of total daily energy intake was supplied by lipids from which 15.6% was supplied by hydrogenated fat, that is higher than the recommended level, maximum 10% (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and rising consumption of oils instead of fats (r=0.2, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that the daily consumption of hydrogenated fat was higher than half of the lipids consumed by families. Given the complications resulting from saturated fat consumption, decreasing the production of hydrogenated fat and increasing the nutritional knowledge of families through public media and educational programs are highly recommended.

  9. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  10. Anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary pattern of patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajifdar B

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary characteristics of 114 patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD were evaluated. There were 91 (80% men and the mean age was 56 +/- 9 years. The body mass index was near normal (24.4 +/- 3.4, but the waist: hip ratio was high (0.94 +/- 0.06 suggesting central obesity. This was well in accordance of the step II recommendations of the NCEP guidelines as regards their caloric intake and its break-up in terms of carbohydrate, protein and fat (including saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids content. Their daily cholesterol intake (31 +/- 32 mg/day, range 4-180 was very low. The total cholesterol (212 +/- 37 mg% was marginally elevated, HDL cholesterol (33 +/- 7.5 mg% was low, LDL cholesterol (148 +/- 39 mg% was high and the total: HDL ratio (6.8 +/- 2.0 was significantly abnormal. The serum triglyceride level (154 +/- 68 mg% was on the higher side of normal. These observations give further credence to the recently evolving view that there are different and hitherto unrecognised risk factors of IHD in Indians, who seem to have the highest incidence of IHD amongst all ethnic groups of the world despite consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol content.

  11. The pattern of lipids and lipoproteins during the menopausal transition in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Ruan, X; Jin, J; Jin, F; Brucker, S; Mueck, A O

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate changes in levels of lipids and lipoproteins in Chinese women during perimenopause and postmenopause as primary study endpoints, for the first time including lipoprotein(a). Methods The retrospective study was performed in 1015 women without hormone therapy aged 34-76 years from 20 provinces of China who visited the Beijing Obstetrics & Gynecology hospital. Menopausal status was defined by the criteria of the 2011 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop. Results Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased and that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased in the postmenopausal compared to the perimenopausal group. In the women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2), total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased, HDL cholesterol decreased and changes in triglyceride levels were not significant. In the women with BMI lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B were not significant. Comparing the groups with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) vs. BMI lipoprotein(a) did not change either with increasing age or during the transition despite known possible interference with estrogenic status.

  12. Contemporary invasive imaging modalities that identify and risk-stratify coronary plaques at risk of rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam J; Costopoulos, Charis; West, Nick Ej; Bennett, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is responsible for the majority of myocardial infarctions, with ruptured plaques exhibiting specific morphological features, including large lipid cores, thinner overlying fibrous caps and micro-calcifications. Contemporary imaging modalities are increasingly able to characterize plaques, potentially leading to the identification of precursor lesions that are at high risk of rupture. Observational studies using invasive imaging consistently find that plaques responsible for an acute coronary event display these high-risk morphological features, and recent prospective imaging studies have now established links between baseline plaque characteristics and future cardiovascular events. Despite these promising advances, subsequent overall event rates remain too low for clinical utility. Novel technologies are now required to refine and improve our ability to identify and risk-stratify lesions at risk of rupture, if plaque-based risk evaluation is ever to become reality.

  13. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, S.; de Weert, T. T.; de Monyé, C.; Homburg, P. J.; Tanghe, H L J; Dippel, D W J; van der Lugt, A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic a...

  14. Part I: In-situ fluorometric quantification of microalgal neutral lipids. Part II: Thermal degradation behavior of investment casting polymer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfang

    Research described in this dissertation covers two topics. Part-I is focused on in-situ determination of neutral lipid content of microalgae using a lipophilic fluorescent dye. The traditional Nile red stain-based method for detecting microalgal intracellular lipids is limited due to varying composition and thickness of rigid cell walls. In this study, the addition of dilute acid and heating of solution, were found to greatly enhance staining efficiency of Nile red for microalgal species evaluated. Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant was employed as a pseudo-standard that mimics lipid-bearing microalgal cells suspended in water. The average neutral lipid contents determined were very close to the results obtained by traditional gravimetric method and solid phase extraction. Part II of the dissertation explores thermo-physico-chemical properties of polymeric pattern materials, including expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, polyurethane foam, and epoxy stereolithography (SLA) patterns, that are used in investment casting. Density, elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, thermal degradation behavior, etc. were experimentally investigated for their effects on metal casting quality. The reduction in toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated during thermal decomposition of polyurethane pattern was achieved by increasing either oxidant level or residence time in heated zone. Thermal degradation kinetics of the pattern materials were examined with a thermogravimetric analysis and activation energies were determined by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods.

  15. Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kelvin KL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterizes the distribution and components of plaque structure by presenting a three-dimensional blood-vessel modelling with the aim of determining mechanical properties due to the effect of lipid core and calcification within a plaque. Numerical simulation has been used to answer how cap thickness and calcium distribution in lipids influence the biomechanical stress on the plaque. Method Modelling atherosclerotic plaque based on structural analysis confirms the rationale for plaque mechanical examination and the feasibility of our simulation model. Meaningful validation of predictions from modelled atherosclerotic plaque model typically requires examination of bona fide atherosclerotic lesions. To analyze a more accurate plaque rupture, fluid-structure interaction is applied to three-dimensional blood-vessel carotid bifurcation modelling. A patient-specific pressure variation is applied onto the plaque to influence its vulnerability. Results Modelling of the human atherosclerotic artery with varying degrees of lipid core elasticity, fibrous cap thickness and calcification gap, which is defined as the distance between the fibrous cap and calcification agglomerate, form the basis of our rupture analysis. Finite element analysis shows that the calcification gap should be conservatively smaller than its threshold to maintain plaque stability. The results add new mechanistic insights and methodologically sound data to investigate plaque rupture mechanics. Conclusion Structural analysis using a three-dimensional calcified model represents a more realistic simulation of late-stage atherosclerotic plaque. We also demonstrate that increases of calcium content that is coupled with a decrease in lipid core volume can stabilize plaque structurally.

  16. Quantitative assessment of changes in carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional ultrasonography and non-gated magnetic resonance plaque imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mao; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Katsura, Noriyuki; Ohura, Kazumasa; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, is reported to induce the regression of atherosclerotic changes. However, its effects on carotid plaques are unknown. Hence, we quantitatively investigated the changes that occur within carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) and non-gated magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging. We prospectively examined 16 consecutive patients with carotid stenosis. 3D-US and T1-weighted MR plaque imaging were performed at baseline and 6 months after initiating cilostazol therapy (200 mg/day). We measured the volume and grayscale median (GSM) of the plaques from 3D-US data. We also calculated the contrast ratio (CR) of the carotid plaque against the adjacent muscle and areas of the intraplaque components: fibrous tissue, lipid, and hemorrhage components. The plaque volume on US decreased significantly (median at baseline and 6 months, 0.23 and 0.21 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = 0.03). In the group exhibiting a plaque volume reduction of more than 10%, GSM on US increased significantly (24.8 and 71.5, respectively; p = 0.04) and CR on MRI decreased significantly (1.13 and 1.04, respectively; p = 0.02). In this group, in addition, the percent area of the fibrous component on MRI increased significantly (68.6% and 79.4%, respectively; p = 0.02), while those of the lipid and hemorrhagic components decreased (24.9% and 20.5%, respectively; p = 0.12) (1.0% and 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.04). There were no substantial changes in intraplaque characteristics in either US or MRI in the other group. 3D-US and MR plaque imaging can quantitatively detect changes in the size and composition of carotid plaques during cilostazol therapy. (orig.)

  17. Cholesterol favors the emergence of a long-range autocorrelated fluctuation pattern in voltage-induced ionic currents through lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Natalia A; Kembro, Jackelyn M; Clop, Pedro D; Perillo, María A

    2013-08-01

    The present paper was aimed at evaluating the effect of cholesterol (CHO) on the voltage-induced lipid pore formation in bilayer membranes through a global characterization of the temporal dynamics of the fluctuation pattern of ion currents. The bilayer model used was black lipid membranes (BLMs) of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylethanolamine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPE:POPC) at a 7:3 molar ratio in the absence (BLM0) or in the presence of 30 (BLM30), 40 (BLM40) or 50(BLM50)mol% of cholesterol with respect to total phospholipids. Electrical current intensities (I) were measured in voltage (ΔV) clamped conditions at ΔV ranging between 0 and ±200mV. The autocorrelation parameter α derived from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on temporal fluctuation patterns of electrical currents allowed discriminating between non-correlated (α=0.5, white noise) and long-range correlated (0.5number of conductance states, the magnitude of conductance level, the capacitance of the bilayers and increased the tendency towards the development of long-range autocorrelated (fractal) processes (0.5<α<1) in lipid channel generation. Experiments were performed above the phase transition temperature of the lipid mixtures, but compositions used predicted a superlattice-like organization. This leads to the conclusion that structural defects other than phase coexistence may promote lipid channel formation under voltage clamped conditions. Furthermore, cholesterol controls the voltage threshold that allows the percolation of channel behavior where isolated channels become an interconnected network.

  18. 超声和血脂水平检测对颈动脉斑块稳定性诊断的应用%Study on application of ultrasound and blood level of lipids in diagnosis of the stability of atherosclerotic plaque in carotid artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明月; 李红艳; 刘欣; 焦荣红; 薛红元; 牛慧敏; 于明娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of ultrasonic elastograsphy and blood levels of lipids in diagnosis of stability of atherosclerotic plaque in carotid artery. Methods Sixty patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction during January 2013 to December 2013 were allocated in obser_vation group and 60 healthy persons taking health examination in outpatient service were allocated in control group for prospective study. All their clinical data and history records were studied according to the actual order one by one,and blood levels of lipids including three acyl glycerin ( TG),total cholesterol( TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol( LDL-C)and high density lipoprotein cholesterolother( HDL-C)indicators were evaluated,information of carotid plaques had been recorded by using ultrasond combined with UE( ultrasonic elastography). Results Rele_vance ratio of total carotid plaques in observation group was higher( P ﹤0. 05). The total number of cases in two groups with UE scores at 4 or less points was not statistically different,but the number of cases with UE scores at 5 points or higher in observation group was significantly higher than those of control group( P ﹤0. 05). Blood levels of lipids especially the index of LDL-C were also significantly higher in observation group ( P ﹤0. 05). Conclusion Abnormally higher LDL-C lipid indexes mean the instability of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries of patients with cerebral infarction,and application of new type UE combined with technique of traditional ultrasonic imaging can more significantly raise the sensitivity of ultrasonic detection of diseased tissues;and the application of ultrasound and detection of blood levels of lipids have practical clinical significance in demonstration of the stability of carotid plaques in carotid arteries.%目的:评估超声和血脂水平检测对颈动脉斑块稳定性诊断的临床应用价值。方法将2013年1月至2013年12月住院治疗的脑梗死病人60例作为观

  19. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  20. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia; De Blasio, Daiana; Oggioni, Marco; De Nigris, Francesca; Snider, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Ferrante, Angela M. R.; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques from 42 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the lipid core, cholesterol clefts, hemorrhagic content, thickness of tunica media, and intima, including or not infiltration of cellular debris and cholesterol, were determined. The presence of ficolin-1, -2, and -3 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), LP initiators, was assessed in the plaques by immunofluorescence and in plasma by ELISA. LP activation was assessed in plasma by functional in vitro assays. Patients presenting low stenosis (≤75%) had higher hemorrhagic content than those with high stenosis (>75%), indicating increased erosion. Increased hemorrhagic content and tunica media thickness, as well as decreased lipid core and infiltrated content were associated with vulnerable plaques and therefore used to establish a plaque vulnerability score that allowed to classify patients according to plaque vulnerability. Ficolins and MBL were found both in plaques’ necrotic core and tunica media. Patients with vulnerable plaques showed decreased plasma levels and intraplaque deposition of ficolin-2. Symptomatic patients experiencing a transient ischemic attack had lower plasma levels of ficolin-1. We show that the LP initiators are present within the plaques and their circulating levels change in atherosclerotic patients. In particular, we show that decreased ficolin-2 levels are associated with rupture-prone vulnerable plaques, indicating its potential use as marker for cardiovascular risk assessment in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:28360913

  1. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) clone, expression pattern, and regulation by different lipid sources and lipid levels in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen; Li, Yongjin

    2013-04-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified as a triglyceride (TG)-specific lipase. In this study, we first obtained from large yellow croaker fish a 1,820-bp (GenBank ID: HQ916211) ATGL cDNA fragment with a 141-bp 5'UTR, a 1,485-bp open reading frame, and a 194-bp 3'UTR. The predicted fish ATGL had 494 amino acids (GenBank ID: ADY89608) and a calculated molecular weight of 55.1 kDa. ATGL was highly expressed in liver and, to a lesser degree, in heart, muscle, and abdominal fat. ATGL gene expression was high at 4.5 g and then decreased at 157.9 g and increased again at 474.2 g. The effects of lipid levels and lipid sources on ATGL expression in vivo were also investigated. A high-lipid diet decreased ATGL expression in fish significantly (P Fish in soybean oil group exhibited significantly lower ATGL expression than fish in the fish oil and beef tallow groups (P fish lipid metabolism.

  2. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  3. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walujo Soerjodibroto

    2004-12-01

    which is 1.47% of the total energy intake. Although appears to be low, but it has a 157% increase if compared to the same value fifteen years before. Indonesian CHD mortality rate is still relatively low (below 50 per 100,000, however it is only a matter of time that the this value will soon increase in line with the increase of fat (especially animal fat and total energy intakes. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 252-7Keywords: Asia Pacific, Indonesia, menu pattern, energy, protein, fat, animal fat, mortality rate, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease

  4. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    for 83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions......Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... by activated monocytes (and possibly macrophages) and is a highly basic protein, it would be expected to associate with polyanions such as the glycosaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix, and might result in damage being localized at such sites. In this study proteins extracted from extracellular matrix...

  5. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular

  6. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Kevin J; Lumsden, Natalie G; Andrews, Karen L; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2014-01-01

    Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  7. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  8. Infrared radiant ceramic plaques; Plaques radiantes ceramiques a infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-05-01

    Infrared plaques developed by MORGAN MATROC can now produce radiant heat from both natural and bottled gas with substantially lower NOx levels, and greater fuel efficiency and cleanliness, than other mass produced gas burning systems. The properties of this ceramic system, in particular very low thermal conductivity, allied to the infrared process for heat conversion, result in efficient radiation of energy. Morgan Matroc now claims half of the world-wide market of infrared plaque. (authors)

  9. Pattern of Altered Lipid Profile in Patients with Subclinical and Clinical Hypothyroidism and its Correlation with Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humerah, Sobia; Siddiqui, Arif; Khan, Humaira Fayyaz

    2016-06-01

    To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Cross-sectional study. Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population.

  10. Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Barros, Erica Guimarães; Emmett, Pauline M; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-07-01

    Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. Prepregnancy dietary patterns

  11. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a cor...

  12. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a cor...

  13. Evolution and rupture of vulnerable plaques: a review of mechanical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assemat P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pauline Assemat, Kerry Hourigan Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Atherosclerosis occurs as a result of the buildup and infiltration of lipid streaks in artery walls, leading to plaques. Understanding the development of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability is of critical importance, since plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke. Plaques can be divided into two distinct types: those that rupture (vulnerable and those that are less likely to rupture (stable. In the last few decades, researchers have been interested in studying the influence of the mechanical effects (blood shear stress, pressure forces, and structural stress on the plaque formation and rupture processes. In the literature, physiological experimental studies are limited by the complexity of in vivo experiments to study such effects, whereas the numerical approach often uses simplified models compared with realistic conditions, so that no general agreement of the mechanisms responsible for plaque formation has yet been reached. In addition, in a large number of cases, the presence of plaques in arteries is asymptomatic. The prediction of plaque rupture remains a complex question to elucidate, not only because of the interaction of numerous phenomena involved in this process (biological, chemical, and mechanical but also because of the large time scale on which plaques develop. The purpose of the present article is to review the current mechanical models used to describe the blood flow in arteries in the presence of plaques, as well as reviewing the literature treating the influence of mechanical effects on plaque formation, development, and rupture. Finally, some directions of research, including those being undertaken by the authors, are described. Keywords: atherosclerosis, rupture

  14. Comparative analyses of three Chlorella species in response to light and sugar reveal distinctive lipid accumulation patterns in the Microalga C. sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Julian N; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnes, Austin; Noel, Eric A; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Oyler, George A

    2014-01-01

    While photosynthetic microalgae, such as Chlorella, serve as feedstocks for nutritional oils and biofuels, heterotrophic cultivation can augment growth rates, support high cell densities, and increase triacylglycerol (TAG) lipid content. However, these species differ significantly in their photoautotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics. In this study, the phylogeny of thirty Chlorella strains was determined in order to inform bioprospecting efforts and detailed physiological assessment of three species. The growth kinetics and lipid biochemistry of C. protothecoides UTEX 411, C. vulgaris UTEX 265, and C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 were quantified during photoautotrophy in Bold's basal medium (BBM) and heterotrophy in BBM supplemented with glucose (10 g L-1). Heterotrophic growth rates of UTEX 411, 265, and 1230 were found to be 1.5-, 3.7-, and 5-fold higher than their respective autotrophic rates. With a rapid nine-hour heterotrophic doubling time, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 maximally accumulated 39% total lipids by dry weight during heterotrophy compared to 18% autotrophically. Furthermore, the discrete fatty acid composition of each strain was examined in order to elucidate lipid accumulation patterns under the two trophic conditions. In both modes of growth, UTEX 411 and 265 produced 18:1 as the principal fatty acid while UTEX 1230 exhibited a 2.5-fold enrichment in 18:2 relative to 18:1. Although the total lipid content was highest in UTEX 411 during heterotrophy, UTEX 1230 demonstrated a two-fold increase in its heterotrophic TAG fraction at a rate of 28.9 mg L(-1) d(-1) to reach 22% of the biomass, corresponding to as much as 90% of its total lipids. Interestingly, UTEX 1230 growth was restricted during mixotrophy and its TAG production rate was suppressed to 18.2 mg L-1 d-1. This constraint on carbon flow raises intriguing questions about the impact of sugar and light on the metabolic regulation of microalgal lipid biosynthesis.

  15. Comparative analyses of three Chlorella species in response to light and sugar reveal distinctive lipid accumulation patterns in the Microalga C. sorokiniana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N Rosenberg

    Full Text Available While photosynthetic microalgae, such as Chlorella, serve as feedstocks for nutritional oils and biofuels, heterotrophic cultivation can augment growth rates, support high cell densities, and increase triacylglycerol (TAG lipid content. However, these species differ significantly in their photoautotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics. In this study, the phylogeny of thirty Chlorella strains was determined in order to inform bioprospecting efforts and detailed physiological assessment of three species. The growth kinetics and lipid biochemistry of C. protothecoides UTEX 411, C. vulgaris UTEX 265, and C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 were quantified during photoautotrophy in Bold's basal medium (BBM and heterotrophy in BBM supplemented with glucose (10 g L-1. Heterotrophic growth rates of UTEX 411, 265, and 1230 were found to be 1.5-, 3.7-, and 5-fold higher than their respective autotrophic rates. With a rapid nine-hour heterotrophic doubling time, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 maximally accumulated 39% total lipids by dry weight during heterotrophy compared to 18% autotrophically. Furthermore, the discrete fatty acid composition of each strain was examined in order to elucidate lipid accumulation patterns under the two trophic conditions. In both modes of growth, UTEX 411 and 265 produced 18:1 as the principal fatty acid while UTEX 1230 exhibited a 2.5-fold enrichment in 18:2 relative to 18:1. Although the total lipid content was highest in UTEX 411 during heterotrophy, UTEX 1230 demonstrated a two-fold increase in its heterotrophic TAG fraction at a rate of 28.9 mg L(-1 d(-1 to reach 22% of the biomass, corresponding to as much as 90% of its total lipids. Interestingly, UTEX 1230 growth was restricted during mixotrophy and its TAG production rate was suppressed to 18.2 mg L-1 d-1. This constraint on carbon flow raises intriguing questions about the impact of sugar and light on the metabolic regulation of microalgal lipid biosynthesis.

  16. Measuring early plaque formation clinically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliska, Alessandra N; Weidlich, Patricia; Gomes, Sabrina C; Oppermann, Rui V

    2006-01-01

    To test a system of measuring early plaque formation (EPF) and its subgingival extension as related to the presence or absence of a plaque free zone (PFZ). EPF was measured by three independent examiners following two consecutive 72-hour periods of undisturbed plaque build-up. One of the examiners further measured EPF following a 96-hour period in the presence of chlorhexidine or placebo. The classification system was composed of criterion 0 (plaque-free dental surface), criterion 1 (presence of plaque and PFZ) and criterion 2 (absence of PFZ, subgingival extension of plaque). Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were evaluated by means of the percentage of absolute agreement (c), Kappa (k) and Kendall (kd) coefficients. The third experiment consisted of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Plaque build-up in the presence of 0.12% chlorhexidine was assessed by employing the classification system described. The percentage of absolute intra- and inter-examiner agreement ranged from 85.43% to 75.63% and from 77.31% to 75.35% respectively. Chlorhexidine and placebo rinses showed similar percentages of criterion 1 surfaces, 62.6% and 51.5% respectively (p = 0.343). Of the surfaces, 44.3% showed criterion 2 after the use of placebo, while 3.4% of surfaces showed this criterion with the chlorhexidine (p = 0.007). The events associated with EPF can be appropriately scored with this classification system. Chlorhexidine rinses inhibit both the plaque colonization of the dental surfaces as well as its subgingival extension.

  17. Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K. Rath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that heart disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of Gram-negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. Aim: This study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of micro-organisms such as, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and methods: A case-control study was designed with seven patients who had undergone coronary endarterectomy for cardiovascular disease and 28 controls. The periodontal examination for cases was performed 1 day before vascular surgery and the controls were clinically examined. The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the intraoral plaque samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. forsythia. Results: The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and sub-gingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. CONCLUSION A correlation was established between putative bacteria contributing to atheromatous plaques and species associated with periodontal disease. One particularly important study to be carried out is the investigation of a possible clinically meaningful reduction in coronary heart disease resulting from the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease.

  18. Lipid droplet pattern and nondroplet-like structure in two fat mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans revealed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Liu, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Ta-Chau; Lo, Szecheng J.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid is an important energy source and essential component for plasma and organelle membranes in all kinds of cells. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is a label-free and nonlinear optical technique that can be used to monitor the lipid distribution in live organisms. Here, we utilize CARS microscopy to investigate the pattern of lipid droplets in two live Caenorhabditis elegans mutants (fat-2 and fat-3). The CARS images showed a striking decrease in the size, number, and content of lipid droplets in the fat-2 mutant but a slight difference in the fat-3 mutant as compared with the wild-type worm. Moreover, a nondroplet-like structure with enhanced CARS signal was detected for the first time in the uterus of fat-2 and fat-3 mutants. In addition, transgenic fat-2 mutant expressing a GFP fusion protein of vitellogenin-2 (a yolk lipoprotein) revealed that the enhanced CARS signal colocalized with the GFP signal, which suggests that the nondroplet-like structure is primarily due to the accumulation of yolk lipoproteins. Together, this study implies that CARS microscopy is a potential tool to study the distribution of yolk lipoproteins, in addition to lipid droplets, in live animals.

  19. RNAseq based transcriptomics study of SMCs from carotid atherosclerotic plaque: BMP2 and IDs proteins are crucial regulators of plaque stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Iraide; Goikuria, Haize; Idro, Juan Luis; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Fernández Velasco, José María; Elizagaray, Elena; García-Barcina, María; Montoya-Murillo, Genoveva; Sarasola, Esther; Vega Manrique, Reyes; Freijo, Maria Del Mar; Vandenbroeck, Koen

    2017-06-14

    Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a risk factor to develop cerebrovascular disease. Atheroma plaque can become instable and provoke a cerebrovascular event or else remain stable as asymptomatic type. The exact mechanism involved in plaque destabilization is not known but includes among other events smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. The goal of this study was to perform thorough analysis of gene expression differences in SMCs isolated from carotid symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of SMCs based on RNAseq technology identified 67 significant differentially expressed genes and 143 significant differentially expressed isoforms in symptomatic SMCs compared with asymptomatic. 37 of top-scoring genes were further validated by digital PCR. Enrichment and network analysis shows that the gene expression pattern of SMCs from stable asymptomatic plaques is suggestive for an osteogenic phenotype, while that of SMCs from unstable symptomatic plaque correlates with a senescence-like phenotype. Osteogenic-like phenotype SMCs may positively affect carotid atheroma plaque through participation in plaque stabilization via bone formation processes. On the other hand, plaques containing senescence-like phenotype SMCs may be more prone to rupture. Our results substantiate an important role of SMCs in carotid atheroma plaque disruption.

  20. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque-depositions by infrared, Raman and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are mainly composed of proteoglycans, triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterolester and crystalline calcium. From histopathological characterizations it is known that the composition of these atherosclerotic plaques can vary to a great extent, due to different risk factors as smoking, hyperlipedemia, or genetic background ect. The individual plaque components can be spectroscopically easily identified. Furthermore, spectroscopic imaging technologies offer the possibility to study the plaque compositions in a more quantitative manner than traditional staining techniques. Here, we compare the potential of IR, Raman and CARS microscopy to characterize the constitution of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the structure of the surrounding tissue. For data analysis and image reconstruction spectral decomposition algorithms such as vertex component analysis (VCA) were introduced. The results are in good agreement with the histopathology. Aim of the study is to correlate the compositional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques with individual disease patterns.

  1. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton Gador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS and flow shear stress (FSS. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS and Flow Shear Stress (FSS were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. Results The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003. The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5 than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P 2, P = 0.0002. However, the mean flow shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide

  2. Model studies on the pattern of volatiles generated in mixtures of amino acids, lipid oxidation-derived aldehydes, and glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, An; Kitrytė, Vaida; Venskutonis, Rimantas; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The development of flavor and browning in thermally treated foods results mainly from the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation but also from the interactions between both reaction pathways. To study these interactions, we analyzed the volatile compounds resulting from model reactions of lysine or glycine with aldehydes originating from lipid oxidation [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, or (2E,4E)-decadienal] in the presence and absence of glucose. The main reaction products identified in these model...

  3. Detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by Raman probe spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Dochow, Sebastian; Egodage, Kokila D.; Schie, Iwan; Romeike, Bernd F.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque depositions is of vital diagnostic interest. Established intravascular imaging techniques provide valuable morphological information, but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Probe based Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility for a biochemical characterization of atherosclerotic plaque formations during an intravascular intervention. From post mortem studies it is well known that the severity of a plaque and its stability are strongly correlated with its biochemical composition. Especially the identification of vulnerable plaques remains one of the most important and challenging aspects in cardiology. Thus, specific information about the composition of a plaque would greatly improve the risk assessment and management. Furthermore, knowledge about the composition can offer new therapeutic and medication strategies. Plaque calcifications as well as major lipid components such as cholesterol, cholesterol esters and triglycerides can be spectroscopically easily differentiated. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently a prominent catheter based imaging technique for the localization and visualization of atherosclerotic plaque depositions. The high resolution of OCT with 10 to 15 µm allows for very detailed characterization of morphological features such as different plaque formations, thin fibrous caps and accurate measurements of lesion lengths. In combination with OCT imaging the obtained spectral information can provide substantial information supporting on on-site diagnosis of various plaque types and therefor an improved risk assessment. The potential and feasibility of combining OCT with Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated on excised plaque samples, as well as under in vivo conditions. Acknowledgements: Financial support from the Carl Zeiss Foundation is greatly acknowledged.

  4. Denitrification in human dental plaque

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    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  5. High-resolution imaging of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques with micro(18)F-FDG PET scanning exploring plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masteling, Marleen G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Tio, Rene A.; Breek, Jan-Cees; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    FDG-PET can be used to identify vulnerable plaques in atherosclerotic disease. Clinical FDG-PET camera systems are restricted in terms of resolution for the visualization of detailed inflammation patterns in smaller vascular structures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible added value of

  6. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  7. 血脂与血管内超声-虚拟组织学评价冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块性质%Correlation between blood lipid and intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in assessing characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丽娜; 李新华; 赵晓燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨血脂和血管内超声-虚拟组织(IVUS-VH)学评价急性冠脉综合征(ACS)和稳定性心绞痛(SA)患者冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块性质.方法:对44例ACS患者及22例SA患者行IVUS-VH分析,并对其血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、脂蛋白a [LP(a)]进行测定,计算LDL-C/HDL-C比值,分析冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块坏死核心(NC)所占的比例与LP(a)、LDL-C/HDL-C的相关关系.结果:ACS组斑块中NC和钙化组织比例明显高于SA组(t=4.669、9.894,P<0.001),而纤维组织及纤维脂肪组织则明显低于SA组(t=7.184、5.290,P<0.001).ACS组患者血清LDL-C/HDL-C、LP(a)水平高于SA组患者(t=3.512、19.139,P<0.001).ACS组患者冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块中NC比例与血清LP(a)水平有显著的相关性(r=0.549,P<0.001).结论:LP(a)可能代替IVUS-VH帮助了解冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块的性质.%Aim: To investigate the correlation between blood lipid and intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology(IVUS-VH) in assessing characteristics of the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS) and stable angina(SA).Methods:The coronary atherosclerotic plaques in 44 patients with ACS and 22 patients with SA were tested by IVUS-VH,and the serum levels of HDL-C,LDL-C and LP(a) were detected. The ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C was calculated.The correlation of the percentage of necrotic core and LP(a),LDL-C/HDL-C was analyzed,respectively.Results:The percentages of necrotic core and dense calcium tissue in ACS were significantly higher than those in SA group (t=4.669,9.894,P<0.001),but the percentages of fibrous tissue and fibro-fatty tissue in ACS were significantly lower than those in SA group(t=7.184,5.290,P<0.001).There were obvious differences in serum level of LP(a) and the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C between ACS group and SA group (t=3.512,19.139,P<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of necrotic core

  8. Evaluation of the dentogingival area during early plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, P; Lopes de Souza, M A; Oppermann, R V

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the pattern of supragingival plaque formation in the dentogingival area within 96 hours after abstinence from mechanical plaque control and to clinically analyze the gingival inflammatory response observed. Six male volunteers, 20 to 23 years of age, had their upper incisors and cuspids polished. Four independent periods of no mechanical plaque control--24, 48, 72, and 96 hours--were instituted. In each period, plaque was disclosed and standardized individual photographs were taken. Impressions were taken and replicas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected at baseline and 96 hours. The height of the gingival papilla was measured at baseline, 24, and 96 hours. Results showed the presence of a plaque-free zone (PFZ) along the gingival margin up to 72 hours. After 96 hours, there was a significant reduction in the presence of PFZ in the proximal thirds of the buccal surface when compared to the other experimental periods. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the GCF flow as well as edema of the interdental papilla, when compared to baseline values. The PFZ observed during the initial phase was less apparent at the 96-hour period. At this time, there was an increase in the gingival inflammatory response, represented clinically by increased GCF flow and edema.

  9. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-08-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces.

  10. Gram-positive bacterial lipoglycans based on a glycosylated diacylglycerol lipid anchor are microbe-associated molecular patterns recognized by TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Blanc

    Full Text Available Innate immune recognition is the first line of host defense against invading microorganisms. It is a based on the detection, by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, of invariant molecular signatures that are unique to microorganisms. TLR2 is a PRR that plays a major role in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria by recognizing cell envelope lipid-linked polymers, also called macroamphiphiles, such as lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acids and mycobacterial lipoglycans. These microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs display a structure based on a lipid anchor, being either an acylated cysteine, a glycosylated diacylglycerol or a mannosyl-phosphatidylinositol respectively, and having in common a diacylglyceryl moiety. A fourth class of macroamphiphile, namely lipoglycans, whose lipid anchor is made, as for lipoteichoic acids, of a glycosylated diacylglycerol unit rather than a mannosyl-phosphatidylinositol, is found in Gram-positive bacteria and produced by certain Actinobacteria, including Micrococcus luteus, Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and Corynebacterium glutamicum. We report here that these alternative lipoglycans are also recognized by TLR2 and that they stimulate TLR2-dependant cytokine production, including IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6, and cell surface co-stimulatory molecule CD40 expression by a human macrophage cell line. However, they differ by their co-receptor requirement and the magnitude of the innate immune response they elicit. M. luteus and S. mucilaginosus lipoglycans require TLR1 for recognition by TLR2 and induce stronger responses than C. glutamicum lipoglycan, sensing of which by TLR2 is dependent on TLR6. These results expand the repertoire of MAMPs recognized by TLR2 to lipoglycans based on a glycosylated diacylglycerol lipid anchor and reinforce the paradigm that macroamphiphiles based on such an anchor, including lipoteichoic acids and alternative lipoglycans, induce TLR2-dependant innate immune responses.

  11. En plaque meningioma with angioinvasion

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    Basu Keya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En plaque meningioma is a rare type of meningioma characterized by infiltrative nature, sheet-like growth and at times invading the bone. We report here a case of en plaque meningioma with typical grade I histomorphology along with unusual feature of angioinvasion. The patient was a 55-year-old man presenting with headache and painful proptosis of right eye. Imaging modalities revealed an en -plaque meningioma extending into the right sylvian fissure, with thickening of right temporal calvarium, greater wing of sphenoid and extension into the orbit. Magnetic resonance angiography showed medial displacement of right middle cerebral artery. The tumor was removed from the sylvian fissure and right temporal convexity. However, only subtotal removal of the intraorbital part was possible. Histology showed a meningothelial meningioma with low tumor cell proliferation, but infiltration into the bone, skeletal muscle and angioinvasion. Recognition of meningiomas en plaque is useful, as these tumors are difficult to resect completely, and are more prone to undergo recurrence or malignant change. In addition, angioinvasion seen in this tumor may have additional prognostic significance.

