WorldWideScience

Sample records for plantes superieures cultives

  1. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  2. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  3. A review on plant importance, biotechnological aspects, and cultivation challenges of jojoba plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; AlKhalifah, Nasser S; Asanar, Shanavaskhan; Al-Soqeer, Abdulrahman A; Attia, M F

    2017-08-24

    Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant's cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.

  4. A review on plant importance, biotechnological aspects, and cultivation challenges of jojoba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel R. Al-Obaidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant’s cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.

  5. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  6. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L. plants in depending on cultivation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sałata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated from transplants produced flowers earlier than those obtained from crowns. Plants grown from seeds sown in the ground did not produce flowering shoots. They remained as leaves through the whole vegetation period. Definitely more anthodiums produced plants those cultivated from crowns in comparison with obtained from transplants and seeds. Anthodiums which developed on shoots of plants cultivated from transplants and cuttings characterized bigger average height and diameter than anthodiums of plants cultivated from crowns. Artichoke plants differed in the number of leaves. More leaves of smaller length produced plants cultivated from transplants than plants obtained from cuttings and crowns.

  8. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  9. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  10. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  11. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  12. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  13. Wanted: Information on the Distribution of Cultivated Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Lack of documentation makes it very difficult to discover where species of cultivated plants may be found in the United States. Plead for compilation of "campus floras and herbarium collections. Need for a rational locator file of available plant materials. Lists and reviews present sources of information. Bibliography of campus floras. (EB)

  14. Use of cultivated plants and non-plant remedies for human and animal home-medication in Liubań district, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Hrynevich, Yanina; Prakofjewa, Julia; Valodzina, Tatsiana; Vasilyeva, Iryna; Paciupa, Jury; Shrubok, Aliaksandra; Hlushko, Aliaksei; Knureva, Yana; Litvinava, Yulia; Vyskvarka, Siarhei; Silivonchyk, Hanna; Paulava, Alena; Kõiva, Mare; Kalle, Raivo

    2017-10-03

    To use any domestic remedy, specific knowledge and skills are required. Simple logic dictates that the use of wild plants in the context of limited interaction with nature requires prior identification, while in the case of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants this step can be omitted. This paper aims to document the current and past uses of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants in the study region for human/animal medication; to analyze the human medicinal and veterinary use areas in the context of the remedy groups; to qualitatively compare the results with relevant historical publications; and to compare the intensity and purpose of use between the remedy groups. During field studies 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted with locals from 11 villages in the Liubań district of Belarus. Currently used home-remedies as well as those used in the past were documented by employing the folk history method. The subject was approached through health-related uses, not by way of remedies. Interview records were digitalized and structured in Detailed Use Records in order to ascertain local perceptions. An Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) was calculated for remedy groups as well as for different use categories. In the human medication area the use of nearby remedies was neither very diverse nor numerous: 266 DUR for 45 taxa belonging to 27 families were recorded for cultivated plants along with 188 DUR for 58 different non-plant remedies. The FIC values for both remedy groups were lower than for wild plants. In the ethnoveterinary medicine use area there were 48 DUR referring to the use of 14 cultivated plant taxa from 12 families and 72 DUR referring to the use of 31 non-plant remedies. The FIC value for the whole veterinary use area of cultivated plants was relatively low, yet similar to the FIC of wild plants. Differences between remedy groups were pronounced, indicating that in domestic human medicine cultivated plants and non-plant remedies are either

  15. Measurements of trace contaminants in closed-type plant cultivation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Nitta, K.; Tako, Y.; Ashida, A.; Otsubo, K.; Saito, T.

    Trace contaminants generated in closed facilities can cause abnormal plant growth. We present measurement data of trace contaminants released from soils, plants, and construction materials. We mainly used two closed chambers, a Closed-type Plant and Mushroom Cultivation Chamber (PMCC) and Closed-type Plant Cultivation Equipment (CPCE). Although trace gas budgets from soils obtained in this experiment are only one example, the results indicate that the budgets of trace gases, as well as CO_2 and O_2, change greatly with the degree of soil maturation and are dependent on the kind of substances in the soil. Both in the PMCC and in the CPCE, trace gases such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and xylene were detected. These gases seemed to be released from various materials used in the construction of these chambers. The degree of increase in these trace gas levels was dependent on the relationship between chamber capacity and plant quantity. Results of trace gas measurement in the PMCC, in which lettuce and shiitake mushroom were cultivated, showed that ethylene was released both from lettuce and from the mushroom culture bed. The release rates were about 90 ng bed^-1 h^-1 for the shiitake mushroom culture bed (volume is 1700 cm^3) and 4.1 ~ 17.3 ng dm^-2h^-1 (leaf area basis) for lettuce. Higher ethylene release rates per plant and per unit leaf area were observed in mature plants than in young plants.

  16. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  17. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  18. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  19. THE PARTICULARITIES OF PROLONGED CULTIVATION OF PLANTS-REGENERANTS OF TOMATO INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Miroshnichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The particularities of the changes of the morphological parameters of plants-regenerants of tomato hybrids F1 during prolonged cultivation in conditions of in vitro have been studied. The cultivation during 12 passages in hormoneless MS medium does not lead to somaclonal variants, but act to raise the increasing of coefficient of variability of plants-regenerants features. 

  20. Possible effects of cultivated plants in the development of allergy in population of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waqar, M.A.; Khan, M.; Hasnain, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Among the various biological particles, pollen grains and fingal spores stand as the two major factors that can cause asthma and allergic rhinitis. Pollen grains can be released by the domestic plants cultivated in and around as omamentals, on road verges and parklands etc. However. those plants are considered allergenic which are wind pollinated, called anemophilous, and very less attention is paid pollen sensitivity of cultivated plants. The purpose of this publication is to explain the types of flowering plants cultivated in Sindh, their flowering periods and the possibility of their pollen grains to induce IgE mediated hypersensitive reaction in people living in tile selected geographical region. In this survey. we have taken into consideration 60 species of plants that are being cultivated in tile province of Sindh. These species are divided into two major groups: the first group includes allergenic pollen producing species. while the second group included 38 species that are known to be non-allergenic. Our results show that most of the abundantly cultivated plants may be considered as secondary potential allergens and/or occupational or cross-reacting allergens. (author)

  1. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of 137 Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of 137 Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013-0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  2. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  3. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  4. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of "1"3"7Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of "1"3"7Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013- 0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  5. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  6. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  7. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  8. Fast Decline of Pythium zingiberum in Soil and Its Recolonization by Cultivating Susceptible Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ICHITANI, Takio; SHIMIZU, Tokiya

    1984-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the fast decline of Pythium zingiberum in soil and its recolonization by cultivating mioga, susceptible host plant, and discusses growth and survival of the pathogen in the host rhizosphere in cultivated fields.

  9. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  10. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historic cultivation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described i...

  11. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  12. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-03-31

    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. An autonomous robot for de-leafing cucumber plants in a high-wire cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity for

  14. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  16. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  17. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137 Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137 Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant 137 Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137 Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg -1 ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. An Autonomous Robot for De-leafing Cumcumber Plants grown in a High-wire Cultivation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity to

  19. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  20. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahwan, I M; Abdalla, O A; Al-Saleh, M A; Amer, M A

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus , Convolvulus arvensis , Malva parviflora , Rubus fruticosus , Hippuris vulgaris , and Flaveria trinervia . These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum melongena , Phaseolus vulgaris , Cucurbita maxima , Capsicum annuum , and Vicia faba . The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV) {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV) {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV) {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV) was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  1. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Al-Shahwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus, Convolvulus arvensis, Malva parviflora, Rubus fruticosus, Hippuris vulgaris, and Flaveria trinervia. These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucurbita maxima, Capsicum annuum, and Vicia faba. The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  2. Commercial cultivation by farmers of medicinal plants in northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MPs are an important component of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, which are traditionally used in healthcare and source of livelihood all over the world. In an over-populated country like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is immense; thus the cultivation of MPs can significantly contribute towards improving the livelihood of poor people, reducing the pressure on natural forests and enhancing biological diversity. Notwithstanding the growing recognition of its importance and economic and ecological potential, there has been little research on MPs, especially the cultivation, management and marketing aspects, in Bangladesh. Based on extensive fieldwork in a northern district of Bangladesh, this study explores various aspects of the cultivation, management and marketing of MPs. How collective efforts have brought economic and social benefits to communities was also examined in this study. It assesses the major processes and elements of management, identifies key problems and challenges and indicates ways of maximizing the potential of this important sector. The issues covered in this research include: farmers ’ perceptions and experiences; existing research and policy-making processes related to the MP sector; constraining factors (such as lack of processing technology, inadequate transportation, logistics, financial and storage infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity; markets, finance and networking; land use; pattern of livelihood and value chain issue.

  3. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  4. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  5. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions. No claim to US Government works. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  7. Development of a domestic platn cultivation unit. Kateiyo saibai sochi no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K. (The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper describes development and operation evaluation on a domestic plant cultivating unit that can cultivate plants throughout a year by installing a prototype cultivating device effectively utilizing electric power, and controlling the cultivation environments. The prototype plant cultivating device uses trially an air cooling heat pump for general household use with high general-purpose applicability installed in a glass greenhouse with an area of about 10 m[sup 2], similar to those used by orchid lover club members. The device also uses commercially available humidifying and ventilating devices. No household horticultural facilities in cold district have ever used this kind of heat pump. Generally, cultivating environments in glass greenhouses are affected more easily by outside climate change as the greenhouse volume becomes smaller. For this reason, with this small-scale prototype cultivating device, orchids are cultivated to identify cultivating environments, and study technological development on controls over proper year-round cultivation and effective cultivation environments, as well as development and operation evaluation on household plant cultivation devices. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Duchovskis, P [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Bliznikas, Z [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Breive, K [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ulinskaite, R [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Brazaityte, A [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Novickovas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zukauskas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-09-07

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  9. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulaitis, G; Duchovskis, P; Bliznikas, Z; Breive, K; Ulinskaite, R; Brazaityte, A; Novickovas, A; Zukauskas, A

    2005-01-01

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated

  10. Microbial Community Dynamics and Response to Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere of Four Common Food Crops Cultivated in Hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C; Depuydt, P; De Ro, M; Petit, C; Van Gysegem, E; Delaere, P; Dixon, M; Stasiak, M; Aciksöz, S B; Frossard, E; Paradiso, R; De Pascale, S; Ventorino, V; De Meyer, T; Sas, B; Geelen, D

    2017-02-01

    Plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) of the plant root zone microbiome have received limited attention in hydroponic cultivation systems. In the framework of a project aimed at the development of a biological life support system for manned missions in space, we investigated the effects of PGPMs on four common food crops (durum and bread wheat, potato and soybean) cultivated in recirculating hydroponic systems for a whole life cycle. Each crop was inoculated with a commercial PGPM mixture and the composition of the microbial communities associated with their root rhizosphere, rhizoplane/endosphere and with the recirculating nutrient solution was characterised through 16S- and ITS-targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing. PGPM addition was shown to induce changes in the composition of these communities, though these changes varied both between crops and over time. Microbial communities of PGPM-treated plants were shown to be more stable over time. Though additional development is required, this study highlights the potential benefits that PGPMs may confer to plants grown in hydroponic systems, particularly when cultivated in extreme environments such as space.

  11. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  12. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  13. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF O,P'-DDT AND P,P'-DDT BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The uptake and phytotransformation of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were investigated in vitro using three axenically cultivated aquatic plants: parrot feather (Mariophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza), and elodea (Elodea canadensis). The decay profile of DDT from the aq...

  14. Automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation and punch planting to improve the selectivity of mechanical intra-row weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nielsen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    in sugar beet and carrot crops showed no synergistic effects between plant establishment procedures and selectivity of post-emergence weed harrowing. Even if punch planting and automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation were not combined, the results indicated that there was no reason to believe...... that mainly work through soil burial....

  15. Untapped Endophytic Colonization and Plant Growth-Promoting Potential of the Genus Novosphingobium to Optimize Rice Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Sungthong, Rungroch; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of searching for potent diazotrophic bacteria that are free of public health concerns and optimize rice cultivation, the endophytic colonization and plant growth-promoting activities of some endophytic diazotrophic bacteria isolated from rice were evaluated. Among these bacteria, the emerging diazotrophic strains of the genus Novosphingobium effectively associated with rice plant interiors and consequently promoted the growth of rice, even with the lack of a nitrogen source. Thes...

  16. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  17. Pre-sowing laser biostymulation of seeds of cultivated plants and its results in agrotechnics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies carried out in University of Agriculture in Lublin made it possible to elaborate our own technology of making laser biostimulation of seeds of selected cultivated plants. The machine for laser biostimulation has been constructed. Pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds of some studied plants resulted in the following increase of crops: maize from 10 to 20%, spring wheat 20-30%, spring barley 20-25%, sugar beets 10-35%. Better plant seedlings, higher resistance to cold and earlier plant maturation are the additional effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of plants. In the case of corn the vegetation period is shortened by about 10 days. The quality of plants grown from the seeds which underwent the laser biostimulation is also higher. Initial studies proved that it is possible to diminish nitrogen fertilization when applying laser biostimulation of seeds without essential decrease in crops. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  18. Tolerance of cultivated and wild plants of different taxonomy to soil contamination by kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharonova, Natalia; Breus, Irina

    2012-05-01

    In laboratory experiments on leached chernozem contaminated by kerosene (1-15 wt.%), germination of 50 plants from 21 families (cultivated and wild, annual and perennial, mono- and dicotyledonous) as affected by kerosene type and concentration and plant features was determined. Tested plants formed three groups: more tolerant, less tolerant, and intolerant, in which relative germination was more than 70%, 30-70% and less than 30%, respectively. As parameters of soil phytotoxicity, effective kerosene concentrations (EC) causing germination depression of 10%, 25% and 50% were determined. EC values depended on the plant species and varied in a wide range of kerosene concentrations: 0.02-7.3% (EC(10)), 0.05-8.1% (EC(25)), and 0.2-12.7% (EC(50)). The reported data on germination in soils contaminated by oil and petrochemicals were generalized. The comparison showed that at very high contamination levels (10 and 15%) kerosene was 1.3-1.6 times more phytotoxic than diesel fuel and 1.3-1.4 times more toxic than crude oil, and at low (1 and 2%) and medium (3 and 5%) levels the toxicity of these contaminants was close differing by a factor of 1.1-1.2. Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature and, on the average, decreased in the following range of families: Fabaceae (germination decrease of 10-60% as compared to an uncontaminated control)>Brassicaceae (5-70%)>Asteraceae (25-95%)>Poaceae (10-100%). The monocotyledonous species tested were characterized as medium- and low-stable to contamination, whereas representatives of dicotyledonous plants were met in all groups of tolerance. Tested wild plants, contrary to reference data on oil toxicity, were more sensitive to kerosene than cultivated. No correlation was observed between degree of plant tolerance to kerosene and mass of seeds. The evidence indicates factors as structure and properties of testa, structure of germ, type of storage compounds, and type of seed germination (underground or

  19. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  20. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  1. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant cultivation aspects of biogas production in organic farming; Pflanzenbauliche Aspekte der Biogasproduktion im oekologischen Landbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Bernhard [Amt fuer Ernaehrung Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Bamberg (Germany); Miller, Hubert [Biolandhof Miller (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on plant cultivation aspects of biogas production in organic farming. The power generation, the economic aspects of this operating sector, the potential impact on the performance of crop production as well as soil fertility are considered.

  3. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  4. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  5. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzos, N; Karakitsou, A; Hela, D; Patakioutas, G; Leneti, E; Konstantinou, I

    2014-02-15

    A field dissipation and transport study of oxyfluorfen in a sunflower cultivation under Mediterranean conditions have been conducted in silty clay plots (cultivated and uncultivated) with two surface slopes (1% and 5%). The soil dissipation and transport of oxyfluorfen in runoff water and sediment, as well as the uptake by sunflower plants, were investigated over a period of 191 days. Among different kinetic models assayed, soil dissipation rate of oxyfluorfen was better described by first-order kinetics. The average half-life was 45 and 45.5 days in cultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1% respectively, and 50.9 and 52.9 days in uncultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1%. The herbicide was detected below the 10 cm soil layer 45 days after application (DAA). Limited amounts of oxyfluorfen were moved with runoff water and the cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.007% and 0.005% of the initial applied active ingredient, while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.002% and 0.001%. The maximum concentration of oxyfluorfen in sediment ranged from 1.46 μg g(-1) in cultivated plot with soil slope 1% to 2.33 μg g(-1) in uncultivated plot with soil slope 5%. The cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.217% and 0.170% while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.055% and 0.025%. Oxyfluorfen was detected in sunflower plants until the day of harvest; maximum concentrations in stems and leaves (0.042 μg g(-1)) were observed 33 DAA and in roots (0.025 μg g(-1)) 36 DAA. In conclusion, oxyfluorfen hardly moves into silty clay soil and exhibited low run-off potential so it represents a low risk herbicide for the contamination of ground and adjacent water resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of marine plant biomass: Management, cultivation, and genetic modification of macrophytic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Every second of every day, the Sun's fusion reactions convert thousands of tons of hydrogen into helium with the release of almost unimaginable amounts of energy. Through the photosynthetic activity of plants, both aquatic and terrestrial, a small fraction of this energy is trapped and stored as plant biomass. The oceans cover a greater fraction of the globe than do the land masses, making it appropriate to consider their contribution to the total biomass production, and their potential as a source of raw materials for the extraction of chemicals and fuels. A rather broad synthesis, convering the total seaweed resource and some of the constraints placed on harvesting these plants, attempts to farm the oceans to increase the supply of desirable species, attempts to cultivate seaweeds in enclosures where environmental parameters are controlled, and finally, the limited amount of genetic manipulation that was applied to these plants was presented. Only the larger red and brown seaweeds were considered because they represent the bulk of the biomass.