  12. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of atherosclerotic plaques differentiation of triglyceride and cholesterol deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Matthäus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases in general and atherothrombosis as the most common of its individual disease entities is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Therefore, visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque composition is of vital diagnostic interest, especially for the early recognition of vulnerable plaques. Established clinical techniques provide valuable morphological information but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging techniques have recently drawn considerable attention. Based on the spectroscopic properties of the individual plaque components, as for instance different types of lipids, the composition of atherosclerotic plaques can be analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Here, we compare the feasibility of multimodal nonlinear imaging combining two-photon fluorescence (TPF, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS and second-harmonic generation (SHG microscopy to contrast composition and morphology of lipid deposits against the surrounding matrix of connective tissue with diffraction limited spatial resolution. In this contribution, the spatial distribution of major constituents of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques like elastin, collagen, triglycerides and cholesterol can be simultaneously visualized by a combination of nonlinear imaging methods, providing a powerful label-free complement to standard histopathological methods with great potential for in vivo application.

  13. Effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related with ischemic stroke occurrence, development and recurrence. This study aims to make an evaluation of the effects of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors, serum lipid and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis were given oral administration of rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg once every night, and the course of treatment was 6 months. After treatment, the changes of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and blood lipid were measured, as well as carotid atherosclerotic intima-media thickness (IMT and the calculation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque score. According to the examination results, after 6 months' treatment with rosuvastatin, serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.01, for all, while high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.01; the total number of plaque reduced, while the number of stable plaque increased (P < 0.05; carotid artery IMT and carotid artery plaque score decreased significantly (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between before and after treatment. The results of this study show that rosuvastatin plays a role in anti-inflammation and alleviates the degree of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  14. Model studies on the pattern of volatiles generated in mixtures of amino acids, lipid-oxidation-derived aldehydes, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, An; Kitryté, Vaida; Venskutonis, Rimantas; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2011-02-23

    The development of flavor and browning in thermally treated foods results mainly from the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation but also from the interactions between both reaction pathways. To study these interactions, we analyzed the volatile compounds resulting from model reactions of lysine or glycine with aldehydes originating from lipid oxidation [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, or (2E,4E)-decadienal] in the presence and absence of glucose. The main reaction products identified in these model mixtures were carbonyl compounds, resulting essentially from amino-acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions. Several 2-alkylfurans were detected as well. Only a few azaheterocyclic compounds were identified, in particular 5-butyl-2-propylpyridine from (E)-2-hexenal model systems and 2-pentylpyridine from (2E,4E)-decadienal model reactions. Although few reaction products were found resulting from the condensation of an amino acid with a lipid-derived aldehyde, the amino acid plays an important role in catalyzing the degradation and further reaction of these carbonyl compounds. These results suggest that amino-acid-induced degradations and further reactions of lipid oxidation products may be of considerable importance in thermally processed foods.

  15. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozie, S.; Weert, T.T. de; Monye, C. de; Homburg, P.J.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Lugt, A. van der [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dippel, D.W.J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  16. Red autofluorescence of dental plaque bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. H.; Thomas, R. Z.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; de Soet, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Red autofluorescence of plaque and its relation to fluorescence of a single species in the biofilm was studied. Fluorescence images of non-disclosed and disclosed plaque of 28 first-year students were captured. The plaque samples were assessed by culture methods and studied for red autofluorescence.

  17. Individuality, Stability, and Variability of the Plaque Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Daniel R; Mark Welch, Jessica L; Borisy, Gary G

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a bacterial biofilm composed of a characteristic set of organisms. Relatively little information from cultivation-independent, high-throughput analyses has been published on the temporal dynamics of the dental plaque microbiome. We used Minimum Entropy Decomposition, an information theory-based approach similar to oligotyping that provides single-nucleotide resolution, to analyze a previously published time series data set and investigate the dynamics of the plaque microbiome at various analytic and taxonomic levels. At both the genus and 97% Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) levels of resolution, the range of variation within each individual overlapped that of other individuals in the data set. When analyzed at the oligotype level, however, the overlap largely disappeared, showing that single-nucleotide resolution enables differentiation of individuals from one another without ambiguity. The overwhelming majority of the plaque community in all samples was made up of bacteria from a moderate number of plaque-typical genera, indicating that the overall community framework is shared among individuals. Each of these genera fluctuated in abundance around a stable mean that varied between individuals, with some genera having higher inter-individual variability than others. Thus, at the genus level, differences between individuals lay not in the identity of the major genera but in consistently differing proportions of these genera from mouth to mouth. However, at the oligotype level, we detected oligotype "fingerprints," a highly individual-specific set of persistently abundant oligotypes fluctuating around a stable mean over time. For example, within the genus Corynebacterium, more than a dozen oligotypes were detectable in each individual, of which a different subset reached high abundance in any given person. This pattern suggests that each mouth contains a subtly different community of organisms. We also compared the Chinese plaque community

  18. Individuality, stability, and variability of the plaque microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Utter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is a bacterial biofilm composed of a characteristic set of organisms. Relatively little information from cultivation-independent, high-throughput analyses has been published on the temporal dynamics of the dental plaque microbiome. We used Minimum Entropy Decomposition, an information theory-based approach similar to oligotyping that provides single-nucleotide resolution, to analyze a previously published time series data set and investigate the dynamics of the plaque microbiome at various analytic and taxonomic levels. At both the genus and 97% Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU levels of resolution, the range of variation within each individual overlapped that of other individuals in the dataset. When analyzed at the oligotype level, however, the overlap largely disappeared, showing that single-nucleotide resolution enables differentiation of individuals from one another without ambiguity. The overwhelming majority of the plaque community in all samples was made up of bacteria from a moderate number of plaque-typical genera, indicating that the overall community framework is shared among individuals. Each of these genera fluctuated in abundance around a stable mean that varied between individuals, with some genera having higher inter-individual variability than others. Thus, at the genus level, differences between individuals lay not in the identity of the major genera but in consistently differing proportions of these genera from mouth to mouth. However, at the oligotype level, we detected oligotype fingerprints, a highly individual-specific set of persistently abundant oligotypes fluctuating around a stable mean over time. For example, within the genus Corynebacterium, more than a dozen oligotypes were detectable in each individual, of which a different subset reached high abundance in any given person. This pattern suggests that each mouth contains a subtly different community of organisms. We also compared the Chinese plaque

  19. Curcumin as a novel plaque stabilizing agent in prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Shamsara

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCurcumin (diferuloylmethane is an active component of the spice turmeric and has been linked with anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. The present hypothesis explained the involvement of anti-inflammatory effects of crcumin in prevention of acute coronary syndromes (ACS (i.e. unstable angina and myocardial infarction. ACS is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Coronary events often result from thrombi that form because of physical disruption of the atherosclerotic plaque. However, despite lipid lowing therapy with statins, significant numbers of cardiovascular events continue to occur indicating the need for additional agents for atherosclerosis management. We proposed that curcumin therapy can stabilize vulnerable 'rupture-prone' plaques by normalizing plaque properties. Thus, co-administration of curcumin along with other present options may prove to be a useful and potent natural plaque stabilizing approach in the prevention of ACS.

  20. Multi-center MRI carotid plaque component segmentation using feature normalization and transfer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; van Dijk, Anouk C; Truijman, Martine T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Automated segmentation of plaque components in carotid artery MRI is important to enable large studies on plaque vulnerability, and for incorporating plaque composition as an imaging biomarker in clinical practice. Especially supervised classification techniques, which learn from labeled examples......, have shown good performance. However, a disadvantage of supervised methods is their reduced performance on data different from the training data, for example on images acquired with different scanners. Reducing the amount of manual annotations required for each new dataset will facilitate widespread...... implementation of supervised methods. In this paper we segment carotid plaque components of clinical interest (fibrous tissue, lipid tissue, calcification and intraplaque hemorrhage) in a multicenter MRI study. We perform voxelwise tissue classification by traditional same-center training, and compare results...

  1. IVUS-based FSI models for human coronary plaque progression study: components, correlation and predictive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Zheyang; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Muccigrosso, David; Billiar, Kristen; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Tang, Dalin

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque progression is believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. Patient follow-up in vivo intravascular ultrasound coronary plaque data were acquired to construct fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models with cyclic bending to obtain flow wall shear stress (WSS), plaque wall stress (PWS) and strain (PWSn) data and investigate correlations between plaque progression measured by wall thickness increase (WTI), cap thickness increase (CTI), lipid depth increase (LDI) and risk factors including wall thickness (WT), WSS, PWS, and PWSn. Quarter average values (n = 178-1016) of morphological and mechanical factors from all slices were obtained for analysis. A predictive method was introduced to assess prediction accuracy of risk factors and identify the optimal predictor(s) for plaque progression. A combination of WT and PWS was identified as the best predictor for plaque progression measured by WTI. Plaque WT had best overall correlation with WTI (r = -0.7363, p WTI: (r = -0.3208, p < 1E-10); cap thickness: (r = 0.4541, p < 1E-10); CTI: (r = -0.1719, p = 0.0190); LD: (r = -0.2206, p < 1E-10); LDI: r = 0.1775, p < 0.0001). WSS had mixed correlation results.

  2. High wall shear stress and high-risk plaque: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtehardi, Parham; Brown, Adam J; Bhargava, Ankit; Costopoulos, Charis; Hung, Olivia Y; Corban, Michel T; Hosseini, Hossein; Gogas, Bill D; Giddens, Don P; Samady, Habib

    2017-01-10

    In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behavior, exacerbating inflammation and stimulating progression of the atherosclerotic lipid core. In line with experimental and autopsy studies, several human studies have shown associations between high WSS and known morphological features of high-risk plaques. However, despite increasing evidence, there is still no longitudinal data linking high WSS to clinical events. As the interplay between atherosclerotic plaque, artery, and WSS is highly dynamic, large natural history studies of atherosclerosis that include WSS measurements are now warranted. This review will summarize the available clinical evidence on high WSS as a possible etiological mechanism underlying high-risk plaque development.

  3. 孤立性颈动脉粥样硬化斑块内膜长轴切面力学状态的初步超声研究%Preliminary longitudinal mechanical pattern study of the isolated carotid atherosclerotic plaque intima using velocity vector imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳文胜; 尹立雪; 王珊; 邓燕; 左明良; 李爽; 余洋; 罗安果

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mechanical homogeneity pattern of isolated carotid atherosclerotic plaque intima on longitudinal axis view using ultrasonic velocity vector imaging.Methods Fourty six patients with 48 isolated plaques were undergone the high frequency ultrasound scanning,the real-time two-dimensional longitudinal-axis gray scale view at the maximal thickness of the plaque was obtained in three complete cardiac cycles.A dedicated velocity vector imaging(ⅤⅤⅠ)workstation was used for the off-line dynamic two-dimensional gray-scale image analysis and mechanics parameter(i.e.,the peak strain and the absolute difference of the peak strain)assessment at the sites of the upper,middle and down stream separately.The length and direction distribution of the velocity vectors at the carotid atherosclerotic plaque intima were observed.Wilcoxon test was utilized for the comparison of the peak strain and the absolute difference of the peak strain between two sites.Results The chaos phenomenon of velocity vector distribution at the sites of plaque intima occurred significantly differed from those uniform velocity vectors at the reference sites.According to the two groups of the higher strain value side and the lower strain value side on the upper stream and the down stream of the plaque intima,the peak strain at the higher strain value side was significantly higher than the lower strain value side(P=0.000).There was a significantly difference between the absolute difference of peak strain from the higher strain value side to the middle stream point of the plaque intima and the absolute difference of peak strain from the lower strain value side to the higher strain value side of the plaque intima(P<0.017).Conclusions The length and direction distribution of velocity vectors of the isolated carotid atherosclerotic plaque intima on longitudinal axis view are uneven,the mechanical heterogeneity pattern exists at the plaque intima and could be visualized and

  4. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  5. Application of IR and NIR fiber optic imaging in thermographic and spectroscopic diagnosis of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques: preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Morteza; Khan, Tania; Gu, Bujin; Soller, Babs R.; Melling, Peter; Asif, Mohammed; Gul, Khawar; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, S. W.; Willerson, James T.

    2000-12-01

    Despite major advances in cardiovascular science and technology during the past three decades, approximately half of all myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths occur unexpectedly. It is widely accepted that coronary atherosclerotic plaques and thrombotic complications resulting from their rupture or erosion are the underlying causes of this major health problem. The majority of these vulnerable plaques exhibit active inflammation, a large necrotic lipid core, a thin fibrous cap, and confer a stenosis of less than 70%. These lesions are not detectable by stress testing or coronary angiography. Our group is exploring the possibility of a functional classification based on physiological variables such as plaque temperature, pH, oxygen consumption, lactate production etc. We have shown that heat accurately locates the inflamed plaques. We also demonstrated human atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous with regard to pH and hot plaques and are more likely to be acidic. To develop a nonsurgical method for locating the inflamed plaques, we are developing both IR fiber optic imaging and NIR spectroscopic systems in our laboratory to detect hot and acidic plaque in atherosclerotic arterial walls. Our findings introduce the possibility of an isolated/combined IR and NIR fiber optic catheter that can bring new insight into functional assessment of atherosclerotic plaque and thereby detection of active and inflamed lesions responsible for heart attacks and strokes.

  6. Serial intravascular ultrasound assessment of changes in coronary atherosclerotic plaque dimensions and composition: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Marc; Huisman, Jennifer; Böse, Dirk;

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the use of serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination of coronary atherosclerosis in recent observational studies and randomized trials that revealed the effects of cholesterol-lowering and lipid-modifying therapies and offered novel insight into plaque progression...

  7. A Meta Analysis and Hierarchical Classification of HU-Based Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristanto, Wisnumurti; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many computed tomography (CT) studies have reported that lipid-rich, presumably rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques can be characterized according to their Hounsfield Unit (HU) value. However, the published HU-based characterization criteria vary considerably. The present study aims to

  8. Transcriptional profiling of CD11c-positive microglia accumulating around amyloid plaques in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Willem; Kooijman, Lieneke; Schetters, Sjoerd; Orre, Marie; Hol, Elly M

    2016-10-01

    Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice are surrounded by activated microglia. The functional role of microglia activation in AD is not well understood; both detrimental and beneficial effects on AD progression have been reported. Here we show that the population of activated microglia in the cortex of the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse AD model is divided into a CD11c-positive and a CD11c-negative subpopulation. Cd11c transcript levels and number of CD11c-positive microglia increase sharply when plaques start to occur and both parameters continue to rise in parallel with the age-related increasing plaque load. CD11c cells are localized near plaques at all stages of the disease development and constitute 23% of all activated microglia. No differences between these two populations were found in terms of proliferation, immunostaining intensity of Iba1, MHC class II, CD45, or immunoproteasome subunit LMP7/β5i. Comparison of the transcriptome of isolated CD11c-positive and CD11c-negative microglia from the cortex of aged APPswe/PS1dE9 with WT microglia showed that gene expression changes had a similar general pattern. However, a differential expression was found for genes involved in immune signaling (Il6, S100a8/Mrp8, S100a9/Mrp14, Spp1, Igf1), lysosome activation, and carbohydrate- and cholesterol/lipid-metabolism (Apoe). In addition, the increased expression of Gpnmb/DC-HIL, Tm7sf4/DC-STAMP, and Gp49a/Lilrb4, suggests a suppressive/tolerizing influence of CD11c cells. We show that amyloid plaques in the APP/PS1 model are associated with two distinct populations of activated microglia: CD11c-positive and CD11c-negative cells. Our findings imply that CD11c-positive microglia can potentially counteract amyloid deposition via increased Aβ-uptake and degradation, and by containing the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  10. Association of carotid atherosclerotic plaque features with acute ischemic stroke: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huilin [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao, Xihai [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Xiaosheng; Cao, Ye [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Li, Feiyu [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Xu, Jianrong, E-mail: renjixjr@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Background and purpose: It remains unclear whether direct vessel wall imaging can identify carotid high-risk lesions in symptomatic subjects and whether carotid plaque characteristics are more effective indicators for cerebral infarct severity than stenosis. This study sought to determine the associations of carotid plaque characteristics by MR imaging with stenosis and acute cerebral infarct (ACI) sizes on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: One hundred and fourteen symptomatic patients underwent carotid and brain MRI. ACI volume was determined from symptomatic internal carotid artery territory on DWI images. Ipsilateral carotid plaque morphological and compositional characteristics, and stenosis were also determined. The relationships between carotid plaque characteristics, stenosis and ACIs size were then evaluated. Results: In carotid arteries with 30–49% stenosis, 86.7% and 26.7% were found to have lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) and intraplaque hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 45.8% of carotid arteries with 0–29% stenosis developed LRNCs. Carotid morphological measurements, such as % wall volume, and the LRNC size were significantly associated with ipsilateral ACIs volume before and after adjustment for significant demographic factors (age and LDL) or stenosis in patients with carotid plaque (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: A substantial number of high-risk plaques characterized by vessel wall imaging exist in carotid arteries with lower grade stenosis. In addition, carotid plaque characteristics, particularly the % wall volume and LRNC size, are independently associated with cerebral infarction as measured by DWI lesions. Our findings indicate that characterizing atherosclerotic plaque by MR vessel wall imaging might be useful for stratification of plaque risk and infarction severity.

  11. [Lipidic pattern of 25 Mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Ojeda, Anayté; Silencio, José Luis; Cassis, Lorena; Ledesma, Hector; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

  12. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. RESULTS: We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning.

  13. Plaque morphology of Teschen disease viruses and certain pig enteroviruses in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H

    1968-04-01

    Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.

  14. Atherosclerotic plaque regression: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Román-Rego, Ana; Ong, Peter; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the major cause of death in the western world. The formation and rapid progression of atheromatous plaques can lead to serious cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis. The better understanding, in recent years, of the mechanisms leading to atheromatous plaque growth and disruption and the availability of powerful HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) has permitted the consideration of plaque regression as a realistic therapeutic goal. This article reviews the existing evidence underpinning current therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving atherosclerotic plaque regression. In this review we also discuss imaging modalities for the assessment of plaque regression, predictors of regression and whether plaque regression is associated with a survival benefit.

  15. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  16. Accuracy of coronary plaque detection and assessment of interobserver agreement for plaque quantification using automatic coronary plaque analysis software on coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, A.; Quitzke, M.; Creder, D.D.; Adam, G.; Lund, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine; Klink, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of automatic plaque detection and the interobserver agreement of automatic versus manually adjusted quantification of coronary plaques on coronary CT angiography (cCTA) using commercially available software. 10 cCTA datasets were evaluated using plaque software. First, the automatically detected plaques were verified. Second, two observers independently performed plaque quantification without revising the automatically constructed plaque contours (automatic approach). Then, each observer adjusted the plaque contours according to plaque delineation (adjusted approach). The interobserver agreement of both approaches was analyzed. 32 of 114 automatically identified findings were true-positive plaques, while 82 (72 %) were false-positive. 20 of 52 plaques (38 %) were missed by the software (false-negative). The automatic approach provided good interobserver agreement with relative differences of 0.9 ± 16.0 % for plaque area and -3.3 ± 33.8 % for plaque volume. Both observers independently adjusted all contours because they did not represent the plaque delineation. Interobserver agreement decreased for the adjusted approach with relative differences of 25.0 ± 24.8 % for plaque area and 20.0 ± 40.4 % for plaque volume. The automatic plaque analysis software is of limited value due to high numbers of false-positive and false-negative plaque findings. The automatic approach was reproducible but it necessitated adjustment of all constructed plaque contours resulting in deterioration of the interobserver agreement.

  17. Estimation of Plaque Contents With Multi-Angle 3D Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Grønholdt, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Steen Tofthøj

    1996-01-01

    varies much more with angle for fibrous tissues. An experimental multi-angle 3D pulse-echo recording system has been established with a 10 MHz focused single element transducer mounted on a high precision rotational device. The received signal was processed in order to match axial resolution size......This investigation exploits the potential of using multiple insonification angles in characterizing plaques in the carotid artery. Specifically, previous work has shown that certain plaque materials such as lipid exhibit a low degree of angle-dependence in the received echo signal while the signal...

  18. Effect of red yeast rice combined with antioxidants on lipid pattern, hs-CRP level, and endothelial function in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Parini, Angelo; Urso, Riccardo; Rosticci, Martina; Grandi, Elisa; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to test, through a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, if a short-term treatment with 10 mg monacolins combined with antioxidants could improve lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and endothelial function in a small cohort of moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Thus, 25 healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects were consecutively enrolled and, after 4 weeks of stabilization diet, were randomized to the sequence placebo followed by a washout, monacolins or monacolins followed by a washout, placebo, with each period being 4 weeks long. At each study step, a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP, and endothelial function have been measured. When compared to the placebo phase, during monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in total cholesterol (TC) (TC after monacolin treatment, -18.35%; TC after placebo treatment, -5.39%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (LDL after monacolin treatment, -22.36%; LDL after placebo treatment, -1.38%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (non-HDL after monacolin treatment, -22.83%; non-HDL after placebo treatment: -7.15%), hs-CRP (hs-CRP after monacolin treatment: -2.33%; hs-CRP after placebo treatment, 2.11%), and endothelial function (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment, 18.59%; pulse volume displacement after placebo treatment, -6.69%). No significant difference was observed with regard to triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, we could demonstrate that a 10 mg monacolin nutraceutical treatment appears to safely reduce cholesterolemia, hs-CRP, and markers of vascular remodeling in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results need to be confirmed in larger patient samples and in studies with longer duration.

  19. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  20. Monitoring intra-cellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman- and CARS-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in lipid metabolism in vessel wall tissues. Macrophages can take up lipids by various mechanisms. As phagocytes, macrophages are important for the decomposition of lipid plaques within arterial walls that contribute to arteriosclerosis. Of special interest are uptake dynamics and intra-cellular fate of different individual types of lipids as, for example, fatty acids, triglycerides or free and esterified cholesterol. Here we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and follow subsequent storage or degradation patterns. The combination of optical microscopy with Raman spectroscopy allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through the associated spectral information. Relatively long measuring times, due to the weakness of Raman scattering can be overcome by non-linear effects such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). With this contribution we introduce first results to monitor the incorporation of lipid components into individual cells employing Raman and CARS microscopy.

  1. Heterogeneity of inflammatory and cytokine networks in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Swindell

    Full Text Available The clinical features of psoriasis, characterized by sharply demarcated scaly erythematous plaques, are typically so distinctive that a diagnosis can easily be made on these grounds alone. However, there is great variability in treatment response between individual patients, and this may reflect heterogeneity of inflammatory networks driving the disease. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling was used to characterize inflammatory and cytokine networks in 62 lesional skin samples obtained from patients with stable chronic plaque psoriasis. We were able to stratify lesions according to their inflammatory gene expression signatures, identifying those associated with strong (37% of patients, moderate (39% and weak inflammatory infiltrates (24%. Additionally, we identified differences in cytokine signatures with heightened cytokine-response patterns in one sub-group of lesions (IL-13-strong; 50% and attenuation of these patterns in a second sub-group (IL-13-weak; 50%. These sub-groups correlated with the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, but were only weakly associated with increased risk allele frequency at some psoriasis susceptibility loci (e.g., REL, TRAF3IP2 and NOS2. Our findings highlight variable points in the inflammatory and cytokine networks known to drive chronic plaque psoriasis. Such heterogeneous aspects may shape clinical course and treatment responses, and can provide avenues for development of personalized treatments.

  2. Biomechanics and inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque erosion and plaque rupture: implications for cardiovascular events in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Campbell

    Full Text Available Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion.We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas.In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion.

  3. Localization of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery.

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    Yasumi Uchida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, its localization in human coronary arterial wall is not well understood. The present study was performed to visualize deposition sites and patterns of native oxLDL and their relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery. METHODS: Evans blue dye (EB elicits a violet fluorescence by excitation at 345-nm and emission at 420-nm, and a reddish-brown fluorescence by excitation at 470-nm and emission at 515-nm characteristic of oxLDL only. Therefore, native oxLDL in excised human coronary artery were investigated by color fluorescent microscopy (CFM using EB as a biomarker. RESULTS: (1 By luminal surface scan with CFM, the % incidence of oxLDL in 38 normal segments, 41 white plaques and 32 yellow plaques that were classified by conventional angioscopy, was respectively 26, 44 and 94, indicating significantly (p<0.05 higher incidence in the latter than the former two groups. Distribution pattern was classified as patchy, diffuse and web-like. Web-like pattern was observed only in yellow plaques with necrotic core. (2 By transected surface scan, oxLDL deposited within superficial layer in normal segments and diffusely within both superficial and deep layers in white and yellow plaques. In yellow plaques with necrotic core, oxLDL deposited not only in the marginal zone of the necrotic core but also in the fibrous cap. CONCLUSION: Taken into consideration of the well-known process of coronary plaque growth, the results suggest that oxLDL begins to deposit in human coronary artery wall before plaque formation and increasingly deposits with plaque growth, exhibiting different deposition sites and patterns depending on morphological changes.

  4. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  5. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a sa

  6. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  7. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  8. Regression of atherosclerosis is characterized by broad changes in the plaque macrophage transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Feig

    Full Text Available We have developed a mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque regression in which an atherosclerotic aortic arch from a hyperlipidemic donor is transplanted into a normolipidemic recipient, resulting in rapid elimination of cholesterol and monocyte-derived macrophage cells (CD68+ from transplanted vessel walls. To gain a comprehensive view of the differences in gene expression patterns in macrophages associated with regressing compared with progressing atherosclerotic plaque, we compared mRNA expression patterns in CD68+ macrophages extracted from plaque in aortic aches transplanted into normolipidemic or into hyperlipidemic recipients. In CD68+ cells from regressing plaque we observed that genes associated with the contractile apparatus responsible for cellular movement (e.g. actin and myosin were up-regulated whereas genes related to cell adhesion (e.g. cadherins, vinculin were down-regulated. In addition, CD68+ cells from regressing plaque were characterized by enhanced expression of genes associated with an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, including arginase I, CD163 and the C-lectin receptor. Our analysis suggests that in regressing plaque CD68+ cells preferentially express genes that reduce cellular adhesion, enhance cellular motility, and overall act to suppress inflammation.

  9. Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Assemat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression.

  10. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  11. Mass Transport and Shear Stress as Mediators of Flow Effects on Atherosclerotic Plaque Origin and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Riley; Aliseda, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) is one of the leading site for atherosclerosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. The specific mechanisms by which perturbed flow at the bifurcation and in the carotid bulge promotes plaque formation and growth are not fully understood. Shear stress, mass transport, and flow residence times are considered dominant factors. Shear stress causes restructuring of endothelial cells at the arterial wall which changes the wall's permeability. Long residence times are associated with enhanced mass transport through increased diffusion of lipids and white blood cells into the arterial wall. Although momentum and mass transfer are traditionally coupled by correlations similar to Reynolds Analogy, the complex flow patterns present in this region due to the pulsatile, transitional, detached flow associated with the complex geometry makes the validity of commonly accepted assumptions uncertain. We create solid models of the CAB from MRI or ultrasound medical images, build flow phantoms on clear polyester resin and use an IOR matching, blood mimicking, working fluid. Using PIV and dye injection techniques the shear stress and scalar transport are experimentally investigated. Our goal is to establish a quantitative relationship between momentum and mass transfer under a wide range of physiologically normal and pathological conditions.

  12. Leukotriene B4 levels in human atherosclerotic plaques and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleunie van den Borne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 has been associated with the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA formation. However, associations of LTB4 levels with tissue characteristics and adverse clinical outcome of advanced atherosclerosis and AAA are scarcely studied. We hypothesized that LTB4 levels are associated with a vulnerable plaque phenotype and adverse clinical outcome. Furthermore, that LTB4 levels are associated with inflammatory AAA and adverse clinical outcome. METHODS: Atherosclerotic plaques and AAA specimens were selected from two independent databases for LTB4 measurements. Plaques were isolated during carotid endarterectomy from asymptomatic (n = 58 or symptomatic (n = 317 patients, classified prior to surgery. LTB4 levels were measured without prior lipid extraction and levels were corrected for protein content. LTB4 levels were related to plaque phenotype, baseline patient characteristics and clinical outcome within three years following surgery. Seven non-diseased mammary artery specimens served as controls. AAA specimens were isolated during open repair, classified as elective (n = 189, symptomatic (n = 29 or ruptured (n = 23. LTB4 levels were measured similar to the plaque measurements and were related to tissue characteristics, baseline patient characteristics and clinical outcome. Twenty-six non-diseased aortic specimens served as controls. RESULTS: LTB4 levels corrected for protein content were not significantly associated with histological characteristics specific for vulnerable plaques or inflammatory AAA as well as clinical presentation. Moreover, it could not predict secondary manifestations independently investigated in both databases. However, LTB4 levels were significantly lower in controls compared to plaque (p = 0.025 or AAA (p = 0.017. CONCLUSIONS: LTB4 levels were not associated with a vulnerable plaque phenotype or inflammatory AAA or clinical

  13. A comparison of γ-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw, Z. Y.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of γ-irradiation (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy and microwaves (generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min treatments on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18ºC for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and TBA values were slightly increased after irradiation treatments and also during frozen storage (-18ºC. On the contrary, iodine value of the treated beef liver was decreased. Irradiation treatments remarkably reduced the total bacterial counts in beef liver. The percent reduction of bacterial load for beef liver exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at defrost mode for 2 min and after 3 months at -18ºC was 62%. The bacterial load for beef liver exposed to γ-irradiation at 10 kGy after 3 months at -18ºC was decreased by 98%. Hence, γ-irradiation treatment was far better than microwave treatment for reduction of the associated microorganisms with beef liver. Salmonellae was not detected in non-irradiated and irradiated beef liver throughout the storage period.Se estudiaron los efectos de los tratamientos por irradiación γ (0, 2.5, 5 y 10 kGy y microondas (generados en un horno a nivel bajo y de descongelación durante 0.5, 1 y 2 min sobre la composición química y aspectos microbiológicos de las muestras de hígado de vaca. Los análisis químicos y microbiológicos se llevaron a cabo en hígado de vaca tratado y no tratado al inicio y durante el almacenamiento en congelador a -18ºC durante 3 meses. Los análisis químicos de los lípidos de hígado de vaca mostraron que los índices de acidez, peróxido y TBA se incrementaron ligeramente después de los tratamientos por irradiación y durante el almacenamiento en congelador (-18

  14. The usefulness of optical analyses for detecting vulnerable plaques using rabbit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kanji; Ishihara, Miya; Kawauchi, Satoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Kaji, Tatsumi

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become a widely used option for treatment of carotid stenosis. Although technical improvements have led to a decrease in complications related to CAS, distal embolism continues to be a problem. The purpose of this research was to investigate the usefulness of optical methods (Time-Resolved Laser- Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy [TR-LIFS] and reflection spectroscopy [RS] as diagnostic tools for assessment of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, using rabbit models of vulnerable plaque. Materials & Methods: Male Japanese white rabbits were divided into a high cholesterol diet group and a normal diet group. In addition, we used a Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit, because we confirmed the reliability of our animal model for this study. Experiment 1: TR-LIFS. Fluorescence was induced using the third harmonic wave of a Q switch Nd:YAG laser. The TR-LIFS was performed using a photonic multi-channel analyzer with ICCD (wavelength range, 200 - 860 nm). Experiment 2: RS. Refection spectra in the wavelength range of 900 to 1700 nm were acquired using a spectrometer. Results: In the TR-LIFS, the wavelength at the peak was longer by plaque formation. The TR-LIFS method revealed a difference in peak levels between a normal aorta and a lipid-rich aorta. The RS method showed increased absorption from 1450 to 1500 nm for lipid-rich plaques. We observed absorption around 1200 nm due to lipid only in the WHHL group. Conclusion: These methods using optical analysis might be useful for diagnosis of vulnerable plaques. Keywords: Carotid artery stenting, vulnerable plaque, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence

  15. Fibrillar amyloid plaque formation precedes microglial activation.

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    Christian K E Jung

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, hallmark β-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9 revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 μm we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo.

  16. The desmosomal plaque and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, W W; Cowin, P; Schmelz, M; Kapprell, H P

    1987-01-01

    Two major plasma membrane domains are involved in the architectural organization of the cytoskeleton. Both are junctions of the adherens category characterized by the presence of dense plaques associated with the cytoplasmic surface of their membranes. The plaques serve as specific anchorage structures for two different types of cytoplasmic filaments. Intermediate-sized filaments (IF) of several types, i.e. cytokeratin IF in epithelial cells, desmin IF in cardiac myocytes and vimentin IF in arachnoidal cells of meninges, meningiomas and several other cells, attach to the desmosomal plaques, whereas actin-containing microfilaments associate with non-desmosomal adhering junctions such as the zonula adherens, fascia adherens and punctum adherens. The plaques of both kinds of adhering junctions contain a common acidic polypeptide of Mr 83,000 identical to 'band 5 protein' of bovine snout epidermal desmosomes. However, other plaque components are mutually exclusive to one of the two subclasses of adhering junctions. The desmosomal plaque structure, which does not contain vinculin and alpha-actinin, comprises representatives of cytoplasmic, non-membrane-integrated proteins such as desmoplakin(s) and the cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane glycoproteins such as 'band 3 glycoprotein'. The analysis of both categories of junction-associated plaques should provide a basis for understanding the establishment and the dynamics of junction-cytoskeleton interaction.

  17. Relation of cholesterol and lipoprotein parameters with carotid artery plaque characteristics: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Salim S; Catellier, Diane J; Pompeii, Lisa A; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Wasserman, Bruce A; Coresh, Josef; Mosley, Thomas H; Otvos, James D; Sharrett, A Richey; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2011-12-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding relations of apolipoproteins (apolipoprotein B [ApoB] and apolipoprotein A-1 [Apo A-1]), lipoprotein particle measures (low-density lipoprotein particle concentration [LDLp] and high-density lipoprotein particle concentration [HDLp]), and lipoprotein cholesterol measures (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) with atherosclerotic plaque burden, plaque eccentricity, and lipid-rich core presence as a marker of high-risk plaques. Carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 1670 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants. Vessel wall and lipid cores were measured; normalized wall index (NWI), standard deviation (SD) of wall thickness (measure of plaque eccentricity) were calculated; and lipid cores were detected in vessels with ≥ 1.5mm thickness. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol, ApoB and Apo A-1, and LDLp and HDLp were measured. Measures of plaque burden (carotid wall volume, wall thickness, and NWI) were positively associated with atherogenic cholesterol and lipoproteins (p < 0.05 for total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, ApoB, and LDLp), but not with HDL-C, Apo A-1, or HDLp. SD of wall thickness was associated with total cholesterol (p 0.01) and non-HDL-C (p 0.02). Although measures of atherogenic or anti-atherogenic cholesterol or lipoprotein were not individually associated with detection of a lipid-rich core, their ratios (total cholesterol/HDL-C, non-HDL-C/HDL-C, and LDLp/HDLp) were associated with lipid-rich core presence (p ≤ 0.05). Extent of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with atherogenic cholesterol and lipoproteins. Atherogenic/anti-atherogenic cholesterol or particle ratios were associated with presence of a detectable lipid-rich core. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaque obtained from carotid endarterectomy: association between symptomatology and plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Takami; Tanaka, Toshihide; Endo, Shinichi; Komine, Kazumasa; Kudo, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Hiroo; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Carotid plaque with hemorrhage leads to cerebral embolism and ischemic stroke. Plaque angiogenesis and angiogenetic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are critical in the progression of atherosclerotic carotid plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage. The correlation between plaque angiogenesis and presence of clinical symptoms was studied in 41 specimens obtained during carotid endarterectomy from 20 symptomatic and 21 asymptomatic patients treated for carotid artery stenosis. Histological findings using hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining against von Willebrand factor and VEGF were examined. Intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, necrosis, and invasion of foam cells were frequently observed in the carotid plaques from symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Higher microvessel density was found in the carotid plaques with necrosis and invasion of foam cells compared with plaques without necrosis and/or foam cell invasion, and higher expression of VEGF was found from symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patents. These results suggest that plaque angiogenesis and higher level of VEGF expression may enhance the progression of ischemic symptoms in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Invasive macrophages in the plaque of symptomatic patients increase levels of VEGF and might enhance plaque angiogenesis and atherosclerosis progression.

  19. Bacterial colonization during de novo plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Per; Sekino, Satoshi; Uzel, Naciye Guzin; Socransky, Sigmund; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-11-01

    To determine microbial changes that occur during plaque formation in a dentition free of gingival inflammation. Ten subjects were recruited. The study included one preparatory period (2 weeks) and a plaque accumulation period (4 days). The volunteers exercised proper tooth cleaning methods, were scaled and received repeated professional mechanical tooth cleaning during the preparatory period. During the plaque accumulation period, the participants abstained from plaque control measures. Plaque was scored on the approximal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars on Days 0, 1, 2 and 4 using a scale from 0 to 5 and according to the criteria of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index (QHI). Supragingival plaque samples were obtained from the same intervals and surfaces and evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The mean QHI increased from 0 to 1.6 (Day 4). The total number of organisms on Day 0 averaged 140 x 10(5) and increased to about 210 x 10(5) after 4 days without oral hygiene. The most dominant species on Day 0 were members of the genus Actinomyces. These organisms comprised almost 50% of the microbiota evaluated. None of the Actinomyces species increased significantly during the 4 days. Some Streptococcus species increased significantly over time as well as species of the genera Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Fusobacteria and Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans. In the present investigation, the preparatory phase established a situation with minimal gingival inflammation and close to zero amounts of dental plaque. The Day 0 plaque samples exhibited high proportions of Actinomyces species. During the 4 days of no oral hygiene, there was a small increase in total numbers of organisms as well as a modest increase in the proportion of "disease-associated" taxa such as species of the "orange complex" species.

  20. Apopotic gene Bax expression in carotid plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Zhong MEN; Ding-Biao ZHOU; Huai-Yin SHI; Xiao-Ming ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The expression of BAX in carotid atherosclerosis and its regulation is far from defined. Objectives To investigate BAX expression in stable/fibrous and instable/vulnerable carotid plaque and its clinical significance. Methods 25 cases of carotid plaque specimens obtained from endarterectomy were divided into two groups, stable/fibrous 14 cases, vulnerable/instable 11 cases; aortic artery and its branches from hepatic transplantation donors 6 case as control. The expression of proapoptotic BAX was detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC), in situ hybridization(ISH) and in situ TdT dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results 5 cases of BAX ( + ) were detected by ICH and ISH, 4 case of TUNEL ( + ) were detected by TUNEL in stable/fibrous carotid plaque , while 10 cases were BAX ( + )by IHC(P < 0.05) , 11case by ISH and 9 case by TUNEL were detected in instable/vulnerable carotid plaque ( P < 0.01 ), respectively. The intensity of BAX ( + ) cells by IHC and ISH was 8.63 ± 2.62 and 10.32 ± 3.12 in fibrous plaques, whereas 122 ± 21.64and 152 ± 23.35 in vulnerable plaques, respectively. No expression of BAX was found in controlled group. Conclusion The higher expression of Bax in vulnerable carotid plaque may be one mechanisms in molecular pathogenesis of carotid atherosclerosis which affect plaque stability and be the cause of higher incidence of stroke than fibrous carotid plaques, the regulation of BAX expression in different stage of atherosclerosis may provide targets in gene therapy for carotid atherosclerosis.

  1. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a core of noncrystalline and/or crystalline lipid, and a developed or developing collagenous cap. Total intimal volumes of the lipid-containing lesions, termed "fibrolipid lesions," ranged from 3 to 43 microliters, with the majority less than 16 microliters. Core lipid in the smallest lesions was located in the musculoelastic layer of the intima. In larger lesions the core extended luminally into the elastic hyperplastic layer, and cholesterol crystals were found more frequently. Total cholesterol concentration in fibrolipid lesions was similar to that in fatty streaks; however, the ratio of unesterified to total cholesterol was relatively high, similar to that found in fibrous plaques. It is concluded that 1) the formation of a lipid-rich core and cholesterol crystallization are early events in the development of many raised lesions; 2) the consistent association between the superficial layer of foam cells and the deep-lying lipid-rich core raises the possibility of an influence, possibly indirect, of foam-cell lipid metabolism on core formation; and 3) the fibrolipid lesion may represent one stage in a potential transitional morphologic sequence between fatty streak and fibrous plaque. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:4025509

  2. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Le; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

    2013-02-27

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SFO) is the major electrophilic metabolite of safrole (4-allyl-1, 2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant constituent found in essential oils of numerous edible herbs and spices and in food containing these herbs, such as pesto sauce, cola beverages and bologna sausages. The effects of SFO in mammalian systems, especially the cardiovascular system, are little known. Disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the main cause of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated SFO-induced atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability (possibility of rupture) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Lipid area in vessel wall reached 59.8% in high dose SFO (SFO-HD) treated group, which is only 31.2% in control group. SFO treatment changed the lesion composition to an unstable phenotype, increased the number of apoptotic cells in plaque and the endothelium in plaques was damaged after SFO treatment. Furthermore, compared with control groups, the plaque endothelium level of p75(NTR) was 3-fold increased and the liver level of p75(NTR) was 17.4-fold increased by SFO-HD. Meanwhile, the serum level of KC (a functional homolog of IL-8 and the main proinflammatory alpha chemokine in mice) in apoE(-/-) mice was up to 357pg/ml in SFO-HD treated group. Thus, SFO contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE(-/-) mice through activating p75(NTR) and IL-8 and cell apoptosis in plaque.

  3. Magnetic force microscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva T.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work by methods of scanning probe microscopy, namely by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy the fragments of atherosclerotic plaque section of different nature were investigated. The fragments of atherosclerotic vessels with elements of immature plaque were taken during the coiled artery bypass surgery by alloprosthesis. As the result of investigation we found magnetically ordered phase of endogenous origin in the fragment of solid plaque of mixed structure. This phase is presents biogenic magnetic nanoparticles and their clusters with average size characteristic of 200-400 nm.

  4. Endogenous activated angiotensin-(1-7) plays a protective effect against atherosclerotic plaques unstability in high fat diet fed ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Meng, Xiao; Dong, Mei; Guo, Tao; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    We recently found that exogenous angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] inhibits Angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation and enhances plaque stability. Our objective was to evaluate the role of endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) during atherosclerosis. In mice, the effects of endogenous Ang-(1-7) on atherogenesis in early stage and plaque stability in late stage were observed in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet. Blockage of endogenous Ang-(1-7) with A779, an Ang-(1-7) antagonist, did not increase early plaque lesion formation, however, it remarkably enhanced contents of lipids and macrophages and decreased contents of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagens in late lesions. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, and the expressions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases were significantly elevated in A779-treated group than those in vehicle-treated group in late lesions. Exogenous Ang-(1-7) treatment attenuated early atherosclerotic plaque formation and enhanced late plaques stability in this model. The contents of Ang-II and Ang-(1-7) and activity of ACE2 in late atherosclerotic plaques were higher than those of early atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) enhanced late atherosclerotic plaques stability but did not affect early atherosclerotic plaque formation. Therapies to elevate endogenous Ang-(1-7) may be a potentially effective approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaques vulnerability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Evaluating collagen morphology and pathological lipid deposition using multiphoton image statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Tian, Hong; Hewko, Mark; Shiomi, Masashi; Major, Arkady; Sowa, Michael G.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we present a novel image analysis methodology to quantify and to classify morphological details in tissue collagen fibril organization and lipid deposition. Co-localized collagen (second harmonic, SHG) and lipid (coherent Raman, CARS) images of atherosclerotic artery walls were acquired by a supercontinuum-powered multi-modal nonlinear microscope. Textural features based on the first-order statistics (FOS) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters were extracted from the SHG and CARS images. Multi-group classifications based on support vector machine of SHG and CARS images were subsequently performed to investigate the potential of texture analysis in providing quantitative descriptors of structural and compositional changes during disease progression. Using a rabbit model, different collagen remodeling and lipid accumulation patterns in disease tissues can be successfully tracked using these image statistics, thus providing a robust foundation for classification. When the variation of the CARS image features were tracked against the age of the rabbit, it was noticed that older animals (advanced plaques) present a more complex necrotic core containing high-lipid extracellular structures with various shapes and distribution. With combined FOS and GLCM texture statistics, we achieved reliable classification of SHG and CARS images acquired from atherosclerotic arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed image analysis methodology can also be applied in a wide range of applications to evaluate conditions involving collagen re-modeling and prominent lipid accumulation.

  6. Large plaque parapsoriasis in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta; Gangopadhyay Asok

    2005-01-01

    A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases.

  7. Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166550.html Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again Researchers believe these substances form in early ... in the brain signals an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. It's been known for years that in ...

  8. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize Inflammatory Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Xiaohu; Beebe, Tyler; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Predicting metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions has remained an unmet clinical need. We hereby developed an electrochemical strategy to characterize the inflammatory states of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Using the concentric bipolar microelectrodes, we sought to demonstrate distinct Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements for unstable atherosclerotic plaques that harbored active lipids and inflammatory cells. Using equivalent circuits to simulate vessel impedance at the electrode-endoluminal tissue interface, we demonstrated specific electric elements to model working and counter electrode interfaces as well as the tissue impedance. Using explants of human coronary, carotid, and femoral arteries at various Stary stages of atherosclerotic lesions (n = 15), we performed endoluminal EIS measurements (n = 147) and validated with histology and immunohistochemistry. We computed the vascular tissue resistance using the equivalent circuit model and normalized the resistance to the lesion-free regions. Tissue resistance was significantly elevated in the oxLDL-rich thin-cap atheromas (1.57±0.40, n = 14, p 0.05). Hence, we demonstrate that the application of EIS strategy was sensitive to detect fibrous cap oxLDL-rich lesions and specific to distinguish oxLDL-absent fibroatheroma. PMID:21959227

  9. Atherosclerotic Aortic Plaques Detected by Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云; 朱文玲; 倪超; 郭丽琳; 曾勇; 方理刚

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of atherosclerotic aortic plaques in coronary artery disease (CAD) Methods In 50patients with suspected coronary artery disease, transesophageal echocardiography was performed to examine their thoracic aortas 2 weeks before or after coronary angiography. In the cases of coronary angiography studied, stenosis of the coronary artery ≥ 50 % was considered to be due to coronary artery disease,whereas the thickness of the intima ≥ 1.3 mm was taken to be the criteria for the presence of an atherosclerotic aortic plaque on the transesophageal echocardiographic test. Results Among the 50 patients, 37 cases were diagnosed as CAD and 13 cases were considered to be normal. The plaques of the thoracic aorta were observed in 34cases in the CAD group and 3 cases in the normal group. The sensitivity and specificity of aortic plaques for CAD were 91.9 % and 76.9%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the aortic plaques for CAD were 91.9% and 76.9%, respectively. The accuracy was 88.0%. 80 percent of the patients with single- yes sel disease had thoracic aortic plaques, 92 percent of the patients with two-vessel disease and 100 percent of the patients with three-vessel disease had thoracic aortic plaques. There was a significant difference in the thickness of aortic intimas between the normal group and the CAD group. Conclusions Detectingatherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta with transesophageal echocardiography may be of great value in predicting the presence and extent of coronary artery disease.

  10. Effects of cast gold surface finishing on plaque retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M P; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G; Wade, C K

    1980-02-01

    The relationship between the surface finish on cast gold restorations and the amount of plaque deposited on that surface was examined. Six different finishes were tested. The rough finish was found to accumulate significantly less plaque than the other finishes. Every finish exhibited some plaque accumulation, even after the first 24 hours. Each finish accumulated progressively more plaque at each successive time interval.

  11. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Qi

    Full Text Available Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30. Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10 were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10 and C (n = 10 using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured.DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05.After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels.

  12. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  13. The association of lesion eccentricity with plaque morphology and components in the superficial femoral artery: a high-spatial-resolution, multi-contrast weighted CMR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerotic plaque morphology and components are predictors of subsequent cardiovascular events. However, associations of plaque eccentricity with plaque morphology and plaque composition are unclear. This study investigated associations of plaque eccentricity with plaque components and morphology in the proximal superficial femoral artery using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Twenty-eight subjects with an ankle-brachial index less than 1.00 were examined with 1.5T high-spatial-resolution, multi-contrast weighted CMR. One hundred and eighty diseased locations of the proximal superficial femoral artery (about 40 mm were analyzed. The eccentric lesion was defined as [(Maximum wall thickness- Minimum wall thickness/Maximum wall thickness] ≥ 0.5. The arterial morphology and plaque components were measured using semi-automatic image analysis software. Results One hundred and fifteen locations were identified as eccentric lesions and sixty-five as concentric lesions. The eccentric lesions had larger wall but similar lumen areas, larger mean and maximum wall thicknesses, and more calcification and lipid rich necrotic core, compared to concentric lesions. For lesions with the same lumen area, the degree of eccentricity was associated with an increased wall area. Eccentricity (dichotomous as eccentric or concentric was independently correlated with the prevalence of calcification (odds ratio 3.78, 95% CI 1.47-9.70 after adjustment for atherosclerotic risk factors and wall area. Conclusions Plaque eccentricity is associated with preserved lumen size and advanced plaque features such as larger plaque burden, more lipid content, and increased calcification in the superficial femoral artery.

  14. Correlation between morphologic carotid plaque findings based on color-Doppler and CT multidetector angiography with intraopertive findings in carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Živorad N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vast majority of patients with corotid artery sclerosis do not have transitory ischemic attacks (TIA as working to the persistent silent disease, but stroke is the first sign. Precise and early diagnosis of the carotid artery disease and plaques are very important. The aim of this study was to determine how the composition / identity of diagnostic methods, color-Doppler, ultrasonography (US CT multidetector angio (MDCTA scan and intraoperative (IO findings, as well as the morphology of plaques in patients with haemodynamic significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Methods. Carotid plaques were observed by two diagnostic methods, US and MDCTA, and these findings were correlated with the IO findings. Results. In 62 patients both carotid artheries were examined and 83 plaques were observed. There were 68 surgical interventions. The structure of plaques was divided into four types: lipid, fibrous, fibrocalcified and calcified plaque. US showed: lipid plaques 10.8%; fibrous 1.2%; fibrocalcified 44.6% and calcified 43.4%, and the MDCTA lipid plaques 8.4%; fibrocalcified 48.2% and calcified 43.4%. Intraoperative findings were: lipid plaques 10.3%; fibrocalcified 41.2% and calcified 48.5%. A statistically highly significant agreement between the US and MDCTA in the diagnosis of plaque morphology was obtained (Cramer's V = 0.919, p < 0.01; Lambda = 0.921, p < 0.01 and also statistically significant agreement between US and IO findings (Cramer' s V = 0.831, p < 0.01; Lambda = 0.859, p < 0.01. A statistically highly significant agreement between MDCTA and IO findings in plaque morphology was found, as well (Cramer's V = 0.815, p < 0.01; Lambda = 0.829, p < 0.01. Conclusion. There is statistically highly significant correlation between US and MDCTA diagnostic methods in the evaluation of plaque morphology in surgically significant stenosis of internal carotid artery as well as their agreement with the intraoperative finding.

  15. Extracellular matrix proteomics identifies molecular signature of symptomatic carotid plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Sarah R.; Willeit, Karin; Didangelos, Athanasios; Matic, Ljubica Perisic; Skroblin, Philipp; Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Lengquist, Mariette; Rungger, Gregor; Kapustin, Alexander; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Molenaar, Chris; Lu, Ruifang; Barwari, Temo; Suna, Gonca; Iglseder, Bernhard; Paulweber, Bernhard; Willeit, Peter; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Davies, Alun H.; Monaco, Claudia; Hedin, Ulf; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the “vulnerable plaque,” necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS. We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Proteomics data were integrated with gene expression profiling of 121 carotid endarterectomies and an analysis of protein secretion by lipid-loaded human vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, epidemiological validation of candidate biomarkers was performed in two community-based studies. RESULTS. Proteomics and at least one of the other two approaches identified a molecular signature of plaques from symptomatic patients that comprised matrix metalloproteinase 9, chitinase 3-like-1, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100A9, cathepsin B, fibronectin, and galectin-3-binding protein. Biomarker candidates measured in 685 subjects in the Bruneck study were associated with progression to advanced atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year follow-up period. A 4-biomarker signature (matrix metalloproteinase 9, S100A8/S100A9, cathepsin D, and galectin-3-binding protein) improved risk prediction and was successfully replicated in an independent cohort, the SAPHIR study. CONCLUSION. The identified 4-biomarker signature may improve risk prediction and diagnostics for the management of cardiovascular disease. Further, our study highlights the strength of tissue-based proteomics for biomarker discovery. FUNDING. UK: British Heart Foundation (BHF); King’s BHF Center; and the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center based at Guy’s and St

  16. The acylation and phosphorylation pattern of lipid A from Xanthomonas Campestris strongly influence its ability to trigger the innate immune response in arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico;

    2008-01-01

    in Arabidopsis, or to prevent the hypersensitive response (HR) that is caused by avirulent bacteria as the lipid A from the wild-type could. This suggests that Xcc has the capacity to modify the structure of the lipid A to reduce its activity as a PAMP. We speculate that such effects might occur in wild...

  17. The acylation and phosphorylation pattern of lipid A from Xanthomonas Campestris strongly influence its ability to trigger the innate immune response in arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    completion and introduces significant modification in the lipid A region, which involves the degree of acylation and nonstoichiometric substitution of the phosphate groups with phosphoethanolamine. Lipid A that was isolated from Xcc strain 8530 did not have the ability to induce the defense-related gene PR1...

  18. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  19. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  20. Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Experimental Atherosclerosis with the USPIO-Enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chun-Mei; Du, Lili; Wu, Wei-Heng; Li, Dong-Ye; Hao, Ji; Gong, Lei; Deng, Liangrong; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-11-01

    This study's goal was to assess the diagnostic value of the USPIO-(ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in abdominal aorta in experimental atherosclerosis. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. Each group comprised 15 animals which were fed with high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks and then subjected to balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. After another 8 weeks, animals in Group B received adenovirus carrying p53 gene that was injected through a catheter into the aortic segments rich in plaques. Two weeks later, all rabbits were challenged with the injection of Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Pre-contrast images and USPIO-enhanced MRI images were obtained after pharmacological triggering with injection of USPIO for 5 days. Blood specimens were taken for biochemical and serological tests at 0 and 18 weeks. Abdominal aorta was histologically studied. The levels of serum ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA. Vulnerable plaques appeared as a local hypo-intense signal on the USPIO-enhanced MRI, especially on T2*-weighted sequences. The signal strength of plaques reached the peak at 96 h. Lipid levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both Group A and B compared with the levels before the high cholesterol diet. The ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group B compared with Group A. The USPIO-enhanced MRI efficiently identifies vulnerable plaques due to accumulation of USPIO within macrophages in abdominal aorta plaques.

  1. Imaging Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation via Folate Receptor Targeting Using a Novel 18F-Folate Radiotracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Müller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Folate receptor β (FR-β is overexpressed on activated, but not resting, macrophages involved in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A pivotal step in atherogenesis is the subendothelial accumulation of macrophages. In nascent lesions, they coordinate the scavenging of lipids and cellular debris to define the likelihood of plaque inflammation and eventually rupture. In this study, we determined the presence of FR-β-expressing macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions by the use of a fluorine-18-labeled folate-based radiotracer. Human endarterectomized specimens were used to measure gene expression levels of FR-β and CD68. Increased FR-β and CD68 levels were found in atherosclerotic plaques compared to normal artery walls by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent FR-β protein levels in plaques. FR- β-positive cells colocalized with activated macrophages (CD68 in plaque tissue. Carotid sections incubated with 3′-aza-2′- [18F]fluorofolic acid displayed increased accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques through in vitro autoradiography. Specific binding of the radiotracer correlated with FR-β-expressing macrophages. These results demonstrate high FR-β expression in atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid tissue correlating with CD68-positive macrophages. Areas of high 3′-aza-2′-[18F]fluorofolic acid binding within the lesions represented FR-β-expressing macrophages. Selectively targeting FR-β-positive macrophages through folate-based radiopharmaceuticals may be useful for noninvasive imaging of plaque inflammation.

  2. Relationship among soluble CD105,hypersensitive C-reactive protein and coronary plaque morphology:an intravascular ultrasound study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Song; GE Chang-jiang; LIU Hong; L(U) Shu-zheng; CHEN Yun-dai; HE Guo-xiang; MENG Li-jun; LIU Jian-ping; SONG Zhi-yuan; LIU Xian-liang; SONG Xian-tao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rupture of unstable plaque with subsequent thrombus formation is the common pathophysiological substrate of acute coronary syndrome(ACS).It is of potential significance to explore the blood indexes predicting plaque characteristics.We investigated the relationship among soluble CD105,hypersensitive C-reactive protein(hs-CRP),and coronary plaque morphology.Methods A clinical study from April 2004 to December 2006 was conducted in 130 patients who were divided into 3 groups:56 patients(43.1%)in stable angina(SA)group,52 patients(40.0%)in unstable angina(UA)group and 22 patients(16.9%)in acute myocardial infarction group.The concentrations of soluble CD105 and hs-CRP were measured ln all of the patients by cardioangiography(CAG).Plasma samples of arterial blood were collected prior to the procedure.The levels of soluble CD105 and hs-CRP were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Unstable and ruptured plaque was found more frequently in patients with acute myocardial infarction and UA.External elastic membrane cross-sectional area(EEM CSA),plaque area,lipid pool area and plaque burden were significantly larger in the ruptured and unstable plaque group.Positive remodeling,thinner fabric-cap,smaller minimal lumen cross-sectional area(MLA),dissection and thrombus were significantly more frequent in the ruptured and unstable plaque group.Remodeling index(RI)was positively correlated with the levels of soluble CD105 in the UA group (r=0.628,P<0.01)and the acute myocardial infarction group(r=0.639,P<0.01).The Ievels of soluble CD105 and hs-CRP were higher in the ruptu red plaque group.Soluble CD105>4.3 ng/ml was used to predict ruptured plaque with a receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve area of 0.77(95%confidence interval(Cl),66.8%-87.2%),a sensitivity of 72.8%,a specificity of 78.0%and an accuracy of 70.2%(P<0.01),similarly for hs-CRP>5.0 mg/ml with a ROC curve area of 0.70 (95%Cl,59.2%-80.2%),a sensitivity of 70.2%,a

  3. Relationship between hs-CRP, proMMP-1, TIMP-1 and coronary plaque morphology: intravascular ultrasound study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing-wei; ZHOU Liang; YE Xian-hua; XU Jian; GE Jun-bo; YANG Jian-min; GE Lei; WANG Ning-fu; GAO Yan; LI Pei-zhang; PAN Hao; TONG Guo-xin

    2006-01-01

    Background Rupture of unstable plaque with subsequent thrombus formation is the common pathophysiological substrate of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It is of potential significance to explore the blood indexes predicting plaque characteristics. Little studies have focused on this field. Therefore we investigated the relationship between hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-1 (proMMP-1),tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and coronary plaque morphology.Methods Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination was done in 152 patients with confirmed coronary heart disease before percutaneous coronary intervention from February 2003 to July 2005. Plasma samples of arterial blood were collected prior to the procedure. The level of hs-CRP, proMMP-1 and TIMP-1 were respectively measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Unstable and ruptured plaque were found more frequently in patients with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina. External elastic membrane cross-sectional area (EEM CSA), plaque area, lipid pool area and plaque burden were significantly larger in ruptured and unstable plaque group. Positive remolding, thinner frequent in ruptured and unstable plaque group. The levels of plasma hs-CRP, proMMP-1 and TIMP-1 were higher in ruptured plaque group. hs-CRP>8.94 mg/L was used to predict ruptured plaque with a ROC curve area of 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 67.0%-85.8%], sensitivity of 71.8%, specificity of 77.0% and accuracy of 69.2% (P<0.01), similarly for proMMP-1>0.12 ng/ml with a ROC curve area of 0.69 [95% CI, 58.2%-80.2%], sensitivity of 69.2%, specificity of 75.2% and accuracy of 66.2% (P<0.01), and TIMP-1>83.45 ng/ml with a ROC curve area of 0.67 [95% CI, 56.2%-78.3%], sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 61.9% and accuracy of 66.2% (P<0.01).Conclusion The plaque characteristics correlate with the clinical presentation. The elevation of hs-CRP,proMMP-1 and

  4. Volumetric Analysis of Carotid Plaque Components and Cerebral Microbleeds: A Correlative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Sanfilippo, Roberto; di Martino, Michele; Porcu, Michele; Montisci, Roberto; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Anzidei, Michele; Francone, Marco; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the association between carotid plaque volume (total and the subcomponents) and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Seventy-two consecutive (male 53; median age 64) patients were retrospectively analyzed. Carotid arteries were studied by using a 16-detector-row computed tomography scanner whereas brain was explored with a 1.5 Tesla system. CMBs were studied using a T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo sequence. CMBs were classified as from absent (grade 1) to severe (grade 4). Component types of the carotid plaque were defined according to the following Hounsfield unit (HU) ranges: lipid less than 60 HU; fibrous tissue from 60 to 130 HU; calcification greater than 130 HU, and plaque volumes of each component were calculated. Each carotid artery was analyzed by 2 observers. The prevalence of CMBs was 35.3%. A statistically significant difference was observed between symptomatic (40%) and asymptomatic (11%) patients (P value = .001; OR = 6.07). Linear regression analysis demonstrated an association between the number of CMBs and the symptoms (P = .0018). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis found an association between the carotid plaque subcomponents and CMBs (Az = .608, .621, and .615 for calcified, lipid, and mixed components, respectively), and Mann-Whitney test confirmed this association in particular for the lipid components (P value = .0267). Results of this study confirm the association between CMBs and symptoms and that there is an increased number of CMBs in symptomatic patients. Moreover, we found that an increased volume of the fatty component is associated with the presence and number of CMBs. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between caries and dental plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Sule; Okte, Zeynep; Fidanci, Ulvi Reha

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dental caries and the biochemical composition of dental plaque and to determine the effect of a 10% sucrose solution on the biochemical structure of dental plaque in children. 60 children grouped according to caries status took part in this study [Caries-free (CF), DMFS=0, df-s = 0; Caries-positive (CP), DMFS > or =10, df-s > or =10]. Dental plaque samples were collected before (baseline) and at 3 and 30 minutes after a 1-minute rinse with 10% sucrose. Fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) levels were determined using ion chromatography, and insoluble polysaccharide (IEPS) concentrations were determined using colorimetric analysis. Although the mean baseline Ca and Pi levels in plaque were higher in the CF group than in the CP group, these differences were not statistically significant. Baseline IEPS levels were significantly higher in the CP group than in the CF group. Following exposure to sucrose, plaque F, Ca and Pi concentrations decreased significantly in both groups. However, insoluble polysaccharide concentrations increased significantly in the CF group only.

  6. Data on the lipoprotein (a, coronary atherosclerotic burden and vulnerable plaque phenotype in angiographic obstructive coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Niccoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein Lp(a represents an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. However, its association with CAD burden and lipid rich plaques prone to rupture in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS still remains unknown. These data aim to investigate the association among serum Lipoprotein(a (Lpa levels, coronary atherosclerotic burden and features of culprit plaque in patients with ACS and obstructive CAD. For his reason, a total of 500 ACS patients were enrolled for the angiographic cohort and 51 ACS patients were enrolled for the optical coherence tomography (OCT cohort. Angiographic CAD severity was assessed by Sullivan score and by Bogaty score including stenosis score and extent index, whereas OCT plaque features were evaluated at the site of the minimal lumen area and along the culprit segment. In the angiographic cohort, Lp(a was a weak independent predictor of Sullivan score (p30 md/dl compared to patients with lower Lp(a levels (<30 md/dl exhibited a higher prevalence of lipidic plaque at the site of the culprit stenosis (P=0.02, a wider lipid arc (p=0.003 and a higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (p=0.004

  7. Data on the lipoprotein (a), coronary atherosclerotic burden and vulnerable plaque phenotype in angiographic obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Chin, Diana; Scalone, Giancarla; Panebianco, Mario; Abbolito, Sofia; Cosentino, Nicola; Jacoangeli, Francesca; Refaat, Hesham; Gallo, Giovanna; Salerno, Gerardo; Volpe, Massimo; Crea, Filippo; De Biase, Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Lipoprotein Lp(a) represents an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its association with CAD burden and lipid rich plaques prone to rupture in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) still remains unknown. These data aim to investigate the association among serum Lipoprotein(a) (Lpa) levels, coronary atherosclerotic burden and features of culprit plaque in patients with ACS and obstructive CAD. For his reason, a total of 500 ACS patients were enrolled for the angiographic cohort and 51 ACS patients were enrolled for the optical coherence tomography (OCT) cohort. Angiographic CAD severity was assessed by Sullivan score and by Bogaty score including stenosis score and extent index, whereas OCT plaque features were evaluated at the site of the minimal lumen area and along the culprit segment. In the angiographic cohort, Lp(a) was a weak independent predictor of Sullivan score (p30 md/dl) compared to patients with lower Lp(a) levels (<30 md/dl) exhibited a higher prevalence of lipidic plaque at the site of the culprit stenosis (P=0.02), a wider lipid arc (p=0.003) and a higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (p=0.004).

  8. Differentiation of pityriasis rubra pilaris from plaque psoriasis by dermoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azim, N E; Ismail, S A; Fathy, E

    2017-05-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) and plaque psoriasis (PP) are two distinctive erythemato-squamous skin diseases that often have to be differentiated from each other and from other similar dermatoses. Dermoscopy has been proven to aid the clinical diagnosis of several inflammatory disorders, minimizing the need for skin biopsy. Our aim was to determine the dermoscopic patterns of PRP compared to PP and to assess the significance of certain dermoscopic criteria in the diagnosis of PRP. This case-control study included 11 patients with biopsy proven PRP and 25 patients with biopsy proven plaque psoriasis. The most recently developed lesion of each patient was examined by non-contact dermoscopy. Whitish keratotic plugs and linear vessels in yellowish background are significant dermoscopic features of PRP compared to white diffuse scales and dotted vessels in a light red background in PP. In conclusion, PRP and PP reveal specific distinguishing dermoscopic patterns that may assist in their clinical diagnosis and may also be useful for the differential diagnosis from other resembling dermatoses.