  7. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  8. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  9. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  10. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet,; Delas,; Delmas,; Demias,; Flanzy,; Benard,; Puyaubert,; Fioramonti,; Marty,; Barbier,; Blaye, Le; Michon,

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  11. Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, R.; Mahmood, K.

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, salt-affected regions have been drastically disturbed by unchecked activities of local populations. Removal of deep-rooted perennials and overgrazing destroy the native vegetation leading to rapid desertification. Shallow-rooted agricultural crops are grown on marginal soils on limited area that is not enough with respect to the spread of salinity problem. Sustainable restoration of these ecosystems requires a large scale integration of perennial plants (trees, shrubs and herbs) back in to farming systems. However, selenization processes continue because the available options for cultivation of perennial plants prove less profitable than agricultural crops. This study relates to resort the salt-affected lands for plant production and develop a technology for sustainable saline ecosystem. Plants, having salt tolerance potential, have been identified and introduced on salt-affected wastelands to develop a sustainable ecosystem with increased productivity. The biomass so produced can be used directly as forage, fuel, and even as food or feed. In addition, fish aquaculture, and some value-added products make this ecosystem more sustainable. This technology is practically demonstrated at Biosaline Research Station of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Pakka Anna, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The marginally saline soils and wastelands ameliorated as a result of growing salt tolerant perennials can also be used for growing salt tolerant cultivars of conventional crops like wheat, barley and mustard. So, through proper management the saline ecosystem can become economical and profitable. (author)

  12. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  13. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild relatives, Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara. Results The overall methylation level of rice genomes is four times higher than that of Arabidopsis. Consistent with the results reported for Arabidopsis, methylation in promoters represses gene expression while gene-body methylation generally appears to be positively associated with gene expression. Interestingly, we discovered that methylation in gene transcriptional termination regions (TTRs can significantly repress gene expression, and the effect is even stronger than that of promoter methylation. Through integrated analysis of genomic, DNA methylomic and transcriptomic differences between cultivated and wild rice, we found that primary DNA sequence divergence is the major determinant of methylational differences at the whole genome level, but DNA methylational difference alone can only account for limited gene expression variation between the cultivated and wild rice. Furthermore, we identified a number of genes with significant difference in methylation level between the wild and cultivated rice. Conclusions The single-base resolution methylomes of rice obtained in this study have not only broadened our understanding of the mechanism and function of DNA methylation in plant genomes, but also provided valuable data for future studies of rice epigenetics and the epigenetic differentiation between wild and cultivated rice.

  14. [Historical research of cinchona cultivation in Japan (Part 2). Useful tropical plants introduced from Java and India in the early Meiji era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Seiji; Sasaki, Yohei; Takido, Michio

    2010-01-01

    In the early Meiji era, Takeaki Enomoto made a proposal to the government that cinchona and coffee seedlings be introduced to Japan. In response, the Meiji government dispatched Masatsugu Takeda of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to Java and India from March to August 1878 for the purpose of investigating useful plants of tropical origin and introducing them to Japan. This paper clarifies the route to those destinations and the plants obtained locally. Using the seeds obtained from India during his travels, the cultivation of cinchona was attempted in 1882 for the first time in Japan. In Ogasawara, coffee cultivation was conducted, again for the first time in Japan, using coffee seeds brought back from Java. The cultivation of coffee was successful and served as the foundation of the Ogasawara coffee that exists to this day. Takeda also introduced a number of books and materials related to useful tropical plants available as a result of his travels, which contributed to the promotion of new industries and businesses in the Meiji era.

  15. The time lag between introduction and escape from cultivation of alien woody plant species decreases with polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brändle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The time between introduction of an alien species and escape from cultivation shows considerable variation among species. One hypothesis to explain this variation of the time lag invokes the evolution of genotypes adapted to the conditions of the new environment. Here, we analyse the variation in time lags among 53 alien woody plant species in Germany. Accounting for the effects of time since introduction, growth form (trees versus shrubs, biogeography and taxonomic isolation (presence or absence of a native congener in the adventive area we found that the time lag decreases with increasing polyploidization. By contrast, the haploid chromosome number was not significantly related to the time lag. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that recent genome duplication events are important for a fast escape from cultivation of an alien woody plant species. We suggest that a large number of duplicated chromosomes increase the partitioning of the genome and hence the average rate of recombination between loci facilitating the formation of adaptive genotypes.

  16. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (Price cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation.

  17. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  18. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  19. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  20. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  1. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  2. Traditional pattern of cashew cultivation : A lesson from Sumenep-Madura, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Sutikno, Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Rakhman, R. Yuvita

    2017-11-01

    Belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, the cashew tree (Anacardium Occidentale, Linn.) is one of the important tropical plants that possess high economic value. This plant is commonly grown in Indonesian regions including Sumenep, Madura, where the red sandy loam type of soil is commonly present. This study aims to obtain rough data on the pattern of cashew cultivation and identify the cashew cultivation knowledge of local communities. Data were taken in Bringin village, Sumenep-Madura. Our field survey showed that the cashew's cultivation pattern in this village applies the so-called traditional organic farming. Cashew trees are planted along the boundaries of the owner's farm field, functioning as a fence of their farm. Nevertheless, our survey also indicated that this pattern of cultivation is still below standard of cultivation. The planting distance between the cashew trees with one another is relatively close (< 5 meters), causing the cashew branches to overlap with each other. Moreover, we observed that there was no rejuvenation of old cashew trees. Finally, knowledge of the community about post-harvest processing is limited. Therefore, we suggest that educating the community about good standard cashew cultivation is required to improve productivity as well as the quality of cashew nuts.

  3. Colombian coca plants. A critical discussion on taxonomic aspects of cultivated Erythroxylum species (Erythroxylaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Bonilla, Aida; Fernandez Alonzo, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Forensic botany is in high demand in Colombia in connection with plant material, mainly coca from illicit crops. The taxonomic study of the two species and four varieties of Erythroxylum P. Browne (Erythroxylaceae) cultivated in Colombia was carried out. Hybridization between E. coca and E. novogranatense and between the two varieties of E. coca is suggested, and important changes in the geographic distribution of all taxa are described. Both, hybridization and changes in distribution patterns are due to anthropic intervention.

  4. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  5. Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Red Onion Cultivation from True Seed Shallot (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Sudaryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the strategic horticultural commodities, considering this commodity is very high consumption as a daily spice and fluctuating price. Therefore is not surprising that these commodities are contributing to inflation. Efforts to meet increasing consumption needs, it is necessary to find the right strategy to increase domestic red onion production. One of the strategies considered to increase domestic red onion production is the use of botanical seed (TSS as a source of seed on shallot cultivation. There are 2 main weaknesses of red onion cultivation with TSS as a source of seeds. The two weaknesses are TSS low growing power, which is naturally only in the 50-60 % range and the number of tubers produced is less than 3 cloves per plant. In order to solve the problem, research has been done to know the effect of plant growth regulator on the growth and red onion production from TSS and also get the description of red onion farming from TSS and tuber as seed source. The research was conducted from June to November 2017 at BPP Pare, Kediri Regency, East Java. The results showed that the use of young coconut water on TSS obtained red onion plants are able to produce the number of tubers per plant more than 3 cloves. In detail as much as 22.22 % produces the number of tubers range 4-5 per plant; 56.56 % yields 5-6 bulb range; and as much as 22.22 % produces tubers > 6. As well, wet weight of tubers when harvested weighing more than 99 g per plant. If converted per hectare, TSS red onion plants treated with young coconut water can produce a range of 30 -35 tons of wet bulb. This production is doubled compared to the production of shallots grown from tubers. Based on the analysis of the farm, red onion from TSS treated with young coconut water gives a profit of Rp 224,860,000 per hectare with B/C ratio of 3.397. This profit is more than 1.75 times compared to the profit of red onion tuber farming which is only Rp 93.787.000, - with B

  6. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  7. Effect of reversal of the flow direction on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants cultivated in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of reversal of the flow direction, when used the surface flow as an operating criteria, on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants grown in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems (HSF-CWs. For this purpose, six HSF-CWs were used: two non-cultivated (HSF-CWs 1 and 4, two cultivated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp. (HSF-CWs 2 and 5 and two cultivated with Alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (HSF-CWs 3 and 6. It was made a reversal in the flow direction of the HSF-CWs 1, 2 and 3. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction was performed when the superficial flow of the wastewater applied (SF reached 50% of the length of the HSF-CWs. There was a single reversal for each system, on different dates. Reversing the flow direction promoted distinction on the dry matter yield of Tifton 85 grass. This was not observed in HSF-CWs cultivated with Alternanthera. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction promoted, in principle, the extinction of the SF advance in the HSF-CWs, but did not prevent its return. Waiting for the SF to reach 50% of the length was not the best criterion for reversing the flow direction.

  8. Qualitative characterisation of cultivated and wild edible plants: Mineral elements, phenols content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the qualitative characteristics of several edible wild herbaceous species, including those most consumed in Foggia Province (southern Italy. Analysis of qualitative characteristics was performed for the edible parts of 11 wild species (Beta vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Centaurea solstitialis L., Cichorium intybus L., Scolymus hispanicus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Borago officinalis L., Diplotaxis erucoides L., Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L. DC, Sinapis arvensis L., Portulaca oleracea L. and three cultivated species (C. intybus, B. officinalis, D. tenuifolia. The plants were collected from areas in the Foggia countryside, and the edible part of each species was analysed for dry matter, protein, cation and anion contents as well as total phenols and antioxidant activities. Among the cations, calcium was the most differentiated among species, ranging 784 mg kg–1 fresh weight (Fw for B. vulgaris to 5886 mg kg–1 Fw for S. hispanicus. The nitrate contents were also highly variable, from 75 mg kg–1 Fw for C. intybus to 3874 mg kg–1 Fw for D. tenuifolia. Total polyphenols ranged from 1054 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg kg–1 Fw for C. solstitialis to 3664 mg GAE mg kg–1 Fw for S. arvensis. Antioxidant activities ranged from 839 mg Trolox equivalents (TE kg–1 Fw for B. vulgaris to 5658 mg TE kg–1 Fw for C. intybus. Significant differences were also noted between wild and cultivated plants in the qualitative parameters. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were higher in wild C. intybus and B. officinalis than in their cultivated counterparts. Multivariate analysis (cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed integration of the ANOVA data to determine the qualitative characteristics of the wild species that contribute most to group differences. The results of the present study aims to improve current knowledge about edible wild species as vegetable sources in the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  10. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF SOLAR RADIATION FOR PLANTS Ilex paraguariensis A. ST. HIL. CULTIVATED UNDER SHADOW AND FULL SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814563The efficiency of conversion of the solar radiation in biomass is a variable frequently used in models of simulation the culture growth, because the biomass production is related with the efficiency of which a plant converts radiant energy in chemistry, given by the process of the photosynthesis. The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of conversion of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi in Ilex paraguariensis biomass, cultivated in consortium (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. e Pinus elliottii Engelm and single. For so much, it was determined the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi, the index of leaf area and the biomass dries of the seedlings, being then, the efficiency of conversion of RFAi in biomass dries of the cultivated in consortium and single. For a same radiation value RFAi, is obtained larger efficiency of use of the radiation in the accumulation in matter dries when Ilex paraguariensis is cultivated in consortium. The conversion efficiency (εb of biomass total drought of Ilex paraguariensis plants in relation to the amount of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi accumulated is of 0.83 g MJ-1 in the system consortium and of 0.23 g MJ-1 in the single system. In spite of that, the production of aerial biomass for plant was larger in the single system. 

  11. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  12. Production of oil palm empty fruit bunch compost for ornamental plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to produce the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost for ornamental plant cultivation. EFB compost was produced by chopping fresh EFB into 1-3 cm pieces, inserting the pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The compost processed was then mixed with sand and rice husk with a ratio of 1:1:1; 1:3:1; 1:0:1 and was used as a potting medium for planting some valuable ornamental plants i.e. cactus (cactaceae), sansevieria, and anthurium. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0.95%. The compost-sand-husk rice mixture can be used as a growing medium where the best ratio for cactus, sansevieria, and anthurium was 1:3:1; 1:1:1; and 1:0:1, respectively.

  13. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  14. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Jingde; Hu, Fengyi

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild rela...

  15. Assessment of global trends and competitiveness of domestic scientific and technological capacity in the field of the plants cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Cherchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent and market analysis one of the most intensive and rapidly developing technology areas – developing new ways of breeding, hybridization and changes in genetic characteristics of cultivated plants was made for the assessment of the potential of the Russian agroindustry. Special attention is paid to new technological the areas identified by experts among the most promising for the development of domestic agricultural production: the development of new methods of obtaining high-performance plant varieties; the development of fundamentally new approaches in biotechnology to accelerate breeding of agricultural plants based on genomic technologies and DNA labeling (marker assisted selection.

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  17. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... of plant residues, and they have been found to be nutritionally and ... In most countries, there is a well-established consumer accep- tance for cultivated ... temperature, dampness, CO2, cultivation methods and tecniques etc.

  18. Environmental effects of an increasing cultivation of energy crops; Umweltwirkungen eines zunehmenden Energiepflanzenbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippel, Rudolf (comp.)

    2008-11-15

    The development of the cultivation of energy plants depends on economic general situation (price relationship for energy raw materials and agrarian raw materials). Changes in the spectrum of the kinds of fruit hardly arise. In the medium term, potentials at sorghum millet and wood exist in short activities cultures. In particular, there are problems in the case of existing regional cultivation emphasis for energy plants for the production of fermentation gas. Depending upon kind and extent of an expansion of the cultivation of energy plants, the effects on the environment will fail strongly or weakly. Thus there are possibilities with positive and negative effect for the ground structure, humus supply, entry of pollutant and water protection. Positive and negative potentials for the environment are recognizable for the entry of plant protection agents into the ground and for the emission environmental harmful gases. With the unbalanced cultivation of energy plants, predominantly negative effects for the Flora and fauna as well as for the game protection are to be expected. A negative ecological effect always will proceed from an intensification the land use with the shutdown or the radical change with grassland. Due to different production procedures and due to a lack of investigation data, a concluding evaluation of the environmental effects of the cultivation of energy plants is not possible for the complexity of connections. It insists a clear requirement of research for the effects of the increasing development of energy plants on the environment.

  19. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  20. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatoba R Waghmode

    Full Text Available 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001 decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001 reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance. BES significantly (P<0.001 reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation.

  1. ECOLOGICAL FACTOR SCORE OF THE TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. Архіпова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the quality and safety of tobacco cultivation in Ukraine was described in the article. Asfar as the cultivation of this plant is accompanied by using of the pesticides and other hazardous chemicals,the problem requires the solution in the nearest future. The techniques of "organic" tobacco cultivation,which are used in other countries and can be adopted in Ukraine, have been considered

  2. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  3. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  4. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V L; Sarkisyan, G A [AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  5. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A testing.... Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made... for the crop year. Planted acreage. In addition to the definition contained in the Basic Provisions...

  6. Mangrove Cultivation For Dealing With Coastal Abrasion Case Study Of Karangsong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimatuzzahroh, Feti; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Coastal abrasion is consequence from destructive waves and sea current. One of cause is human intervention. The effort to solve of abrasion is by mangrove cultivation. Mangroves are halophyte plant that can restrain the sea wave. Mangrove cultivation required participation community that give awareness the importance of mangrove in coastal sustainability. Mangroves in coastal Karangsong, Indramayu west java, in 2007 was through abrasion approximately 127.30 ha. Mangrove cultivation in Karangsong has been replanting since 1998 to 2003, but there was no maintenance and management. In 2007 until 2015 Karangsong replanting mangroves and has been succeed. Karangsong became the center of mangrove study for west java area in 2015. This achievement is result of cooperation between community, NGO, and local government. In addition, this effort made not only overcome the abrasion problem but also give community awareness about the importance of mangrove cultivation in preventing coastal abrasion throughout community development. This paper reviews abrasion in Karangsong and the impact for local community and empowerment in mangrove cultivation. To achieve the success mangrove cultivation required community development approach from planning process, planting, maintenance and management.

  7. The population genetics of cultivation: domestication of a traditional Chinese medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. RESULTS: Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong

  8. The population genetics of cultivation: domestication of a traditional Chinese medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has

  9. Use of Solid Waste from Thermoelectric Plants for the Cultivation of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna da Silva Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of solid waste on the cultivation of the microalgae Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 with 0, 40, 80 and 120 ppm of mineral coal ash. The addition of the ash did not inhibit the cultivation of microalgae at the tested concentrations, showing that it could be used for the cultivation of these microalgae due to the minerals present in the ash, which might substitute the nutrients needed for their growth.

  10. Pilot-plant cultivation of Streptomyces griseus producing homologues of nonactin by precursor-directed biosynthesis and their identification by LC/MS-ESI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Prell, Aleš; Spížek, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 8 (2010), s. 524-529 ISSN 0021-8820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : liquid chromatography/MS-ESI * pilot-plant cultivation * precursor-directed biosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2010

  11. Botanical files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) - on the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietema, de F.T.; Meijden, van der R.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium

  12. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

    2012-12-01

    Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 μmol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

  13. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-11-10

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  14. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  15. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  16. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  17. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  18. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias p...