  9. Tear film lipid layer pattern in office dry eye%办公室干眼泪膜脂质层形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓博; 陈绮; 王耀增

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the tear film lipid layer pattern in office dry eye (ODE) with a Keeler tearscope and to determine its relationship to clinical tests.Methods Cross-sectional study.Thirty-three ODE patients and 28 control subjects participated in this study.Subjects were evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI),which was followed by measurements of the total tear meniscus volume (TTMV),tear film lipid layer thickness (TFLLT) grading,non-invasive tear breakup time (NITBUT),fluorescein tear breakup time (FTBUT),corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) and Schirmer I test (SIT).All the measurements were performed on one eye selected at random for each subject.A paired t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in each variable between the two groups.Spearman's rank correlation was used to indicate the relationship between TFLLT and other variables in the ODE group.Results TFLLT grading was significantly lower in the ODE group [2(1~3)] compared to the control group [3(3~4)] (U=250,P<0.01).High sensitivity and specificity of TFLLT grading (0.545 and 0.857,respectively) were found in the diagnosis of ODE,the cut-off value of which was grade 2.TFLLT grading was correlated with TTMV (r=0.349,P<0.05) and NITBUT (r=0.485,P<0.05),while it was not correlated with the OSDI score,FTBUT,CFS or SIT.Conclusion A Keeler tearscope may effectively evaluate tear film lipid layer in ODE.Tear film lipid layer can also reflect the tear meniscus volume and tear film stability in ODE.%目的 应用Keeler泪膜镜评估办公室干眼泪膜脂质层形态的变化,并分析泪膜脂质层与其他干眼检测方法之间的相关性.方法 横断面研究.本研究共纳入61例办公室工作人员(干眼患者33例,正常者28例).所有受检者采用随机数字表法选择一眼按照以下顺序进行检查:干眼症状问卷表(OSDI)、泪新月容量、泪膜脂质层形态、非侵入性泪膜破裂时间、荧光素泪膜破裂时间、

  10. The nitroxide radical TEMPOL prevents obesity, hyperlipidaemia, elevation of inflammatory cytokines, and modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition in apoE(-/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bursill, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines and markers (interleukin-6, IL-6; monocyte-chemotactic protein, MCP-1; myeloperoxidase, MPO; serum amyloid A, SAA; adiponectin; leptin). Plaques in the aortic sinus were analysed for area, and content of collagen, lipid, macrophages and smooth muscle cells. RESULTS: High...... and a decrease in adiponectin. TEMPOL supplementation reversed these effects. When compared to HFD-fed mice, TEMPOL supplementation increased plaque collagen content, decreased lipid content and increased macrophage numbers. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in a well-established model of obesity...

  11. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, P

    1999-01-01

    The origin of gingival inflammation is occasionally different from that of routine plaque-associated gingivitis, and such non-plaque-associated types of gingivitis often present characteristic clinical features. Examples of such forms of gingivitis are specific bacterial, viral, and fungal......, a confirmed diagnosis may require histopathologic examination and/or culture. Atypical gingivitis may also occur as gingival manifestations of dermatological diseases, the most relevant of these being lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, erythema multiforme, and lupus erythematosus. Non-plaque......, the most important of these being Candida species including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guillermondii. Gingival histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum and, as for the other specific infections of gingiva...

  12. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms...... such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable...... that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive...

  13. Association between traditional cholesterol parameters, lipoprotein particle concentration, novel biomarkers and carotid plaques in retired National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Salim S; Pompeii, Lisa; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dunn, Reginald E; Tucker, Andrew M; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Vogel, Robert A; Boone, Jeffrey L; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-06-01

    We assessed whether low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than traditional cholesterol parameters in retired National Football League (NFL) players. It is not known whether LDL-P and the biomarker hs-CRP can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in retired NFL players, given high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these players. Carotid artery plaque screening was performed with traditional lipids, LDL-P, and hs-CRP in 996 retired players. Logistic regression analyses comparing highest with the lowest quartile were performed. Carotid artery plaques were seen in 41%. LDL-C (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.59), non-HDL-C (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67), and LDL-P (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62) were associated with plaques in adjusted models. Among 187 retired players with metabolic syndrome, LDL-C (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.53-3.72) was not associated with carotid plaques, whereas LDL-P (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.16-11.84) and non-HDL-C (OR 2.63, 95% CI 0.91-7.63, p=0.07; borderline significant) were associated with carotid plaques. hs-CRP (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.71-1.79) was not associated with carotid plaques. Carotid artery plaques were common in retired NFL players and were strongly associated with LDL-P, especially among those with metabolic syndrome. hs-CRP was not associated with carotid plaques in this cohort. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Plaque components affect wall stress in stented human carotid artery: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-Min; Liu, Xiao; Du, Cheng-Fei; Sun, An-Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhan-Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Carotid artery stenting presents challenges of in-stent restenosis and late thrombosis, which are caused primarily by alterations in the mechanical environment of the artery after stent implantation. The present study constructed patient-specific carotid arterial bifurcation models with lipid pools and calcified components based on magnetic resonance imaging. We numerically analyzed the effects of multicomponent plaques on the distributions of von Mises stresses (VMSs) in the patient-specific models after stenting. The results showed that when a stent was deployed, the large soft lipid pool in atherosclerotic plaques cushioned the host artery and reduced the stress within the arterial wall; however, this resulted in a sharp increase of VMS in the fibrous cap. When compared with the lipid pool, the presence of the calcified components led to slightly increased stresses on the luminal surface. However, when a calcification was located close to the luminal surface of the host artery and the stenosis, the local VMS was elevated. Overall, compared with calcified components, large lipid pools severely damaged the host artery after stenting. Furthermore, damage due to the calcified component may depend on location.

  15. Plaque components affect wall stress in stented human carotid artery:A numerical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Fan; Xiao Liu; Cheng-Fei Du; An-Qiang Sun; Nan Zhang; Zhan-Ming Fan; Yu-Bo Fan; Xiao-Yan Deng

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting presents challenges of in-stent restenosis and late thrombosis, which are caused primarily by alterations in the mechanical environment of the artery after stent implantation. The present study con-structed patient-specific carotid arterial bifurcation models with lipid pools and calcified components based on magnetic resonance imaging. We numerically analyzed the effects of multicomponent plaques on the distributions of von Mises stresses (VMSs) in the patient-specific models after stenting. The results showed that when a stent was deployed, the large soft lipid pool in atherosclerotic plaques cushioned the host artery and reduced the stress within the arterial wall;how-ever, this resulted in a sharp increase of VMS in the fibrous cap. When compared with the lipid pool, the presence of the calcified components led to slightly increased stresses on the luminal surface. However, when a calcification was located close to the luminal surface of the host artery and the stenosis, the local VMS was elevated. Overall, compared with calcified components, large lipid pools severely dam-aged the host artery after stenting. Furthermore, damage due to the calcified component may depend on location.

  16. Molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in experimental atherosclerotic plaques with radiolabelled B2702-p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisat, A.; Riou, L.M.; Ardisson, V.; Fagret, D.; Ghezzi, C. [INSERM, U340, Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques, La Tronche (France); Universite de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Boturyn, D.; Dumy, P. [Universite de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); LEDSS V - Ingenierie Moleculaire, CNRS UMR 5616, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-06-15

    VCAM-1 plays a major role in the chronic inflammatory processes present in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The residues 75-84 (B2702-p) and 84-75/75-84 (B2702-rp) of the major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-1) molecule B2702 were previously shown to bind specifically to VCAM-1. We hypothesised that radiolabelled B2702-p and B2702-rp might have potential for the molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Preliminary biodistribution studies indicated that {sup 125}I-B2702-rp was unsuitable for in vivo imaging owing to extremely high lung uptake. {sup 123}I- or {sup 99m}Tc-labelled B2702-p was injected intravenously to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits (WHHL, n = 6) and control animals (n = 6). After 180 min, aortas were harvested for ex vivo autoradiographic imaging, gamma-well counting, VCAM-1 immunohistology and Sudan IV lipid staining. Robust VCAM-1 immunostaining was observed in Sudan IV-positive and to a lesser extent in Sudan IV-negative areas of WHHL animals, whereas no expression was detected in control animals. Significant 2.9-fold and 1.9-fold increases in {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p aortic-to-blood ratios, respectively, were observed between WHHL and control animals (p < 0.05). Tracer uptake on ex vivo images co-localised with atherosclerotic plaques. Image quantification indicated a graded increase in {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p activities from control to Sudan IV-negative and to Sudan IV-positive areas, consistent with the observed pattern of VCAM-1 expression. Sudan IV-positive to control area tracer activity ratios were 17.0 {+-} 9.0 and 5.9 {+-} 1.8 for {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p, respectively. Radiolabelled B2702-p is a potentially useful radiotracer for the molecular imaging of VCAM-1 in atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  17. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  18. Computer-implemented system and method for automated and highly accurate plaque analysis, reporting, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, James Herbert (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor); Lambert, James (Inventor); Lam, Raymond (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-implemented system and method of intra-oral analysis for measuring plaque removal is disclosed. The system includes hardware for real-time image acquisition and software to store the acquired images on a patient-by-patient basis. The system implements algorithms to segment teeth of interest from surrounding gum, and uses a real-time image-based morphing procedure to automatically overlay a grid onto each segmented tooth. Pattern recognition methods are used to classify plaque from surrounding gum and enamel, while ignoring glare effects due to the reflection of camera light and ambient light from enamel regions. The system integrates these components into a single software suite with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to do an end-to-end run of a patient record, including tooth segmentation of all teeth, grid morphing of each segmented tooth, and plaque classification of each tooth image.

  19. Salidroside Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu-Chun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside is isolated from Rhodiola rosea and is one of the main active components in Rhodiola species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Salidroside on atherosclerotic plaque formation in high-fat diet-(HFD- fed female LDL receptor knockout (LDLr-/- mice. LDLr-/- mice fed an atherogenic HFD for 12 weeks were divided into two groups. One group was administered Salidroside (50 mg/kg/oral gavage daily for 8 weeks, while the control group was administered saline. Salidroside treatment reduced serum lipids levels and the plaque area through the arch to the abdominal aorta. Furthermore, Salidroside improved macrophage content and enhanced collagen and smooth muscle cells contents in the aortic sinus. These changes were associated with reduced MCP-1, VCAM-1, and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic aortas. All these results suggest that Salidroside decreases atherosclerotic plaques formation via effects on lipid lowering and anti-inflammation in HFD-fed LDLr−/− mice.

  20. Fluoride concentration in plaque in adolescents after topical application of different fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld-Larsson, K; Modéer, T; Twetman, S

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the fluoride (F) concentration in plaque after a single topical application of different fluoride varnishes with contrasting levels of F. Thirty adolescents (12-17 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Bifluoride (6% F), Duraphat (2.23% F) and Fluor Protector (0.1% F). The varnishes were applied after professional cleaning in one upper quadrant, leaving the opposite quadrant untreated according to the split-mouth technique. Pooled plaque samples from each quadrant were collected at baseline and 3 days, 7 days and 30 days after the varnish treatment, and fluoride was analysed by microdiffusion. All fluoride varnishes increased the fluoride concentration in plaque compared with baseline, and the mean values varied between 23 and 138 ng F/mg after 3 days, depending on varnish F concentration. Compared with the control quadrant, statistically significant elevations were recorded for Bifluoride after 3 days and 7 days and Duraphat after 3 days, while no significant differences were revealed in the Fluor Protector group. The fluoride concentration in plaque was back to baseline levels for all participants in the Duraphat group after 7 days, while some individuals in the Bifluoride and Fluor Protector groups still registered slightly increased levels after 30 days. The results suggest that fluoride varnish treatments resulted in elevated fluoride levels in plaque adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances for a period of up to 1 week, although different patterns was disclosed for the various brands.

  1. Polarization properties of amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological practice, birefringence is used for the identification of amyloidosis in numerous tissues. Amyloid birefringence is caused by the parallel arrangement of fibrous protein aggregates. Since neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also linked to the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, optical methods sensitive to birefringence may act as non-invasive tools for Aβ identification. At last year's Photonics West, we demonstrated polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging of ex vivo cerebral tissue of advanced stage AD patients. PS-OCT provides volumetric, structural imaging based on both backscatter contrast and tissue polarization properties. In this presentation, we report on polarization-sensitive neuroimaging along with numerical simulations of three-dimensional Aβ plaques. High speed PS-OCT imaging was performed using a spectral domain approach based on polarization maintaining fiber optics. The sample beam was interfaced to a confocal scanning microscope arrangement. Formalin-fixed tissue samples as well as thin histological sections were imaged. For comparison to the PS-OCT results, ray propagation through plaques was modeled using Jones analysis and various illumination geometries and plaque sizes. Characteristic polarization patterns were found. The results of this study may not only help to understand PS-OCT imaging of neuritic Aβ plaques but may also have implications for polarization-sensitive imaging of other fibrillary structures.

  2. Different patterns of oxidized lipid products in plasma and urine of dengue fever, stroke, and Parkinson's disease patients: cautions in the use of biomarkers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Yung J; Seet, Raymond C S; Huang, Shan Hong; Long, Lee Hua; Halliwell, Barry

    2009-03-01

    Many products of lipid oxidation have been associated with human diseases. These include F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs), and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Here we present measurements of F2-IsoPs, HETEs, COPs, and arachidonate in single plasma samples of patients with acute (dengue fever and ischemic stroke) and chronic (Parkinson's) diseases, and in age-matched study controls. Urine samples were collected for F2-IsoPs analysis. Our analysis demonstrated elevated F2-IsoPs levels in ischemic stroke, HETEs in Parkinson's disease, dengue fever, and ischemic stroke, and COPs in Parkinson's disease and dengue fever patients, as compared with those in age-matched study controls. Strong but complex correlations were observed between levels of certain oxidized lipid products and age. The relations between various oxidized lipids and dengue fever, stroke, and Parkinson's disease are discussed in relation to the selection and application of biomarkers of oxidative lipid damage, in particular the need for corrections for age and lipid levels.

  3. Alzheimer's Protein Plaques May Also Harm the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162241.html Alzheimer's Protein Plaques May Also Harm the Heart Deposits ... fragments that form plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients might also stiffen their heart muscle and ...

  4. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; Cerroni, L

    2013-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease.

  5. Infliximab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Gall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Gall, Robert E KalbState University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Dermatology, NY, USAAbstract: Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα. It is used in the treatment of a number of inflammatory disorders including severe plaque psoriasis. TNFα is thought to have a major role in psoriasis by promoting an inflammatory infiltrate into the skin and inducing keratinocyte proliferation and preventing keratinocyte apoptosis, which directly contributes to the characteristic plaque skin lesions. Based on four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials and nine open-label uncontrolled trials of the use of infliximab in plaque psoriasis, it was found that infliximab is a highly efficacious, rapid, sustainable, and relatively safe therapy. Yet as with any biologic, caution is recommended in its use as infusion reactions, lupus-like syndromes, infections, malignancies including lymphomas, as well as other rare events have been reported.Keywords: infliximab, psoriasis, plaque

  6. Large plaque parapsoriasis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases.

  7. Intracoronary Thermography: a vulnerable Plaque Detection Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. ten Have (Anna)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis were performed to answer the central question: can intracoronary thermography be used for vulnerable plaque detection? To answer this question, we have identified parameters that influence intracoronary thermography measurements, and have studied to w

  8. Mathematical models for atherosclerotic plaque evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulelzai, M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which low density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulate in the arterial wall due to an inflammatory response, which is triggered by the oxidation of LDL molecules that are already present in the arterial wall. Progression of atherosclerotic plaques involves many components wh

  9. Digitate dermatosis (small-plaque parapsoriasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Jesse; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2012-12-15

    We report a 79-year-old man with a 15-year history of elongated, finger-like, erythematous patches that are symmetrically distributed on his flanks and of small, parapsoriasis, which is a benign entity that has been the center of controversy over the years, owing to its similarities to large-plaque parapsoriasis, which is on a spectrum with mycosis fungoides.

  10. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Polichetti Paolo; Sgueglia Monica; Blasi Sara; Tartaglia Francesco; Tromba Luciana; Berni Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome) are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a ki...

  11. Adalimumab: A Review in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Celeste B; McKeage, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor (TNF), formulated for subcutaneous administration. It is well established in the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and has recently received approval in the EU for the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis in children and adolescents from 4 years of age. In a phase III trial in paediatric patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg (to a maximum of 40 mg) every other week (eow) achieved a ≥75 % improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than those receiving methotrexate after 16 weeks of treatment. In adults, well-designed randomized clinical trials demonstrated that adalimumab 40 mg eow effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of psoriasis and improved dermatology-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life, with these benefits sustained during long-term treatment. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo or methotrexate, during clinical trials in paediatric and adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Thus, adalimumab remains an important treatment strategy in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and provides a promising new systemic treatment option for children and adolescents from 4 years of age with severe psoriasis.

  12. mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid efflux and matrix degradation in occlusive and ectatic atherosclerotic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soumian, S; Gibbs, R.; Davies, A.; Albrecht, C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerotic plaque behaviour is influenced by intraplaque inflammation, matrix turnover, and the lipid core volume. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulates atherosclerosis by its anti-inflammatory and anti-protease activity. PPARγ promotes lipid efflux through the liver X receptor α (LXRα) and the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) are implicated in plaque instability.

  13. Positive remodeling index by MSCT coronary angiography: A prognostic factor for early detection of plaque rupture and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad H. Abdeldayem

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Previous studies had shown that most acute coronary syndromes were initiated by sudden changes of mildly stenotic lesions, commonly found in positively remodeled vessels. Promising comparative results between MSCT and IVUS allowed consideration of MDCT as a useful tool in the noninvasive detection of potentially threatening coronary lesions. In our study, RI ⩾ 1.5 showed a strong correlation between the lipid plaque area, multiplicity of the plaques, and cross sectional area which were prognostic factors for plaque rupture and vulnerability, and thus, early detection of coronary artery disease. Modulation and prevention of positive remodeling by statin could promote to start medical treatment especially in cases where RI exceeds 1.5 and their follow up non-invasively by MDCT to detect reversal of remodeling and response of treatment.

  14. Oxidized LDL in carotid plaques and plasma associates with plaque instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nishi, Kyoko; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Uno, Masaaki; Kitazato, Keiko T; Horiguchi, Hidehisa; Shinno, Kiyohito; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation of LDL plays a significant pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. In this study, we attempted to clarify the correlation between the morphology of human atherosclerotic plaques and the oxidized LDL (OxLDL...

  15. Inflamed psoriatic plaques: Drug toxicity or disease exacerbation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of Methotrexate treated stable plaque psoriasis, in whom inflamed psoriatic plaques of drug toxicity were misdiagnosed as disease exacerbation. Erosive psoriatic plaques were present in the absence of biochemical or hematological derangements. Ulceration of psoriatic plaques in the presence of disturbed hematological profile is well described as a harbinger of methotrexate toxicity, but this kind of erosions in the absence of any systemic involvement is the first report of its kind.

  16. Influence of plaque-forming bacterium, Rhodobacteraceae sp. on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to find out the molecular features, infection process of a special alga plaque-forming microorganism and its potential influence on the biomass of Chlorella vulgaris during the infection process. Direct contact between the algal cell and the bacterium may be the primary steps needed for the bacterium to lyse the alga. Addition of C. vulgaris cells into f/2 medium allowed us obtain the object bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons results showed that the plaque-forming bacterium kept the closest relationship with Labrenzia aggregata IAM 12614(T) at 98.90%. The existence of the bacterium could influence both the dry weight and lipid content of C. vulgaris. This study demonstrated that direct cell wall disruption of C. vulgaris by the bacterium would be a potentially effective method to utilize the biomass of microalgae.

  17. Epigenetic Patterns in Blood Associated With Lipid Traits Predict Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events and Are Enriched for Results From Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Åsa K.; Mendelson, Michael M.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Joehanes, Roby; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Zhi, Degui; Sandling, Johanna K.; Yao, Chen; Liu, Chunyu; Liang, Liming; Huan, Tianxiao; McRae, Allan F.; Demissie, Serkalem; Shah, Sonia; Starr, John M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deloukas, Panos; Spector, Timothy D.; Sundström, Johan; Krauss, Ronald M.; Arnett, Donna K.; Deary, Ian J.; Lind, Lars; Levy, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background— Genome-wide association studies have identified loci influencing circulating lipid concentrations in humans; further information on novel contributing genes, pathways, and biology may be gained through studies of epigenetic modifications. Methods and Results— To identify epigenetic changes associated with lipid concentrations, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation at cytosine–guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood from 2306 individuals from 2 population-based cohorts, with replication of findings in 2025 additional individuals. We identified 193 CpGs associated with lipid levels in the discovery stage (P<1.08E-07) and replicated 33 (at Bonferroni-corrected P<0.05), including 25 novel CpGs not previously associated with lipids. Genes at lipid-associated CpGs were enriched in lipid and amino acid metabolism processes. A differentially methylated locus associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; cg27243685; P=8.1E-26 and 9.3E-19) was associated with cis-expression of a reverse cholesterol transporter (ABCG1; P=7.2E-28) and incident cardiovascular disease events (hazard ratio per SD increment, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–1.66; P=0.0007). We found significant cis-methylation quantitative trait loci at 64% of the 193 CpGs with an enrichment of signals from genome-wide association studies of lipid levels (PTC=0.004, PHDL-C=0.008 and Ptriglycerides=0.00003) and coronary heart disease (P=0.0007). For example, genome-wide significant variants associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease at APOB were cis-methylation quantitative trait loci for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol–related differentially methylated locus. Conclusions— We report novel associations of DNA methylation with lipid levels, describe epigenetic mechanisms related to previous genome-wide association studies discoveries, and provide evidence implicating epigenetic regulation of reverse cholesterol

  18. Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging A Window to Study Atherosclerosis and Identify High-Risk Plaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oikawa, Minako; Ota, Hideki; Takaya, Norihide; Miller, Zach; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun

    2009-01-01

    ...: the so-called "vulnerable plaque". A reliable, in vivo, imaging method capable of identifying plaque characteristics associated with high-risk plaque will be immensely useful for evaluating plaque status and predicting future events...

  19. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  20. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace;

    2014-01-01

    carotid plaque volume and 376 measures of plaque texture. Patients were followed up to 5 years (median [range], 3.12 [0.77-4.66]) for myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and stroke. Sparse Cox regression was used to select the most predictive plaque texture measurements in independent...

  1. En plaque meningioma in thoracic spine: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kang, Ho Yeong; Yoon, Deug Hee; Jo, Byung June; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Young Geun [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Spinal en plaque meningioma is rarely found in the spinal canal, although lateral sphenoid wing meningioma displays a propensity for growth en plaque. We encountered a case of completely circumferential spinal en plaque meningioma, which is an even rarer condition. Herein, we report the CT MRI findings along with a review of the related literature.

  2. Carotid plaque signal differences among four kinds of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques: A histopathological correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Ayumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Mao; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Several magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used to examine atherosclerotic plaque of carotid arteries; however, the best technique for visualizing intraplaque characteristics has yet to be determined. Here, we directly compared four kinds of T1-weighted (T1W) imaging techniques with pathological findings in patients with carotid stenosis. A total of 31 patients who were candidates for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T MRI scanner, which produced four kinds of T1W images, including non-gated spin echo (SE), cardiac-gated black-blood (BB) fast-SE (FSE), magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE), and source image of three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (SI-MRA). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was manually measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) against the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs from the four imaging techniques were compared to each other and correlated with histopathological specimens. CRs of the carotid plaques mainly containing fibrous tissue, lipid/necrosis, and hemorrhage were significantly different with little overlaps (range: 0.92-1.15, 1.22-1.52, and 1.55-2.30, respectively) on non-gated SE. However, BB-FSE showed remarkable overlaps among the three groups (0.89-1.10, 1.07-1.23, and 1.01-1.42, respectively). MPRAGE could discriminate fibrous plaques from hemorrhagic plaques but not from lipid/necrosis-rich plaques: (0.77-1.07, 1.45-2.43, and 0.85-1.42, respectively). SI-MRA showed the same tendencies (1.01-1.39, 1.45-2.57, and 1.12-1.39, respectively). Among T1W MR imaging techniques, non-gated SE images can more accurately characterize intraplaque components in patients who underwent CEA when compared with cardiac-gated BB-FSE, MPRAGE, and SI-MRA images. (orig.)

  3. Detection of atherosclerotic plaque progression in the abdominal aorta of rabbits with 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-hai; ZHAO Lei; ZHAO Quan-ming; FENG Ting-ting; SHANG Jian-feng; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2012-01-01

    Background With features of high tissue contrast,MRI can be used for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of atherosclerosis plaques.In this study we investigated the development of atherosclerosis plaque with high resolution 3T MRI in a rabbit model and compared the findings with the histopathological results.Method Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated into an experimental group (n=16) and a control group (n=4).Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in the abdominal aorta by balloon injury and cholesterol feeding.Multiple sequences MRI examination (ToF,T1WI,T2WI,and CE T1WI) were performed at the 2nd,3rd,and 4th months after aortic denudation.Vessel wall thickness,total vessel area,lumen area,and vessel wall area were recorded.Plaque components were analyzed using histological results as a standard reference.Results Seventeen rabbits (14 in the experimental group and 3 in the control group) received all three MR examinations.Gradually,from 2 months to 4 months,vessel wall thickness and area in the experimental group increased significantly compared with the control group (P <0.01).In the lumen area progressive stenosis was not found,even a slight dilation had developed in the experimental group.Lipid,fibretic and calcified plaques can be differentiated by MR image.According to histological results,MRI had good performance in detection of lipid plaque.Conclusion MRI can be used to monitor progression of atherosclerosis and differentiate plaque components.

  4. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support divers...

  5. Effect of coronary heart disease combined with hyperhomocysteinemia on carotid plaque features and stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ling Ning; Gang Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of coronary heart disease combined with hyperhomocysteinemia on carotid plaque features and stroke.Methods:A total of 110 patients with coronary heart disease treated from May 2011 to May 2012 were selected for study, and according to the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), they were divided into high Hcy groups (plasma Hcy ≥10 μmol/L) and normal Hcy group (plasma Hcy <10 μmol/L). Carotid ultrasonography was conducted and the plaque features were assessed, plasma levels of plaque stability-related molecules, lipid metabolism indexes and inflammatory mediators of two groups were detected, and the incidence of stroke were followed up for 3 years.Results: The number of instable carotid plaques of high Hcy group was more than that of normal Hcy group, and carotid intima-media thickness was higher than that of normal Hcy group; plasma TG, TC, LDL-C, PAPP-A, OPN, PTX3, ANGPTL4, MMP7, MMP9, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MCP-1 levels of high Hcy group were significantly higher than those of normal Hcy group, HDL-C, IL-10, IL-13, TGFβ and IL-4 levels were significantly lower than those of normal Hcy group, and plasma ApoA and ApoB levels were not statistically different from those of normal Hcy group; 3 years of follow-up showed that the incidence of stroke of high Hcy group on the 1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year were higher than those of normal Hcy group.Conclusions:Carotid plaque instability increases, and the risk of long-term stroke is higher in coronary heart disease patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  6. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  7. Transient scrotal hyperthermia induces lipid droplet accumulation and reveals a different ADFP expression pattern between the testes and liver in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most mammals, the testes provide a stable environment for spermatogenesis, which depends on a lower temperature than the core body temperature. It has been reported that mild testicular heating safely and reversibly suppresses spermatogenesis, and is under consideration for its potential application as a male contraceptive. Previously, we focused on the molecular mechanism of germ cell apoptosis and anti-apoptotic factors induced by heat treatment in humans and mice. However, the recovery process remains under investigation. RESULTS: In this study, we found that lipid droplets in mouse testes are dramatically increased after a brief period of scrotal hyperthermia, and gradually dissipate following temperature normalization. Analysis of the human testis proteome revealed nine proteins associated with lipid droplets. Two of them, ADFP (also known as ADRP and PLIN2 and TIP47 (also known as PLIN3 may participate in acute lipid droplet formation in mammalian testes. We show that Adfp expression is upregulated after scrotal heat treatment in mice. Surprisingly, we find Adfp lacking its 5'-UTR is observed in Adfp(Δ1/Δ1 mouse testes, but is not detectable in liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal testis Adfp transcriptional regulation is tissue-specific, and is associated with lipid droplet accumulation induced by heat. The results also indicate that the testes could retain functional proteins through testes-specific transcriptional regulation.

  8. Quantitative coronary plaque analysis predicts high-risk plaque morphology on coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B; Lu, Michael T; Ghemigian, Khristine; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Pursnani, Amit; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2017-08-12

    Semi-automated software can provide quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaques on coronary CT angiography (CTA). The relationship between established qualitative high-risk plaque features and quantitative plaque measurements has not been studied. We analyzed the association between quantitative plaque measurements and qualitative high-risk plaque features on coronary CTA. We included 260 patients with plaque who underwent coronary CTA in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial. Quantitative plaque assessment and qualitative plaque characterization were performed on a per coronary segment basis. Quantitative coronary plaque measurements included plaque volume, plaque burden, remodeling index, and diameter stenosis. In qualitative analysis, high-risk plaque was present if positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign or spotty calcium were detected. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque assessment. Among 888 segments with coronary plaque, high-risk plaque was present in 391 (44.0%) segments by qualitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, segments with high-risk plaque had higher total plaque volume, low CT attenuation plaque volume, plaque burden and remodeling index. Quantitatively assessed low CT attenuation plaque volume (odds ratio 1.12 per 1 mm(3), 95% CI 1.04-1.21), positive remodeling (odds ratio 1.25 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.10-1.41) and plaque burden (odds ratio 1.53 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.08-2.16) were associated with high-risk plaque. Quantitative coronary plaque characteristics (low CT attenuation plaque volume, positive remodeling and plaque burden) measured by semi-automated software correlated with qualitative assessment of high-risk plaque features.

  9. Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast tomography of atherosclerotic plaque at high photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, Holger; Fill, Sandra [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Herzen, Julia [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. und Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany). Zentrum fuer Materialforschung] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Background: Tissue characterization of atherosclerosis by absorption-based imaging methods is limited due to low soft-tissue contrast. Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) may become an alternative for plaque assessment if the phase signal can be retrieved at clinically applicable photon energies. The aims of this feasibility study were (i) to characterize arterial vessels at low and high photon energies, (ii) to extract qualitative features and (iii) quantitative phase-contrast Hounsfield units (HU-phase) of plaque components at 53 keV using histopathology as gold standard. Materials and methods: Five human carotid artery specimens underwent grating-based PC-CT using synchrotron radiation of either 23 keV or 53 keV and histological work-up. Specimens without advanced atherosclerosis were used to extract signal criteria of vessel layers. Diseased specimens were screened for important plaque components including fibrous tissue (FT), lipid (LIP), necrotic core (NEC), intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), inflammatory cell infiltration (INF) and calcifications (CA). Qualitative features as well as quantitative HU-phase were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three regions in 6 corresponding PC-CT scans and histology sections were identified. Healthy samples had the same signal characteristics at 23 keV and 53 keV with bright tunica intima and adventitia and dark media. Plaque components showed differences in signal intensity and texture at 53 keV. Quantitative analysis demonstrated the highest HU-phase of soft plaque in dense FT. Less organized LIP, NEC and INF were associated with lower HU-phase values. The highest HU-phase were measured in CA. Conclusion: PC-CT of atherosclerosis is feasible at high, clinically relevant photon energies and provides detailed information about plaque structure including features of high risk vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  10. Mechanism of ceroid formation in atherosclerotic plaque: in situ studies using a combination of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kramer, John R.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of the lipid-protein complex ceroid is a characteristic of atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanism of ceroid formation has been extensively studied, because the complex is postulated to contribute to plaque irreversibility. Despite intensive research, ceroid deposits are defined through their fluorescence and histochemical staining properties, while their composition remains unknown. Using Raman and fluorescence spectral microscopy, we examine the composition of ceroid in situ in aorta and coronary artery plaque. The synergy of these two types of spectroscopy allows for identification of ceroid via its fluorescence signature and elucidation of its chemical composition through the acquisition of a Raman spectrum. In accordance with in vitro predictions, low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears within the deposits primarily in its peroxidized form. The main forms of modified LDL detected in both coronary artery and aortic plaques are peroxidation products from the Fenton reaction and myeloperoxidase-hypochlorite pathway. These two peroxidation products occur in similar concentrations within the deposits and represent ∼40 and 30% of the total LDL (native and peroxidized) in the aorta and coronary artery deposits, respectively. To our knowledge, this study is the first to successfully employ Raman spectroscopy to unravel a metabolic pathway involved in disease pathogenesis: the formation of ceroid in atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:21280898

  11. Novel methodology for 3D reconstruction of carotid arteries and plaque characterization based upon magnetic resonance imaging carotid angiography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellarios, Antonis I; Stefanou, Kostas; Siogkas, Panagiotis; Tsakanikas, Vasilis D; Bourantas, Christos V; Athanasiou, Lambros; Exarchos, Themis P; Fotiou, Evangelos; Naka, Katerina K; Papafaklis, Michail I; Patterson, Andrew J; Young, Victoria E L; Gillard, Jonathan H; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we present a novel methodology that allows reliable segmentation of the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for accurate fully automated three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the carotid arteries and semiautomated characterization of plaque type. Our approach uses active contours to detect the luminal borders in the time-of-flight images and the outer vessel wall borders in the T(1)-weighted images. The methodology incorporates the connecting components theory for the automated identification of the bifurcation region and a knowledge-based algorithm for the accurate characterization of the plaque components. The proposed segmentation method was validated in randomly selected MRI frames analyzed offline by two expert observers. The interobserver variability of the method for the lumen and outer vessel wall was -1.60%±6.70% and 0.56%±6.28%, respectively, while the Williams Index for all metrics was close to unity. The methodology implemented to identify the composition of the plaque was also validated in 591 images acquired from 24 patients. The obtained Cohen's k was 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for lipid plaques, while the time needed to process an MRI sequence for 3D reconstruction was only 30 s. The obtained results indicate that the proposed methodology allows reliable and automated detection of the luminal and vessel wall borders and fast and accurate characterization of plaque type in carotid MRI sequences. These features render the currently presented methodology a useful tool in the clinical and research arena.