  19. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  20. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticultural practices of the Jodï were previously characterized as 'incipient cultivation' but such practices were poorly described and documented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticultural products and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plant management in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant species was documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodï prolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replanting operations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops: plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of natural gaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice is well integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as 'incipient' and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  1. Naturally transgenic plants as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks of cultivation of GMOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat’yana Valer’yevna Matveeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of genetic engineering raises the question of biosafety of transgenic organisms. The greatest concerns about the negative effects of GMO cultivation are reduced to possible leakage of transgenes through cross-pollination of non-transgenic closely related forms by transgenic pollen. Naturally transgenic plants are species which have been subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and retained the T-DNA-like sequence in their genomes. These species can be considered as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks associated with leakage of transgenes. The review is devoted to this problem.

  2. Effects of enhanced solar ultraviolet B radiation due to atmospheric pollutants on the cultivated plant yield (FKW 22). First experimental year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, G.; Franz, D.; Haeser, M.; Hugemann, B.; Schaaf, H.

    1979-02-01

    The study examined the effects of enhanced ultraviolet B radiation on the yield of cultivated plants. Preparatory studies have shown the intensity margin within which effects are observable in the plants. The experimental conditions cover four different u.v. B intensities, namely e, f, g, h; corresponding to a given percentage of atmospheric ozone reduction (eapprox.=40 p.c., fapprox.=25 p.c., gapprox.=15 p.c., and happrox.=10 p.c.). The plants for the experiments are potatoes, spring wheat, winter rape-seed, lettuce, and kohlrabi, which have been cultivated under experimental conditions over the whole growth period, except for lattuce and kohlrabi. The irradiation periods are 10 h a day. All four u.v. intensities proved to have an effect on plant yield. In potatoes and spring wheat irradiation corresponding to category h conditions enhanced the yield as compared to non-irradiated controls, whereas intensities corresponding to category e had a yield reducing effect. The starch content of potato nodules was 97 p.c. under g and h conditions, 77 p.c. under condition f, and 68 p.c. under condition e. In lettuce, the yield in fresh weight for category h was 97 p.c., for g 86 p.c., for f 83 p.c., and for e 55 p.c. In kohlrabi plants, yield increases were obtained in the low intensity ranges. In winter rape-seed, radiation of all four categories retarded germination. Another item investigated was the infection of spring wheat with Erisyphe graninis and possible radiation effects on this process. The experiments showed that already low doses ultraviolet B radiation reduced the number of conidiophores on the leaves, without damage to be observed in the plants. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  4. Effective use of plant simulators and mock-up facilities for cultivation and training of younger regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruga, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve effective safety regulation, the staff members of a regulatory body who are engaged in regulatory work are requested to be well familiar with the characteristics, operations and maintenances of nuclear power plants at a practical level as far as possible. Although the regulators are not always required to have the same level of skills as those of plant designers or operators, the skills of the regulatory staff are essential elements to achieve high quality of the national nuclear safety regulation. Especially understanding of fundamentals such as operations, transient behaviors, trouble responses and plant inspections is indispensable not only to practical regulatory work but also to the establishment of the trust and confidence in safety regulation. To acquire these skills, the use of facilities such as plant simulators and inspection mock-up facilities is very effective to back up classroom lectures on theories and procedures. Practical training using these facilities under the guidance of well-experienced instructors inspires motivations and enhances capabilities of younger regulators. To support the countries newly embarking on nuclear power programs, JNES will continue to cooperate with those countries in cultivating and training younger regulators, by focusing on the training by veteran instructors using full-scale plant simulators and inspection mock-up facilities to give the trainees more practical skills and knowledge difficult to obtain through classroom lectures or textbooks. (author)

  5. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivation of durio in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. . Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 132-137. Durian is native of the region where the climate is tropical wet, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Durian plant species most widely known and cultivated in Indonesia is Durio zibethinus Murr. Improve the quality of fruit production in sufficient quantity to do with the increase in population as well as increasing fruit crop cultivation technology do. In addition to ensuring that products are safe to eat fruit cultivation technology needs to be done in an environmentally responsible in accordance with the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure and the concept of cultivation of GAP (Good Agriculture Practice.

  6. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V.L.; Sarkisyan, G.A. (AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki)

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of seeds from wild and cultivated castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Mosquera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed plant whose main features are its drought resistance, and its adaptation to eroded, polluted, and low fertility soils. Its oil has a great demand in the industrial sector and it has recently attracted considerable interest for its use in the production of biodiesel and jet fuel. In this study, morphological, physical and chemical characterizations were performed to ascertain the quality of wild (VQ-1 and under cultivation (VQ-7 oil castor seeds. The results showed that there are differences in the morphological and physicochemical characteristics regarding oil content (44,95 vs 33,84%, ash (3,20 vs 2,42%, and 100-seed-weight (45,87 vs 54,23g; similar behavior was recorded when characterizing the oil: kinematic viscosity (269,67 vs 266,44mm2 /s, density (0,9389 vs 0,9465g/cm3 , and acidity index (0,9918 vs 0,5440mg KOH/g for VQ-1 and VQ-7, respectively. Growing conditions to which castor plants were subjected may influence both the final quality of seeds and chemical properties of the oil.

  8. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  9. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root......-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  10. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  11. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  12. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-06

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  13. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Valdez, F.; Fernández-Luqueño, F.; Luna-Suárez, S.; Dendooven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO 2 and N 2 O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N 2 O emissions but not CO 2 emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  15. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    OpenAIRE

    Graziele C Oliveira; Willyam L Vieira; Suzana C Bertolli; Ana Claudia Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shadin...

  16. Development of high productive technology for vegetables. Performance of a test plant and experiments of spinach cultivation. Kounouritsu yasai seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Okano, Toshiaki; Hoshi, Takehiko; Kosakai, Kazuyoshi; Okabe, Katsumi; Hanyu, Hiromichi

    1987-02-01

    Technology of a system using both sunlight and artificial light was developed, and a vegetable plant with the system was developed to study the use of low-cost off-peak electricity for the improvement of vegetable productivity and quality. A test plant of 340m/sup 2/ was constructed. The greenhouse was designed in a pellette house style where light is controlled through grains of styrofoam by blowing. To use low-cost offpeak electricity, heat reservoir facility for cold (ice) and hot water was provided. An environment measuring system was provided for the analysis of the relationship between the environmental conditions, growth of vegetables and consumption of electricity. Four cultivation experiments were carried out, and the yield of spinach increased by 6 to 7 times (10 kg/m/sup 2/) in summer season, and the period of growth in winter time was shortened to 1/2 to 1/3 (25 days). Results of the study on the performance of the facilities such as cultivation room, light environment, CO/sub 2/ environment, hydroponic device, etc. are also reported. (32 figs, 5 tabs)

  17. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  18. Improving farming practices using multi-criteria decision analysis in geographic information system for Damask Rose cultivating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shokati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of awareness of the critical factors involved in production of plants and sometimes, the cultivation of plants in areas unsusceptible to plant, can increase the amount of chemical fertilizer consumption in order to compensate the subsequent reduction of plant yield. This would increase environmental pollution. Thus, identifying of suitable areas where could supply plants initial needs of the environment is critical. For this goal, several criteria including soil conditions, climatologically indicators, topography situation and agro-climatology criteria were taken into account of modeling processing. Doing so, standardization process was performed on criteria and weighting process was performed by using of analytic hierarchy process approach. Geographical information system based on multi-criteria decision analysis was employed for weighted overlapping of indicators. Initial results indicated that East-Azerbaijan Province in the northern part of Iran has high potential for cultivating of Damask Rose. Results indicate that about 34.4% of East Azerbaijan Province has classified to be high suitability for cultivating this plant, while about 65.5 and 0.1 % of this area classified to be in the moderate and low suitability category respectively. In comparison of Damask Rose production during the 2014 and resulted analytic hierarchy process map results showed that areas with high suitability are not more under cultivation of this plant. Then, the findings of this study are great of importance for the purpose of regional planning in East-Azerbaijan Province.

  19. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Calonne-Salmon, Maryline; Plouznikoff, Katia; Misson, Coralie; Navarrete-Mier, Micaela; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h) from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h) as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  20. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  1. Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cotton cultivation requires high plant densities and compact plants. Here we study planting density and growth regulator effects on plant structure and production of cotton when the cotton is grown in a relay intercrop with wheat, a cultivation system that is widespread in China. Field

  2. Assessment of 210Pb concentration in Nicotiana tabacum L., burley variety, cultivated in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rique J.F.X.; Silva, Carolina F.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Bovolini, Raquel R.; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed worldwide and many researches are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various diseases. Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop year 2009/2010 production. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation and the temperature variations resulting from the tobacco incomplete combustion. There is lack of information about the chemical and radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. Thus a project was established with the objectives of characterizing chemically and radiologically the three varieties most cultivated in Brazil of Nicotiana tobacum L., Virginia, Burley and Common; this paper presents the preliminary results of 210 Pb concentrations for the Burley variety. Plants from this variety were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and in a small farm in natural conditions. The entire plant was analyzed, the organic substrates, the fertilizers and the soil. The results obtained presented higher values for 210 Pb in leaves when compared with the other parts of the plant. Comparing the three study areas the highest results of 210 Pb concentration were obtained in the plants cultivated in the urban area probably due to its atmospheric deposition. (author)

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  6. Development of everlasting flowers (Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. in three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Conceição Moreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing the inflorescences of Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. represents a source of income to many families from extractives communities in the portion of the Espinhaço Range located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cultivating this species stands out by allying income generation with conservation since the species is currently endangered. This study aimed to assess aspects of the development of C. elegans in three cultivation systems: beds, rows, and whole area. Sowing took place in January 2009 and the inflorescences were harvested in May 2010, which characterized the experimental period. Emergence; plant density; rates of flowering, mortality, resprouting, and recruiting of new individuals; and production of inflorescences per plant and per area were assessed. Emergence began approximately 50 days after sowing. Plant density ranged from 130 to 350 plants.m-2 among the three cultivation systems. The highest mortality rate (18% was observed at the peak of the dry season (August and the overall mortality rate over one reproductive cycle was 49%. Of the plants that lost the aerial part, 36% resprouted. Sprouting and seed germination accounted for 30 and 3% of the recruiting of new individuals, respectively. C. elegans had two bloom (AprilMay 2009 and April-May 2010: 5.4% of the plants bloomed in the first season and 78%, in the second. Each plant produced between three and 178 inflorescences and the highest inflorescence production in terms of weight (232 g.m-2 and number (2,910 inflorescences.m-2 was observed in the cultivation in beds at 1,624 kg.ha-1.

  7. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-06-05

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended.

  8. Activity of Mn-Oxidizing Peroxidases of Ganoderma lucidum Depending on Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Ćilerdžić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trunks and stumps of various deciduous species act as natural habitats for Ganoderma lucidum. The chemical composition of their cell wall affects the development of fungal ligninolytic enzyme system as well as its ability to degrade lignin from the plant cell wall. Additionally, numerous compounds structurally similar to lignin can be degraded by the G. lucidum enzyme system which could take important roles in various biotechnological processes. The laccases, which are the dominant enzymes synthesized by G. lucidum, have been studied more extensively than the Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Therefore, this study aimed to create the dynamics profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases activities in four G. lucidum strains, classifying and determining their properties depending on the cultivation type and plant residue as a carbon source in the medium, as well as to establish whether intraspecific variety exists. The findings suggest that submerged cultivation appeared to be a more appropriate cultivation type for enzyme activities compared with solid-state cultivation, and oak sawdust was a better carbon source than wheat straw. Under the optimum conditions, on day 14, G. lucidum BEOFB 431 was characterized by the highest levels of both Mn-dependent and Mn-independent peroxidase activities (4795.5 and 5170.5 U/L, respectively. Strain, cultivation type, and carbon source were factors that affected the profiles of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases isoenzymes.

  9. State of the art and perspectives of the cultivation of energy crops in Hesse. Significance, procedure of cultivation, sustainability; Stand und Perspektiven des Energiepflanzenanbaus in Hessen. Bedeutung, Anbauverfahren, Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    In line with the further increase in the use of renewable energy sources, the expansion of biomass utilization in Hesse increasingly becomes important. In light of the increasing criticism of the cultivation of energy crops, it is important to learn about the situation in the Federal State Hessen (Federal Republic of Germany). Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contributes to proper information and creating acceptance in the current discussion on the development of bioenergy in Hessen. In particular, the brochure reports on the following topics: (1) What is the advantage of the bioenergy in Hessen?; (2) Scope of the cultivation of energy crops in the Hessian agriculture?; (3) Economic aspects of the cultivation of energy crops for biogas plants; (4) Cultivation of oil crops for the production of biodiesel oil and vegetable oil; (5) Cultivation of cereals and sugar beet for bioethanol production; (6) One-year-old energy crops; (7) Perennial energy crops; (8) Aspects of sustainability in the cultivation of energy crops; (9) Areas of conflict in the cultivation of energy crops.

  10. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  11. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Yimin; Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species.

  12. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species. PMID:29304141

  13. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  15. Optimize the cost of cultivation with using low-tillage in the wheat fields of Tehran province

    OpenAIRE

    KAMALI, Hossein; PARHIZGAR, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In appropriate patterns of tillage in wheat, three methods commonly cultivated as a maximum for tillage, planting a multifunctional device as minimum tillage and direct seeding cultivation system as no tillage operations together are comparable. Analysis of variance and mean cost of land preparation and time spent on the three methods of tillage operations shows that maximum conventional tillage and planting allocated to the most and direct seeding without tillage operations allocat...

  16. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  17. Assessment of {sup 210}Pb concentration in Nicotiana tabacum L., burley variety, cultivated in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rique J.F.X.; Silva, Carolina F.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Bovolini, Raquel R.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: rjrocha@ipen.br, E-mail: cfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: jonatanfrujuele@hotmail.com, E-mail: ra_bovolini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed worldwide and many researches are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various diseases. Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop year 2009/2010 production. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation and the temperature variations resulting from the tobacco incomplete combustion. There is lack of information about the chemical and radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. Thus a project was established with the objectives of characterizing chemically and radiologically the three varieties most cultivated in Brazil of Nicotiana tobacum L., Virginia, Burley and Common; this paper presents the preliminary results of {sup 210}Pb concentrations for the Burley variety. Plants from this variety were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and in a small farm in natural conditions. The entire plant was analyzed, the organic substrates, the fertilizers and the soil. The results obtained presented higher values for {sup 210}Pb in leaves when compared with the other parts of the plant. Comparing the three study areas the highest results of {sup 210}Pb concentration were obtained in the plants cultivated in the urban area probably due to its atmospheric deposition. (author)

  18. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  19. Genetic resources of cultivated and volunteer vegetables in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Branka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were

  20. Status of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Usmani, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on imported fuels. Sustainable production of biodiesel presents an opportunity to reduce reliance on imported oil, save foreign-exchange reserves, reduce poverty and unemployment, stimulate rural development in areas with acute poverty and enhance access to renewable commercial energy. We are an agriculture-based economy; therefore, production of Bio diesel by utilizing agro-base cultivation will strengthen our agricultural sector and empower the farmers. Moreover, the country has immense potential to attain energy-security through domestic cultivation and processing of bio fuel crops. Some details of the processing plant and manufacturing are also given. This paper describes and delineates the present status of Jatropha cultivation in Pakistan. An attempt is made to project the future of bio diesel, through Jatropha seeds and simultaneous efforts to cultivate other bio diesel- producing seeds to make its cost as low as possible. This paper can also be taken as a base to predict the minimum time required to produce 5-10% replacement of mineral diesel by biodiesel. (author)

  1. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  2. Cannabis cultivation in Spain: A profile of plantations, growers and production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-11-01

    The European market for cannabis derivatives is being transformed. The cultivation of cannabis within the EU and the shift of demand from hashish to domestic marihuana are key aspects of this transformation. Spain, formerly central to the trade of Moroccan hashish, is becoming a marihuana-producing country. The emergence of "import-substitution" has been researched in other EU countries, but thus far the Spanish case remains undocumented. This paper is based on analysis of data of 748 cannabis plantations seized by Spanish police in 2013. The sample comprises reports of seizures identified through a survey of online news and police reports. "Event-analysis" methods were applied to these sources. The analysis offers a typology of plantations, a profile of participants and the different production systems, and a model of regional distribution. Half of the plantations were small (less than 42 plants) and half contained between 100 and 1000 plants, with an average size of 261 plants. About three-quarters of plants were cultivated indoors using stolen electricity. 86% of all plants seized were from large-scale plantations (more than 220 plants). Most plantations were located along the Mediterranean coast, where population and tourism are concentrated. Over three-quarters of those indicted by police were Spanish (85%). Among the foreign owners of big plantations, Dutch nationals predominated. The number of seized plants by province was directly associated with the number of grow shops (β=0.962, pcannabis plantations in the Spanish Mediterranean coast is increasingly replacing import of Moroccan hashish. Indoor cultivation supported by grow shops, that provide the technology and know-how, seem to be the dominant form of organization in this emerging industry. Large-scale plantations may have met most of the demand for marihuana in 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  6. Effect of Bioremediation on Growth of Wheat Plant Cultivated In Contaminated Soil with Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azis, O.A.; El-Ghandour, I.A.; Galal, Y.G.M.; El-Sheikh, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of BYFA (bacterial, fungal, yeast, and actinomycetes isolates), and bio fertilizers (mycorrhizas and N 2 fixers) in remedy the heavy metals -polluted soil and its effect on wheat growth. Basal recommended doses of P and N were applied; the treatments were arranged in completely randomized block design. The results showed a positive effect on growth and N uptake by wheat cultivated in polluted soil with (Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Cd). The data cleared that, the lowest content of Pb in the soil was occurred with composite inoculants plus BFYA (274.57μ g/gm) as compared to the other treatments. Reduction in zinc content in soil was recorded with control + BFYA (272.0 μg/g) compared to other one. Similarly, inoculation with (Azo) + (BFYA) induced a reduction in Cu content in soil, Data of 15 N revealed that both the mechanisms of BNF have been occurred. In this respect, it is worthy to mention that, symbiotic bacteria has a considerable role with such cereal crop via BNF or enhancement of plant growth, The inoculation with Rh + AM resulted in the highest percentage of N uptake from fertilizer (29%), followed by AM, then Azo (23.9%, 22.7%, respectively) without BFYA. Another picture was noticed with BFYA whereas the best percentage was recorded with Azospirillum (19.3 %). This treatment is the only one that increased the portion of N derived from fertilizer over those recorded with the control (11.13%). BFYA have the ability to reduce the content of heavy metal in both the contaminated soil and wheat plant. Similar function was detected with bio fertilizers, besides to their effects on enhancement of plant growth via plant growth promotion substances and BNF mechanisms

  7. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Marchezi Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coconut, coffee husk, carbonized rice husk, pinus husk. After eleven months of the experiment, the following variables were evaluated: plant height; largest pseudo-bulb diameter; number of buds; shoot fresh dry matter; the longest root length; number of roots; root fresh matter; root dry matter; and electric conductivity; pH and water retention capacity of the substrates. Except the expanded clay, the other substrates showed satisfactory results in one or more traits. Standing out among these substrates pinus husk + coffee husk and pine bark + fibered coconut, which favored the most vegetative and root characteristic of the orchid. The mixture of pinus husk + coffee husk and pinus husk + fibered coconut, provided the best results in vegetative and root growth of the orchid Oncidium baueri and the expanded clay did not show favorable results in the cultivation of this species.

  8. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  9. Long term forecasts to 2050 for the forestry and forest-based industries as seen by the students at the 'Ecole superieure du bois'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groutel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Some of the engineering students in their 3. year at the Nantes Ecole superieure du bois acquire knowledge through the 'World Forestry Exchanges' scheme. These students - Brazilians, Latvians, Taiwanese, Chines, Tunisian, ... French - learn about forestry flows, wood marketing and product trends. It is against this multi-cultural background that is open and seeks to awaken the students curiosity that their feedback is requested in the form of their own vision of the products and services that should be on offer in the future in many forest-based industries. The diversity of their responses and the originality and relevance of some of these inspired the author to write this article which classifies and summarises these thoughts. This is a cooperative approach which aims at being of educational, academic and practical value. (authors)

  10. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  11. Effect of light on contents of coumarin compounds in shoots of Ruta graveolens L. cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoots of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae were cultivated in stationary liquid culture under different light conditions: constant artificial light (900 lx, darkness, constant artificial light (900 ix following irradiation with UV-C light. The contents of five furanocoumarins: psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, as well as biogenetic precursor of these metabolites, umbelliferone, were determined by HPLC method in shoots cultivated in vitro and in overground parts of plants growing in open air. It was shown that light conditions, tested in these experiments, significantly influenced contents of the metabolites in shoots cultivated in in vitro culture. Total content of the coumarin compounds in shoots cultivated under constant artificial light (900 lx was equal or higher than in plants growing under natural conditions. Therefore, it is suggested that stationary liquid shoot culture of R. graveolens. can be an alternative source for obtaining biologically active furanocoumarins.

  12. Hydroponic cultivation techniques: good results with Eg system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimiola, G; Sigliuzzo, C [Tecnagro, Valenzano (Italy)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes results obtained at the Tecnagro agronomic institute (Valenzano, Italy) in which research is being carried out on the use of the Eg hydroponic system developed in Israel. The research program examined the following: composition of nutritive solutions for ornamental plants and vegetables, methods of application of nutritive substances, breeding densities for ornamental plants and vegetables. Successful nutritive formulas were obtained which resulted, in the case of ornamental plants, in increases in plant height (from 30 to 50%), foliage area (50%), as well as, in shortened growth cycles. For vegetables, shortened growth cycles were developed along with a greater and more consistant production. From the economics point of view, tomatoes proved to be the best choice of vegetable for cultivation with the Eg technique.

  13. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1969-01-01

    The equipment for continuous fumigation of plants during the whole period of growth made it possible to investigate the susceptibility of tulips, variety Paris, for very low concentrations of HF. The lowest concentration applied, 0.7 parts per billion, resulted finally in a leaf tip injury of a length of 4 cm. The toxicity of NO2 to tomato plants was determined by applying a concentration of 0.25 ppm NO2 continuously during the growth of the plants. The leaves very gradually discolored, starting with the lowest leaves; afterwards they dropped. The yield of fruits of the treated plants was 22% lower than that of the control. The injury occurring around the urbanized area West of Rotterdam was very probably caused by oxidizing agents. In May, field-grown spinach and in September, beans growing in glasshouses showed an injury which is typical for oxidizing agents. In the area surrounding some factories, the authors are investigating plant damage caused mainly by HF.

  14. Morphological, nutraceutical and sensorial properties of cultivated Fragaria vesca L. berries: influence of genotype, plant age, fertilization treatment on the overall fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Del Bubba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric, malic, ascorbic (AA and dehydroascorbic (DHAA acids, total polyphenols (TP, radical scavenging activity (RSA, physicochemical and sensorial properties were determined on F. vesca Alpine (ALP and Regina delle Valli (RDV berries in relation to plant age and fertilisation treatment (Effective Microorganism Technology, EMT vs. traditional fertilization, TFT. ALP berries had a sum of AA and DHAA about 20% lower and TPs about 30% higher than RDV. Plant age affected most physicochemical parameters, sugars and organic acids, as well as sensorial appreciation, being them generally higher in berries produced in the second year. TPs were not affected by plant age. EMT produced an increase of 50%, 70% and 20% for TP, organic acids and RSA, respectively. Although changes in berry quality are expected with plant age, EMT cultivation of ALP should be preferred to the growth of RDV under TFT, to obtain fruits more valuable from the nutraceutical viewpoint.

  15. Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Feng; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Qingying; Zhu, Baoguo; Wang, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment, the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil, the panting method was direct planting, and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a d...

  16. The cultivation of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants in South Marocco. Relation to a trip to the regions between Agadir - Marrakech - Ouarzazate and Tata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait Chitt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about aromatic, medicinal and seasoning plants are integrated into activities of Department of "Vegetables Cultures" of the Section of Agadir (Agronomical and Veterinary Institute Hassan II. An explanatory mission has been carried out in the provinces of Agadir and Marrakech in semi-barren areas and of Ouarzazate and Tata in Saharan regions. The mean cultivated species are listed. A technical and economical approach is considered.

  17. Recycling of organic wastes in burnt soils: combined application of poultry manure and plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, M C; Petrikova, V; Díaz-Raviña, M; Carballas, T

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a post-fire land management practice, including plant cultivation (Lolium perenne) combined with poultry manure addition, for restoring the protective vegetation cover in soils degraded by high intensity wildfires. The greenhouse experiment was performed with three burnt pine forest soils with added poultry manure at two doses of application and comparing the data with those obtained using NPK fertilizer. A significant effect of the amendment, soil properties and the interaction between amendment and soil properties on vegetation cover (phytomass production, nutrient content) was detected, but often the amendment treatment explained most of the variance. Changes induced by the organic amendment were more marked than those induced by inorganic fertilization. The increase of phytomass and nutrient uptake with poultry manure addition indicated the beneficial effects of this soil management practice. These findings can serve to develop field experiments and burnt soils reclamation technology.

  18. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-01-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. SOIL CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN OIL PALM CULTIVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halus Satriawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many have been concerned with the oil palm cultivation since it may also put land resources in danger and bring about environmental damage. Poor practices in managing agricultural land very often occur due to the inadequate knowledge of soil conservation. Application of soil and water conservation is to maintain the productivity of the land and to prevent further damage by considering land capability classes. This research was aimed at obtaining soil and water conservation techniques which are the most appropriate and optimal for oil palm cultivation areas based on land capability classes which can support sustainable oil palm cultivation. Several soil conservation techniques had been treated to each different class III, IV, and VI of the studied area. These treatment had been performed by a standard plot erosion. The results showed for the land capability class III, Cover plants + Manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce leaching of N (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest erosion (3,73t/ha, and N leaching (0,25%. On land capability class IV, Sediment Trap + cover plants+ manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce organic C and P leaching (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest runoff (127,77 m3/ha, erosion (12,38t/ha, organic C leaching (1,14 %, and P leaching (1,28 ppm. On land capability class VI, there isn’t significant effect of soil conservation, but Bench Terrace + cover plants +manure has the lowest runoff, erosion and soil nutrient leaching.

  20. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  1. History and conservation of wild and cultivated plant diversity in Uganda: Forest species and banana varieties as case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Hamilton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of wild and cultivated plant diversity in Uganda is reviewed, taking forest species and bananas as examples. Palynological research into past human influences on forests is reassessed. The evidence suggests that crops were first introduced into the country at about 1000 BCE, farming communities practicing slash and burn agriculture started to significantly influence the floristic composition of forests during the 1st millennium BCE and there was a major episode of forest reduction at about 1000 CE related to socio-economic change. Bananas were probably introduced in the early centuries CE. The colonial era from 1894 saw the introduction of new concepts of land ownership and the establishment of forest reserves and agricultural stations. Forests and banana diversity are currently under threat, Uganda having a very high rate of deforestation and endemic banana varieties proving susceptible to introduced pests and diseases. It is suggested that, under these circumstances, conservationists take an opportunistic approach to field engagement, making use of favourable local conditions as they arise. Partnerships should be sought with elements of society concerned with sustainable use, provision of ecosystem services and cultural survival to widen the social base of plant conservation. International organisations involved in conservation of plant genetic resources and wild plant species should collaborate with one another to develop the conceptual basis of plant conservation, to make it more relevant to countries like Uganda.

  2. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique O, Olga L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  3. Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of cultivation ages on Cu accumulation in Greenhouse Soils in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Wenmiao; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we determined the influence of cultivation age on Cu accumulation in greenhouse soils. The concentration of plant available Cu (A-Cu) decreased with depth, and the contents of top soils (0-40 cm) in greenhouses were higher than those of the open field. There was a positive correlation between A-Cu concentrations in soils and cultivation ages (R2=0.572). The contents of total Cu (T-Cu) decreased with depth, and positively correlated with cultivation ages in top soils (0-20cm) (R2=0.446). The long-term usage of manures can cause Cu increase and accumulation in greenhouse soils in comparison to the open field.

  6. Effect of different pre-sowing tillage on quantity and quality of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. root yield in ridge cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Konopiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parsnip is a very valuable vegetable due to its nutritional value and dietetic quality. It is moreover herbal raw material abundant in active substances. The yield quality of vegetables greatly depends on thorough pre-sowing soil tillage. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of different presowing soil tillage (medium-deep ploughing, cultivating and plant growing methods, flat or ridge cultivation, on the yield of parsnip and some biometric traits of its roots. The field experiment was carried out in 1999, 2000 and 2002 on lessive soil with the granulometric composition corresponding to medium silty loam. The parsnip cultivar 'Półdługi Biały' was the experimental plant species. The cultivation of parsnip on ridges had a significant influence on increased total yield of roots and decreased yield of small roots, as compared to flat cultivation. A significant increase in unit weight of the root and its diameter in the top part was also recorded in the latter type of cultivation. Spring pre-sowing tillage had no significant effect on parsnip yields. An increasing trend was observed only for total and marketable root yield in the ploughed plots. When parsnip is grown on lessive soil (which has an unstable structure, plants cultivated on ridges after spring pre-sowing plough are the most beneficial treatment combination.

  7. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  8. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  9. Cool-cultivated red leaf lettuce accumulates cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside and caffeoylmalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-03-01

    Cultivating lettuce in greenhouses at low temperatures improves its CO2-balance and may increase its content of flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids. We cultivated 5weeks old red leaf lettuce seedlings at 20/15°C (day/night) or 12/7°C until plants reached comparable growth stages: small heads were harvested after 13 (warm) and 26 (cool)days, while mature heads were harvested after 26 (warm) or 52 (cool)days. Additionally, some plants were cultivated first cool then warm and vice versa (39days). Cool-cultivated small heads had higher concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside and caffeoylmalic acid than warm-cultivated ones but we detected no differences concerning quercetin and luteolin glycosides or di-O-caffeoyltartaric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Regarding mature heads, there were only differences concerning cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside. We therefore suggest that only cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside was truly responsive to temperatures alone. Previously reported contrasting effects may rather be due to comparison of different growth stages or interactive effects with radiation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographic population structure in an outcrossing plant invasion after centuries of cultivation and recent founding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Gibson, Robert D; Simpson, Heather; Marshall, Diane L; Gerber, Esther; Hinz, Hariet

    2018-04-01

    Population structure and genetic diversity of invasions are the result of evolutionary processes such as natural selection, drift and founding events. Some invasions are also molded by specific human activities such as selection for cultivars and intentional introduction of desired phenotypes, which can lead to low genetic diversity in the resulting invasion. We investigated the population structure, diversity and origins of a species with both accidental and intentional introduction histories, as well as long-term selection as a cultivar. Dyer's woad ( Isatis tinctoria ; Brassicaceae) has been used as a dye source for at least eight centuries in Eurasia, was introduced to eastern USA in the 1600s, and is now considered invasive in the western USA. Our analyses of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) from 645 plants from the USA and Eurasia did not find significantly lower gene diversity ( H j ) in the invaded compared to the native range. This suggests that even though the species was under cultivation for many centuries, human selection of plants may not have had a strong influence on diversity in the invasion. We did find significantly lower genetic differentiation ( F st ) in the invasive range but our results still suggested that there are two distinct invasions in the western USA. Our data suggest that these invasions most likely originated from Switzerland, Ukraine and Germany, which correlates with initial biological control agent survey findings. Genetic information on population structure, diversity and origins assists in efforts to control invasive species, and continued combination of ecological and molecular analyses will help bring us closer to sustainable management of plant invasions.

  11. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  12. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  13. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticulturalpractices of the Jodï were previously characterized as ‘incipient cultivation’ but such practices were poorly described anddocumented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticulturalproducts and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plantmanagement in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant specieswas documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodïprolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replantingoperations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops:plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of naturalgaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice iswell integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as‘incipient’ and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  14. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  15. Species composition, plant cover and diversity of recently reforested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Deforestation, over-cultivation and rural growth have severely ... over-cultivation, plant populations changed, and biolo- ... Restoring community structure (e.g. species composi-tion ... plant diversity at all spatial scales are the criteria that should ..... taxonomic groups in recovering and restored forests.

  16. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  17. Improving Yield of Transplanted Aman and Boro Rice Through Tegra Package of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Kader, MSR Mia, MA Kafi, MS Hossain, N Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the yield performance of transplant aman rice cv. BRRI dhan49 and boro rice cv. BRRI dhan29 under improved package of cultivation (TEGRA as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA is a rice farming practice which includes use of quality seeds and healthy seedlings, transplanting with rice transplanter, use of herbicide, use of balanced fertilization and micronutrients, and preventive plant protection measures. The study during transplant aman season included two treatments on rice cultivation method viz. TEGRA package and farmers’ practice while in boro rice four treatments viz. TEGRA package, farmers’ practice with high inputs, farmers’ practice with medium inputs and farmers’ practice with low inputs. The yield and plant characters of both transplant aman and boro rice were significantly influenced by the TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice increased the grain yield by 18.3% in transplant aman rice and by 80% in boro rice with less cost of production as compared to farmers’ practice, which eventually resulted 23% increase in gross return and 400% in net return. As a result, the benefit cost ratio of TEGRA package was much higher (1.35 and 2.20 during transplant aman rice and boro rice, respectively compared to that of farmers’ practice (1.07 and 1.30.