  12. Substrate-supported lipid nanotube arrays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A. I.; Poluektov, O. G.; Chemistry; North Carolina State

    2003-07-16

    This Communication describes the self-assembly of phospholipids into lipid nanotubes inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Orientations of the lipid molecules in such lipid nanoscale structures were verified by high-resolution spin labeling EPR at 95 GHz. The static order parameter of lipids in such nanotube arrays was determined from low-temperature EPR spectra and was found to be exceptionally high, S{sub static} {approx} 0.9. We propose that substrate-supported lipid nanotube arrays have potential for building robust biochips and biosensors in which rigid nanoporous substrates protect the bilayer surface from contamination. The total bilayer surface in the lipid nanotube arrays is much greater than that in the planar substrate-supported membranes. The lipid nanotube arrays seem to be suitable for developing patterned lipid deposition and could be potentially used for patterning of membrane-associated molecules.

  13. Ultrasound Vascular Elastography as a Tool for Assessing Atherosclerotic Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Badar; Ewertsen, C; Carlsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    to distinguish between vulnerable and stable plaques. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on vascular elastography. A systematic search of the available literature for studies using elastography for assessing atherosclerotic plaques was conducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane...... compared to B-mode ultrasound alone. Most studies reported higher strain values for vulnerable plaques. Ultrasound elastography has potential as a clinical tool in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Elastography is able to distinguish between different plaque types, but there is considerable...

  14. APP Function and Lipids: A Bidirectional Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals. Interestingly, the observed lipid changes in the brain seem not only to be a consequence of the disease but also modulate Aβ generation. In line with these observations, protective lipids being able to decrease Aβ generation and also potential negative lipids in respect to AD were identified. Mechanistically, Aβ peptides are generated by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. The α-secretase appears to compete with β-secretase for the initial cleavage of APP, preventing Aβ production. All APP-cleaving secretases as well as APP are transmembrane proteins, further illustrating the impact of lipids on Aβ generation. Beside the pathological impact of Aβ, accumulating evidence suggests that Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD) play an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis, either by direct effects or by affecting gene expression or protein stability of enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of different lipid classes. This review summarizes the current literature addressing the complex bidirectional link between lipids and AD and APP processing including lipid alterations found in AD post mortem brains, lipids that alter APP processing and the physiological functions of Aβ and AICD in the regulation of several lipid metabolism pathways.

  15. 瑞舒伐他汀对老年2型糖尿病合并颈动脉斑块患者同型半胱氨酸与高敏C反应蛋白及血脂的影响%Effects of rosuvastatin on blood homocysteine, high sensitivity C reactive protein and blood lipid in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with carotid artery plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯健; 董兴刚; 俞志满

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on blood homocysteine (Hcy),high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and blood lipid in the elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with carotid artery plaque.Methods Ninety-six senile patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with carotid artery plaque were randomly divided into control group (46 cases) receiving conventional treatment and observation group (50 cases) taking oral rosuvastatin (5 mg/d) in addition to conventional treatment.Before and 6 weeks after treatment,the levels of Hcy,hs-CRP,blood glucose,triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured and compared between the two groups.Results The levels of blood hs-CRP,TG,TC,LDL-C,Hcy in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group [TC:(4.1 ± 1.2) mmol/L vs (4.6 ± 0.9) mmol/L,LDL-C:(2.2±0.6) mmol/L vs (2.6±0.6) mmol/L,hs-CRP:(12±4) mg/L vs (14±4) mg/L,Hcy:(13±4) μmol/L vs (15 ± 3) μmol/L] (P < 0.05).No significant changes of renal function and routine urine test were found after treatment in both the two groups.One case in observation group had impaired fiver function and recovered after taking oral silymarin for two weeks.Conclusion Rosuvastatin can decrease the levels of blood TG,TC,LDL-C,Hcy and hs-CRP in the elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicatred with carotid plaque.%目的 探讨瑞舒伐他汀对老年2型糖尿病合并颈动脉斑块患者同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)及血脂的影响.方法 将96例老年2型糖尿病合并颈动脉斑块患者使用随机数字表法分为对照组(46例)和观察组(50例).对照组进行常规治疗,观察组在常规治疗基础上加用瑞舒伐他汀5 mg/d,口服.比较2组患者治疗前和治疗后6周hs-CRP、Hcy、空腹血糖、三酰甘油、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、

  16. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  17. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  18. Plaque accumulations caused by interdental stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, R J; Jäger, A; Schwestka, R; Bertzbach, F

    1988-11-01

    Human enamel surfaces were stripped with orthodontic grinding and finishing materials, and evaluated with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Even under in vitro conditions with the finest finishing strips, it was not possible to produce an enamel surface free of the furrows that result from the initial abrasion caused by the coarse strip. Enamel surfaces stripped gradually from coarse to superfine were left in the mouths of patients for 12 weeks and evaluated with the SEM. The edges of the furrows were found to be smoother but the furrows remained wide and deep enough to facilitate more plaque accumulations than those on untreated surfaces. The use of dental floss did not result in prevention of plaque accumulations along the bottom of the furrows.

  19. Oculocutaneous albinism complicated with an ulcerated plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanatha Keshavalu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male with a history of albinism and farmer by occupation presented with an ulcerated plaque on the right wrist. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the plaque revealed a well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma. Wide surgical excision was done. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair and eyes. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. Albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Importance of photoprotection, skin cancer surveillance and treatment has been stressed upon in this report.

  20. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  1. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  2. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozek Erdinc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an 18 year old woman with an intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma located in the thoracic region. The patient was operated via thoracic laminoplasty and tumor was totally resected. On the follow-up examination the magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the total excision of the tumor. Here we describe a case of intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord as a complication of tuberculosis meningitis in a previously healthy young female.

  3. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polichetti Paolo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a kind of association did not reveal any case reported. Case presentation A 74 year male patient was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of an abdominal mass in right iliac fossa. He also complained of a two-year history of psoriasiform eruptions. The CT scan showed a retroperitoneal pelvic mass. Therefore surgical resection of the tumor was performed. After surgery, the skin eruptions disappeared completely in seven days and so a diagnosis of parapsoriasis syndrome was done. Conclusion Parallel disappearing of skin eruptions after surgery, typical clinical picture and not specific histology of the cutaneous lesions suggest the diagnosis of small plaque parapsoriasis. Therefore we propose to add Small Plaque Parapsoriasis to the list of paraneoplastic syndromes associated to liposarcoma.

  4. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  5. Phenotype commitment in vascular smooth muscle cells derived from coronary atherosclerotic plaques: differential gene expression of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Unstable angina and myocardial infarction are the clinical manifestations of the abrupt thrombotic occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery as a result of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque rupture or fissuring, and the exposure of highly thrombogenic material to blood. It has been demonstrated that the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and impaired bioavailabilty of nitric oxide (NO are among the most important mechanisms involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. It has also been suggested that a NO imbalance in coronary arteries may be involved in myocardial ischemia as a result of vasomotor dysfunction triggering plaque rupture and the thrombotic response. We used 5’ nuclease assays (TaqMan™ PCRs to study gene expression in coronary plaques collected by means of therapeutic directional coronary atherectomy from 15 patients with stable angina (SA and 15 with acute coronary syndromes (ACS without ST elevation. Total RNA was extracted from the 30 plaques and the cDNA was amplified in order to determine endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression. Analysis of the results showed that the expression of eNOS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in the plaques from the ACS patients. Furthermore, isolated VSMCs from ACS and SA plaques confirmed the above pattern even after 25 plating passages. In situ RT-PCR was also carried out to co-localize the eNOS messengers and the VSMC phenotype.

  6. Effect of plaque accumulation and salivary factors on enamel demineralization and plaque composition in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenuta Livia Maria Andaló

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of some plaque and salivary factors on caries progression in situ. The salivary secretion rate, buffering capacity and mutans streptococci counts from 13 volunteers were determined. For three distinct periods of time, 4, 7 and 10 days, each of them wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine enamel blocks. They used a non-fluoridated dentifrice during the experiment and a 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto the blocks 10 times a day. Mutans streptococci (MS, calcium (Ca, and insoluble polysaccharide (IP were quantified in the dental plaque formed on the enamel blocks, after each period. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface microhardness, and the percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC in relation to the baseline values was calculated. Enamel demineralization occurred after each period of plaque accumulation (p < 0.05, and the %SMC increased with time (from 13.8 to 48.3%. The concentrations of Ca and IP in plaque were not statistically different among the experimental times, but significant correlations were found between these concentrations and %SMC. Neither the salivary factors assessed initially nor mutans streptococci in plaque presented statistically significant correlations to %SMC. The results suggest that enamel demineralization is time-dependent and is more related to the composition of the biofilm formed than to the salivary factors studied.

  7. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  8. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Elżbieta Pociask

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement, segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects.

  9. Thrombosis and morphology of plaque rupture using optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jun; CHEN Yun-dai; TIAN Feng; LIU Hong-bin; CHEN Lian; SUN Zhi-jun; REN Yi-hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombosis following plaque rupture is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome,but not all plaque ruptures lead to thrombosis.There are limited in vivo data on the relationship between the morphology of ruptured plaque and thrombosis.Methods We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the morphology of plaque rupture and its relation to coronary artery thrombosis in patients with coronary heart disease.Forty-two patients with coronary artery plaque rupture detected by OCT were divided into two groups (with or without thrombus) and the morphological characteristics of ruptured plaque,including fibrous cap thickness and broken cap site,were recorded.Results The fibrous cap of ruptured plaque with thrombus was significantly thinner compared to caps without thrombus ((57.00±17.00) μm vs.(96.00±48.00) μm; P=0.0076).Conclusions Plaque rupture associated with thrombosis occurs primarily in plaque covered by a thin fibrous cap.Thick fibrous caps are associated with greater stability of ruptured plaque.

  10. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  11. Clinical and Capillaroscopic Modifications of the Psoriatic Plaque during Therapy: Observations with Oral Acitretin

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    Giuseppe Stinco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is considered to be an inflammatory autoimmune disease, where angiogenesis plays an undefined pathogenetic role. The well-known changes of the superficial microvasculature in the psoriatic plaque can be easily assessed in vivo by videocapillaroscopy. In the last years, several studies reported the clinical and capillaroscopic response of the psoriatic plaque during different topical and systemic treatments. In the present work we evaluated the effects of acitretin (0.8 mg/kg/day on videocapillaroscopic alterations and the clinical response in 11 patients affected by plaque psoriasis at the baseline (T0 and after 4 (T1, 8 (T2, and 12 (T3 weeks. A clinical improvement during the treatment with a complete clinical healing of the plaque in 7 of the 11 patients was observed. The typical “basket-weave” capillaries of the psoriatic lesions showed a reduction of 65.4% in diameter at the end of the study; only 3 patients returned to a normal capillaroscopic pattern. As observed during previous our studies, we found a discrepancy between clinical and capillaroscopic results, with a far greater improvement in the first than in the second. This finding could be in agreement with a secondary role of blood vessels in the pathogenesis and persistence of psoriatic lesions.

  12. Methodology for fully automated segmentation and plaque characterization in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Bourantas, Christos V; Rigas, George; Sakellarios, Antonis I; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Ricciardi, Andrea; Naka, Katerina K; Papafaklis, Michail I; Michalis, Lampros K; Prati, Francesco; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based intracoronary imaging modality that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of the luminal and plaque morphology. Currently, the segmentation of OCT images and identification of the composition of plaque are mainly performed manually by expert observers. However, this process is laborious and time consuming and its accuracy relies on the expertise of the observer. To address these limitations, we present a methodology that is able to process the OCT data in a fully automated fashion. The proposed methodology is able to detect the lumen borders in the OCT frames, identify the plaque region, and detect four tissue types: calcium (CA), lipid tissue (LT), fibrous tissue (FT), and mixed tissue (MT). The efficiency of the developed methodology was evaluated using annotations from 27 OCT pullbacks acquired from 22 patients. High Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained between the output of the developed methodology and the manual annotations (from 0.96 to 0.99), while no significant bias with good limits of agreement was shown in the Bland-Altman analysis. The overlapping areas ratio between experts' annotations and methodology in detecting CA, LT, FT, and MT was 0.81, 0.71, 0.87, and 0.81, respectively.

  13. Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Plaques in Recent Small Subcortical Infarction: A Three-Dimensional High-resolution MR Study

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    Xiao-Dong Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Conventional two-dimensional vessel wall imaging has been used to depict the middle cerebral artery (MCA wall in patients with recent small subcortical infarctions (RSSIs. However, its clinical use has been limited by restricted spatial coverage, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and long scan time. We used a novel three-dimensional high-resolution MR imaging (3D HR-MRI technique to investigate the presence, locations, and contrast-enhanced patterns of MCA plaques and their relationship with RSSI. Methods. Nineteen consecutive patients with RSSI but no luminal stenosis on MR angiography were prospectively enrolled. 3D HR-MRI was performed using a T1w-SPACE sequence at 3.0 T. The presence, locations, and contrast-enhanced patterns of the MCA plaques on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the RSSI were analyzed. Results. Eighteen patients successfully completed the study. MCA atherosclerotic plaques occurred more frequently on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side to the RSSI (72.2% versus 33.3%, P=0.044. The occurrence of superiorly located plaques was significantly higher on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side of the MCA (66.7% versus 27.8%; P=0.044. Conclusions. Superiorly located plaques are closely associated with RSSI. 3D high-resolution vessel wall imaging may be a potential tool for etiologic assessment of ischemic stroke.

  14. Plaque complement activation and cognitive loss in Alzheimer's disease

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    Camp Dianne M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD, but its significance is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between complement activation and cognition during the development of AD. Methods iC3b, C9, Bielschowsky, and Gallyas staining was performed on aged normal (n = 17, mild cognitively impaired (n = 12, and AD (n = 17–18 inferior temporal gyrus specimens. Plaques were counted in 10× fields with high numbers of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. One-way ANOVA was used to determine between-group differences for plaque counts and measures of cognitive function, and linear regression was used to evaluate global cognition as a function of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. Terms for iC3b- and C9-stained plaques were then added sequentially as additional predictors in a "mediation analysis" model. Results Complement was detected on plaques in all groups, and on neurofibrillary tangles only in AD specimens. iC3b, C9, and Bielschowsky-stained plaque counts increased 2.5- to 3-fold in AD vs. other groups (all p ≤ 0.01. C9 staining was present on some diffuse plaques, as well as on neuritic plaques. Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts were highly correlated, and were negatively correlated with cognitive measures. When the Bielschowsky plaque count was used as a predictor, its correlations with cognitive measures were statistically significant, but when iC3b and C9 plaque counts were added as additional predictors, these correlations were no longer significant. This loss of significance was attributed to multicollinearity, i.e., high correlations between Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts. Conclusion Both early-stage (iC3b and late-stage (C9 complement activation occurs on neocortical plaques in subjects across the cognitive spectrum; contrary to previous reports, C9 is present on some diffuse plaques. Because of high correlations between

  15. Invasive evaluation of plaque morphology of symptomatic superficial femoral artery stenoses using combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Sibin K; Safian, Robert D; Madder, Ryan D; Hanson, Ivan D; Pica, Mark C; Smith, James L; Goldstein, James A; Abbas, Amr E

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the plaque morphology of severe stenoses in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) employing combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS). Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Plaque composition of SFA stenoses has been characterized as primarily fibrous or fibrocalcific by non-invasive and autopsy studies. NIRS has been validated to detect lipid-core plaque (LCP) in the coronary circulation. We imaged severe SFA stenoses with NIRS-IVUS prior to revascularization in 31 patients (46 stenoses) with Rutherford claudication ⩾ class 3. Angiographic parameters included lesion location and stenosis severity. IVUS parameters included plaque burden and presence of calcium. NIRS images were analyzed for LCP and maximum lipid-core burden index in a 4-mm length of artery (maxLCBI4mm). By angiography, 38 (82.6%) lesions were calcified and 9 (19.6%) were chronic total occlusions. Baseline stenosis severity and lesion length were 86.0 ± 11.0% and 36.5 ± 46.5 mm, respectively. NIRS-IVUS identified calcium in 45 (97.8%) lesions and LCP in 17 (37.0%) lesions. MaxLCBI4mm was 433 ± 244. All lesions with LCP also contained calcium; there were no non-calcified lesions with LCP. In conclusion, this is the first study of combined NIRS-IVUS in patients with PAD. NIRS-IVUS demonstrates that nearly all patients with symptomatic severe SFA disease have fibrocalcific plaque, and one-third of such lesions contain LCP. These findings contrast with those in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and may have implications regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in different vascular beds.

  16. Lipids changes in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing-ting; XU Ning; ZHANG Xiao-ying; WU Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism.Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver.It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function,which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.When liver cancer occurs,these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed.Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide,and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries.In addition,liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis,so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases,which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo.In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer.

  17. Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 ameliorates inflammation and decreases atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice.

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    Wen-yi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 is thought to play modulatory roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Here we evaluated the effects of a specific lp-PLA2 inhibitor on atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice and its associated mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ApoE-deficient mice fed an atherogenic high-fat diet for 17 weeks were divided into two groups. One group was administered the specific lp-PLA2 inhibitor, darapladib (50 mg/kg/day; p.o. daily for 6 weeks, while the control group was administered saline. We observed no differences in body weight and serum lipids levels between the two groups at the end of the dietary period. Notably, serum lp-PLA2 activity as well as hs-CRP (C-reactive protein and IL-6 (Interleukin-6 levels were significantly reduced in the darapladib group, compared with the vehicle group, while the serum PAF (platelet-activating factor levels were similar between the two groups. Furthermore, the plaque area through the arch to the abdominal aorta was reduced in the darapladib group. Another finding of interest was that the macrophage content was decreased while collagen content was increased in atherosclerotic lesions at the aortic sinus in the darapladib group, compared with the vehicle group. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR performed to determine the expression patterns of specific inflammatory genes at atherosclerotic aortas revealed lower expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1 and TNF-α in the darapladib group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibition of lp-PLA2 by darapladib leads to attenuation of in vivo inflammation and decreased plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice, supporting an anti-atherogenic role during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  18. Dynamic Model Visualizing the Process of Viral Plaque Formation

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    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Microbiology and Virology courses, viral plaques are often presented to students as the way one can visualize viruses/bacteriophages. While students generally grasp the idea that counting plaques is essentially the same as counting viruses in their sample (assuming that one virus entering the cell is sufficient for productive infection, the process of plaque formation itself remains largely obscure. Many students fail to appreciate that viral plaques are actually a “laboratory-made” phenomenon allowing us to observe and study the growth of lytic viruses. The latter often presents a challenge for the interpretation of experimental data related to viral growth and drug discovery using plaque reduction assay. The hands-on model described here creates an opportunity for students to experience the process of viral plaque formation while engaging multiple senses and creating a lasting impression.  

  19. Influence of the spinning rate in the HR-MAS pattern of mobile lipids in C6 glioma cells and in artificial oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sitjar, Juana; Delgado-Goñi, Teresa; Cabañas, Miquel E; Tzen, Jason; Arús, Carles

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate how spinning rate affects mobile lipid (ML) resonances visibility in HR-MAS spectra of C6 glioma cells and artificial oil bodies (AOB), as models of cytosolic lipid droplets. Using C6 cells and AOB of two different sizes, 780 ± 580 and 240 ± 293 nm, as models, we acquired HR-MAS pulse and acquire spectra at different spinning rates between 500 and 15,000 Hz, all at 37 °C. Sample spinning at 15,000 Hz increased by 2.3 and 4.6-fold with respect to 500 Hz spinning the area of resonances corresponding to ML at 0.88 and 1.28 ppm, respectively, for log phase C6 cells. Furthermore, postconfluent C6 cells displayed an increase of 2.5-fold at 0.88 ppm and 4.2-fold at 1.28 ppm. These changes were reversible upon low speed spinning. AOBs did show much lower ML area increases (1.4-1.5-fold) upon high-speed HR-MAS. ML can be reversibly mobilized in C6 glioma cells by high-speed HR-MAS, partially unveiling the NMR "invisible" ML pool. A small part of the ML pool also shows reduced visibility in freely tumbling AOBs.

  20. Plaques Formed by Mutagenized Viral Populations Have Elevated Coinfection Frequencies

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    Aguilera, Elizabeth R.; Erickson, Andrea K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Robinson, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plaque assay is a common technique used to measure virus concentrations and is based upon the principle that each plaque represents a single infectious unit. As such, the number of plaques is expected to correlate linearly with the virus dilution plated, and each plaque should be formed by a single founder virus. Here, we examined whether more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation. By using genetic and phenotypic assays with genetically marked polioviruses, we found that multiple parental viruses are present in 5 to 7% of plaques, even at an extremely low multiplicity of infection. We demonstrated through visual and biophysical assays that, like many viral stocks, our viral stocks contain both single particles and aggregates. These data suggest that aggregated virions are capable of inducing coinfection and chimeric plaque formation. In fact, inducing virion aggregation via exposure to low pH increased coinfection in a flow cytometry-based assay. We hypothesized that plaques generated by viruses with high mutation loads may have higher coinfection frequencies due to processes restoring fitness, such as complementation and recombination. Indeed, we found that coinfection frequency correlated with mutation load, with 17% chimeric plaque formation for heavily mutagenized viruses. Importantly, the frequency of chimeric plaques may be underestimated by up to threefold, since coinfection with the same parental virus cannot be scored in our assay. This work indicates that more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation and that coinfection may assist plaque formation in situations where the amount of genome damage is high. PMID:28292984

  1. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth

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    Sushruth Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening plaques in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of plaque growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of plaques. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery.

  2. Assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis via intravascular photoacoustic imaging of targeted liposomal ICG J-aggregates (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin T.; Dumani, Diego S.; Cook, Jason R.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Homan, Kimberly A.

    2017-03-01

    While molecular and cellular imaging can be used to visualize the conventional morphology characteristics of vulnerable plaques, there is a need to monitor other physiological factors correlated with high rupture rates; a high M1 activated macrophage concentration is one such indicator of high plaque vulnerability. Here, we present a molecularly targeted contrast agent for intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging consisting of liposomes loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) J-aggregates with high absorption at 890 nm, allowing for imaging in the presence of blood. This "Lipo-ICG" was targeted to a biomarker of M1 activated macrophages in vulnerable plaques: folate receptor beta (FRβ). The targeted liposomes accumulate in plaques through areas of endothelial dysfunction, while the liposome encapsulation prevents nonspecific interaction with lipids and endothelium. Lipo-ICG specifically interacts with M1 activated macrophages, causing a spectral shift and change in the 890/780 nm photoacoustic intensity ratio upon breakdown of J-aggregates. This sensing mechanism enables assessment of the M1 activated macrophage concentration, providing a measure of plaque vulnerability. In a pilot in vivo study utilizing ApoE deficient mouse models of atherosclerosis, diseased mice showed increased uptake of FRβ targeted Lipo-ICG in the heart and arteries vs. normal mice. Likewise, targeted Lipo-ICG showed increased uptake vs. two non-targeted controls. Thus, we successfully synthesized a contrast agent to detect M1 activated macrophages in high risk atherosclerotic plaques and exhibited targeting both in vitro and in vivo. This biocompatible agent could enable M1 macrophage detection, allowing better clinical decision making in treatment of atherosclerosis.

  3. Delivery of negatively charged liposomes into the atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aortic tissue.

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    Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Walton, Brian L

    2014-09-01

    Liposomes have been used to diagnose and treat cancer and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular disease. We previously showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into the atheromas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits within lipid pools. However, the cellular distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque remains undescribed. In addition, how anionic liposomes are absorbed into atherosclerotic plaque is unclear. We investigated the uptake and distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque in aortic tissues from apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. To facilitate the tracking of liposomes, we used liposomes containing fluorescently labeled non-silencing small interfering RNA. Confocal microscopy analysis showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into atherosclerotic plaque and colocalization with macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed anionic liposomal accumulation in macrophages. To investigate how anionic liposomes cross the local endothelial barrier, we examined the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) treated with or without the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Pretreatment with amantadine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, significantly decreased liposomal uptake in HCAECs treated with or without TNF-α by 77% and 46%, respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that endogenous clathrin expression was significantly increased in HCAECs stimulated with TNF-α but was inhibited by amantadine. These studies indicated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is partly responsible for the uptake of liposomes by endothelial cells. Our results suggest that anionic liposomes target macrophage-rich areas of vulnerable plaque in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice; this finding may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for treating vulnerable plaque in humans.

  4. Overexpression of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase-α1 Stabilizes but Increases Shear Stress-Induced Atherosclerotic Plaque in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

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    Liu, Xin-xin; Li, Meng-meng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Liang; Wang, Lin; Di, Ming-xue

    2016-01-01

    The rupture and erosion of atherosclerotic plaque can induce coronary thrombosis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in the synthesis of all known types of collagens, which are the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerotic plaque. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is thought to be in part caused by shear stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate a relationship between P4Hα1 and shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid arteries of ApoE−/− mice were exposed to low and oscillatory shear stress conditions by the placement of a shear stress cast for 2 weeks; we divided 60 male ApoE−/− mice into three groups for treatments with saline (mock) (n = 20), empty lentivirus (lenti-EGFP) (n = 20), and lentivirus-P4Hα1 (lenti-P4Hα1) (n = 20). Our results reveal that after 2 weeks of lenti-P4Hα1 treatment both low and oscillatory shear stress-induced plaques increased collagen and the thickness of fibrous cap and decreased macrophage accumulation but no change in lipid accumulation. We also observed that overexpression of P4Ha1 increased plaque size. Our study suggests that P4Hα1 overexpression might be a potential therapeutic target in stabilizing vulnerable plaques.

  5. Lipoprotein (a) is related to coronary atherosclerotic burden and a vulnerable plaque phenotype in angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Cin, Diana; Scalone, Giancarla; Panebianco, Mario; Abbolito, Sofia; Cosentino, Nicola; Jacoangeli, Francesca; Refaat, Hesham; Gallo, Giovanna; Salerno, Gerardo; Volpe, Massimo; Crea, Filippo; De Biase, Luciano

    2016-03-01

    Lipoprotein Lp(a) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its association with CAD burden in patients with ACS is largely unknown, as well as the association of Lp(a) with lipid rich plaques prone to rupture. We aim at assessing CAD burden by coronary angiography and plaque features including thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in consecutive patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and obstructive CAD along with serum Lp(a) levels. This study comprises an angiographic and an OCT cohort. A total of 500 ACS patients (370 men, average age 66 ± 11) were enrolled for the angiographic cohort and 51 ACS patients (29 males, average age 65 ± 11) were enrolled for the OCT cohort. Angiographic CAD severity was assessed by Sullivan score and by Bogaty score including stenosis score and extent index. OCT plaque features were evaluated at the site of the minimal lumen area and along the culprit segment. In the angiographic cohort, at multivariate analysis, Lp(a) was a weak independent predictor of Sullivan score (p < 0.0001), stenosis score (p < 0.0001) and extent index (p < 0.0001). In the OCT cohort, patients with higher Lp(a) levels (≥ 30 md/dl) compared to patients with lower Lp(a) levels (<30 md/dl) exhibited a higher prevalence of lipidic plaque at the site of the culprit stenosis (67% vs. 27%; P = 0.02), a wider lipid arc (135 ± 114 vs 59 ± 111; P = 0.03) and a higher prevalence of TCFA (38% vs. 10%; P = 0.04). Among patients with ACS, raised Lp(a) levels are associated with an increased atherosclerotic burden and it identifies a subset of patients with features of high risk coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plaque biofilms: the effect of chemical environment on natural human plaque biofilm architecture.

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    Robinson, C; Strafford, S; Rees, G; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Watson, P S; Wood, S

    2006-11-01

    The architecture of microbial biofilms especially the outer regions have an important influence on the interaction between biofilm and local environment particularly on the flux of materials into and out of biofilm compartments and as a consequence, biofilm metabolic behaviour. In the case of dental plaque biofilms, architecture will determine access of nutrients including acidogenic substrates and therapeutic materials to the microbial biomass and to the underlying tooth surface. Manipulation of this architecture may offer a means of altering mass transfer into the whole biofilm and biomass and raises the possibility of improving access of therapeutics. Plaque biofilms formed in vivo on human enamel were subjected to a number of different chemical conditions while under observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflection mode. In this way the outer 50-100 microm or so of the biofilms was examined. Density and distribution of biomass were recorded as degree of reflectance. The amount and density of biofilm biomass increased from the plaque saliva interface towards the interior. Plaque biofilms were robust and little affected by mechanical manipulation, high ionic strength or low pH (2.5). Detergent (SLS), however, often appeared to either remove biomass and/or dramatically reduce its density.

  7. Association of Streptococcus with Plaque Type of Psoriasis

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    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guttate psoriasis has a well-known association with streptococcal throat infections, but the effects of these infections in patients with chronic plaque type of psoriasis remains to be evaluated. In Bangladesh several studies were done on psoriasis but no data about association between streptococcal throat infection and plaque type psoriasis are available so far. Considering the co-morbidities of psoriasis patients, it might be justifiable to find out the events that provoke the initiation or exacerbation of psoriatic disease process. Objective: To observe the association of streptococcus with plaque type of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Forty seven patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as having plaque psoriasis were selected as cases and patients with skin diseases other than psoriasis were selected as controls. Results: In this study majority of subjects (55% were diagnosed as chronic plaque psoriasis. Among the subjects with guttate flare of chronic plaque psoriasis 64.2% gave a positive history of sore throat. ASO titer was raised (>200 IU/mL in 28 (59.5% patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and 7 (17.9% patients of non-psoriatic respondents. The difference between two groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that streptococcal throat infections are associated with plaque psoriasis and early treatment of throat infections may be beneficial for plaque type of psoriasis patients.

  8. Microbial characterization of an experimental cariogenic plaque in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, C A; Koulourides, T; Hickman, F; McGhee, J R

    1977-06-01

    Experimentally induced plaque seemed to originate by direct contact inoculation from the vestibular mucosa and saliva. During the next seven days, this plaque developed its own characteristics. Populations of Streptococcus mutans usually less than 2% of total streptococci population in plaques that were less than three days old, increased between days 3 and 7. Proportions of S sanguis, high in early samples, decreased after day 3. Populations of S salivarius, which usually outnumbered other streptococci, fluctuated widely through day 3, and then increased in proportion in subjects who were more productive of experimental caries, but decreased in subjects who were less productive. Proportions of plaque flora comprising lactobacilli paralleled those of S salivarius.

  9. Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the characterization of the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer; Sun, Yinghua; Saroufeem, Ramez; Hatami, Nisa; Fishbein, Michael C.; Marcu, Laura

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the ability of a flexible fiberoptic-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technique to resolve biochemical features in plaque fibrotic cap associated with plaque instability and based solely on fluorescence decay characteristics. Autofluorescence of atherosclerotic human aorta (11 autopsy samples) was measured at 48 locations through two filters, F377: 377/50 and F460: 460/60 nm (center wavelength/bandwidth). The fluorescence decay dynamic was described by average lifetime (τ) and four Laguerre coefficients (LECs) retrieved through a Laguerre deconvolution technique. FLIM-derived parameters discriminated between four groups [elastin-rich (ER), elastin and macrophage-rich (E+M), collagen-rich (CR), and lipid-rich (LR)]. For example, τF377 discriminated ER from CR (R = 0.84); τF460 discriminated E+M from CR and ER (R = 0.60 and 0.54, respectively); LEC-1F377 discriminated CR from LR and E+M (R = 0.69 and 0.77, respectively); P 87% (all cases) and sensitivity as high as 86%. Current results demonstrate for the first time that clinically relevant features (e.g., ratios of lipid versus collagen versus elastin) can be evaluated with a flexible-fiber based FLIM technique without the need for fluorescence intensity information or contrast agents.

  10. Atherosclerotic plaque component segmentation in combined carotid MRI and CTA data incorporating class label uncertainty.

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    Arna van Engelen

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with μCT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty in the ground truth used for training: I soft labels are created by Gaussian blurring of the original binary histology segmentations to reduce weights at the boundaries between components, and are weighted by the estimated registration accuracy of the histology and in vivo imaging data (measured by overlap, II samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall for calcified, fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, using linear discriminant (LDC and support vector machine (SVM classification. In addition, the combination of MRI and CTA data was compared to using only one imaging modality. Best results were obtained by LDC and outlier rejection: the volume error per vessel was 0.9±1.0% for calcification, 12.7±7.6% for fibrous and 12.1±8.1% for necrotic tissue, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.91 (calcification, 0.80 (fibrous and 0.81 (necrotic. While segmentation using only MRI features yielded low accuracy for calcification, and segmentation using only CTA features yielded low accuracy for necrotic tissue, the combination of features from MRI and CTA gave good results for all studied components.

  11. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005).

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    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Rumberia, Cecilia; Michuki, George; Kimotho, James; Ongus, Juliette R; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Island, showed distinct and reproducible large (L2) and small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain and plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines and their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants and S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) and 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 and S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution and a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity and dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain and its variants clustered closely together with each other and with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to understand the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence and viral transmission in mosquito and mammalian hosts.