  18. Disponibilidade de água do solo ao milho cultivado sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional Water availability to maize plants cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Teresinha Petry

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o armazenamento, a disponibilidade e a extração de água no solo por plantas de milho irrigadas e submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal, cultivadas sob sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram realizados dois experimentos durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/00 e 2000/01, em área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, fatorial, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos da água de irrigação (fator A: irrigado e déficit hídrico terminal (plantas de milho foram submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal a partir dos 27 dias após a emergência; e dois sistemas de cultivo (fator B: semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Nas parcelas irrigadas, irrigações foram feitas para elevar o conteúdo de água no solo ao limite superior de disponibilidade de água às plantas, sempre que a evapotranspiração máxima acumulada da cultura do milho atingia 25 mm. O conteúdo de água no solo foi medido em três leituras semanais, para determinação da extração de água pelas plantas e disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho. Os resultados indicaram que a disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho foi similar nos sistemas semeadura direta e preparo convencional, em ambos os anos agrícolas avaliados. Plantas de milho cultivadas em preparo convencional extraíram maior quantidade de água, em ambos os anos, em relação à semeadura direta.The aim objective of this study was to quantify the soil water storage, plant-available water and extraction of soil water by corn plants under irrigation and terminal drought. Plants were cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Two experiments were conducted in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing season on an experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa

  19. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest affects quality in hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Ying Peng; Zhou, Yuan Qing; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qiu Hui; Zhang, Yong Song; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-03-30

    Quality-associated problems, such as excessive in planta accumulation of oxalate, often arise in soillessly cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Maintaining a higher level of ammonium (NH₄⁺) compared to nitrate (NO₃⁻) during the growth period can effectively decrease the oxalate content in hydroponically cultivated vegetables. However, long-term exposure to high concentrations of NH₄⁺ induces toxicity in plants, and thus decreases the biomass production. Short-term application of NH₄⁺ before harvesting in soilless cultivation may provide an alternative strategy to decrease oxalate accumulation in spinach, and minimise the yield reduction caused by NH₄⁺ toxicity. The plants were pre-cultured in 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ nutrient solution. Next, 6 days before harvest, the plants were transferred to a nutrient solution containing 4 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ and 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺. This new mix clearly reduced oxalate accumulation, increased levels of several antioxidant compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacity in the edible parts of spinach plants, but it did not affect biomass production. However, when the 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ was shifted to either nitrogen-free, 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ or 8 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ treatments, although some of the quality indexes were improved, yields were significantly reduced. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest significantly affects quality and biomass of spinach plants, and we strongly recommend to simultaneously use NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in hydroponic cultivation, which improves vegetable quality without decreasing biomass production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez' grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon' and a cereal plant of barley (the wild form Hordeum spontaneumm and Hordeum vulgaree 'Maresi'. The examined species differed in the size of the experienced stress. the Iargest RWC reduction was found iii broccoli leaves, while somewhat smaller - in barley. In poinsettia leaves, the reduction of RWC level was not large or did not occur at all. The accumulation of free proline in the species under study was also variable. The largest amount of this amino acid tended to accumulate in broccoli leaves, whereas the increase of its level took place only at a strong dehydration of tissues. The increase of proline level was smaller in barley leaves than in broccoli, but that was found already at a smalI dehydration of tissues. In poinsettia leaves, a several f`old increase of proline level was found at the early stage of the stress. The level of that amino acid gradually increased at consecutive times and did not depend on tissue dehydration. Damage of cell membranes amounted to 8.5-9.5% in barley leaves, about 3% in brocolli and to 0-2.6% in poinsettia. The role of proline in prevention of leaf dehydration and in alleviation of dehydration effects in the studied species has been discussed.

  1. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  2. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  3. Antioxidative and antitumor properties of in vitro-cultivated broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Jasmina; Parić, Adisa; Maksimović, Milka; Bajrović, Kasim

    2012-02-01

    Broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)] contains substantial quantities of bioactive compounds, which are good free radical scavengers and thus might have strong antitumor properties. Enhancing production of plant secondary metabolites could be obtained with phytohormones that have significant effects on the metabolism of secondary metabolites. In that manner, in vitro culture presents good model for manipulation with plant tissues in order to affect secondary metabolite production and thus enhance bioactive properties of plants. Estimation of the antioxidative and antitumor properties of broccoli cultivated in different in vitro conditions. In vitro germinated and cultivated broccoli seedlings, as well as spontaneously developed calli, were subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Antioxidative activity of the herbal extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical method. Antitumor properties of the extracts were determined using crown-gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. Three, 10, 20, and 30 days old broccoli seedlings, cultivated in vitro on three different Murashige-Skoog media, two types of callus, and seedlings from sterile filter paper were used for extraction. In total, 15 aqueous extracts were tested for antioxidative and antitumor potential. Three day-old seedlings showed the highest antioxidative activity. Eleven out of 15 aqueous extracts demonstrated above 50% of crown-gall tumor inhibition in comparison with the control. Tumor inhibition was in association with types and concentrations of phytohormones presented in growing media. It is demonstrated that phytohormones in plant-growing media could affect the bioactive properties of broccoli either through increasing or decreasing their antioxidative and antitumor potential.

  4. CHANGE OF CHOSEN SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHERNOZEM AFTER SEVEN YEARS OF NO-TILL SOIL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarna Hrckov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical properties were investigated in two types of growing systems - integrated no-till system and conventional system with ploughing, in 1999 2005 on chernozem in maize growing region. Bulk density decreased and total porosity increased during 7 years in both growing systems. In integrated system the improvement of soil physical properties could be explained by remaining of plant residues on soil surface. In conventional system the plant residues were incorporated into soil by ploughing. This led to the higher proportion of organic matter in soil. Soil cultivated conventionally had significantly higher value of reduced bulk density, significantly lower porosity and significantly higher values of soil moisture compared to soil in integrated no-till system. Maximum capillary water capacity was not significantly influenced by soil cultivation. Values of investigated soil physical properties in both systems were not markedly different from the typical values of cultivated chernozem.

  5. A novel plant-based-sea water culture media for in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the halophyte microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Saleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant-based-sea water culture medium is introduced to in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the microbiome of halophytes. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was used, in the form of juice and/or dehydrated plant powder packed in teabags, to supplement the natural sea water. The resulting culture medium enjoys the combinations of plant materials as rich source of nutrients and sea water exercising the required salt stress. As such without any supplements, the culture medium was sufficient and efficient to support very good in vitro growth of halotolerant bacteria. It was also capable to recover their in situ culturable populations in the phyllosphere, ecto-rhizosphere and endo-rhizosphere of halophytes prevailing in Lake Mariout, Egypt. When related to the total bacterial numbers measured for Suaeda pruinosa roots by quantitative-PCR, the proposed culture medium increased culturability (15.3–19.5% compared to the conventional chemically-synthetic culture medium supplemented with (11.2% or without (3.8% NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, representative isolates of halotolerant bacteria prevailed on such culture medium were closely related to Bacillus spp., Halomonas spp., and Kocuria spp. Seed germination tests on 25–50% sea water agar indicated positive interaction of such bacterial isolates with the germination and seedlings’ growth of barley seeds.

  6. Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-11

    Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination.

  7. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  8. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  9. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations determined in Nicotiana tabacum L., Burley variety, cultivated in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Rocha, Rique J.; Da Silva, Carolina F.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world and the most consumed are cigarettes cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed worldwide and many researches are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop year 2009/2010 production. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variation resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. There is lack of information about the chemical and radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. Thus a project was established with the objectives of characterizing chemically and radiologically the three varieties most cultivate in Brazil of Nicotiana tabacum L.; this paper presents the preliminary results of 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration for the Burley variety. Plants from this variety cultivated in open air, both in pots with special soil and fertilizer; and in small farms in natural conditions. The whole plant was analyzed; root, steam, leaves and flowers. The results obtained presented higher values for 210 Pb in leaves when compared with the other parts of the plant. (author)

  10. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Uldall Nørregaard, Patrick; Ljubic, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional...... pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW) while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively). Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water...... composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella...

  11. [Dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Gan, Jianmin; Feng, Zhili; Meng, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical ravine rainforest and secondary forest at different elevations in Xishuangbanna showed that the yield of A. villosum was influenced by the site age, sun light level of understorey, and water stress in dry season. The fruit yield and mature plant density decreased with increasing age of the A. villosum site. The fruit yield increased with sun light level when the light level in understorey was under 35% of full sun light (P forest was not significant. Planned cultivation of A. villosum in the secondary forest of the shifting cultivation land by ravine from 800-1000 m elevation instead of customary cultivation in the ravine rainforest, could not only resolve the problem of the effect of light deficiency in understorey and water stress in the dry season on A. villosum fruit yield, but also be useful to protect the tropical ravine rain forest.

  12. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  14. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  15. Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Navarroli, Dena; Naimark, Jared; Zhang, Weiwen; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2013-01-09

    The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments.

  16. Evaluation of Wild Lentil Species as Genetic Resources to Improve Drought Tolerance in Cultivated Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Y. Gorim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly unpredictable annual rainfall amounts and distribution patterns have far reaching implications for pulse crop biology. Seedling and whole plant survival will be affected given that water is a key factor in plant photosynthesis and also influences the evolving disease spectrum that affects crops. The wild relatives of cultivated lentil are native to drought prone areas, making them good candidates for the evaluation of drought tolerance traits. We evaluated root and shoot traits of genotypes of cultivated lentil and five wild species grown under two water deficit regimes as well as fully watered conditions over a 13 week period indoors. Plants were grown in sectioned polyvinyl chloride (PVC tubes containing field soil from the A, B, and C horizons. We found that root distribution into different soil horizons varied among wild lentil genotypes. Secondly, wild lentil genotypes employed diverse strategies such as delayed flowering, reduced transpiration rates, reduced plant height, and deep root systems to either escape, evade or tolerate drought conditions. In some cases, more than one drought strategy was observed within the same genotype. Sequence based classification of wild and cultivated genotypes did not explain patterns of drought response. The environmental conditions at their centers of origin may explain the patterns of drought strategies observed in wild lentils. The production of numerous small seeds by wild lentil genotypes may have implications for yield improvement in lentil breeding programs.

  17. 137Cs and 9Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Valenova, Sarka; Vavrikova, Zuzana; Vanek, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    The 9 Sr and 137 Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of 137 Cs and 20% of 9 Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. 137 Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of 9 Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of 9 Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of 137 Cs in plants increased. The influence of K + and NH 4 + on the uptake of 137 Cs and the influence of Ca 2+ on the uptake of 9 Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of 137 Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of 137 Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of 9 Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions

  18. Utilization of peatlands as possible land resource for low-input agriculture: cultivation of Vaccinium species as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Rodima, Ako; Rannik, Kaire; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2013-04-01

    The best way of soil protection is its sustainable and expedient use, which secures soils ecological functioning. Recent years, by exploitation of peat soils for their different use, has raised important issues concerning their input to global climate change as important source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. The dynamics of GHG are determined by different factors as: site specific conditions including hydrology, soil type, vegetation, area management, including meteorological and climatic conditions. Therefore, in this current paper we are presenting the study results were we estimated CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from exhausted cultivated peatland with Vaccinium species and determined the soil chemical composition. For comparision a virgin state peatland was observed. The main goals of the paper are: (1) to present the experimental results of greenhouse gases generation and peat chemical composition (antioxidant activity of peat, C/N ratio, fiber content, water extractable phenolics) relationships on different microsites either on natural plant cover or Vaccinium species cultivation area on exhausted milled peat area; (2) to discuss how peat soil quality contributes to greenhouse gases emission; (3) and what kind of relationship reveals between low input agricultural system in which Vaccinium species are cultivated on exhausted milled peat area. The study are is located in nearby Ilmatsalu (58°23'N, 26°31'E) in South Estonia, inside of which the three microsites are determined. Microsites are different from each other by exploitation and plant cover type. 1). Natural plant cover, 2). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum, 3). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium. The determined soil type according to WRB was Fibri Dystric Histosol. The main part of study focuses on the analyses of greenhouse gases. For this purpose the closed chamber method was used. The greenhouse gas samples were collected from spring to autumn 2011 throughout

  19. Copper and zinc fractionation in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely S. A. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals on the biosolid, it is necessary to promote its phytoremediation. It is important to know the total content and chemical forms of these elements in the residue for analyzing its behavior and potential toxicity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fractionation and behavior of Cu and Zn in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design. The treatments, with five replicates, corresponded to Pennisetum purpureum cultivation in biosolid for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting. The total contents of Cu and Zn in the biosolid remained below the critical limits established by the CONAMA Resolution 357, and there was a reduction in these values with Pennisetum purpureum cultivation. Furthermore, the increment in the grass cultivation period caused intense reduction of Zn contents bound to organic matter, but there was an increase in soluble Zn and residual Zn. Additionally, there was an intense reduction in the content of Cu bound to sulfides. Therefore, for biosolid phytoremediation purposes, the grass should be cultivated for 150 days.

  20. Potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Sandrina; Costa, Mário; Graça Carvalho, Maria da; Rodrigues, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the potential of poplar coppice cultivation for bioenergy. • Biomass costs from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro/ton and net energy from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ. • Biomass co-firing in power plants reduces CO_2 emissions between 8.2% and 16.5%. • A scenario of CO_2 allowances trading can turn the project financially viable. - Abstract: This manuscript examines the potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in the Alentejo region, Southern Portugal. The biomass is intended to fulfil, at least, 10% (energy basis) of the fuel needs of two Portuguese coal-fired power plants (Sines and Pego), using co-firing technology. The study considers the overall production chain from cradle to power plant gate, cultivated in scrubland areas with duration of 12 years, harvested every three years and with 6667 plants per ha, covering a land area of about 52,250 ha. Three different biomass annual yields are assumed. The results show that the biomass selling prices range from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro ton"−"1, to match the production costs. The net energy of the overall project ranges from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ and the project cost from 619 to 823.9 MEuro. The main environmental impact of the project is the reduction of the CO_2 emissions due to the biomass co-firing, instead of burning coal alone. The power plants can reduce CO_2 emissions over the project lifetime between 8.2% and 16.5% of the current values. The financial analysis demonstrates that the project is not financially feasible without external grants, but a policy scenario of carbon allowances trading may be instrumental on turning it financially feasible, depending on allowances and coal market prices. Finally, with a reduction of 50% in the main costs, the project becomes financially feasible under a CO_2 emissions trading scenario for a biomass yield of 20 dry ton ha"−"1 per year.

  1. Antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenic effects of gel and latex extracts of Aloe vera cultivated: a comparative study in two cities, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabian Sedigheh

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Maximum percentage of inhibition was observed in the extracts of the plant cultivated in Karaj reflecting the impact of environmental conditions on the construction of antioxidant compounds in plants.

  2. The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleunen, Mark; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; González-Moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J; Hulme, Philip E; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Máguas, Cristina; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Parepa, Madalin; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia; Verbrugge, Laura; Weber, Ewald; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Klonner, Günther; Talluto, Matthew V; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina

    2018-03-05

    The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged. Since then, cultivated alien species also started to appear in the wild more frequently than non-cultivated aliens globally, particularly during the 19th century. Horticulture still plays a prominent role in current plant introduction, and the monetary value of live-plant imports in different parts of the world is steadily increasing. Historically, botanical gardens - an important component of horticulture - played a major role in displaying, cultivating and distributing new plant discoveries. While the role of botanical gardens in the horticultural supply chain has declined, they are still a significant link, with one-third of institutions involved in retail-plant sales and horticultural research. However, botanical gardens have also become more dependent on commercial nurseries as plant sources, particularly in North America. Plants selected for ornamental purposes are not a random selection of the global flora, and some of the plant characteristics promoted through horticulture, such as fast growth, also promote invasion. Efforts to breed non-invasive plant cultivars are still rare. Socio-economical, technological, and environmental changes will lead to novel patterns of plant introductions and invasion opportunities for the species that are already cultivated. We describe the role that horticulture could play in mediating these changes. We identify current research challenges, and call for more

  3. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of ultra-high efficiency cultivation system for Hyphomycetes, and application of the system to plant device to manufacture fermentative foods); 1998 nendo itojokin no chokoritsu tairyo baiyo system no kaihatsu to kinosei hakko sho0kuhin seizo plant kiki eno tekiyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has noticed the membrane surface liquid culture method, and researched and developed the following themes with an objective to commercialize the membrane surface liquid culture system and develop novel fermentative foods using this system. Cultivation of Beni-koji bacteria (solid culture of M. pilosus k) is taken up in the model cultivation system. (1) establishment of the membrane surface liquid culture system and development of devices, (2) elucidation of cultivation characteristics of the membrane surface liquid culture system and optimization of the cultivating conditions, and (3) development of fermentative foods. In Item (1), such problems were solved as automation of bacteria planting, long-term pasteurized cultivation, and assurance of clean cultivation broth. In Item (2), it was discovered most suitable that maltose concentration is about 5%, glutamic acid concentration is about 50 mM, the initial culture medium pH is about six, and the cultivation temperature is 30 degree C. In item (3), as a result of mixing this red coloring matter containing cultivation broth into preparation of Miso (bean paste) and soy sauce, products having high {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid and monacholin k content were developed. In addition, while Beni-koji made by solid cultivation had peculiar taste and odor, this drawback was eliminated by using this coloring matter containing cultivation broth. This has made differentiation from conventional products possible. (NEDO)

  4. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  5. Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Kamal Prasad; Poudel, Sushmita; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Chettri, Nakul; Chaudhary, Pashupati; Ning, Wu; Kotru, Rajan

    2018-01-29

    Local people in the Himalayan region use a wide range of wild and non-cultivated edible plants (WNEPs) for food, spice, medicinal, and cultural purposes. However, their availability, use, status and contribution to livelihood security are poorly documented, and they have been generally overlooked in recent agro-biodiversity conservation and management programmes. The study aimed to investigate WNEP diversity and current status in a part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape-a transboundary landscape shared by Nepal, India and PR China-in terms of collection, use, management and conservation initiatives. Multiple methodologies and tools were used for data collection. A series of participatory tools (45 key informant interviews, 10 focus group discussions, a crop diversity fair, direct observation of species through a transect walk and rapid market assessments) was followed by a household survey (195 respondents) and complemented by a literature review. The study recorded 99 WNEPs belonging to 59 families of which 96 were angiosperms, one gymnosperm and two pteridophytes. Species were used for food, spice, medicine, rituals and income generation. Thirty-five species had multiple uses, including these: 40 species were used for fruit and 31 for vegetables. WNEPs contribute significantly to daily food requirements, especially the vegetables. The use value of Dryopteris cochleata was found highest (0.98) among frequently used vegetable species. The values of informant consensus factor were found maximum for worms in the stomach (0.99) and minimum for skin disease treatment (0.67). Nearly 85% of households depended exclusively on WNEPs for at least more than a month per year. Results on the importance and use of different species, gender roles in WNEP activities and conservation approaches are presented. People living in the Kailash Sacred Landscape depend significantly on WNEPs, and this is especially critical in times of food shortage. The WNEPs have considerable potential as

  6. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  7. Organic cultivation of Ashwagandha with improved biomass and high content of active Withanolides: Use of Vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Baldev; Ohri, Puja; Wang, Jia; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Kaur, Arvinder

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment. In view of these, we attempted to recruit Vermicompost (Vcom, 20-100%) as an organic fertilizer of choice during the sowing and growing phases of Ashwagandha plants. We report that (i) pre-soaking of seeds for 12 h in Vermicompost leachate (Vcom-L) and Vermicompost tea (Vcom-T) led to higher germination, (ii) binary combination of pre-soaking of seeds and cultivation in Vcom (up to 80%) resulted in further improvement both in germination and seedling growth, (iii) cultivated plants in the presence of Vcom+Vcom-L showed higher leaf and root mass, earlier onset of flowering and fruiting and (iv) leaves from the Vcom+Vcom-L cultivated plants showed higher level of active Withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N), Withanolide A (Wil-A) and Withaferin A (Wi-A) and showed anticancer activities in cell culture assays. Taken together, we report a simple and inexpensive method for improving the yield and pharmaceutical components of Ashwagandha leaves.

  8. Lisianthus cultivation using differentiated light transmission nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lisianthus stands out as one of the ten most cut flowers sold in the world. The use of meshes in a different light transmission is gaining more space in horticulture with promising results in greenhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of lisianthus grown in different light transmission meshes in blue, black, red and control treatments, which were transplanted 20 seedlings to cultivate Snow white with three replications, and therefore, 60 plants 240 plants per treatment in total. Agronomic characteristics such as plant height and length of the top pair of leaves were evaluated at 15, 38, 59, 82 and 105 days after transplanting. Other features such as early flowering, thick stem, distance between us and weight of the harvested stems were obtained at harvest stage. At the end of the evaluations, the treatment of red net was the most consistent with a significant difference in stem height and earliness in flowering.

  9. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  10. Agriculture itinérante sur brûlis (AIB et plantes cultivées sur le haut Maroni: étude comparée chez les Aluku et les Wayana en Guyane française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fleury

    Full Text Available Résumé Vers la fin du 18e siècle, les Noirs marrons Aluku, descendants d’esclaves rebelles fuyant les plantations hollandaises et les Amérindiens Wayana, arrivant du Brésil, où ils fuyaient les chasseurs d’esclaves, se sont rencontrés sur le haut Maroni, en Guyane française. Ce partage d’un même lieu de vie a été l’occasion d’échanger un grand nombre de techniques, notamment en ce qui concerne l’agriculture itinérante sur brûlis, et les plantes cultivées. Toutefois notre étude montre que le culte des ancêtres chez les Noirs marrons a modifié leur cycle cultural (via la culture du riz, influençant ainsi leur gestion de l’environnement. De même la nature et la diversité des plantes cultivées diffèrent sensiblement en fonction des usages traditionnels et habitudes culinaires des deux sociétés. Les Aluku ont sélectionné de nombreuses espèces et variétés de plantes qui leur sont propres et sont liées à leurs racines africaines. Les Amérindiens cultivent des plantes spécifiques utiles au chamanisme (tabac et à leur artisanat traditionnel. De plus, leur perception de la nature implique des pratiques cultuelles différentes notamment avant le défrichage. Cette étude illustre l’influence de la diversité culturelle sur la gestion de l’agrobiodiversité et, de manière plus générale, sur l’adaptation de l’homme à son environnement.

  11. Utilization of carbon dioxide in industrial flue gases for the cultivation of microalga Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Hsiun-Yu; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. MTF-15 cultivated using aeration with flue gases from a coke oven, hot stove or power plant in a steel plant of the China Steel Corporation in Taiwan were investigated. Using the flue gas from the coke oven, hot stove or power plant for cultivation, the microalgal strain obtained a maximum specific growth rate and lipid production of (0.827 d(-1), 0.688 g L(-1)), (0.762 d(-1), 0.961 g L(-1)), and (0.728 d(-1), 0.792 g L(-1)), respectively. This study demonstrated that Chlorella sp. MTF-15 could efficiently utilize the CO₂, NOX and SO₂ present in the different flue gases. The results also showed that the growth potential, lipid production and fatty acid composition of the microalgal strain were dependent on the composition of the flue gas and on the operating strategy deployed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  13. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  14. Site-specific cultivation systems for energy plants. Results of the joint project ''Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site-specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany, EVA I''. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Standortangepasste Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Ergebnisse des Verbundprojektes ''Entwicklung und Vergleich von optimierten Anbausystemen fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktion von Energiepflanzen unter den verschiedenen Standortbedingungen Deutschlands, EVA I''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    With respect to the estimations of the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany), nearly 2 millions ha of the area of arable land in Germany were used for the production of renewable raw materials in the last years. The production of vegetable energy sources only was limited on few cultural species. This led to criticism by organisations of nature protection and environmental protection. The joint project 'Development and comparison of optimized cultivation system for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany' was one of the most extensive national agrarian research projects of the past years. This joint project offers practice-relevant knowledge to efficient and sustainable cultivation systems of energy plants. The brochure under consideration reports on the results of the first project phase of this joint project.

  15. AN ACTION OF EXOGENOUS STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDE ON EXHIBITION OF INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN RED BEET PLANTS UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kozar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected cultivation technology, through which the various inbred generations with the combination of economic valuable traits and different level of sterility can be produced, is used in order to accelerate the breeding program. However, there is a negative effect of inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility can often occur and cause the loss of valuable breeding forms. The aim of the work was to study the influence of steroidal glycosides capsicoside (SGC on exhibition of CMS, and morphobiological parameters of 13 inbred generations that were produced from fertile plant and partly sterile plants with level of sterility 10% and 50%. The seeds were soaked for 24 hours in water solution of SGC with concentration 10-3%, and in water control. Then the seeds were dried up and sown in the greenhouse. The stecklings and roots obtained were vernalized at 3-5Co. Mother plants were grown under 18 hour photoperiod in greenhouse with supplementary lighting. Inbreeding seeds were obtained in individual cloth isolators. It was shown that for all generations the treatment with SGC improved the seed germination (4-8% more, increased the root index and its length (12-24% more, decreased betanin content (22-48% less in comparison with control. The action of SGC on the other morphological and biochemical traits such as height of leaf rosette, leaf number, plant and root weight, head size, number of generative buds, and nitrate content was defined by the level of sterility of mother plant. The most expressed effect for all traits mentioned was seen in inbreeding generations of sterile plants with high level of sterility. After action effect of seed treatment with SGC on development of seed plants from inbreeding generations, not depending on sterility level of mother plants, showed the positive influence on plant habitus of seed mother plants, decreasing the plant height, but increasing stem number and functional parameters of microgametophyte in fertile

  16. The influence of CO2 proceding from plant residue decomposition in the soil on isotopic ratio 13C/12c and plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effect of plant incorporated in the soil on the microclimate of plant growth, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse and then under field conditions. Plant residue of C-3 crops δ 13 C = - 27.6 0 /00, was incorporated in the soil. This altered the isotopic composition of the CO 2 in soil air and in atmospheric air of soil layers adjacent to the surface. The soil air CO 2 isotopic composition showed that approximately 79% carbon was from the incorporated organic matter and 50% to 3% in O to 30 cm layers, respectively, in the atmospheric air adjacent to the surface. The isotopic ratio 13 C/ 12 C of plants cultivated in soil with incorporated organic matter was determined and it was noted that the envolved CO 2 was photosynthetically absorved by the plants during growth. CO 2 contribution from organic matter to the isotopic composition of C-4 plants varied from 33% to 13% during growth. Plants cultivated in soil with organic matter had a better development than those cultivated in natural soil. Productivity was on average 50% greater than the control plants. (author) [pt

  17. Phosphorus critical levels and availability in lowland soils cultivated with flooded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Isabela Orlando dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland soils present a great potential for the flooded rice crop. This work aimed to estimate critical levels of P in waterlogged soils cultivated with rice using Mehlich 1 and anion exchange resin as soil-P extractors, compare the performance of these extractors as for the evaluation of the P availability, and study the soil-P fractions involved in the P nutrition of the rice crop. Studied soils consisted of four Histosols: Low Humic Gley (GP, Aluvial (A, Humic Gley (GH and Bog Soil (O which were previously cultivated with beans. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme, using four soils, five P rates (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 and two liming treatments (with and without liming, with three replicates. After 60 days of flooding, soil samples were submitted to P extraction by Mehlich 1 and resin, and phosphorous fractionation. Two rice plants were cultivated in pots containing 3 dm³ of waterlogged soils. The labile P and the moderately labile P of the soils contributed for rice nutrition. The two tested extractors presented efficiency in the evaluation of P availability for the rice cultivated in lowland waterlogged soils.

  18. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Denman, S.; Kirk, S.A.; Botha, W.J.; Mostert, L.; McLeod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from

  19. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the

  20. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  1. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A

    1961-01-01

    Several flower bulbs were fumigated with different concentrations of HF and SO/sub 2/. The most sensitive plants for both gases were: Ixia, Sparaxis and Crocus. Not sensitive for both gases was: Galanthus. Rather sensitive for SO/sub 2/ but not for HF appeared to be: Anemone and Eranthis. In an industrial area fruit trees and also vegetables (endive, carrot) were damaged; the injury of Crataegus hedges and of the weed Solanum nigrum indicated that SO/sub 2/ was probably the cause of the damage. In 1960 an investigation was started to measure light intensities in the field. On seven different localities photometers, which add the light quantities over a certain period, were placed in order to compare the daily light intensities. The aim is to check the light intensity in a horticultural area situated in the neighborhood of a rapidly expanding industrial district. On several locations in The Netherlands gas damage to plants occurs. Periodical investigations are carried out in the field in various places, to detect the nature of the poisoning agents. Particular attention is paid to organic vapors causing gradual discoloration and growth inhibition in ornamental plants. In most cases the damage originated from HF and SO/sub 2/.

  2. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1967-01-01

    An investigation repeated for the third time on susceptibility for SO/sub 2/ of 7 varieties of lettuce resulted in a reliable difference between the most and least susceptible variety; the others produced differences between individual plants within the varieties. Ethylene fumigations of tomato plants during five to six hours at concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ppm caused no visible reaction. A fumigation with 3 ppm for 23 hours resulted in a strong epinastic reaction at the base of the leaf petioles and curling of the young growing leaves. An apparatus was constructed to fumigate herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees in their natural environment and under normal climatic conditions. With this apparatus daffodil, tulip and Ixia were fumigated for 3 hours with HF in a concentration of 0.030 ppm. The most susceptible varieties showed leaf tip damage to an extent of 2 to 4 cm. Some time after an aluminium factory came into operation, injury to trees and shrubs occurred in the neighborhood; farm crops were not affected. For some factories the opportunity was given to carry out measurements on the amount of air pollution in the neighborhood of these factories before production starts, to estimate how much extra air pollution may be caused by the new factory.

  3. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  4. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  5. Biology, ecology, use, conservation and cultivation of round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baranyai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drosera rotundifolia is a perennial insectivorous herb which occupies open, wet, oligotrophic habitats such as acidic bogs and poor fens, and specifically grows in Sphagnum-dominated communities. Since mediaeval times the species has been collected from natural habitats and used as a remedy for coughs and pulmonary diseases. Due to the substantial decline of Drosera habitat, the plant has been protected in most European countries since the 1980s, which means that wild D. rotundifolia has become unavailable to the pharmaceutical industry. The persistent demand has stimulated research into the cultivation of Drosera in several European countries. These studies have shown that Drosera cultivation is time-consuming and not (yet cost-effective, and there is a need for the development of cultivation methods. This article reviews the morphology, distribution, ecology and reproduction of Drosera rotundifolia; outlines its commercial use and nature conservation requirements; and describes previous research on its propagation and cultivation.

  6. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  7. Cultivation studies of Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.L.; Liao, W.C.; Lai, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines, collected at altitudes of 260, 500, 1000, and 1500 m were cultivated in 2009 and 2010. The plant height and tiller numbers of four M. floridulus lines increased gradually along with the growing time. These M. floridulus lines had the tallest plant height and most tiller number after these species were planted 210 days. Line 3, which was collected at the altitude of 1000 m, had the ability to grow at low temperature. Line 3 M. floridulus had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields than other three lines. Fresh and dry yields of Line 3 were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width, but showed no correlation with the leaf length. The correlation between agronomic traits and climatic data was also studied. Results can be used as a model for developing a non-food crop-based energy production system in the future. -- Highlights: → Miscanthus floridulus collected at 1000 m altitude had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields. → Fresh and dry yields of were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width. → Fresh and dry yields showed no correlation with the leaf length. → The accumulative rainfall, temperature, radiation, and exposure time to radiation were positively correlated to the plant height, leaf length and leaf width.

  8. Damage research with P. penetrans in asparagus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, H.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    During cultivation of asparagus plants growth can be inhibited and yield can be reduced by plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant raising companies assume that the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) can cause severe yield loss in asparagus plants. However quantitative information about yield

  9. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    cultivation in the DeepFlow negatively compared to substrate-based propagation. Water-based propagation resulted in frequent transient discolorations after transplanting in all cultivation systems, indicating a factor, other than irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen, influencing plant uptake. Plant uptake rates for water, nutrients, and oxygen are offered as a more fundamental way to compare and improve growing systems.

  10. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  11. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  12. Closure of mass exchange under use of a vegetable conveyer cultivated on a neutral and soil-like substrates as applied to BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander; Ushakova, Sofya

    To increase a closure level of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) including a human a technology of plants cultivation on a soil-like substrate (SLS) consisting in a gradual decomposition of inedible plants biomass under its addition in the SLS was developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia). In the given work the effect of periodical introduction of inedible plant biomass in the SLS on plants photosynthetic productivity and on the closure of mass exchange has been analyzed. Thereupon CO2 gas exchange and the certain vegetables' productivity under their cultivation in a conveyor regime on the SLS and on a neutral substrate with reference to the closure of mass exchange processes in BLSS have been studied in this work. The vegetables Raphanus sativus L., Brassica caulorapa L. Daucus carota L. and Beta vulgaris L. being prospective plantsrepresentatives of the BLSS phototrophic unit were taken as the research objects. The SLS was taken as an experiment substrate and an expanded clay aggregate as the control. The changeable Knop solution was used for the control, and an irrigation solution with the SLS extract was used for the experiment. Rapidity dynamics of CO2 consumption showed sharp distinctions of the ‘plants-SLS' system from the ‘plantsexpanded clay aggregate' system connected with the oxidation processes coursing in the SLS. The intensity of CO2 evolution from the SLS on average was 70% of the total plants conveyor's respiration. Thus a balance between the system's respiration and photosynthesis was often determined by the processes coursing in the SLS. Here the sharp CO2 evolution was recorded after introduction of the plants inedible biomass in the SLS. That peak was gradually coming down during 10-14 days after the beginning of every cycle of plants cultivation that was connected with intensification of plants photosynthesis and drop of decomposition intensity of the biomass introduced. Comparative

  13. Volatile components of essential oil from cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mayuko; Myoda, Takao; Wakita, Yoichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Ikuko; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic components in the essential oil prepared from the leaves of cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa were compared with those from oil derived wild plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). We found that essential oils from both the wild and cultivated plants contained similar aromatic components such as β-elemenone, selina 3,7(11)-diene, myrcene, limonene, cymene, 1,8-cineole, and β-pinene, but the content ratio of the oil was significantly different, which might yield differences in the aromatic properties. The aroma impact components of the essential oils were also determined using GC/MS-Olfactometry (GC/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis. Eight aromatic compounds, including linalool, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, were shown to contribute to the aromatic properties of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa. The strongest aromatic note was defined as linalool, followed by limonene, 1,8-cineole, and β-elemenone. The essential oil, ethanol (EtOH), 1,3-butylene glycol (BG), and 1,3-propanediol (PD) extracts prepared from the leaves of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa also showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, that is, they demonstrated scavenger activity against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in the aqueous phase, and showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. The essential oil extracts also exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value against Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the essential oil and solvent extracts from cultivated M. gala var. tomentosa have a potential for utilization as food and cosmetic ingredients.

  14. Influence of hydroponic and soil cultivation on quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. Laterr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Foschia, Martina; Tomasi, Nicola; Maifreni, Michela; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Marino, Marilena; Cortella, Giovanni; Cesco, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the hydroponic floating system to cultivate leafy vegetables for ready-to-eat salads. It is reasonable that different growing systems could affect the quality and shelf life of these salads. The quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce grown in protected environment in soil plot or in soil-less system over hydroponic solution with or without the addition of 30 µmol L⁻¹ silicon were evaluated. Minimum effects were observed on colour, firmness and microbial counts. Hydroponic cultivation largely affected plant tissue hydration, leading to weight loss and structural modifications during refrigerated storage. The shelf life of lamb's lettuce was limited by the development of visually detectable unpleasant sensory properties. Shelf life, calculated by survival analysis of consumer acceptability data, resulted about 7 days for soil-cultivated salad and 2 days for the hydroponically grown ones. The addition of silicon to the hydroponic solution resulted in an interesting strategy to increase plant tissue yield and reduce nitrate accumulation. Although hydroponic cultivation may have critical consequences on product quality and shelf life, these disadvantages could be largely counterbalance by increased yield and a reduction of nitrate accumulation when cultivation is performed on nutritive solutions with supplemental addition of silicon. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Optimalisation de l'extraction d'ADN génomique de la morelle jaune (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., une plante invasive des milieux cultivés en région méditerranéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll, J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region. The geographical origin of an invasive plant in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Beforehand, an effective and less costly method for extracting genomic DNA from dehydrated and polysaccharide-rich leaves was investigated. The original Doyle's protocol based on the use of a cationic detergent, CTAB, was successfully optimized in order to extract high quality DNA (A260/280 ratio of 1.8; A260/230 ratio of 1.7 to 2. The DNA yields obtained with this new protocol were higher than those obtained with a commercial kit, although quality of the DNA extracted was comparable. The improvement of the protocol was further proven by the amplification of several microsatellite loci first developed in eggplant, Solanum melongena L.