  12. Anti-plaque agents. Rationale and prospects for prevention of gingivitis and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ouderaa, F J

    1991-07-01

    Oral health surveys have shown that even in countries with established patterns of oral hygiene habits, most individuals have relatively poor gingival health. This is due to a low interest in complying with oral health procedures. A number of factors are apparent when investigating compliance to oral hygiene habits, viz only approximately 50% of the population brushes twice a day or more, brushing time is probably much too short and use of dental floss is not very prevalent. Studies of the effect of motivation on oral hygiene suggest that improvements can be achieved, but these are not maintained unless motivation is continuously reinforced. This suggests that topically applied anti-plaque agents should be used to augment mechanical plaque control. A number of product forms are available to delivery anti-plaque agents i.e., mouthrinses, dentifrices, aqueous gels, and additionally floss, chewing gum and lozenges. Any product form should provide a physically, chemically and microbiologically stable environment for the agent concerned. It should facilitate optimal bioavailability of the agents at the site of action and encourage patient compliance. Anti-plaque agents for topical administration should have the following properties: high intrinsic efficacy against a broad spectrum of oral organisms, toxicological and ecological safety, oral substantivity, no adverse reactions and good chemical stability. A number of classes of anti-plaque agents have been identified such as positively charged organic molecules, metal salts, phenols, enzymes, peroxides, sugar substitutes, fluorides and surface modifying agents. In order to achieve optimal bioavailability, the agent to be dosed should be compatible with the product form used. The 2 major product forms are rinses and dentifrices.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Calculation of arterial wall temperature in atherosclerotic arteries: effect of pulsatile flow, arterial geometry, and plaque structure

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    Kim Taehong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents calculations of the temperature distribution in an atherosclerotic plaque experiencing an inflammatory process; it analyzes the presence of hot spots in the plaque region and their relationship to blood flow, arterial geometry, and inflammatory cell distribution. Determination of the plaque temperature has become an important topic because plaques showing a temperature inhomogeneity have a higher likelihood of rupture. As a result, monitoring plaque temperature and knowing the factors affecting it can help in the prevention of sudden rupture. Methods The transient temperature profile in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques is calculated by solving an energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models of a bending artery and an arterial bifurcation. For obtaining the numerical solution, the commercial package COMSOL 3.2 was used. The calculations correspond to a parametric study where arterial type and size, as well as plaque geometry and composition, are varied. These calculations are used to analyze the contribution of different factors affecting arterial wall temperature measurements. The main factors considered are the metabolic heat production of inflammatory cells, atherosclerotic plaque length lp, inflammatory cell layer length lmp, and inflammatory cell layer thickness dmp. Results The calculations indicate that the best location to perform the temperature measurement is at the back region of the plaque (0.5 ≤ l/lp ≤ 0.7. The location of the maximum temperature, or hot spot, at the plaque surface can move during the cardiac cycle depending on the arterial geometry and is a direct result of the blood flow pattern. For the bending artery, the hot spot moves 0.6 millimeters along the longitudinal direction; for the arterial bifurcation, the hot spot is concentrated at a single location due to the flow recirculation observed at both ends of the plaque. Focusing on the

  14. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed.

  15. The molecular concept of atheromatous plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kosai, Nik; Rajan, Reynu; Das, Srijit

    2016-05-02

    Recently, there are scientific attempts to devise new drugs in the biotechnology industry in order to treat various diseases including atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is considered to be a leading cause of death throughout the world. Atherosclerosis involves oxidative damage to the cells with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Development of atheromatous plaques in the arterial wall is a common feature. Specific inflammatory markers pertaining to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis may be useful for both diagnosis and treatment. These include macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF), leucocytes and P-selectin. Modern therapeutic paradigms involving endothelial progenitor cells therapy, angiotensin II type-2 (AT2R) and ATP-activated purinergic receptor therapy are notable to mention. Future drugs may be designed aiming three signalling mechanisms of AT2R which are (a) activation of protein phosphatases resulting in protein dephosphorylation (b) activation of bradykinin/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway by vasodilation and (c) stimulation of phospholipase A(2) and release of arachidonic acid. Drugs may also be designed to act on ATP-activated purinergic receptor channel type P2X7 molecules which acts on cardiovascular system. In the present review, we discuss the molecular concept of the inflammatory process occurring inside the arterial wall. Better understanding of the vascular inflammatory processes and the cells involved in the formation of plaques, may prove to be beneficial for future diagnosis, clinical treatment and planning innovative novel anti-atherosclerotic drugs.

  16. Concept of Remission in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, Paolo; Di Mercurio, Marco; Idolazzi, Luca; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the worldwide population. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis assigns central importance to an interaction between acquired and innate immunity. The disease is characterized by a series of linked cellular changes in the skin, including hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, angiogenesis, and infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and other types of leukocytes in the affected skin. Plaque psoriasis is the most common clinical form and is characterized by red and scaly plaques generally localized at extensor sites such as elbows and knees. Major determinants of psoriasis severity include the extent of skin involvement; localization in highly affected areas such as scalp, palms, and soles; pruritus; presence of comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis; and impairment on quality of life. About one-third of patients have moderate to severe psoriasis defined as PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and/or Dermatology Life Quality Index>10, and/or affected body surface area>10%. The optimal treatment goal is to safely achieve complete or almost complete skin clearance. Treatments available are various and they are chosen according to disease features, comorbidities, and patient characteristics and priorities. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and Vitamin D analogs are reserved for mild disease. Phototherapy, cyclosporine, methotrexate, acitretin, or biologics such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and ustekinumab are reserved for the moderate to severe forms.

  17. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  18. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  19. Relationship among coronary plaque compliance, coronary risk factors and tissue characteristics evaluated by integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of coronary plaques and plaque behavior, and to elucidate the relationship among tissue characteristics of coronary plaques, mechanical properties and coronary risk factors using integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS. Methods Non-targeted plaques with moderate stenosis (plaque burden at the minimal lumen site: 50-70% located proximal to the site of the percutaneous coronary intervention target lesions were evaluated by IB-IVUS. Thirty-six plaques (less calcified group: an arc of calcification ≤10° in 36 patients and 22 plaques (moderately calcified group: 10°  Results In the less calcified group, there was a significant correlation between EEMV compliance and the relative lipid volume (r = 0.456, p = 0.005. There was a significant inverse correlation between EEM area stiffness index and the relative lipid volume (p = 0.032, r = −0.358. The LV compliance and EEM area stiffness index were significantly different in the diabetes mellitus (DM group than in the non-DM group (1.32 ± 1.49 vs. 2.47 ± 1.79%/10 mmHg, p =0.014 and 28.3 ± 26.0 vs. 15.7 ± 17.2, p =0.020. The EEMV compliance and EEM area stiffness index were significantly different in the hypertension (HTN group than in the non-HTN group (0.77 ± 0.68 vs. 1.57 ± 0.95%/10 mmHg, p =0.012 and 26.5 ± 24.3 vs. 13.0 ± 16.7, p =0.020. These relationships were not seen in the moderately calcified group. Conclusion The present study provided new findings that there was a significant correlation between mechanical properties and tissue characteristics of coronary arteries. In addition, our results suggested that the EEMV compliance and the LV compliance were independent and the compliance was significantly impaired in the patients with DM and/or HTN. Assessment of coronary mechanical properties during PCI may provide us with

  20. Advanced human carotid plaque progression correlates positively with flow shear stress using follow-up scan data: an in vivo MRI multi-patient 3D FSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin

    2010-09-17

    Although it has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS), increasing evidence suggests mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Fourteen patients were scanned 2-4 times at 18 month intervals using a histologically validated multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to acquire carotid plaque progression data. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were constructed and plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) were obtained from all matching lumen data points (400-1000 per plaque; 100 points per matched slice) to quantify correlations with plaque progression measured by vessel wall thickness increase (WTI). Using FSS and PWS data from follow-up scan, 21 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance ratio=21/8/3), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (positive/negative/no significance ratio=2/26/4). The mean FSS value of lipid core nodes (n=5294) from all 47 plaque models was 63.5dyn/cm(2), which was 45% higher than that from all normal vessel nodes (n=27553, p<0.00001). The results from this intensive FSI study indicate that flow shear stress from follow-up scan correlates positively with advanced plaque progression which is different from what has been observed in plaque initiation and early-stage progression. It should be noted that the correlation results do not automatically lead to any causality conclusions.

  1. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  2. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  3. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  4. The Impact of Intermittent and Repetitive Cold Stress Exposure on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Instability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiang Dai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome caused by the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent arterial thrombosis increases as the weather gets colder. However, the association between cold stress and atherosclerotic plaque rupture is currently unknown. Methods: An atherosclerotic plaque model was established in rabbits by balloon injury and a high-fat diet with or without cold stress (4°C, 1 hour per day, 20 weeks at the onset of modeling. Additionally, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL was applied to induce the formation of macrophage foam cells in vitro. Results: Serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines (ox-LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-8 were significantly higher in cold stress-exposed rabbits than in controls (PConclusions: Cold stress may enhance the instability of atherosclerotic plaques through activating ERS and enhancing cell apoptosis. Up-regulated CHOP levels mediated by PERK and ATF6 and the activated IRE1-XBP1-JNK pathway contributed to the apoptosis of foam cells.

  5. Impact of Indoxyl Sulfate, a Uremic Toxin, on Non-Culprit Coronary Plaque Composition Assessed on Integrated Backscatter Intravascular Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiromu; Yamaguchi, Koji; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Niki, Toshiyuki; Taketani, Yoshio; Kitaoka, Atsunori; Kusunose, Kenya; Ise, Takayuki; Tobiume, Takeshi; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Uremic toxin has emerged as an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum uremic toxin and coronary plaque composition on integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS). IB-IVUS was performed in 47 patients with planned treatment for angina pectoris. Non-culprit intermediate plaque analyzed in this study had to be >5 mm apart from the intervention site. 3-D IB-IVUS analysis was performed to determine percent lipid volume (LV) and fibrous volume (FV). We also measured serum uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate [IS], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA], and p-cresol [PC]). Glomerular filtration rate correlated with IS (r=-0.329, P=0.04), but did not correlate with ADMA or PC. Percent LV correlated with IS (r=0.365, P=0.02), but did not correlate with ADMA or PC. Percent FV also correlated with IS (r=-0.356, P=0.03), but did not correlate with ADMA or PC. On multivariate regression, only IS was associated with percent LV (r=0.359, P=0.04) and percent FV (r=-0.305, P=0.04) independently of potentially confounding coronary risk factors. Among the uremic toxins, serum IS might be a novel useful biomarker to detect and monitor lipid-rich coronary plaque on IB imaging.

  6. The role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 on cardiovascular disease risk assessment and plaque rupture: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kota J; Singh, Manmeet; Bangit, Joey R; Batsell, Richard R

    2009-04-01

    During the last several last decades, reduction in lipids has been the main focus to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Several lines of evidence, however, have indicated that lipids account only for the PLA(2)) is a novel inflammatory biomarker that can provide much needed information about plaque inflammation and plaque stability. Lp-PLA(2) is among the multiple biomarkers that have been associated with increased CHD risk. In this present work, we review the evidence from previous studies addressing the effect of different therapies on decreasing Lp-PLA(2) and the role of direct Lp-PLA(2) inhibitors. This work also briefly reviews the evidence of Lp-PLA(2) clinical utility as a potential marker of vascular inflammation and formation of rupture prone plaques. Additionally, we also discuss the implication of available evidence in context of current cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers recommendations and the evidence from epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship of Lp-PLA(2) and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Shibata, Yukie; Furuta, Michiko; Saeki, Yoji; Eshima, Nobuoki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-30

    Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a plateau on day 4. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the microbial richness and diversity particularly increased between days 5 and 7. A principal coordinate analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac showed the community assembly in a time-related manner, which became increasingly similar to the salivary microbiota. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Abiotrophia, Gemella, and Rothia were predominant in the plaque bacterial community in the earlier days, whereas obligate anaerobes, such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga showed increased dominance on later days. UniFrac analysis also demonstrated that dental caries experience had a significant effect on the assembly process. Our results reveal the development pattern of the plaque bacterial community as well as the inter-individual differences associated with dental caries experience.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of ethyleneoxylated and allyloxylated chalcone derivatives for imaging of amyloid β plaques by SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yuki; Haratake, Mamoru; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Nakayama, Morio

    2014-05-01

    We report radioiodinated chalcone derivatives as new SPECT imaging probes for amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. The monoethyleneoxy derivative 2 and allyloxy derivative 8 showed a high affinity for Aβ(1-42) aggregates with Ki values of 24 and 4.5 nM, respectively. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated that 2 and 8 clearly stained thioflavin-S positive Aβ plaques in the brain sections of Tg2576 transgenic mice. In vitro autoradiography revealed that [(125)I]2 displayed no clear accumulation toward Aβ plaques in the brain sections of Tg2576 mice, whereas the accumulation pattern of [(125)I]8 matched with the presence of Aβ plaques both in the brain sections of Tg2576 mice and an AD patient. In biodistribution studies using normal mice, [(125)I]2 showed preferable in vivo pharmacokinetics (4.82%ID/g at 2 min and 0.45%ID/g at 60 min), while [(125)I]8 showed only a modest brain uptake (1.62%ID/g at 2 min) with slow clearance (0.56%ID/g at 60 min). [(125)I]8 showed prospective binding properties for Aβ plaques, although further structural modifications are needed to improve the blood brain barrier permeability and washout from brain.

  9. The role of septal perforators and "myocardial bridging effect" in atherosclerotic plaque distribution in the coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Roleder, Marcin; Niedziela, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Głowacki, Jan; Mirota, Kryspin; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of atherosclerotic plaque burden in the human coronary arteries is not uniform. Plaques are located mostly in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), then in the right coronary artery (RCA), circumflex branch (LCx) and the left main coronary artery (LM) in a decreasing order of frequency. In the LAD and LCx, plaques tend to cluster within the proximal segment, while in the RCA their distribution is more uniform. Several factors have been involved in this phenomenon, particularly flow patterns in the left and right coronary artery. Nevertheless, it does not explain the difference in lesion frequency between the LAD and the LCx as these are both parts of the left coronary artery. Branching points are considered to be the risk points of atherosclerosis. In the LCx, the number of side branches is lower than in the LAD or RCA and there are no septal perforators with intramuscular courses like in the proximal third of the LAD and the posterior descending artery (PDA). We hypothesized that septal branches generate disturbed flow in the LAD and PDA in a similar fashion to the myocardial bridge (myocardial bridging effect). This coronary architecture determines the non-uniform plaque distribution in coronary arteries and LAD predisposition to plaque formation.

  10. The Role of Septal Perforators and “Myocardial Bridging Effect” in Atherosclerotic Plaque Distribution in the Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Roleder, Marcin; Niedziela, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Głowacki, Jan; Mirota, Kryspin; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Summary The distribution of atherosclerotic plaque burden in the human coronary arteries is not uniform. Plaques are located mostly in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), then in the right coronary artery (RCA), circumflex branch (LCx) and the left main coronary artery (LM) in a decreasing order of frequency. In the LAD and LCx, plaques tend to cluster within the proximal segment, while in the RCA their distribution is more uniform. Several factors have been involved in this phenomenon, particularly flow patterns in the left and right coronary artery. Nevertheless, it does not explain the difference in lesion frequency between the LAD and the LCx as these are both parts of the left coronary artery. Branching points are considered to be the risk points of atherosclerosis. In the LCx, the number of side branches is lower than in the LAD or RCA and there are no septal perforators with intramuscular courses like in the proximal third of the LAD and the posterior descending artery (PDA). We hypothesized that septal branches generate disturbed flow in the LAD and PDA in a similar fashion to the myocardial bridge (myocardial bridging effect). This coronary architecture determines the non-uniform plaque distribution in coronary arteries and LAD predisposition to plaque formation. PMID:25922625

  11. Meal patterns in healthy adults: Inverse association of eating frequency with subclinical atherosclerosis indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Yannakoulia, Mary; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Voidonikola, Paraskevi; Kollias, George; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Retsas, Theodoros; Alevizaki, Maria; Papamichael, Christos; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2015-04-01

    Meal patterns and their relationship with cardiovascular disease are insufficiently examined with important clinical implications. Our aim was to investigate associations between eating frequency (EF) and early markers of atherosclerosis. In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively recruited 164 healthy subjects (46.8 ± 9.3years, 62 men). EF among other dietary parameters and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, including flow mediated dilatation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima media thickness (IMT) and the presence of plaques in the carotid arteries were evaluated in all volunteers. EF was positively associated with total energy intake (EI) and a favorable profile in terms of adiposity, glucose tolerance and blood lipids. Subjects with an increased EF (> median), had significantly lower IMT (p = 0.024) and prevalence of plaques (5.3% vs. 21.3%, p = 0.003), as compared to those below median. IMT and the prevalence of plaques were also significantly lower in those with increased EF compared with subjects with low EF belonging to the same group of energy intake (EI) by EI median. By multivariate regression analysis, carotid plaques remained significantly associated with EF (OR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.89), while IMT also remained significantly associated with EF after adjustment for age and dietary factors (beta: -0.010, 95% CI: -0.020 to -0.0002), but not after adding obesity-related risk factors. Increased EF is associated with lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries in apparently healthy individuals. Whether consumption of the same amount of energy in more eating episodes favorably affects cardiovascular risk should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of autologous tissue transmission of eosinophilic plaques in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, K A; Kunkle, G; Miller, L M; Crowley, A

    1990-07-01

    Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

  13. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aortic stenosis (AS) shares risk factors with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque may reflect the cumulative damage from exposure to different atherosclerotic risk factors. We examined the relationship of carotid IMT and plaque with incident...

  14. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting.

  15. Het effect van suikervrije (functionele) kauwgom op plaque en gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Het doel van twee systematische literatuuronderzoeken was het onderzoeken van het effect van suikervrije (functionele) kauwgom op plaque en klinische parameters van gingivitis. Studie 1 onderzocht het effect op plaque en gingivitis van suikervrije kauwgom ten opzichte van geen kauwgomgebruik. Studie

  16. Red fluorescent dental plaque: An indicator of oral disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are worldwide the most common diseases, with dental caries and periodontal inflammatory diseases as most frequently occurring diseases. Both are strongly associated with dental plaque, which is the mass of bacteria (biofilm) that grows on surfaces in the mouth. Some dental plaque fluor

  17. Plaque removal by young children using old and new toothbrushes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Kyaing, M.M.; Aung, M.T.; Soe, W.; Rosema, N.A.; Weijden, G.A. van der; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    There is inconclusive evidence about the relationship between toothbrush wear and plaque removal. This randomized cross-over clinical trial aimed to validate or invalidate non-inferiority in the plaque-removal efficacy of old vs. new toothbrushes in the hands of 7- and 8-year-old children. The lower

  18. The use of imbricated sutures in radioactive plaque brachytherapy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaan Gündüz1, Jose S Pulido1, Peter D Yeakel2, Michael King3, Kelly L Classic1, Keith M Furutani21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, 3Section of Media Support Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: This paper describes a new technique to suture the radioactive plaque to sclera. The radioactive plaque is conventionally sutured to the sclera using 5/0 nylon sutures. The imbricated suture technique involves using a 1/0 silk or 2/0 mersilene suture imbricated with the 5/0 nylon suture when the nylon suture is tied and cut. The imbricated suture technique allows easy identification of the plaque at removal and provides a surface that separates the 5/0 nylon from the surface of the eyelet platform, making suture cutting easier and safer. The radiation exposure times ranged from 9.1 minutes to 14 minutes (mean: 10.8 minutes during plaque insertion and from 2.8 to 3.3 minutes (mean: 3.0 minutes during plaque removal with the imbricated suture technique. This technique may decrease radiation exposure time and may prevent inadvertent scleral damage.Keywords: plaque radiotherapy, Iodine-125, Ruthenium-106, Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, choroidal melanoma, ciliary body melanoma, retinoblastoma, plaque placement, plaque removal, radiation exposure

  19. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  20. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant.

  1. Environmental variations in a semi-enclosed embayment (Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece – reconstructions based on benthic foraminifera abundance and lipid biomarker pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaberi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of environmental changes during the last decades and the impact on the living biomass in the western part of Amvrakikos Gulf was investigated using abundances of benthic foraminifera and lipid biomarker concentrations. These proxies indicated that the gulf has dramatically changed due to eutrophication. Eutrophication has led to a higher productivity, a higher bacterial biomass, shifts towards opportunistic and tolerant benthic foraminifera species (e.g. B. elongata, N. turgida, T. agglutinans, A. tepida and a lower benthic species density. Close to the Preveza Straits (connection between the gulf and the Ionian Sea, the benthic assemblages appeared to be less productive and more diversified under more oxygenated conditions. Sea grass meadows largely contributed to the organic matter at this sampling site. Isorenieratane, chlorobactane and lycopane together with oxygen monitoring data indicated that anoxic (and partly euxinic conditions prevailed seasonally throughout the western part of the gulf with more severe hypoxia towards the east. Increased surface water temperatures have led to a higher stratification, which reduced oxygen resupply to bottom waters. These developments are reasons for mass mortality events and ecosystem decline observed in Amvrakikos Gulf.

  2. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of small plaque parapsoriasis: involvement of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeybek, N Dilara; Asan, Esin; Erbil, A Hakan; Dagdeviren, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Small plaque parapsoriasis (SPP) is one of the cutaneous T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The aim of the present study was to show the antigenic profile of a subset of dendritic cells and lymphocytes in SPP in comparison with normal cells to provide data on the role of these two cell types in the pathogenesis of SPP. Skin biopsy specimens of lesions were obtained from 8 patients with SPP. Biopsies of the healthy skin from 9 control individuals were also analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the frozen tissue sections to reveal binding of anti-HLA Class II, anti-CD1a, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD44, anti-CD45, and anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD1a(+), Langerhans cells (LCs), HLA-DR-immunoreactive and, CD1a-positive dermal dendritic cells and CD68(+) macrophages in the SPP group (p=0.008, 0.008, 0.002 and <0.0009, respectively). The number of lymphocytes positive for CD4, CD8 and CD45 was significantly higher than normal in the SPP group (p=0.015, <0.0009 and <0.0009, respectively). Our study demonstrates that both peptide- and lipid-based antigens are involved in the persistent antigenic exposure in SPP. Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in SPP by presenting antigens by both LC and dermal dendritic cells via MHC Class II and CD1a molecules. The CD68(+) macrophages are thought to be involved in the immune response in this pathology as an antigen-presenting cell.

  4. Lipids in biocalcification: contrasts and similarities between intimal and medial vascular calcification and bone by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Shanahan, Catherine M; Duer, Melinda J; Arroyo, Luis G; Schoppet, Michael; Brooks, Roger A; Murray, Rachel C

    2012-08-01

    Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state (13)C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and fatty acids. In contrast, in mineral from pure medial calcifications and bone mineral, fatty acid signals predominate. Refluxing (chloroform/methanol) intimal plaque calcifications removes the cholesterylic but not the fatty acyl signals. The lipid composition of this refluxed mineral now closely resembles that of the medial and bone mineral, which is unchanged by reflux. Thus, intimal and medial vascular calcifications and bone mineral have in common a pool of occluded mineral-entrained fatty acyl-rich lipids. This population of fatty acid may contain methyl-branched fatty acids, possibly representing lipoprotein particle remnants. Cell signaling and mechanistic parallels between physiological (orthotopic) and pathological (ectopic) calcification are also reflected thus in the NMR spectroscopic fingerprints of mineral-associated and mineral-entrained lipids. Additionally the atherosclerotic plaque mineral alone shows a significant independent pool of cholesterylic lipids. Colocalization of mineral and lipid may be coincidental, but it could also reflect an essential mechanistic component of biomineralization.

  5. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kefayati

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  6. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry) and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases) were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration). The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged) shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS) and approximately double (4-36 Pa) for wall shear stress (WSS). Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms) through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent) shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  7. Plaque Formation by and Plaque Cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis Biovar Trachoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Akira; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ohuchi, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than ...

  8. Comparison of lipid deposition at coronary bifurcations versus at nonbifurcation portions of coronary arteries as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jacob C; Steinberg, Daniel H; Nielsen, Christopher D; Todoran, Thomas M; Patel, Chetan P; Leonardi, Robert A; Wolf, Bethany J; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Shunk, Kendrick A; Goldstein, James A; Kern, Morton J; Powers, Eric R

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerosis has been shown to develop preferentially at sites of coronary bifurcation, yet culprit lesions resulting in ST-elevation myocardial infarction do not occur more frequently at these sites. We hypothesized that these findings can be explained by similarities in intracoronary lipid and that lipid and lipid core plaque would be found with similar frequency in coronary bifurcation and nonbifurcation segments. One hundred seventy bifurcations were identified, 156 of which had comparative nonbifurcation segments proximal and/or distal to the bifurcation. We compared lipid deposition at bifurcation and nonbifurcation segments in coronary arteries using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a novel method for the in vivo detection of coronary lipid. Any NIRS signal for the presence of lipid was found with similar frequency in bifurcation and nonbifurcation segments (79% vs 74%, p = NS). Lipid core burden index, a measure of total lipid quantity indexed to segment length, was similar across bifurcation segments as well as their proximal and distal controls (lipid core burden index 66.3 ± 106, 67.1 ± 116, and 66.6 ± 104, p = NS). Lipid core plaque, identified as a high-intensity focal NIRS signal, was found in 21% of bifurcation segments, and 20% of distal nonbifurcation segments (p = NS). In conclusion, coronary bifurcations do not appear to have higher levels of intracoronary lipid or lipid core plaque than their comparative nonbifurcation regions.

  9. Episcleral eye plaque dosimetry comparison for the Eye Physics EP917 using Plaque Simulator and Monte Carlo simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Leonard W; Amoush, Ahmad; Wilkinson, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    ... for an Eye Physics model EP917 eye plaque. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using MCNPX 2.7 was used to calculate the central axis dose in water for an EP917 eye plaque fully loaded with 17 IsoAid Advantage (125)I seeds...

  10. Episcleral eye plaque dosimetry comparison for the Eye Physics EP917 using Plaque Simulator and Monte Carlo simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Leonard W; Amoush, Ahmad; Wilkinson, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    ... for an Eye Physics model EP917 eye plaque. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using MCNPX 2.7 was used to calculate the central axis dose in water for an EP917 eye plaque fully loaded with 17 IsoAid Advantage   125 I seeds...

  11. Circulating Leukocyte and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Telomere Length Interrelation, Association With Plaque Characteristics, and Restenosis After Endarterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huzen, Jardi; Peeters, Wouter; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Moll, Frans L.; Wong, Liza S. M.; Codd, Veryan; de Kleijn, Dominique P. V.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; van der Harst, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Objective-Shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with atherosclerosis and predict future heart disease. The goal of the present study was to determine whether leukocyte telomere length is related to atherosclerotic plaque telomere length and whether it is associated with plaque characteristics o

  12. The plaque inhibitory effect of a CPC mouthrinse in a 3-day plaque accumulation model - a cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, P.A.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  To test the plaque inhibitory effect of an experimental 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse in a 3-day plaque accumulation model in a cross-over design. Material and Methods:  A total of 30 subjects (non-dental students), ≥18 years of age, were randomly assigned to use one of

  13. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Sculean, Anton

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections. However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and chlorhexidine (CHX), 18 subjects had to refrain from all mechanical and chemical hygiene measures for 24 h. A voluminous supragingival plaque sample was taken from the buccal surfaces of the lower molars and wiped on an objective slide. The sample was then divided into three equal parts and mounted with one of the three test or control preparations (a) NaCl, (b) taurolidine 2% and (c) CHX 0.2%. After a reaction time of 2 min, the test solutions were sucked of. Subsequently, the plaque biofilm was stained with fluorescence dye and vitality of the plaque flora was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean VF of 82.42 ± 6.04%. Taurolidine affected mean VF with 47.57 ± 16.60% significantly (p taurolidine). Taurolidine possesses a significant antibacterial effect on the supragingival plaque biofilm which was, however, not as pronounced as that of CHX.

  14. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  15. Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2011-01-01

    Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease.

  16. Butyrylcholinesterase in the life cycle of amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillozet, A L; Smiley, J F; Mash, D C; Mesulam, M M

    1997-12-01

    Deposits of diffuse beta-amyloid (Abeta) may exist in the brain for many years before leading to neuritic degeneration and dementia. The factors that contribute to the putative transformation of the Abeta amyloid from a relatively inert to a pathogenic state remain unknown and may involve interactions with additional plaque constituents. Matching brain sections from 2 demented and 4 nondemented subjects were processed for the demonstration of Abeta immunoreactivity, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme activity, and thioflavine S binding. Additional sections were processed for the concurrent demonstration of two or three of these markers. A comparative analysis of multiple cytoarchitectonic areas processed with each of these markers indicated that Abeta plaque deposits are likely to undergo three stages of maturation, ie, a "diffuse" thioflavine S-negative stage, a thioflavine S-positive (ie, compact) but nonneuritic stage, and a compact neuritic stage. A multiregional analysis showed that BChE-positive plaques were not found in cytoarchitectonic areas or cortical layers that contained only the thioflavine S-negative, diffuse type of Abeta plaques. The BChE-positive plaques were found only in areas containing thioflavine S-positive compact plaques, both neuritic and nonneuritic. Within such areas, almost all (>98%) BChE-containing plaques bound thioflavine S, and almost all (93%) thioflavine S plaques contained BChE. These results suggest that BChE becomes associated with amyloid plaques at approximately the same time that the Abeta deposit assumes a compact beta-pleated conformation. BChE may therefore participate in the transformation of Abeta from an initially benign form to an eventually malignant form associated with neuritic tissue degeneration and clinical dementia.

  17. Photosensitive spongiotic/lichenoid eruption of micropapules and plaques: A morphologically distinct entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A distinct morphological pattern of photodermatosis has been observed with shiny skin colored to hypopigmented tiny papules, discrete or coalescing to form plaques. Aims: To study the clinico-pathological features of patients presenting with these lesions. Methods: A total of 72 patients were recruited. Clinical examination and skin biopsy was carried out to evaluate the morphological patterns and the histopathological features. Results: In all patients, tiny discrete to coalescent papules were observed on sun-exposed sites but usually sparing the face. The condition occurred more commonly in women. Three specific histopathological patterns were observed : 0 spongiotic (43.7%, lichenoid (22.5%, psoriasiform (18.7% and also perivascular pattern in 5%. Conclusion: Photosensitive lichenoid eruption is a morphologically distinct photodermatoses that is commonly seen in Indian patients with pathological features showing mostly spongiotic changes and in some cases lichenoid changes.

  18. Lymphoma with large-plaque parapsoriasis treated with PUVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Risa; Katoh, Norito; Shimazaki, Chihiro; Okano, Akira; Yamada, Shinya; Ichihashi, Kaori; Masuda, Koji; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2005-01-01

    We report on a 78-year-old Japanese woman with a 50-year history of large-plaque parapsoriasis that had evolved into cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Her large-plaque parapsoriasis had been treated with psoralen plus ultraviolet A for 10 years. Subsequently an isolated nodule appeared on her right lower leg. Prior or concurrent patches or plaques were absent. Histology revealed a diffuse nonepidermotropic infiltrate of large lymphocytes in the dermis, which had enlarged nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A diagnosis of CD30- cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma was made. Following systemic chemotherapy, there was clinical improvement. No evidence of recurrence or systemic lymphoma has subsequently been found.

  19. Mathematical modelling of tooth demineralisation and pH profiles in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Olga; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2012-09-21

    A mathematical model of dental plaque has been developed in order to investigate the processes leading to dental caries. The one-dimensional time-dependent model integrates existing knowledge on biofilm processes (mass transfer, microbial composition, microbial conversions and substrate availability) with tooth demineralisation kinetics. This work is based on the pioneering studies of Dibdin who, nearly two decades ago, build a mathematical model roughly describing the metabolic processes taking place in dental plaque. We extended Dibdin's model with: multiple microbial species (aciduric and non-aciduric Streptococci, Actinomyces and Veillonella), more metabolic processes (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic glucose conversion, low and high glucose uptake affinity pathways, formation and consumption of storage compounds), ion transport by Nernst-Planck equations, and we coupled the obtained pH and chemical component gradients inside the plaque with tooth demineralisation. The new model implementation was complemented with faster and more rigorous numerical methods for the model solution. Model results confirm the protective effect of Veillonella due to lactate consumption. Interestingly, on short term, the storage compounds may not necessarily have a negative effect on demineralisation. Individual feeding patterns can also be easily studied with this model. For example, slow ("social") consumption of sugar-containing drinks proves to be more harmful than drinking the same amount over a short period of time.

  20. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamic effect of plaque ulceration in the stenotic carotid artery bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily Y.; Milner, Jaques S.; Steinman, David A.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2009-02-01

    The presence of ulceration in carotid artery plaque is an independent risk factor for thromboembolic stroke. However, the associated pathophysiological mechanisms - in particular the mechanisms related to the local hemodynamics in the carotid artery bifurcation - are not well understood. We investigated the effect of carotid plaque ulceration on the local time-varying three-dimensional flow field using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of a stenosed carotid bifurcation geometry, with and without the presence of ulceration. CFD analysis of each model was performed with a spatial finite element discretization of over 150,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements and a temporal discretization of 4800 timesteps per cardiac cycle, to adequately resolve the flow field and pulsatile flow, respectively. Pulsatile flow simulations were iterated for five cardiac cycles to allow for cycle-to-cycle analysis following the damping of initial transients in the solution. Comparison between models revealed differences in flow patterns induced by flow exiting from the region of the ulcer cavity, in particular, to the shape, orientation and helicity of the high velocity jet through the stenosis. The stenotic jet in both models exhibited oscillatory motion, but produced higher levels of phase-ensembled turbulence intensity in the ulcerated model. In addition, enhanced out-of-plane recirculation and helical flow was observed in the ulcerated model. These preliminary results suggest that local fluid behaviour may contribute to the thrombogenic risk associated with plaque ulcerations in the stenotic carotid artery bifurcation.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN METABOLIC PARAMETERS AND PLAQUE VULNERABILITY IN THE CAROTID ARTERIES IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Suljić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In most patients with type 2 diabetes, along with the presence of disturbances of glycemic control, there are disturbances of lipid metabolism and elevated blood pressure, which are strong risk factors for the development of late, especially macrovascular complications and whose base is the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. This study included a total of 101 individuals (51 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2-DMT2 and 50 healthy subjects. Distribution of respondents according to the presence of hyperlipoproteinaemia, vulnerable and invulnerable atherosclerotic plaque was done. The data were analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Hyperlipidaemia was more prevalent in patients with DMT2 than in the control ones (p<0.05. Cholesterol levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in subjects with DMT2 (5.74±2.69 vs. 4.82±1.11mmol/L as well as triglycerides (1.94±2.2 compared to 1.6±1.14mmol/L (p<0.001. Mean values of glucose in the group of subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (10.54±3.75mmol/L and in the control group (4.53±2.14mmol/L were significantly different (p<0.001. Glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c was significantly higher in patients with DMT2 (9.30±2.26% than control group (4.98±0.05%. Mean values of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (149.55±29.27mmHg and 87.92±17.58mmHg compared to those in the control group (mean systolic blood pressure of 128.32±25.77 and mean diastolic blood pressure 79.11±9.51mmHg. Plaque was found in 100% of diabetic patients, as opposed to 28.12% of patients in the control group. Vulnerable plaque was found in 47.06% of patients in the group with type 2 diabetes and 6.25% in the control group. Analysis with the Mann-Whitney-test shows that the incidence of plaque and vulnerable plaque was significantly higher in DMT2 patients (p<0.001. Hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are significantly

  2. Motion compensation method using dynamic programming for quantification of neovascularization in carotid atherosclerotic plaques with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Hoogi, Assaf; Renaud, Guillaume; ten Kate, Gerrit L.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2012-03-01

    Intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) has been linked with progressive atherosclerotic disease and plaque instability in several studies. Quantification of IPN may allow early detection of vulnerable plaques. A dedicated motion compensation method with normalized-cross-correlation (NCC) block matching combined with multidimensional (2D+time) dynamic programming (MDP) was developed for quantification of IPN in small plaques (images of carotid arteries were acquired by a Philips iU22 system with a L9-3 linear array probe. The motion pattern for the plaque region was obtained from the Bmode images with MDP. MDP results were evaluated in-vitro by a phantom and in-vivo by comparing to manual tracking of three experts for multibeat-image-sequences (MIS) of 11 plaques. In the in-vivo images, the absolute error was 72+/-55μm (mean+/-SD) for X (longitudinal) and 34+/-23μm for Y (radial). The method's success rate was visually assessed on 67 MIS. The tracking was considered failed if it deviated >2 pixels (~200μm) from true motion in any frame. Tracking was scored as fully successful in 63 MIS (94%) for MDP vs. 52(78%) for FT. The range of displacement over these 63 was 1045+/-471μm (X) and 395+/-216μm (Y). The tracking sporadically failed in 4 MIS (6%) due to poor image quality, jugular vein proximity and out-of-plane motion. Motion compensation showed improved lumen-plaque contrast separation. In conclusion, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate and successful for in vivo application.

  3. Effect of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Antimicrobial Peptide on Keratinocyte Migration and Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    suspension with100-µL trypan blue (1:1) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). 10 µL of cell and trypan blue solution was analyzed by Countess TM...of morphine and solid lipid nanoparticle. Journal of Biotechnology 2010 148: 24-30. 24. Marsh PD. Dental Plaque: biological significance of a...nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Adv Drug Deliv. 2002 Rev 54 supplement 1: S131-55

  4. Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease in which genetics play a major role. Although many genome-wide association studies have been performed in psoriasis, knowledge of the age at onset remains limited. Therefore, we analyzed 173 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis type I (early-onset, <40 years or type II (late-onset, ≥40 years and healthy controls. Moreover, we performed a comparison between patients with type I psoriasis and patients with type II psoriasis. Our comparison of a stratified population with type I psoriasis n=155 and healthy controls N=197 is the first to reveal a relationship between the CLMN, FBXL19, CCL4L, C17orf51, TYK2, IL13, SLC22A4, CDKAL1, and HLA-B/MICA genes. When we compared type I psoriasis with type II psoriasis N=36, we found a significant association between age at onset and the genes PSORS6, TNF-α, FCGR2A, TNFR1, CD226, HLA-C, TNFAIP3, and CCHCR1. Moreover, we replicated the association between rs12191877 (HLA-C and type I psoriasis and between type I and type II psoriasis. Our findings highlight the role of genetics in age of onset of psoriasis.

  5. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  6. Large plaque parapsoriasis: clinical and genotypic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M; Flaig, M J; Kind, P; Sander, C A; Kaudewitz, P

    2000-02-01

    Twelve patients with large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) were investigated for the presence of predominant T-cell clones, analyzing the T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma-chain gene. The diagnostic and prognostic significance of TCR gene rearrangement status was assessed by a correlation with the long-term clinical follow-up. Six out of 12 patients showed a clonal T-cell population. Clinically, among the patients with clonal disease one developed clearcut mycosis fungoides (MF) after a follow-up of 8 years, in the other 5 patients no such diagnosis could be made after follow-up of 2-21 years (median: 9 years). In patients with polyclonal infiltrates the lesions remained virtually unchanged. These findings indicate that in LPP TCR gene rearrangement status has no prognostic significance and does not allow distinction of LPP and early MF. Both conditions show a clonal T-cell infiltrate with similar frequency, are very similar in clinical and histologic presentation and according to recent studies share the same low risk to develop overt MF. Therefore both terms refer to the identical clinical situation. This should be designated as early MF and efforts should concentrate on identifying those patients that are at risk to develop aggressive disease.

  7. Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-based Fluid Structure Interaction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg; Fründ, Torben; Kim, Won Yong

    2006-01-01

    stresses exceed 300 kPa. The ability to estimate stress magnitudes in the fibrous cap is thus expected to improve risk assessment. Methods A patient with severe atherosclerosis was scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The plaque was segmented into lipid core, fibrous cap, vessel wall, and blood...... in the pressure outlets was set to 10666 Pa. The Neo-Hookean hyper-elastic model was used to specify the material properties (5) of surrounding tissue (µ=6.20e6, κ=1.24e8, ρ=960) and vessel wall (µ=7.20e5, κ=1.44e7, ρ=1200). Lipid was treated as an isotropic materiel (6) with Young’s modulus set to 1...... the vessel-wall/blood-stream interface (one-way coupling). Results First principal stresses are depicted in figure 3. The soft lipid pool generated severe stresses (max. 350 kPa) in the overlaying fibrous cap, most prominent in the “shoulder region” i.e. the region of the fibrous cap adjacent to the vessel...

  8. A tissue-engineered 3D model of light scattering in atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Ma, Zhenhe; Ishii, Katsu; Tran, Noi; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2007-02-01

    The development of atherosclerotic plaques includes changes in the cellular and extracellular composition of the arterial wall. Although these changes in composition affect the manner in which light scatters in the vessel wall and thus affect any optical signal, experimentally determining how features of atherosclerosis affect optical signals has remained elusive. Using current tissue-engineering methods, we developed a 3D tissue construct model for assessing how certain features of atherosclerosis (the increased concentrations of lipids and macrophages) affect optical signals. The model is based on vascular tissue constructs made of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages (M\\Fgr s) that are co-cultured inside a 3D scaffold matrix of collagen fibers with interspersed lipids. To make the scaffold matrix, powdered collagen was dissolved in acetic acid, homogenized, and neutralized by sequential dialyses to yield a soft gel of 2 μm thick collagen fibers in which cells were seeded. In "normal" constructs, only SMCs were seeded in the collagen gel; in "athero-like" constructs, both SMCs and M\\Fgr s (loaded or unloaded with lipid) were seeded in the gel. To demonstrate the use of this model, sets of slab-shaped normal and athero-like constructs were imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and qualitatively analyzed. 2D frames from 3D OCT image cubes were compared to 2D histology sections. Our results indicate that the cellular composition of the construct affects morphological features of the OCT image.

  9. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.;

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  10. Plaque formation by and plaque cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, A; Izutsu, H; Miyashita, N; Ohuchi, M

    1998-10-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than that of plasmid-positive strains, possession of the plasmid and glycogen accumulation were not essential for the survival of C. trachomatis.

  11. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  12. Coronary spasm, a pathogenic trigger of vulnerable plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; L(U) Shu-zheng; ZHANG Wei-jun; SONG Xian-tao; CHEN Hui; ZHANG Li-jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective This coronary artery spasm review aimed to explore the most possible pathogenic trigger mechanism of vulnerable plaque rupture.Data sources Data used in this coronary artery spasm review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English.Study selection These reports from major review on coronary artery spasm.and these research included coronary artery conception,pathogenesis of spasm,mechanisms of plaque rupture,epidemiological evidence,clinical manifestation and the relationship between coronary artery spasm and vulnerable plaque rupture.Results Coronary artery spasm is somehow related to the presence of atherosclerotic intima disease in the coronary artery.However,chronic low-grade inflammation causes coronary vessel smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity,which can directely cause coronary artery spasm.Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death may be initiated by a sudden intense localized contraction of coronary artery smooth muscle.Conclusion Coronary artery spasm may be one trigger that can initiate and exacerbate vulnerable plaque rupture.

  13. ATYPICAL LARGE PLAQUE PARAPSORIASIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj; Mrityunjay Kumar; Himanshu; Mayank

    2015-01-01

    A case of large plaque parapsoriasis with extensive skin lesions is presented for its unusual clinical features. The controversial issue of its nosological position is discussed as it has a considerable impact on the management of such cases

  14. Argonne National Laboratory research offers clues to Alzheimer's plaques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago have developed methods to directly observe the structure and growth of microscopic filaments that form the characteristic plaques found in the brains of those with Alzheimer's Disease (1 page).

  15. Prevalence of Periodontal Pathogens in Dental Plaque of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gafan, Gavin P.; Lucas, Victoria S.; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Wilson, Michael; Spratt, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythensis have been implicated as the main etiological agents of periodontal disease. The purpose of this work was to estimate the prevalence of these organisms in plaque from children without gingivitis (group 1; n = 65) and from those with gingivitis (group 2; n = 53). Extracted DNA from plaque was subjected to two rounds of PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene using both universal primers and species-specific prim...

  16. Association between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the association between this organism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs and extracranial portions of internal carotid arteries (ICAs.
    METHODS: Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgA and IgG were measured and compared in 42 patients who had plaque in at least one CCA or ICA (detected by duplex ultrasound and 82 patients without any plaque in these arteries. Cp.IgG and Cp.IgA titers over 1.10 ISR were defined to be positive.
    RESULTS: We found that 6.1% of control subjects and 16.7% of cases were Cp.IgA seropositive. The difference between these two groups was prominent but was not statistically significant (P = 0.104. 4.2% of females without atherosclerotic plaque and 31.6% of females with plaque were Cp.IgA seropositive. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in seropositivity of Cp.IgG between case and control subjects or in male and female groups with or without plaque.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cp.IgA is a predictor of atherosclerosis in women, but Cp.IgG has no predictive value for plaque formation in either gender.
    KEY WORDS: Atherosclerotic plaque, Chlamydia pneumoniae, serum antibody.

  17. In vivo and in vitro evidence that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-interleukin-2 is able to detect T lymphocytes in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Koole, Michel; Luurtsema, Gert; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Bonanno, Elena [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Dept. of Anatomic Pathology; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Surgery (Div. Vascular Surgery); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy; Taurino, Maurizio [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Vascular Surgery Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit

    2014-09-15

    Recent advances in basic science have established that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory cells are thought to be responsible for the transformation of a stable plaque into a vulnerable one. Lymphocytes constitute at least 20 % of infiltrating cells in these vulnerable plaques. Therefore, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, being overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes, may represent an attractive biomarker for plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of radiolabelled IL-2 [{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2] for imaging the lymphocytic infiltration in carotid plaques in vivo by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging and ex vivo by microSPECT and autoradiography. For the in vivo study, ten symptomatic patients with advanced plaques at ultrasound who were scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy. The images were analysed visually on planar and SPECT images and semi-quantitatively on SPECT images by calculating target to background (T/B) ratios. After endarterectomy, immunomorphological evaluation and immunophenotyping were performed on plaque slices. For the ex vivo studies, four additional patients were included and, after in vitro incubation of removed plaques with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2, autoradiography was performed and microSPECT images were acquired. Visual analysis defined clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in seven of the ten symptomatic plaques. SPECT/CT allowed visualization in eight of ten. A significant correlation was found between the number of CD25+ lymphocytes and the total number of CD25+ cells in the plaque and the T/B ratio with adjacent carotid artery as background (Pearson's r = 0.89, p = 0.003 and r = 0.87, p = 0.005, respectively). MicroSPECT imaging showed clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake within the plaque wall and not in the lipidic core. With autoradiography

  18. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm{sup 3}, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm{sup 3}, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  19. Subgemmal neurogenous plaque of the tongue: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Amanda Katarinny Goes; Moreira, Deborah Gondim Lambert; Sena, Dáurea Adília Cóbe; Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2017-05-10

    Subgemmal neurogenous plaque (SNP) is a biphasic neural structure associated with the taste buds. Clinically, SNP usually presents as an asymptomatic, normally colored, papule located in the posterior lateral border of the tongue. Accurate diagnosis is based only on histopathological examination, which shows a superficial neurofibroma-like pattern and a neuroma-like in the deep zone. Appropriate recognition of clinical and morphological aspects of SNPs can avoid their misdiagnosis as neural neoplasms. We report three cases of SNP with detailed clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features.

  20. Effects of octenidine on dental plaque and gingivitis in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shern, R J; Little, W A; Kennedy, J B; Mirth, D B

    1987-09-01

    This investigation monitored the effects of daily oral rinses with octenidine on plaque and gingivitis in five monkeys. Formulations containing 0.5% or 1.0% octenidine or the rinse vehicle placebo were provided daily for 2 weeks. Each week the dentition of each monkey was examined, photographed, and sampled for plaque. All responses exhibited a numerical decrease in mean scores following treatments with each concentration of octenidine, whereas the placebo treatment exerted negligible effects. Decreases in plaque mass were observed after 2 weeks of treatment with 1% octenidine (58%) or 0.5% octenidine (55%) compared with the corresponding baseline values. Similar trends were noted in the extent and thickness of supragingival plaque and its ability to decrease the pH of a sucrose solution. Octenidine treatments reduced the proportions of motile forms in samples of subgingival plaque and also restricted its ability to produce H2S. Slight numerical decreases were seen in the Gingival Index and flow rate of the crevicular fluid. These consistent protective trends suggest that octenidine decreases the pathogenic potential of established plaque.

  1. Medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance and image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Jaume; Radeva, Petia

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of medical images produced and stored daily in hospitals needs a datrabase management system that organizes them in a meaningful way, without the necessity of time-consuming textual annotations for each image. One of the basic ways to organize medical images in taxonomies consists of clustering them depending of plaque appearance (for example, intravascular ultrasound images). Although lately, there has been a lot of research in the field of Content-Based Image Retrieval systems, mostly these systems are designed for dealing a wide range of images but not medical images. Medical image retrieval by content is still an emerging field, and few works are presented in spite of the obvious applications and the complexity of the images demanding research studies. In this chapter, we overview the work on medical image retrieval and present a general framework of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance. We stress on two basic features of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance: plaque medical images contain complex information requiring not only local and global descriptors but also context determined by image features and their spatial relations. Additionally, given that most objects in medical images usually have high intra- and inter-patient shape variance, retrieval based on plaque should be invariant to a family of transformations predetermined by the application domain. To illustrate the medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance, we consider a specific image modality: intravascular ultrasound images and present extensive results on the retrieval performance.

  2. Lipid signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  3. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  4. Plant lipid signaling protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Heilmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by membranes consisting of various lipids, including sterols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids. Besides structural functions, membranes also contain lipids with regulatory and signaling roles. Such lipids include polyphosphoinositides, the low-abundant

  5. HMGB1 is associated with atherosclerotic plaque composition and burden in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrassy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The role of inflammation in atherosclerosis is widely appreciated. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, an injury-associated molecular pattern molecule acting as a mediator of inflammation, has recently been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to investigate the association of plasma HMGB1 with coronary plaque composition in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD. DESIGN: HMGB1, high sensitive troponin T (hsTnT and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were determined in 152 consecutive patients with suspected or known stable CAD who underwent clinically indicated 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA. Using CCTA, we assessed 1 coronary calcification, 2 non-calcified plaque burden and 3 the presence of vascular remodeling in areas of non-calcified plaques. RESULTS: Using univariate analysis, hsCRP, hsTnT and HMGB1 as well as age, and atherogenic risk factors were associated with non-calcified plaque burden (r = 0.21, p = 0.009; r = 0.48, p<0.001 and r = 0.34, p<0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis, hsTnT and HMGB1 remained independent predictors of the non-calcified plaque burden (r = 0.48, p<0.01 and r = 0.34, p<0.001, respectively, whereas a non-significant trend was noticed for hs-CRP (r = 0.21, p = 0.07. By combining hsTnT and HMGB1, a high positive predictive value for the presence of non-calcified and remodeled plaque (96% and 77%, respectively was noted in patients within the upper tertiles for both biomarkers, which surpassed the positive predictive value of each marker separately. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to hs-TnT, a well-established cardiovascular risk marker, HMGB1 is independently associated with non-calcified plaque burden in patients with stable CAD, while the predictive value of hs-CRP is lower. Complementary value was observed for hs-TnT and HMGB1 for the prediction of complex coronary plaque.

  6. Specific and nonspecific immune factors in dental plaque fluid and saliva from young and old populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, M F; Hsu, S D; Baum, B J; Bowen, W H; Sierra, L I; Aquirre, M; Gillespie, G.

    1981-01-01

    Separate samples of supragingival dental plaque overtly free of blood were centrifuged to obtain the free fluid phase (plaque fluid). Bound protein was eluted from the plaque bacteria and matrix by washing the plaque with a low-pH buffer. The plaque fluid, low pH eluate, and whole saliva were assayed for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the third component of complement, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were also determined. Antibody reactive...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Rivero

    Full Text Available Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age. One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  9. Quantification of left coronary bifurcation angles and plaques by coronary computed tomography angiography for prediction of significant coronary stenosis: A preliminary study with dual-source CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Zeng, Wenjuan; Yu, Jie; Lu, Jing; Hu, Yuannan; Diao, Nan; Liang, Bo; Han, Ping; Shi, Heshui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of left coronary bifurcation angles and plaque characteristics for prediction of coronary stenosis by dual-source CT. Methods 106 patients suspected of coronary artery disease undergoing both coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (CAG) within three months were included. Left coronary bifurcation angles including the angles between the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery (LAD-LCx), left main coronary artery and left anterior descending artery (LM-LAD), left main coronary artery and left circumflex artery (LM-LCx) were measured on CT images. CCTA plaque parameters were calculated by plaque analysis software. Coronary stenosis ≥ 50% by CAG was defined as significant. Results 106 patients with 318 left coronary bifurcation angles and 126 vessels were analyzed. The bifurcation angle of LAD-LCx was significantly larger in left coronary stenosis ≥ 50% than stenosis coronary stenosis (OR = 1.423, P = 0.002). In ROC curve analysis, LAD-LCx predicted significant left coronary stenosis with a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 78.4%, positive predictive value of 85.2% and negative predictive value of 55.8%. The lipid plaque volume improved the diagnostic performance of CCTA diameter stenosis (AUC: 0.854 vs. 0.900, P = 0.045) in significant coronary stenosis. Conclusions The bifurcation angle of LAD-LCx could predict significant left coronary stenosis. Wider LAD-LCx is related to non-calcified lesions. Lipid plaque volume could improve the diagnostic performance of CCTA for coronary stenosis prediction. PMID:28346530

  10. Efficacy of ezetimibe combined with atorvastatin in the treatment of carotid artery plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ai, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Fei; Zou, Yao-Wu; Li, Li; Yi, Xiao-Lei

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ezetimibe combined with atorvastatin in treatment of carotid artery plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 100 patients with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) confirmed by ultrasound and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CHD were randomly assigned to atorvastatin group (atorvastatin 20 mg/day) or combined treatment group (ezetimibe 10 mg/day and atorvastatin 20 mg/day). All those patients were followed for 12 months. Serum lipid, ALT, AST, and CK were measured before and after treatment. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the stability of carotid artery plaques. After 12 months of treatment, the level of TC, TG, LDL-C, hs-CRP, FPG and HbA1c decreased in both groups compared with before treatment. TC, TG, LDL-C and hs-CRP in the combined treatment group were much lower than that in the atorvastatin group (P<0.05). The IMT and plaque area in the two groups were lower than that before the treatment (P<0.05). IMT and plaques area in the combined treatment group is much lower than that in the atorvastatin group after treatment. There was no significant difference in two groups on the level of ALT, AST, CK compared with baseline after treatment. The effect of combined use of atorvastatin and ezetimibe was better than atorvastatin alone, which can effectively reduce the blood lipid levels in diabetic patients with CHD and improve plaque stability. Both treatment regimens were safe and well tolerated.

  11. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Mette K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A, suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25. LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B, subjects (n=18 were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112. Trial registration NCT01700712

  12. Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective plaque control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, P G; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, T N; Barker, M L; Mussett, A J

    2011-08-01

    While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit plaque. This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl(2)/NaF, blend-a-med(®) Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne(®) ProNamel(™)). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate plaque levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible plaque. Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower plaque levels after using the SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. The SnCl(2)/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight plaque inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits plaque. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Surgical management of strabismus following choroidal melanoma plaque brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfreihi, Shatha H; Pineles, Stacy L; McCannel, Tara A; Prada, Angelica M; Velez, Federico G

    2017-08-01

    To characterize intraoperative findings, surgical approach, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing strabismus surgery following plaque brachytherapy for ocular melanoma. The records of all patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma between May 2007 and June 2016 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who subsequently required strabismus surgery. Of the 461 patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy during the study period, 13 (2.8%) met inclusion criteria. Visual acuity of the affected eye was 20/40 or better in 9 patients (69%). Preoperative horizontal deviation ranged from 0(Δ) to 52(Δ); vertical deviation, from 2(Δ) to 25(Δ). At final follow-up mean horizontal deviation ranged from 0 to 4(Δ); vertical deviation, from 0(Δ) to 12(Δ). Intraoperatively, all muscles directly adjacent to the treated area appeared macroscopically thicker than normal despite being functionally underacting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlarged muscles adjacent to the plaque radiotherapy. Microscopic examination of muscles in 2 patients showed reactive enlargement of the muscle fibers, granulation tissue, and inflammation. Persistent strabismus after plaque brachytherapy is rare. Typical findings include enlarged, underacting rectus muscles adjacent to the area of the plaque, restrictive connective tissue, and incomitant strabismus. Previously disinserted muscles may be found in abnormal locations. In this patient cohort scar tissue removal in conjunction with tightening procedures on the muscle adjacent to the plaque combined with recession of the antagonist muscle frequently resulted in good anatomical outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Progression and regression of the atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feyter, P J; Vos, J; Deckers, J W

    1995-08-01

    In animals in which atherosclerosis was induced experimentally (by a high cholesterol diet) regression of the atherosclerotic lesion was demonstrated after serum cholesterol was reduced by cholesterol- lowering drugs or a low-fat diet. Whether regression of advanced coronary arterly lesions also takes place in humans after a similar intervention remains conjectural. However, several randomized studies, primarily employing lipid-lowering intervention or comprehensive changes in lifestyle, have demonstrated, using serial angiograms, that it is possible to achieve less progression, arrest or even (small) regression of atherosclerotic lesions. The lipid-lowering trials (NHBLI, CLAS, POSCH, FATS, SCOR and STARS) studied 1240 symptomatic patients, mostly men, with moderately elevated cholesterol levels and moderately severe angiographic-proven coronary artery disease. A variety of lipid-lowering drugs, in addition to a diet, were used over an intervention period ranging from 2 to 3 years. In all but one study (NHBLI), the progression of coronary atherosclerosis was less in the treated group, but regression was induced in only a few patients. The overall relative risk of progression of coronary atherosclerosis was 0 x 62 and 2 x 13, respectively. The induced angiographic differences were small and did not produce any significant haemodynamic benefit. The most important result was tht the disease process could be stabilized in the majority of patients. Three comprehensive lifestyle change trials (the Lifestyle Heart study, STARS and the Heidelberg Study) studied 183 patients, who were subjected to stress management, and/or intensive exercise, in addition to a low fat diet, over a period ranging from 1 to 3 years. All three trials demonstrated less progression, and more regression with overall relative risks of 0 x 40 and 2 x 35 respectively, in the intervention groups. Angiographic trials demonstrated that retardation or arrest of coronary atherosclerosis was possible

  15. Amyloid-β(25-35) peptides aggregate into cross-β sheets in unsaturated anionic lipid membranes at high peptide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer; Alsop, Richard J; Backholm, Matilda; Dies, Hannah; Shi, An-Chang; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-04-07

    One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the formation of protein plaques in the brain, which mainly consist of amyloid-β peptides of different lengths. While the role of these plaques in the pathology of the disease is not clear, the mechanism behind peptide aggregation is a topic of intense research and discussion. Because of their simplicity, synthetic membranes are promising model systems to identify the elementary processes involved. We prepared unsaturated zwitterionic/anionic lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DMPS) at concentrations of POPC/3 mol% DMPS containing 0 mol%, 3 mol%, 10 mol%, and 20 mol% amyloid-β25-35 peptides. Membrane-embedded peptide clusters were observed at peptide concentrations of 10 and 20 mol% with a typical cluster size of ∼11 μm. Cluster density increased with peptide concentration from 59 (±3) clusters per mm(2) to 920 (±64) clusters per mm(2), respectively. While monomeric peptides take an α-helical state when embedded in lipid bilayers at low peptide concentrations, the peptides in peptide clusters were found to form cross-β sheets and showed the characteristic pattern in X-ray experiments. The presence of the peptides was accompanied by an elastic distortion of the bilayers, which can induce a long range interaction between the peptides. The experimentally observed cluster patterns agree well with Monte Carlo simulations of long-range interacting peptides. This interaction may be the fundamental process behind cross-β sheet formation in membranes and these sheets may serve as seeds for further growth into amyloid fibrils.

  16. Lipids in biocalcification: contrasts and similarities between intimal and medial vascular calcification and bone by NMR[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Schoppet, Michael; Brooks, Roger A.; Murray, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state 13C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and fatty acids. In contrast, in mineral from pure medial calcifications and bone mineral, fatty acid signals predominate. Refluxing (chloroform/methanol) intimal plaque calcifications removes the cholesterylic but not the fatty acyl signals. The lipid composition of this refluxed mineral now closely resembles that of the medial and bone mineral, which is unchanged by reflux. Thus, intimal and medial vascular calcifications and bone mineral have in common a pool of occluded mineral-entrained fatty acyl-rich lipids. This population of fatty acid may contain methyl-branched fatty acids, possibly representing lipoprotein particle remnants. Cell signaling and mechanistic parallels between physiological (orthotopic) and pathological (ectopic) calcification are also reflected thus in the NMR spectroscopic fingerprints of mineral-associated and mineral-entrained lipids. Additionally the atherosclerotic plaque mineral alone shows a significant independent pool of cholesterylic lipids. Colocalization of mineral and lipid may be coincidental, but it could also reflect an essential mechanistic component of biomineralization. PMID:22651923

  17. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  18. Circulating immunoglobulins are not associated with intraplaque mast cell number and other vulnerable plaque characteristics in patients with carotid artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Willems

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we have shown that intraplaque mast cell numbers are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and with future cardiovascular events, which renders inhibition of mast cell activation of interest for future therapeutic interventions. However, the endogenous triggers that activate mast cells during the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic lesions remain unidentified. Mast cells can be activated by immunoglobulins and in the present study, we aimed to establish whether specific immunoglobulins in plasma of patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were related to (activated intraplaque mast cell numbers and plasma tryptase levels. In addition, the levels were related to other vulnerable plaque characteristics and baseline clinical data. METHODS AND RESULTS: OxLDL-IgG, total IgG and total IgE levels were measured in 135 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. No associations were observed between the tested plasma immunoglobulin levels and total mast cell numbers in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, no associations were found between IgG levels and the following plaque characteristics: lipid core size, degree of calcification, number of macrophages or smooth muscle cells, amount of collagen and number of microvessels. Interestingly, statin use was negatively associated with plasma IgE and oxLDL-IgG levels. CONCLUSIONS: In patients suffering from carotid artery disease, total IgE, total IgG and oxLDL-IgG levels do not associate with plaque mast cell numbers or other vulnerable plaque histopathological characteristics. This study thus does not provide evidence that the immunoglobulins tested in our cohort play a role in intraplaque mast cell activation or grade of atherosclerosis.

  19. Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's plaques and plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's plaque) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These plaques and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these plaques and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate plaque formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of plaque formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the plaque reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer

  20. Coronary plaque characterization of nonculprit or nontarget lesions assessed by analysis of in vivo intracoronary ultrasound radio-frequency data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-liang; ZHANG Jiao; MA Dong-xing; LUO Jian-ping; YANG Sheng-li; HAN Wei; LIU Ying; JING Li-min; MENG Rong-ying

    2009-01-01

    Background Unheralded sudden death and acute myocardial infarction are common manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis. Such events are related to thrombotic occlusion at the site of non-flow limiting atheroscterotic plaques in epicardial coronary arteries. This study aimed to assess plaque characterization of nonculprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with those with stable angina pectoris (SAP) determined by analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency (RF) data.Methods In 81 patients, nonculprit vessels with <50% diameter stenosis and nontarget segment of culprit vessels with <50% diameter stenosis were studied with IVUS. Tissue maps were reconstructed from RF data using IVUS-Virtual Histology software.Results Mean lipid core percentage was significantly higher in patients with ACS than in those with SAP ((25.78±6.30)% vs (9.11±4.90)%, P <0.001). In addition, patients with SAP showed more fibrotic vessels ((59.66±16.87)% vs (49.07±10.20)%, P <0.001). There was no significant difference in either mean calcium ((4.37±2.40)% vs (5.12±3.00)%, P=0.225) or fibrolipid ((24.94±9.40)% vs (25.82±13.60)%, P=0.731) percentages in nonculprit vessels, but the mean calcium percentage was significantly higher in nontarget lesions of culprit vessels ((5.51±3.29)% vs (3.57±2.10)%, P=0.003). In addition, there was a positive correlation between lipid core and remodeling index (RI) (r=0.847, P<0.001) and a negative correlation between fibrous tissue and RI (r=-0.946, P<0.001).Conclusions In this study, in both nonculprit vessels and nontarget lesion of culprit vessels, plaque characterization of nonculprit lesions determined by spectral analysis of IVUS RF data was significantly different in patients with ACS. The percentage of lipid core was significantly higher in patients with ACS than in those with SAP. Conversely, SAP patients showed more fibrotic content. In vivo plaque composition and morphological changes were

  1. In Vivo Diagnosis of Plaque Erosion and Calcified Nodule in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haibo; Abtahian, Farhad; Aguirre, Aaron D; Lee, Stephen; Chia, Stanley; Lowe, Harry; Kato, Koji; Yonetsu, Taishi; Vergallo, Rocco; Hu, Sining; Tian, Jinwei; Lee, Hang; Park, Seung-Jung; Jang, Yang-Soo; Raffel, Owen C.; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Uemura, Shiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Kakuta, Tsunekazu; Choi, So-Yeon; Dauerman, Harold L.; Prasad, Abhiram; Toma, Catalin; McNulty, Iris; Zhang, Shaosong; Yu, Bo; Fuster, Valentine; Narula, Jagat; Virmani, Renu; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the morphological features of plaque erosion and calcified nodule in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Plaque erosion and calcified nodule have not been systematically investigated in vivo. Methods One hundred and twenty-six patients with ACS who had undergone pre-intervention OCT imaging were included. The culprit lesions were classified as plaque rupture (PR), erosion (OCT-erosion), calcified nodule (OCT-CN), or others using a new set of diagnostic criteria for OCT. Results The incidences of PR, OCT-erosion, and OCT-CN were 43.7%, 31.0%, and 7.9%, respectively. Patients with OCT-erosion were the youngest compared with those with PR and OCT-CN (53.8±13.1 years vs. 60.6±11.5 years, 65.1±5.0 years, p=0.005). Compared with patients with PR, presentation with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) was more common in patients with OCT-erosion (61.5% vs. 29.1%, p=0.008) and OCT-CN (100% vs. 29.1%, perosion had a lower frequency of lipid plaque (43.6% vs. 100%, perosion followed by OCT-CN and PR (55.4±14.7% vs. 66.1±13.5% vs. 68.8±12.9%, perosion and OCT-CN in vivo. OCT-erosion is a frequent finding in patients with ACS, especially in those with NSTE-ACS and younger patients. OCT-CN is the least common etiology for ACS and is more common in older patients. PMID:23810884

  2. Clinical Study of Acoustic Densitometry Technique in Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (祛瘀消斑, QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Methods: Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. Resuits: The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12±5.54 vs 61.43±5.37, P<0.05).The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9±5.1% vs2.5±5.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion: QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acoustic densitometry technique can differentiate the different histological plaques and monitor the histological changes of plaques during treatment.