  16. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bauer

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.

  17. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  18. Medicinal plants: traditions and study prospects (devoted to the 100th anniversary of establishing the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Дем’янюк

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical review was done concerning the formation and development of scientific research of the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants over the period 1916–2016. The main stages of experimenting in the direction of “medicinal plant cultivation’’ in Ukraine were covered. Role and importance of the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants in the scientific and methodological support of such scientific directions as breeding, seed production, cultivation technologies, pharmacognosy in medicinal plant cultivation were shown. For the needs of the branch, over 100 species of introduced medicinal plants were studied at the Station and agricultu­ral techniques of their growing were developed, in addition, more than 50 varieties of medicinal plants were crea­ted, a number of machines and devices for growing, harves­ting and initial treatment of raw materials and seeds of the most important medicinal plants was designed. Other scientific achievements of the Station were mentioned and promising areas of medicinal plant research in Ukraine were outlined.

  19. Experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the rice cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T; Takahashi, T

    1952-01-01

    From experimental studies on the injurious effect of sulfur dioxide upon the cultivation of rice it was ascertained that SO2 strongly affects the pollen and the ovary. The pollen and the matured grain showed a decrease in fertility when the plant is fumigated at the flowering and boot stage.

  20. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation, vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique

  1. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A

    1974-12-31

    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  2. Rice and foxtail millet cultivation reconstructed from weed seed assemblages in the Chengtoushan site, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Momohara, A.; Jiejun, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Crop weeds have been successfully used for evaluation of farming practices in archaeological sites and reconstruction of the environmental condition. In rice agricultural sites in East Asia, however, a few studies of crop remains have been attempted. We evaluated the crop husbandry based on plant macrofossils including crop grains and weed seeds in the Chengtoushan site, Hunan Province, central China, which is one of the oldest rice agricultural site around the Yangtze River Basin. In the moat surrounding the site that is located on a loess plateau that juts out into the alluvial plain, we recognized three cultural layers during the Daxi Culture. Plant macrofossils in silty clay deposits in the moat consist of abundant rice and foxtail millet grains with many weed seeds. Radiocarbon age of these fossils shows that rice and foxtail millet cultivation dated back to 6400 cal. years B.P. The weed seed composition characterizes farmland and ruderal environments in the site surrounded by the moat. We assumed foxtail millet and rice cultivation practiced within the site on loess plateau, along with a paddy style rice cultivation in the alluvial lowland outside of the site. (author)

  3. Medicinal plant recipes from Kırklareli

    OpenAIRE

    Kültür, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, have been reported different medicinal plant recipesin the Kırklareli region. 15 medicinal plant recipes belonging to 20 families (20wild plant species, 7 cultivated plant species) which were used for different medicinalpurposes by local people have been recorded totally 27 plant species in thearea. Traditional medicinal plant recipes have been mostly used for the traetmentof cough, cold and influenza.Key words: Ethnobotany, Kırklareli, Turkey, medicinal plant.

  4. Study on light and thermal energy of illumination device for plant factory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A.; Moriuchi, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of illumination devices on the yield of crops cultivated in a plant factory, it is necessary to measure the actual cultivation environmental factors related to the plant growth and understand the distribution ratio of light and thermal energy to the electrical energy injected into the illumination device. Based on cultivation results, we found that light intensity greatly affected the growth of plant weight. Regarding the selection of illumination device, its spectral components also affected the morphological change. Lighting experiments using a high frequency (Hf) fluorescent lamp and a light emitting diode (LED) bulb were performed. A certain difference was found in the distribution ratio of light energy to electrical energy between Hf and LED. It was showed that by placing the safety equipment or internal circuits outside the cultivated site, the air conditioning load could be reduced.

  5. Recent Advances in Outdoor High-Density Cultivation of Novelty Micro-Algae Strain with High Content of Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštánek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was the pilot plant examination of a newly developed integrated process for autotrophic cultivation of useful micro-algae. The process utilizes waste carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and yields simultaneously products that can be utilized in food and cosmetic industries, turned into biodiesel and/or used as a supplement in animal feed. At present, the cultivation of micro-algae merely for the production of biofuels is not economically viable. In the proposed pr...

  6. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions. © 2013.

  7. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni

    2009-01-01

    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation...

  8. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  9. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  10. Selenium determination in cereal plants and cultivation soils by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Anawar, H.M.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Kamenik, J.; Kucera, J.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health but it is deficient in at least 1 billion people around the globe. Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only on a gross tonnage basis, but also by what they represent in terms of energy supply and dietary intake for human nutrition worldwide. Portugal is no exception to such pattern. The Portuguese situation is difficult to assess though, due to scarce information and lack of consistent studies on the subject. In these terms, the Se status of major cereals and their cultivation soils are dealt with herein. Two species of wheat-bread and durum wheat-were sown at the end of November 2009, and then sampled in different growth stages. Rye was collected during harvest season, and cultivation soils were analyzed as well. Se results were within the range of: 100-225 ng g -1 for soils; 3-55 ng g -1 for durum wheat; 6-80 ng g -1 for bread wheat; and 4-30 ng g -1 for rye. Accuracy of the RNAA procedure was proved by analysis of reference materials NIST-SRM 1515 and NIS-SRM 8433. (author)

  11. Dynamics of ligninolytic enzyme production in Ganoderma applanatum depending on cultivation type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćilerdžić Jasmina Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma applanatum belongs to the group of white-rot fungi, due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. White-rot fungi have attracted great scientific attention in recent years, especially with respect to their enzymatic potential for the bioremediation of persistent pollutants. Contrary to G. lucidum, which medicinal properties, as well as ligninolytic enzyme system have been extensively studied, enzymatic system of G. applanatum has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of laccase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase activity during submerged and solid state cultivation on two selected plant raw materials. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically after 7, 10 and 14 days of cultivation. The peak of laccase activity (220.14 Ul-1 was noted after 14 days of submerged wheat straw fermentation. Maximum level of Mn-dependent peroxidase (110.91 Ul-1 and versatile peroxidase (116.20 Ul-1 activity was obtained in the medium with oak sawdust after 14 days of submerged cultivation.

  12. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1968-01-01

    There are indications that the fluorine analyses of the leaf tips of tulips grown in glasshouses supply more reliable information about the intensity of HF air pollution than those of the tulips grown in the open. Tomato plants were fumigated just at the start of flowering with ethylene in concentrations of about 0.1-0.2 ppm during 14 days. The plants reacted mainly with flower drop; only a slight epinasty occurred. Continuous attention is paid to the air pollution of an aluminium factory causing leaf injury to trees and shrubs in the surroundings of the industry. Agricultural crops were not affected. Dust and soot deposits on fruit in orchards, originating respectively from the stacks of a cement factory and the stacks of heavy oil heated glasshouses were also investigated. The deposit of these materials caused a lower quality of the fruit, respectively at great distance and in the vicinity of the sources of the air pollution.

  13. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively. Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water is an environmentally friendly, sustainable bioremediation method with added value biomass production and resource valorization, since the resulting biomass also presented a good source of proteins, amino acids, and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  14. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  15. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  16. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  17. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  18. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  19. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  20. In vitro cultivated Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis with determination of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Rita de C.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: cassia@cnpat.embrapa.br; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Bezerra, Giselle M.; Alves, Flaviane F.; Santos, Priscila F.P. dos; Gomes, Luiz N.F.; Aquino-Neto, Francisco R. de; Emmerick, Isabel C.M.; Carvalhaes, Sergio F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pinto, Jose E.B.P.; Bertolucci, Suzan K.V. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C.; Rosario, Sandra L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Mazzei, Jose L.; d' Avila, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola do Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., commercially known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native of the Amazon and Central America rainforests. These Rubiaceae species face nowadays an imminent risk of extinction due to indiscriminate harvesting in the wild as well as to increasing deforestation of their natural habitat. This work describes in vitro cultivation methods for both species with determination, by HPLC, of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles of the plant material. The results have proved that the methods we developed were able to produce plants with alkaloid profiles and contents similar to the wild and in vivo cultivated species, and with the additional advantage of producing suitable young plants in a shorter period of time. The data showed that the in vitro technique can be a feasible tool for the growth of the species, and may thus be important for their commercialization and for their conservation as a forest resource. (author)

  1. In vitro cultivated Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis with determination of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rita de C.A.; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Bezerra, Giselle M.; Alves, Flaviane F.; Santos, Priscila F.P. dos; Gomes, Luiz N.F.; Aquino-Neto, Francisco R. de; Emmerick, Isabel C.M.; Carvalhaes, Sergio F.; Pinto, Jose E.B.P.; Bertolucci, Suzan K.V.; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C.; Rosario, Sandra L.; Mazzei, Jose L.; d'Avila, Luiz A.

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., commercially known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native of the Amazon and Central America rainforests. These Rubiaceae species face nowadays an imminent risk of extinction due to indiscriminate harvesting in the wild as well as to increasing deforestation of their natural habitat. This work describes in vitro cultivation methods for both species with determination, by HPLC, of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles of the plant material. The results have proved that the methods we developed were able to produce plants with alkaloid profiles and contents similar to the wild and in vivo cultivated species, and with the additional advantage of producing suitable young plants in a shorter period of time. The data showed that the in vitro technique can be a feasible tool for the growth of the species, and may thus be important for their commercialization and for their conservation as a forest resource. (author)

  2. PERSPECTIVE IN PLANT DRUG RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.H.; Singh, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Plant medicine becomes more popular thought the world in these days probably of its latest toxicity. Ayurveda that leads in plant medicine preserves the natural form of herbs maximum, in various pharmaceutical preparations. Isolation of active principles has not proved much fruitful. However, the need of hour is cultivation of more medicinal plants along with popularization of their use traditional simpler forms. PMID:22557691

  3. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Hawaiian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii’s diverse and mild climate allows for the cultivation of many crops. The introduction of each crop plant brought along its associated nematode pests. These plant-parasitic nematodes became established and are now endemic to the islands. Plantation agriculture determined the major nematode ...

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD AND CULTIVATED Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. ACCESSIONS ANALYZED USING THIRTY MORPHO-AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathyanarayana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and relatedness among 31 wild and 9 cultivated Mucuna pruriens accessions collected from diverse eco-climatic regions in India were evaluated using 30 morpho-agronomical characters. The experiments were carried by growing the plants in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in four replications for two seasons. The results of PCA for 22 quantitative and 8 qualitative characters indicated that the first two PCs together explained 65.18% and 67.50% of the total variation respectively, which were drawn across a range of traits. Cluster analysis demonstrated on the whole high morphological diversity (63.05% amongst wild and cultivated accessions and low diversity (36.95% within cultivated accessions. Analysis of six yield traits based on LSD5% values revealed distinct genotypes under each category which are of potential value in breeding programs. Low morphological diversity within cultivated accessions emphasizes the need for expanding its genetic base in India.

  5. Comparison of aquatic macrophyte community structure between natural wetlands and rice fields with different cultivation ages

    OpenAIRE

    Rolon, A. S.; Godoy, R. S.; Maltchik, L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies indicate that rice fields contribute to the conservation of aquatic plants, however, repeated cultivation can reduce the species diversity harbored by rice fields. Repeated tillage, agrochemical application and environmental homogeneity can reduce plant diversity and select for species more tolerant to disturbance. Our hypotheses were: 1) macrophyte richness and biomass decrease with increased rice crop age; and 2) macrophyte species of rice fields are a subsample of n...

  6. Vegetative growth and yield of strawberry under irrigation and soil mulches for different cultivation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Regina Célia de Matos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative growth and yield of strawberry in relation to irrigation levels and soil mulches are still not well known, mainly for different environmental conditions. Two experiments were carried out in Atibaia, SP, Brazil, during 1995, one in a protected environment and the other in an open field, to evaluate the cultivar Campinas IAC-2712, under different irrigation levels and soil mulches (black and clear polyethylene. Three water potential levels in the soil were used in order to define irrigation time, corresponding to -0.010 (N1, -0.035 (N2, and -0.070 (N3 MPa, measured through tensiometers installed at the 10 cm depth. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was adopted, as randomized complete block, with 5 replicates. In the protected cultivation, the irrigation levels of -0.010 and -0.035 MPa and the clear plastic mulch favored the vegetative growth, evaluated through plant height, maximum horizontal dimension of the plant, leaf area index, as well as by total marketable fruit yield and its components (mean number and weight of fruits per plant. In the open field cultivation, no effect of treatments due to rainfall were observed.

  7. Shifting cultivation effects on creek water quality around Barkal Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; Sohag Miah

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of shifting cultivation on water quality in 16 creeks investigated once in 2007 and twice in 2008 in 16 apparently similar small neighboring watersheds,each of 3 to 5 ha,at four locations around Barkal sub-district under Rangamati District of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.Concentrations of SO42-and K+,and pH in creek water were lower,and NO3-N and Na+ concentrations were higher in shifting-cultivation land compared to land with either plantation or natural forest or a combination of these cover types.Shifting cultivation effects on some water quality parameters were not significant due to change in land cover of the watershed between two sampling periods either through introduction of planted tree species or naturally regenerated vegetation.Conductivity and concentrations of HCO3-.PO43-,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in creek water showed no definite trend between shifting cultivation and the other land cover types.At one area near the Forest Range Office of Barkal,creek water pH was 5.8 under land cover with a combination of shifting cultivation and plantation.At this area Na+ concentration in shifting-cultivation land ranged from 32.33 to 33.00 mg·L-1 and in vegetated area from 25.00 to 30.50 mg·L-1 in 2007.At another area,Chaliatali Chara,SO42-concentration in a shifting-cultivation watershed ranged from 4.46 to 10.51 mg·L-1,lower than in a vegetated watershed that ranged from 11.69 to 19.98 mg·L-1 in 2007.SO42-concentration in this shifting-cultivation area ranged from 1.28 to 1.37 mg·L-1 and in the vegetated area from 1.37 to 3.50 mg·L-1 in 2008.

  8. Effects of plant density and proportion on the interaction between wheat with alexandergrass plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of competitive relationships among plant species requires appropriate experimental designs and method of analysis. The hypothesis of this research was that two species growing in coexistence show different growth and development due to their relative competitiveness. This research aims to measure the relative competitiveness of wheat crop compared to Alexandergrass by the interpretation of plant density and proportional effects using replacement series experiments. Monocultures were cultivated in densities of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 plants per pot and analyzed by regression of dry mass data. Mixture experiment was cultivated in wheat:Alexandergrass proportions of 0:6, 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2, 5:1 and 6:0 plants per pot and analyzed by graphical interpretation of growth and production characteristics. Both experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Alexandergrass was more sensitive to intraspecific competition than wheat. Alexandergrass was lightly more competitive than wheat. Number and weight of spikes and number of tillers were the wheat characteristics more affected by Alexandergrass interference.

  9. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  10. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cultivation of Tillandsia geminiflora Brongn. in different growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tillandsia geminiflora is little grown in Brazil, but has good potential for exportation. Tree fern fiber was used in mixtures for bromeliad cultivation until the prohibition of this practice. The replacement of tree fern by other materials with similar properties has been researched. Thus, and the aim of this study was to compare the development of T. geminiflora grown in media with different vegetal components (tree fern, coconut husk and pinus bark. Plant development was evaluated for about two years. Pure coconut bark husk gave the best results.

  12. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Grant-Downton

    Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.

  13. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  14. Characterization of typical aquatic humic substances in areas of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, A.M.; Constantino, I.C. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Nuzzo, A.; Spaccini, R.; Piccolo, A. [Dipartimento Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, e dell' Ambiente, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Moreira, A.B. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-06-15

    Aquatic humic substances (AHSs) differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. In addition, the effects of planting sugarcane on AHSs are not well known. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation during dry and rainy seasons. The main characteristics of the AHSs were obtained using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and off-line pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (off-line tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-GC–MS-thermochemolysis). The FTIR and NMR results were used to infer that no distinctions occurred between the sampling periods. The samples were composed of aromatic groups that were potentially associated with the presence of residual vegetable materials (lignin). The results of the off-line TMAH-GC–MS-thermochemolysis indicated that the structures of the AHSs had uniform compositions that were rich in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), polysaccharide derivatives, aliphatic biopolymers derived from plants, long hydrocarbon chains, branched alkyl groups and methylene carbons. Thus, the results showed that the AHSs obtained from the sugarcane cultivation area during the crop period mainly consisted of resistant aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derivatives of lignin and FAMEs in compounds rich in humic acid. Therefore, we concluded that sugarcane cultivation produces changes in AHSs because greater amounts of lignin derivatives were observed during the dry season, corresponding to sugarcane cultivation. - Highlights: • AHSs differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. • AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation. • AHSs from the sugarcane area are influenced by the soil use and occupation. • AHSs contain lignin derivatives, fatty acid methyl esters and others. • Lignin was observed with

  15. Regulation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore a deeper insight in mutualistic symbiosis is of great importance for biological applications: (1) the plant/microbial co-culture system in vitro may be perfectly useful to guide the cultivation of medicinal plants for obtaining high level of bioactive compounds; (2) manipulating plant released signal molecules and ...