  3. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  4. Infliximab in the treatment of plaque type psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Saraceno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosita Saraceno, Andrea Saggini, Lucia Pietroleonardo, Sergio ChimentiDepartment of Dermatology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Viale Oxford 81, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic and immunomediated skin disease characterized by erythematous scaly plaques. Psoriasis affects approximately 1% to 3% of the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-α drug widely used for the treatment of plaque type psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that infliximab is characterized by a high degree of clinical response in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Moreover infliximab showed rapid efficacy in nail psoriasis which represents a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists and a relevant source of distress for patients with plaque psoriasis. This anti-TNF-α has an encouraging safety profile, especially as long as physicians are watchful in prevention and early diagnosis of infections and infuse reactions. The efficacy, tolerability and safety profiles suggest infliximab as a suitable anti-psoriatic drug in the long-term treatment of a chronic disease such as plaque-type psoriasis.Keywords: psoriasis, nail psoriasis, infliximab, long-term treatment

  5. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  6. A Patient With Plaque Type Morphea Mimicking Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana Wardhana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphea is an uncommon connective tissue disease with the most prominent feature being thickening or fibrosis of the dermal without internal organ involvement. It is also known as a part of localized scleroderma. Based on clinical presentation and depth of tissue involvement, morphea is classified into several forms, and about two thirds of adults with morphea have plaque type. Overproduction of collagen production by fibroblast is the cause of abnormality in morphea, and the hyperactivity mechanism of fibroblast is still unknown, although there are several mechanisms already proposed. Plaque type morphea is actually a benign and self limited. Plaque type morphea that mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical appearance, such as alopecia and oral mucosal ulcers, is uncommon. A case of plaque type morphea mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus in a 20 year old woman was discussed. The patient was treated with local and systemic immunosuppressant and antioxydant. The patient’s condition is improved without any significant side effects. Key words: morphea, plaque type.

  7. Radiolabeled probes for imaging Alzheimer's plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, P.V. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States)]. E-mail: padmakar.kulkarni@utsouthwestern.edu; Arora, V. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Roney, A.C. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); White, C. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Bennett, M. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Antich, P.P. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States); Bonte, F.J. [Departments of Radiology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease characterized by the presence of extra-cellular plaques and intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The major protein component of these plaques is beta amyloid peptide (A{beta}), a 40-42 amino acid peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by {beta}-secretase and a putative {gamma}-secretase. We radioiodinated quinoline derivatives (clioquinol and oxine) and evaluated them as potential amyloid imaging agents based on their ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and on their selectivity to metal binding sites on amyloid plaques. The uptake of theses tracers in the brains of normal swiss-webster mice was rapid and so was the clearance. Selectivity was demonstrated by higher binding to AD brain homogenates compared to normal brain. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the localization of the tracers in the plaque regions of the AD brain sections as well as in liver tissue with amyloidosis. Further optimization and evaluations would likely lead to development of these molecules as AD plaque imaging agents.

  8. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  9. Lipid Microarray Biosensor for Biotoxin Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Moran-Mirabal, Jose C.; Edel, Joshua B.; Meyer, Grant D.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2006-05-01

    We present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated DSPC:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer lift-off, which revealed micron-sized SLBs containing either ganglioside GT1b or GM1. The ganglioside-populated SLB arrays were then exposed to either Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) or Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC). Binding was assayed on planar substrates by TIRFM down to 1 nM concentration for CTB and 100 nM for TTC. Apparent binding constants extracted from three different models applied to the binding curves suggest that binding of a protein to a lipid-based receptor is strongly affected by the lipid composition of the SLB and by the substrate on which the bilayer is formed. Patterning of SLBs inside microfluidic channels also allowed the preparation of lipid domains with different compositions on a single device. Arrays within microfluidic channels were used to achieve segregation and selective binding from a binary mixture of the toxin fragments in one device. The binding and segregation within the microfluidic channels was assayed with epifluorescence as proof of concept. We propose that the method used for patterning the lipid microarrays on planar substrates and within microfluidic channels can be easily adapted to proteins or nucleic acids and can be used for biosensor applications and cell stimulation assays under different flow conditions. KEYWORDS. Microarray, ganglioside, polymer lift-off, cholera toxin, tetanus toxin, TIRFM, binding constant.4

  10. The Effect of the Different Diet Pattern to the Lipids of the Menopausal Female%围绝经期女性常见膳食模式对血脂情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娅林; 王宏星

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence of the different diet structure to the lipids of the menopausal women. Methods:From February 2014 to February 2015, 24 hours recall method for 3 consecutive days of dietary survey were carried among the 392 light physical labor menopausal feminine who hospitalized in the department of internal medicine in Nantong Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, excluded the impact of the other factors. Then we analyzed the dietary patterns and divided these women into different group according to the energy and the situation of the ratio among the three capacity nutrients, then compared the blood lipids among the groups. Results:After investigation we found that there are 6 kinds of different dietary patterns including high energy intake group (group A, n=62), normal energy high carbohydrate intake group (group B, n=53), normal energy high fat energy intake group (group C, n=58), normal energy high protein intake group (group D, n=59), normal energy normal ratio intake group (group E, n=116) and low energy intake group (group F, n=44). There was a significant difference in the numerical value of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol between the 6 groups of women, the same as the incidence of abnormal (P<0.05). Conclusions:High energy, high fat, high carbohydrate intake may cause abnormal lipid metabolism, especially the high carbohydrate intake may be more prone to blood lipid abnormalities, and the high energy and high fat intake can also cause the abnormalities of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.%目的:分析围绝经期女性中常见的不同膳食模式对血脂情况的影响。方法:选取自2014年2月—2015年2月于江苏省南通市妇幼保健院住院治疗的392例轻体力劳动级且排除影响血脂其他情况的围绝经期女性,入院时均采用24 h回顾法调查连续3

  11. Hexim1 heterozygosity stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis in ApoE null mice fed atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Rozenberg, Inna; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Beckles, Daniel; Mascareno, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Hexim-1 is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Decreased Hexim-1 expression in animal models of chronic diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy, obesity and cancer triggered significant changes in adaptation and remodeling. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hexim1 in lipid metabolism focused in the progression of atherosclerosis and steatosis. We used the C57BL6 apolipoprotein E (ApoE null) crossed bred to C57BL6Hexim1 heterozygous mice to obtain ApoE null - Hexim1 heterozygous mice (ApoE-HT). Both ApoE null backgrounds were fed high fat diet for twelve weeks. Then, we evaluated lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation and liver steatosis. In order to understand changes in the transcriptome of both backgrounds during the progression of steatosis, we performed Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 microarray. After 12 weeks of HFD, ApoE null and ApoE-HT showed similar increase of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma. Plaque composition was altered in ApoE-HT. Additionally, liver triglycerides and steatosis were decreased in ApoE-HT mice. Affymetrix analysis revealed that decreased steatosis might be due to impaired inducible SOCS3 expression in ApoE-HT mice. In conclusion, decreased Hexim-1 expression does not alter cholesterol metabolism in ApoE null background after HFD. However, it promotes stable atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis by promoting the anti-inflammatory TGFβ pathway and blocking the expression of the inducible and pro-inflammatory expression of SOCS3 respectively.

  12. Patterns and predictors of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus in 2014: Insights from a large US managed-care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Dylan L; Khan, Irfan; Becker, Laura; Foody, JoAnne M; Gorcyca, Katherine; Sanchez, Robert J; Giugliano, Robert P

    2017-03-01

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statins reduces risk of cardiovascular events. We examined patterns and predictors of filled prescriptions for lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in subgroups of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). Statin treatment remains underutilized across subgroups of high CV risk patients. Patients in the Optum Research Database with these criteria were included: age ≥20 years, 2 years continuous enrollment, and ASCVD and/or DM. Patients were hierarchically classified by the presence of recent acute coronary syndrome, other coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), or only DM. Predictors of filled LLT regimens were examined using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1 055 932 individuals met all inclusion criteria. Evidence by point-in-time analysis of filled (not only written) statin prescriptions was 45% for the overall cohort. By subgroups, this was 62%, 52%, 43%, 36%, and 40% for recent acute coronary syndrome, other coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, PAD, and only DM, respectively. Predictors of higher rates of any statin regimen included age 50 to 69 years, male sex, absence of comorbidities, and filled prescriptions of other standard-of-care therapies. In 2014, only 49% of patients with ASCVD and 40% with only DM had evidence for a filled statin prescription. Those with indications of ischemic stroke, PAD, and DM were less likely to receive statins than those with coronary conditions. Other characteristics such as advanced age, female sex, and noncardiac conditions predicted less statin utilization, thereby representing good targets for quality improvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Apremilast for the management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangipuram, Ramya; Alikhan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythematous plaques on extensor surfaces, scalp, and back. Current therapies for psoriasis are limited by route of administration, side effects, and cost. Apremilast is the first oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor approved for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. It is a small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4, and decreases the inflammatory activity associated with psoriasis. Areas covered: This review will discuss the pharmacology of apremilast, mechanism of action, results from key clinical trials, and its use in managing psoriasis. Currently approved treatments are also discussed. Expert commentary: The advantages of apremilast include convenient oral administration and dosing, a favorable safety and tolerability profile, and significant efficacy in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

  14. Lipid detection by intravascular photoacoustic imaging with flexible catheter at 20 fps (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Daeichin, Verya; Springeling, Geert; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-02-01

    Intravascular Photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is a promising new technology to assess lipid content of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, an important determinant of the risk associated with the plaque triggering a heart attack. Clinical translation of IVPA imaging requires real-time image acquisition, which has been a technological challenge. In this work, we demonstrate a high-speed, dual-wavelength IVPA imaging system at 1.7 µm wavelength, operating with a flexible catheter of 1.2 mm outer diameter (including outer sheath). The catheter was custom designed and fabricated, and used a 40 MHz transducer for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and IVPA imaging. The optical excitation is provided by a dual OPO system, pumped by CW diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers, with a repetition rate of 5 kHz. Each OPO can be tuned to a custom wavelength between 1690 and 1750 nm; two wavelengths only are needed to discriminate between plaque lipids and adipose tissue. The pulse energy is about 80 µJ. We tested the imaging performance of the presented system in a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) vessel mimicking phantom and human coronary arteries ex vivo. IVPA identified lipid deposits inside atherosclerotic plaque, while IVUS showed tissue structure. We demonstrated IVPA imaging at a speed of 20 frames per second, with 250 A-scans per frame. This is significantly faster than previous IVPA imaging systems, and will enable the translation of IVPA imaging into clinical practice.

  15. T cells specifically targeted to amyloid plaques enhance plaque clearance in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Fisher

    Full Text Available Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD exhibit substantial accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta plaques in the brain. Here, we examine whether Abeta vaccination can facilitate the migration of T lymphocytes to specifically target Abeta plaques and consequently enhance their removal. Using a new mouse model of AD, we show that immunization with Abeta, but not with the encephalitogenic proteolipid protein (PLP, results in the accumulation of T cells at Abeta plaques in the brain. Although both Abeta-reactive and PLP-reactive T cells have a similar phenotype of Th1 cells secreting primarily IFN-gamma, the encephalitogenic T cells penetrated the spinal cord and caused experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, whereas Abeta T cells accumulated primarily at Abeta plaques in the brain but not the spinal cord and induced almost complete clearance of Abeta. Furthermore, while a single vaccination with Abeta resulted in upregulation of the phagocytic markers triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2 and signal regulatory protein-beta1 (SIRPbeta1 in the brain, it caused downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. We thus suggest that Abeta deposits in the hippocampus area prioritize the targeting of Abeta-reactive but not PLP-reactive T cells upon vaccination. The stimulation of Abeta-reactive T cells at sites of Abeta plaques resulted in IFN-gamma-induced chemotaxis of leukocytes and therapeutic clearance of Abeta.

  16. Emu oil decreases atherogenic plaque formation in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakkannan, Soundararajan; Tirupathi Pichiah, P B; Kalaiselvi, Seenivasan; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced coronary heart disease - caused by elevated levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and inflammation - is one of the most prevalent diseases. Monounsaturated fatty acids are reported to prevent atherosclerosis; emu oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acid, and we hypothesize that emu oil supplementation could lower inflammation and prevent atherosclerosis in diet-induced obese (DIO) animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6), and fed with normal diet (chow pellet; ND), or with cafeteria diet (CD), or with CD along with emu oil supplementation at three different doses: ED1 (2 mL), ED2 (4 mL) and ED3 (8 mL) kg(-1) body weight (BW), respectively. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and serum was analysed for measuring lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Histopathological studies were performed to observe atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta. Restoration of altered lipid and hormonal profiles, and inhibition of atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta, were observed with supplementation of emu oil, confirming its anti-atherosclerotic activity. The high content of oleic acid in emu oil could have orchestrated - either solely or in combination with linoleic and linolenic acids - causing the upregulation of testosterone biosynthesis and inhibition of atheromatous plaque formation in diet-induced obese animals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára

    2011-01-01

    of probiotics to the plaque was assessed using PCR techniques. No probiotic-induced changes were found in the acidogenicity of plaque. Also, MS counts remained at the original level. The number of subjects with lactobacilli in plaque increased in the L. reuteri group (p¿=¿0.011) but not in the LGG group. PCR...... analysis of plaque revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of plaque. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity of plaque....

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Zhou; Song; Yan-Ming; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasoundcontrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS.

  19. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  20. Mast cell degranulator compound 48-80 promotes atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with perivascular common carotid collar placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya-ling; YANG Yong-zong; WANG Shuang; HUANG Tao; TANG Chao-ke; XU Zeng-xiang; SUN Yu-hui

    2009-01-01

    Background Study of the relationship between mast cells and atherosclerosis is mostly dependent on pathological observation and cytology experiments. To investigate the effects of mast cells degranulation on plaque and their possible mechanisms we used apolipoprotein E knockout mice which had been placed perivascular common carotid collar with mast cells degranulator compound 48-80.Methods Forty apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a western-type diet and operated on with placement of perivascular right common carotid collar. Four weeks after surgery, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with compound 48-80 (0.5 mg/kg) or D-Hanks every other day for 4 times. The serum lipids and activity of tryptase were measured. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Corresponding sections were stained with toluidine blue and immunohistochemically with antibodies against macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β and van Willebrand factor. Simultaneously, basic fibroblast growth factor was detected by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.Results No pathological change was observed in common carotid non-collar placement but atherogenesis in common carotid collar placement of both groups. There was a significant increase in plaque area ((5.85±0.75)×104 vs (0.86±0.28)×104 μm2, P<0.05), the degree of lumen stenosis ((81±15)% vs (41±12)%, P <0.05), the activity of tryptase in serum ((0.57±0.13) U/L vs (0.36±0.10) U/L, P <0.05), and the percentage of degranulated mast cells ((80.6±17.8)% vs (13.5±4.1)%, P <0.05). The expressions of macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, basic fibroblast growth factor and the density of neovessel in plaque were more in the compound 48-80 group than in the control group.Conclusions Perivascular common carotid collar placement can promote atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Compound 48-80 increases plaque area and the degree

  1. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility.

  2. SU-E-T-443: Geometric Uncertainties in Eye Plaque Dosimetry for a Fully Loaded 16 Mm COMS Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Jans, H; Larocque, M; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of geometric uncertainties in the seed positions in a COMS eye plaque on the central axis (CAX) dose. Methods: A Silastic insert was placed into a photopolymer 3D printed 16 mm COMS plaque, which was then positioned onto a custom-designed PMMA eye phantom. High resolution 3D images were acquired of the setup using a Siemens Inveon microPET/CT scanner. Images were acquired with the plaque unloaded and loaded with IsoAid I-125 seed shells (lack of silver core to minimize metal artifacts). Seed positions and Silastic thickness beneath each slot were measured. The measured seed coordinates were used to alter the seed positions within a standard 16 mm COMS plaque in Plaque Simulator v5.7.3 software. Doses along the plaque CAX were compared for the original and modified plaque coordinates using 3.5 mCi seeds with treatment times set to deliver 70 Gy to tumour apexes of 3.5, 5, and 10 mm height. Results: The majority of seeds showed length-wise displacement, and all seeds showed displacement radially outward from the eye center. The average radial displacement was 0.15 mm larger than the expected 1.4 mm offset, approximately half of which was due to increased Silastic thickness beneath each slot. The CAX doses for the modified seed positions were consistently lower for all tumour heights due to geometric displacement of the seeds; dose differences were found to increase to a maximum of 2.6% at a depth of ∼10 mm, after which they decreased due to the inverse square dose fall-off minimizing this effect. Conclusion: This work presents initial results of a broader dosimetric uncertainty evaluation for fully loaded COMS eye plaques and demonstrates the effects of seed positioning uncertainties. The small shifts in seed depths had noticeable effects on the CAX doses indicating the importance of careful Silastic loading. Funding provided by Alberta Cancer Foundation Grant #26655, Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, and Alberta Innovates Health

  3. Charge-reversal Lipids, Peptide-based Lipids, and Nucleoside-based Lipids for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Caroline M.; Lusic, Hrvoje; Camplo, Michel; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Barthélémy, Philippe; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus Twenty years after gene therapy was introduced in the clinic, advances in the technique continue to garner headlines as successes pique the interest of clinicians, researchers, and the public. Gene therapy’s appeal stems from its potential to revolutionize modern medical therapeutics by offering solutions to a myriad of diseases by tailoring the treatment to a specific individual’s genetic code. Both viral and non-viral vectors have been used in the clinic, but the low transfection efficiencies when utilizing non-viral vectors have lead to an increased focus on engineering new gene delivery vectors. To address the challenges facing non-viral or synthetic vectors, specifically lipid-based carriers, we have focused on three main themes throughout our research: 1) that releasing the nucleic acid from the carrier will increase gene transfection; 2) that utilizing biologically inspired designs, such as DNA binding proteins, to create lipids with peptide-based headgroups will improve delivery; and 3) that mimicking the natural binding patterns observed within DNA, by using lipids having a nucleoside headgroup, will give unique supramolecular assembles with high transfection efficiency. The results presented in this Account demonstrate that cellular uptake and transfection efficacy can be improved by engineering the chemical components of the lipid vectors to enhance nucleic acid binding and release kinetics. Specifically, our research has shown that the incorporation of a charge-reversal moiety to initiate change of the lipid from positive to negative net charge during the transfection process improves transfection. In addition, by varying the composition of the spacer (rigid, flexible, short, long, and aromatic) between the cationic headgroup and the hydrophobic chains, lipids can be tailored to interact with different nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA) and accordingly affect delivery, uptake outcomes, and transfection efficiency. Introduction of a peptide

  4. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    ... (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production...

  5. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU HaiJun; ZHANG PengFei; OHEN WenQiang; ZHANG Mei; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atheroaclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  6. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  7. Mast cells mediate neutrophil recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Anouk; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van der Velden, Daniël; de Jager, Saskia C A; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Activated mast cells have been identified in the intima and perivascular tissue of human atherosclerotic plaques. As mast cells have been described to release a number of chemokines that mediate leukocyte fluxes, we propose that activated mast cells may play a pivotal role in leukocyte recruit

  8. Chemokine Receptor 7 Knockout Attenuates Atherosclerotic Plaque Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Grothusen, Christina; Gagalick, Andreas; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Schuett, Harald; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Pabst, Oliver; Grote, Karsten; Drexler, Helmut; Foerster, Reinhold; Schieffer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Background-Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Both innate immunity and adaptive immunity contribute to atherogenesis, but the mode of interaction is poorly understood. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is critically involved in the

  9. Reproducibility of Two 3-D Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine;

    2014-01-01

    -sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery plaques is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D...

  10. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  11. In silico analyses of metagenomes from human atherosclerotic plaque samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Suparna; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Alhede, Morten

    2015-01-01

    a challenge. RESULTS: To investigate microbiome diversity within human atherosclerotic tissue samples, we employed high-throughput metagenomic analysis on: (1) atherosclerotic plaques obtained from a group of patients who underwent endarterectomy due to recent transient cerebral ischemia or stroke. (2...

  12. Paraclinical Effects of Miswak Extract on Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Poureslami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Persian toothbrush tree or Miswak (Salvadora Persica L. has been used as a brushing stick for more than 1,300 years. Pharmacological studies indicated antibacterial and antiinflammatory activities of Miswak extract. The present study was performed to determine antibacterial effects of Miswak extract.Material and Methods: The present experimental research involved three in vitro studies including: 1 in vitro testing of the effect of Miswak extract on selected bacteria; 2 comparing the paraclinical effects of Iranian toothpaste containing Miswak extract and placebo toothpaste on dental plaque; and 3 comparing the antibacterial effect of Iranian toothpaste with Swiss toothpaste(Quail Miswak on dental plaque. The disc diffusion method was used to test bacterial sensitivity of toothpastes. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA.Results: In the first study, Miswak extract inhibited the growth of some dental plaque bacteria. In the second study, antibacterial effect of the herbal toothpaste was significantly greater than that of the placebo (P =0.002. In the third study, four samples of dental plaque bacteria were used and there was no difference between the antibacterial effects of Swiss and Iranian herbal toothpastes (P =0.66.Conclusion: Due to antimicrobial effects of Miswak extract, its use in mouth rinses and toothpastes is highly recommended.

  13. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In a plaque Of Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a chronic plaque of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is reported in a middle â€" aged, non-insulin dependent diabetic. The possible role of hypoxidosis due to poorly vascularized cicatricial structures, in including malignant changes is discussed.

  15. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.

  16. [New insights towards catheter-based identification of vulnerable plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J.A. Schaar (Johannes)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSudden cardiac death or unheralded acute coronary syndromes are common initial manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis and most such events occur at sites of non-flow limiting coronary atherosclerosis. Autopsy data suggests that plaque composition is a key determinant of the propensit

  17. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gargiulo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies.

  18. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  19. Volumetric Examination of MS Plaques and Correlation with EDSS Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwara, S; Hailey, B; Thompson, A; Minagar, A; Hardjasudarma, M; Gonzalez-Toledo, E

    2009-05-15

    This study is a retrospective analysis of 17 patients with multiple sclerosis. The total volume of plaques from three different MR image sets of the brain was correlated with the EDSS ratings of the patients. Each of the correlations showed a positive relationship, but none was statistically significant. A more extensive study is required in order to give significance to these relationships.

  20. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  1. Ichthyosiform Large Plaque Parapsoriasis: Report of a Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Falguni Nag; Arghyaprasun Ghosh; Projna Biswas; Gobinda Chatterjee; Saugato Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  2. Balneophototherapy in small plaque parapsoriasis--four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, T; Manke-Heimann, A

    1998-03-01

    Four patients suffering from small plaque parapsoriasis were treated successfully with balneophototherapy. Within 4 weeks salt-water baths and UV irradiation resulted in clinical clearing of more than 90% of lesions with a duration of total clinical response between 8 and 12 weeks without further maintenance treatment.

  3. Reporting Casting Bronze Plaque Becomes Advisers Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charlie

    1977-01-01

    Describes an advisers' class project (at the University of Oklahoma) which consisted of reporting on the casting of a bronze plaque bearing the names of the first school newspaper, "The Students Gazette," and its editor, Samuel M. Fox, for presentation in Philadelphia to commemorate scholastic journalism's Bicentennial. (MB)

  4. Ichthyosiform large plaque parapsoriasis: report of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Falguni; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Projna; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Biswas, Saugato

    2013-09-01

    Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  5. Comparative Plaque Removal Efficacy of Three Manual Toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, A; Vorwerk, L; Hooper, W; Kwang, M; Naji, M; Goyal, C R; Qaqish, J

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and plaque-reducing effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush compared to that of a leading marketed toothbrush and a reference standard manual toothbrush control. This examiner-blind, randomized, single-use study used a cross-over design. Sixty-eight qualifying male and female subjects were randomly assigned either an Arm & Hammer™ Truly Radiant™ Deep Clean manual toothbrush (TR), a Colgate® Extra Clean manual toothbrush (C), or an ADA reference standard manual toothbrush (SM) according to one of three computer-generated sequences. Following instruction in the use of their assigned brush, subjects brushed at home with a standard fluoride toothpaste twice daily for two minutes during a one-week familiarization period. At the end of this period, the subjects returned to the study site after refraining from oral hygiene for 12-16 hours and from eating and drinking for four hours. Plaque was disclosed and scored using the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Subjects brushed under supervision with their assigned toothbrush for two minutes in a room without mirrors and apart from the dental examiner, after which plaque was disclosed and rescored. They were then given one of the alternate toothbrushes according to their assigned sequence, and the familiarization routine and evaluations were repeated until each of the subjects used each of the three brushes. Within-treatment and between-treatment whole mouth RMNPI scores and scores at each of twelve subsets of sites were analyzed using paired t-tests and appropriate ANCOVA models, respectively. Within-group analyses showed that all three toothbrushes produced statistically significant reductions from the pre-brushing baseline in whole mouth RMNPI scores (p < 0.0001), with respective reductions of 68.2%, 58.3%, and 48.5% for TR, C, and SM. Between-group analyses showed that TR was significantly more effective (p < 0.0001) than C and SM

  6. Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Fakhri, Georges El; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Laine, Andrew F; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-07-01

    Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. Our numerical observer was designed to incorporate all spectral information and comprised two-processing stages. First, each energy-window domain was preprocessed by a set of localized channelized Hotelling observers (CHO). In this step, the spectral image in each energy bin was decorrelated using localized prewhitening and matched filtering with a set of Laguerre-Gaussian channel functions. Second, the series of the intermediate scores computed from all the CHOs were integrated by a Hotelling observer with an additional prewhitening and matched filter. The overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were obtained, yielding an overall discrimination performance metric. The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. A clinically realistic model of signal variability was also included in our simulation of the discrimination tasks. The inclusion of signal variation is a key to applying the proposed observer method to spectral CT data. Hence, the task-based approaches based on the signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly (SKE/BKE) framework and the clinical-relevant signal-known-statistically/background-known-exactly (SKS/BKE) framework were applied for analytical computation of figures of merit (FOM). Simulated data of a

  7. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...

  8. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  9. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  12. Lipid membranes on nanostructured silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, Andrea Lynn; Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ista, Linnea K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); O' Brien, Michael J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bisong, Paul (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Zeineldin, Reema R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Last, Julie A.; Brueck, Stephen R. J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-12-01

    A unique composite nanoscale architecture that combines the self-organization and molecular dynamics of lipid membranes with a corrugated nanotextured silicon wafer was prepared and characterized with fluorescence microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The goal of this project was to understand how such structures can be assembled for supported membrane research and how the interfacial interactions between the solid substrate and the soft, self-assembled material create unique physical and mechanical behavior through the confinement of phases in the membrane. The nanometer scale structure of the silicon wafer was produced through interference lithography followed by anisotropic wet etching. For the present study, a line pattern with 100 nm line widths, 200 nm depth and a pitch of 360 nm pitch was fabricated. Lipid membranes were successfully adsorbed on the structured silicon surface via membrane fusion techniques. The surface topology of the bilayer-Si structure was imaged using in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane was observed to drape over the silicon structure producing an undulated topology with amplitude of 40 nm that matched the 360 nm pitch of the silicon structure. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments found that on the microscale those same structures exhibit anisotropic lipid mobility that was coincident with the silicon substructure. The results showed that while the lipid membrane maintains much of its self-assembled structure in the composite architecture, the silicon substructure indeed influences the dynamics of the molecular motion within the membrane.

  13. Correlation between Acute Coronary Syndrome Classification and Multi-detector CT Characterization of Plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Wang; Lu-yue Gai; Jing-jing Gai; Ping Li; Xia Yang; Qin-hua Jin; Yun-dai Chen; Zhi-jun Sun; Zhi-wei Guan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if multi-detector CT (MDCT) characterization of plaque is correlated with the classification of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Altogether 1900 patients were examined by MDCT from December 2007 to May 2009,of whom 95 patients fulfilled the criteria of ACS. Those patients were divided into the discrete plaque group (n=61) and diffuse plaque group (n=34) based on the findings in MDCT. The clinical diagnosis of ACS and CT results were analyzed, including segment stenosis score, segment involvement score, 3-vessel plaque score, left main score, calcification score, and remodeling index. The incidences of major adverse cardiac events in follow-up period were also recorded.Results The patients of the diffuse plaque group were older than those of the discrete plaque group (P<0.0001). The diffuse plaque group presented more cases of hypertension, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, and heart failure than discrete plaque group (all P<0.05). All the 5 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were found in discrete plaque group. The segment stenosis score of the discrete plaque group was lower than that of the diffuse plaque group (5.15+3.55 vs. 14.91+5.37, P<0.001). The other four scores demonstrated significant inter-group difference as well (all P<0.05). The remodeling index of the discrete plaque group was higher (1.12+0.16 vs. 0.97+0.20, P<0.05). Follow-up data showed that major adverse cardiac events occurred more frequently in diffuse plaque group than in discrete group (29.41% vs.11.48%, P=0.0288).Conclusions Characteristics of discrete and diffuse plaques may be significandy different among different classes of ACS. The diffuse plaque may present higher risk, correlated to higher mortality. The diagnosis of discrete and diffuse plaques by MDCT would provide a new insight into the prognosis and treatment of ACS.

  14. Glial fibrillary acidic protein isoform expression in plaque related astrogliosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Willem; Middeldorp, Jinte; Kooijman, Lieneke; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Moeton, Martina; Freriks, Michel; Mizee, Mark R; Hol, Elly M

    2014-03-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes with an increased expression of intermediate filaments including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Different GFAP isoforms have been identified that are differentially expressed by specific subpopulations of astrocytes and that impose different properties to the intermediate filament network. We studied transcript levels and protein expression patterns of all known GFAP isoforms in human hippocampal AD tissue at different stages of the disease. Ten different transcripts for GFAP isoforms were detected at different abundancies. Transcript levels of most isoforms increased with AD progression. GFAPδ-immunopositive astrocytes were observed in subgranular zone, hilus, and stratum-lacunosum-moleculare. GFAPδ-positive cells also stained for GFAPα. In AD donors, astrocytes near plaques displayed increased staining of both GFAPα and GFAPδ. The reading-frame-shifted isoform, GFAP(+1), staining was confined to a subset of astrocytes with long processes, and their number increased in the course of AD. In conclusion, the various GFAP isoforms show differential transcript levels and are upregulated in a concerted manner in AD. The GFAP(+1) isoform defines a unique subset of astrocytes, with numbers increasing with AD progression. These data indicate the need for future exploration of underlying mechanisms concerning the functions of GFAPδ and GFAP(+1) isoforms in astrocytes and their possible role in AD pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic apocynin treatment attenuates beta amyloid plaque size and microglial number in hAPP(751(SL mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda E Lull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL. METHODS: Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months. RESULTS: Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number

  16. Scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic system for radionuclide imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Raiyan T; Kosuge, Hisanori; Carpenter, Colin; Sun, Conroy; McConnell, Michael V; Xing, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Detection of coronary plaque inflammation remains challenging. In this study, we developed a scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic radionuclide imaging (SBRI) system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of plaque imaging using (18)F-FDG, a marker of vascular inflammation, and tested it in a murine model. The fiber-optic system uses a Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) camera with a distal ferrule terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon in the front of the wide-angle lens to image light from the decay of (18)F-FDG emission signal. To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated the modulation transfer function of yttrium-aluminum-garnet doped with cerium, anthracene, and calcium fluoride doped with europium (CaF2:Eu) phosphors using an edge pattern and a thin-line optical phantom. The scintillating balloon was then fabricated from 10 mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL of base and 50 mg of CaF2:Eu per mL. The addition of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystal (500 μm thick) to the balloon was also investigated. The SBRI system was tested in a murine atherosclerosis model: carotid-ligated mice (n = 5) were injected with (18)F-FDG, followed by ex vivo imaging of the macrophage-rich carotid plaques and nonligated controls. Confirmatory imaging of carotid plaques and controls was also performed by an external optical imaging system and autoradiography. Analyses of the different phosphors showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2 μm. The SBRI system detected almost a 4-fold-higher radioluminescence signal from the ligated left carotid artery than the nonligated right carotid: 1.63 × 10(2) ± 4.01 × 10(1) vs. 4.21 × 10(1) ± 2.09 × 10(0) (photon counts), P = 0.006. We found no significant benefit to adding a

  17. Plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI evaluated by dense 3D correspondence with histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    Automatic quantification of carotid artery plaque composition is important in the development of methods that distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. MRI has shown to be capable of imaging different components noninvasively. We present a new plaque classification method which uses 3D registra...

  18. Stable size distribution of amyloid plaques over the course of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H; Bacskai, Brian J; Betensky, Rebecca A; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T

    2012-08-01

    Amyloid β plaques are a key pathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavin S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of subjects with AD and age-matched plaque-bearing subjects without dementia to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups, whereas dense-core plaques from the group with AD were slightly larger than those from the group without dementia (∼25%-30%, p = 0.01). Within the group with AD, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOE[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease.

  19. Stable Size Distribution of Amyloid Plaques Over the Course of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L.; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β plaques are a key pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavine-S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of AD and plaque-bearing age-matched non-demented subjects to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid-β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups whereas dense-core plaques from the AD group were slightly larger than those in the non-demented group (~25%–30%, p = 0.01). Within the AD group, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOEε4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease. PMID:22805771

  20. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identifi