  16. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  18. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  19. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  20. The use of plant extracts to control the major disease and pest in mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Rutjens, A.J.; Kogel, de W.J.; Baar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dry bubble disease and its spread by insects represents a major problem in the cultivation of mushrooms. Prevention of dry bubble disease and its vectors usually involves chemical crop protection. However, the use of chemical crop protection is becoming less acceptable. We expect that, within a few

  1. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  2. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra, E-mail: A.Kwiatkows@gmail.com [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Zebrowski, Jacek [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Oklejewicz, Bernadetta [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Czarnik, Justyna [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Halibart-Puzio, Joanna [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wnuk, Maciej [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  3. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Czarnik, Justyna; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage

  4. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  5. Rhizospheric microbial communities associated with wild and cultivated frankincense producing Boswellia sacra tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    Full Text Available Boswellia sacra, a frankincense producing endemic tree, has been well known for its cultural, religious and economic values. However, the tree has been least explored for the associated microsymbiota in the rhizosphere. The current study elucidates the fungal and bacterial communities of the rhizospheric regions of the wild and cultivated B. sacra tree populations through next generation sequencing. The sequence analysis showed the existence of 1006±8.9 and 60.6±3.1 operational taxonomic unit (OTUs for bacterial and fungal communities respectively. In fungal communities, five major phyla were found with significantly higher abundance of Ascomycota (60.3% in wild population and Basidiomycota (52% in cultivated tree rhizospheres. Among bacterial communities, 31 major phyla were found, with significant distribution of Actinobacteria in wild tree rhizospheres, whereas Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were highly abundant in cultivated trees. The diversity and abundance of microbiome varied significantly depending upon soil characteristics of the three different populations. In addition, significantly higher glucosidases, cellulases and indole-3-acetic acid were found in cultivated tree's rhizospheres as compared to wild tree populations. for these plants to survive the harsh arid-land environmental conditions. The current study is a first comprehensive work and advances our knowledge about the core fungal and bacterial microbial microbiome associated with this economically important tree.

  6. The evolution of crop cultivation and paleoenvironment in the Longji Terraces, southern China: Organic geochemical evidence from paleosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Shijie; Chen, Wei; Cai, Desuo; Liu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The Longji ancient agricultural terraces in the Longji Mountain area (Guilin, southern China), which still remain in use, are famous for their magnificent terraced landscape with a mix of ecosystem and human inhabitation. Previous research has revealed the genesis and preliminary paleoenvironmental record of the agricultural terraces, but little is known about variations in crop cultivation over time. In this study, organic geochemical analyses and radiocarbon dating of an aggradational cultivated soil from a terrace profile were used to explore crop type variation and relevant paleoenvironmental change during the period of cultivation on the Longji Terraces. Hydroponic farming with rice (C 3 ) planting has been the dominant cultivation mode since the initial construction of the terraces. Warm-dry climate contributed to the growth of drought-tolerant crop (C 4 ) cultivation in the late 15th century. Temperature deterioration during the Little Ice Age had a negative impact on dry and hydroponic farming activities from the late 15th century to the late 19th century, while climate warming after the Little Ice Age promoted the redevelopment of hydroponic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  8. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  9. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  10. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  11. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  12. Plants and men in space - A new field in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on a comparison of nutritional values of and human psychological responses to algae and of higher plants considered for growth as food on long-term missions in space, together with the technological complexities of growing these plants. The comparison shows the advantages of higher plants, with results suggesting that a high level of material recycling can be obtained. It is noted that the issue of space gravity may be not a major problem for plants because of the possibility that phototropism can provide an alternative sense of direction. Problems of waste recycling can be solved in association with plant cultivation, and a high degree of autonomy of food production can be obtained.

  13. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular breeding to create optimized crops: from genetic manipulation to potential applications in plant factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eHiwasa-Tanase

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  15. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  16. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  17. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  18. Movement and touch make plants shorter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2017-01-01

    Plants in the greenhouse are increasingly on the move. More attention is being paid to air circulation and mobile cultivation is on the rise. Research shows that movement and touch (also as plants rub against each other) slow down growth. That can be frustrating but you can also use it to your

  19. Sheep manure vermicompost supplemented with a native diazotrophic bacteria and mycorrhizas for maize cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, F A; Moguel-Zamudio, B; Abud-Archila, M; Gutiérrez-Oliva, V F; Dendooven, L

    2008-10-01

    An orthogonal experimental design L9 (3(4)) with 10 repetitions was used to investigate the effect of Glomus claroideum (0, 1 or 2g(-1) plant), G. fasciculatum (0, 1 or 2g plant(-1)), native diazotrophic bacteria (0, 10(3) and 10(5) UFC ml(-1)) and sheep manure vermicompost (0%, 5% and 10% v/v) on maize plant growth, N and P in leaves and mycorrhization percent. Vermicompost explained most of the variation found for leaf number, wet weight, stem height, and diameter. Both mycorrhizas increased the plant wet weight but G. fasciculatum the most. Mycorrhization increased the P content, but not the N content. Mycorrhizal colonization increased when diazotrophic bacteria and vermicompost were added. It was found that weight of maize plants cultivated in peat moss amended with vermicompost increased when supplemented with G. fasciculatum and diazotrophic bacteria.

  20. Does the use of biofuels affect respiratory health among male Danish energy plant workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Madsen, Anne Mette; Skov, Simon

    2011-01-01

    were collected by questionnaire. Spirometry, metacholine provocation tests and skin prick tests were performed on 310 workers. The work area concentrations of ‘total dust’ (n=181), airborne endotoxin (n=179), cultivable Aspergillus fumigatus (n=373) and cultivable fungi (n=406) were measured at each...... plant. Personal exposure was calculated from the time spent on different tasks and average work area exposures. Results Median (range) average personal exposures in biofuel plants were 0.05 (0 to 0.33) mg/m3 for ‘total’ dust and 3.5 (0 to 294) endotoxin units/m3 for endotoxin. Fungi were cultivated from...

  1. Efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha cultivada em solos de várzea Boron effects on nodule development in pea plants cultivated in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Rogério de Azevedo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha (Pisum sativum L. cv. Torta de Flor Roxa, cultivada em solos de várzea em condições de casa de vegetação, entre maio e julho de 1998. Amostras de Neossolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico, Gleissolo Melânico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado foram coletadas na camada de 0-20 cm. Essas amostras foram previamente cultivadas com rabanete, e receberam calcário, P, K, S, Cu e Zn e seis doses de B (0,0, 0,25, 0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mg dm-3. Por ocasião do cultivo da ervilha aplicou-se apenas K (100 mg dm-3. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x6, com três repetições. Foram cultivadas três plantas por vaso, cujas sementes, na época da semeadura, foram submetidas à inoculação com estirpes de Rhizobium leguminosarum (BR 618 e BR 619. Para verificação da existência de estirpes nativas de rizóbio, cultivaram-se sem inoculação nas sementes, três vasos, de cada solo, que haviam recebido a mesma dose de calcário, a mesma adubação básica e 0,5 mg dm-3 de boro. Aos 45 dias após o plantio, em pleno florescimento, colheu-se o experimento. Não foram observadas estirpes nativas nos solos avaliados. Nos solos Gleissolo Háplico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado, as doses de B influenciaram a nodulação e a atividade da nitrogenase.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of boron on nodule development in pea Pisum sativum L. plants cultivated in lowland soils under greenhouse conditions from May to July, 1998. Samples of Alluvial Soil, Low Humic Gley, Humic Gley and artificially drained Bog Soil were collected from a layer 0-20 cm deep. The samples were previously cultivated with radish plants that received lime, P, K, S, Cu and Zn and doses of B (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg dm-3. Before pea cultivation only K was applied (100 mg dm-3. The experimental design was totally

  2. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  3. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  4. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  5. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.;

  6. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasikallio, Arja; Sormunen-Cristian, Riitta

    1996-01-01

    A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively

  7. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : composition, processing and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant,

  8. Folate Biofortification in Hydroponically Cultivated Spinach by the Addition of Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Ohtani, Yuta; Tatsukami, Yohei; Aoki, Wataru; Amemiya, Takashi; Sukekiyo, Yasunori; Kubokawa, Seiichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-06-14

    Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate. As a result of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we found that the addition of phenylalanine increased the folate content up to 2.0-fold (306 μg in 100 g of fresh spinach), representing 76.5% of the recommended daily allowance for adults. By measuring the intermediates of folate biosynthesis, we revealed that phenylalanine activated folate biosynthesis in spinach by increasing the levels of pteridine and p-aminobenzoic acid. Our approach is a promising and practical approach to cultivate nutrient-enriched vegetables.

  9. Caesium Radionuclide Uptake from Wet Soil to Kangkung Plant (Ipomoea sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putu Sukmabuana; Poppy Intan Tjahaja

    2009-01-01

    Caesium radionuclide transfer from soil to kangkung plant (Ipomoea sp) generally consumed by people had been examined to obtain transfer factor value for internal radiation dose assessment via soil-plant-human pathway. The kangkung plants were cultivated on watered soil medium containing 134 Cs with concentration of about 80 Bq/g, and the 134 Cs uptake by plants, i.e root, stem, and leaves, were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 134 Cs plant uptake was expressed as transfer factor, i.e. ratio of plant 134 Cs concentration to 134 Cs concentration on soil medium. From this research it was obtained transfer factor value of 134 C from soil to plant is 0.07, and the transfer factor for root, stem, and leaves are 0.34 ; 0.05 ; 0,03 respectively, after 45 days cultivation. The transfer factor values are less than one, indicate that kangkung plant do not accumulate Cs radionuclide from soil. (author)

  10. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  11. [Study on identification of wild Dipsacus asper and cultivated Dipsacus asper at different growth years by organization structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Xuan, Yan; Qu, Jie

    2012-12-01

    To study the regular pattern of growing development and the structural changes of the main root of Dipsacus asper; Find the basis for distinguishing between wild and cultivated Dipsacus asper as well as identifying cultivated Dipsacus asper at different growth years. Continuous sectional sampling and histological observation was conducted on the main roots of annual and biennial cultivated Dipsacus asper and on the main roots of bolting and non-bolting plants of wild Dipsacus asper; Histological observation was carried out respectively on the main roots of one to four-year-old cultivated Dipsacus asper. It was discovered for the first time that there was structure of growth rings in the main roots of Dipsacus asper. And the ways in which the vessels of the growth rings were arranged differed between wild and cultivated Dipsacus asper, the vessels of growth rings in wild Dipsacus asper were arranged tangentially while those in cultivated Dipsacus asper were arranged as clusters. Pith existed in the upper part of roots of wild Dipsacus asper,while it was not found in the cultivated ones, and this could be adopted as a preliminary method to distinguish the wild Dipsacus asper from cultivatedone. The structures of growth rings in each main root were in consistency from top to bottom, and the thickening of roots mainly depended on the growth of xylem in the first year. There were particular relations and regular patterns between the structure of main roots of one to four-year-old cultivated Dipsacus asper and the ages of their growth, which could serve as the primary basis for identifying their growth years. Methods to distinguish wild Dipsacus asper from cultivated ones at different ages by organization structure are established, which could provide the basis for identification of the medicinal material of Dipsacus asper.

  12. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.

  13. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Middleton, Beth; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Sedge meadows can be difficult to restore from farmed fields if key structural dominants are missing from propagule banks. In hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China, we asked if tussock-forming Carex and other wetland species were present as seed or asexual propagules. In the Sanjiang Plain, China, we compared the seed banks, vegetative propagules (below-ground) and standing vegetation of natural and restored sedge meadows, and hand-cultivated soybean fields in drained and flooded conditions. We found that important wetland species survived cultivation as seeds for some time (e.g. Calamogrostis angustifolia and Potamogeton crispus) and as field weeds (e.g. C. angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Key structural species were missing in these fields, for example, Carex meyeriana. We also observed that sedge meadows restored without planting or seeding lacked tussock-forming sedges. The structure of the seed bank was related to experimental water regime, and field environments of tussock height, thatch depth, and presence of burning as based on Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling analysis. To re-establish the structure imposed by tussock sedges, specific technologies might be developed to encourage the development of tussocks in restored sedge meadows.

  14. Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zuliani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates.

  15. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  16. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  17. Heliconia cv. Golden Torch cultivated under different irrigation depths in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilane Arnaldo Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heliconia is commercially detached by the exotic appearance of the inflorescences but is susceptible to lack of moisture in the soil, being necessary the irrigation management. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation levels on the plant growth and productive characters of Heliconia psittacorum cv. Golden Torch cultivated in vase. The experiment was conducted from March to October 2014, in a randomized blocks design. Five treatments corresponding to the different irrigation levels were used [50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the evaporation measured in Class A (ECA] with four replicates and two plants per replicate. The following evaluations were carried out: number of days for the emergence of the first tiller, number of days for the emergence of the first inflorescence, number of days for the inflorescence harvest, crop cycle, diameter of the flower stem, length of the flower stem, inflorescence length, plant high, number of tillers and productivity of flower stems. Chlorophyll and leaf area measurements were performed. The irrigation levels tested significantly influenced the number of days for the first inflorescence harvest, length of the flower stem and inflorescence length. The irrigation level of 150% ECA provided better results for the length of the flower stem, inflorescence length and for leaf area but without differences from 75%, 100% and 125% ECA. Thus, for the cultivation of the heliconia cv. Golden Torch in pot can be recommended the level corresponding from 75% to 150% ECA.

  18. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  19. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  20. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  1. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Preliminary Study on the Location Selection of Microalgae Cultivation In Nusa Tenggara Region As A Potential Feedstock For Bioavtur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Citrae Permata Kusuma; Sasongko, Nugroho Adi; Kuntjoro, Yanif Dwi

    2018-02-01

    NTT is a province located in strategic areas between Bali and South Sulawesi which has economic growth 5,08% in 2016. This causes air transportation in NTT to grow rapidly so the need for avtur is increased by 6% per year. To meet the needs of avtur in NTT would require energy diversification with bioavtur development in which one of them comes from microalgae. The content of lipid and hydrocarbon in microalgae can be used as a source of bioavtur feedstock. The suitability of location for cultivation will influence the success of microalgae cultivation that will be used as a source of bioavtur feedstock. The purpose of this research is to choose the best location for microalgae cultivation in NTT by AHP method. The criteria used in this research are nutrient, water and technology. Sub criteria of nutrient elements are coal power plant emission, cement industry emission and synthetic fertilizers, sub criteria from water that is sea water, brackish water and fresh water, while sub criteria of technology are Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond and membrane. The result of AHP analysis shows the selection of microalgae cultivation location in Kupang with the weight of 0.308, with the source of nutrient derived from coal power plant emission, the type of water used is sea water and the technology used is Photobioreactor. Microalgae species used were Nannochloropsis sp with a lipid content of 31-68%. Based on the author assumption, microalgae have the productivity for bioavtur manufacture which amount of 24.489kL/ha/ yr. That can be used to meet the needs of 2% avtur in NTT which amount of 1.052,22 kL/yr and the area requirement for microalgae cultivation is 2,14 hectare.

  3. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  4. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  5. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old...

  6. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum

  7. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  8. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Paasikallio

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and serai-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasture; the activity concentration of plants reached a maximum in June, a lesser increase occurred later in the autumn. In 1993, which was considered an average year with respect to 137Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.

  9. The Cultivation of Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the information age,the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has been extremely important. Thus foreign language teaching lays stress on the cultivation of language comprehensive application ability. Culture awareness is an important part of language comprehensive application ability. The cultivating of students’ cultural awareness is beneficial to improve their humanistic quality,broaden their international view,strengthen their patriotism spirit and sense of national mission,and achieve their all-round development. The paper will discuss the current situation of cultural awareness cultivation in English teaching. In view of the problems and its causes existing in the cultural awareness cultivation,three count measures have been proposed.

  10. EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    KEY WORDS: Date of Planting, Performance, Groundnut, haulm, yield, grain yield. ... Adamawa State, groundnuts have the highest tonnage among the legumes cultivated and ranks ... germination because of moisture stress) and such planting continues till the ..... variations in temperature and solar radiation intercepted.

  11. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  12. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  13. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  14. Woody plants diversity and type of vegetation in non cultivated plain of Moutourwa, Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Todou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to valorize the wild vegetal resources for the efficient conservation and sustainable use in sahelo-sudanian zone in Cameroon, a study of non cultivated plain of Moutourwa was carry out to assess the floristic richness, the specific diversity and the type of vegetation. The inventory of all trees and shrubs (dbh ? 2.5 cm and the determination of the vegetation cover were done in five linear transects (20 m × 1000 m. In total, 27 families, 54 genera and 75 species were found. Caesalpinaceae is the most abundant family that relative abundance (pi*100 is 34.41%, the most abundant genus was Piliostigma (pi*100 = 30.66% and the most represented species was Piliostigma reticulatum (pi*100 = 29.56%; D = 53.6 stems/ha. The Simpson index (E= 0.89, the Shannon index (H= 3.2 and the equitability index of Pielou (J= 0.74 indicated that there were moderate diversity with more or less equitable species. The wild fruits species were numerous (pi*100 = 32.76%; D = 59.7 stems/ha. A. senegalensis is was the most represented (pi*100 = 9.04 ; D = 16.4 followed by Hexalobus monopetalus (pi*100 = 5.16 ; D = 9.4 and Balanites aegyptiaca (pi*100 = 3.69 ; D = 6.7. These results contribute efficaciously to valorize the wild vegetal resources for efficient conservation and sustainable use. Keywords: Woody plants diversity, conservation, sustainable use, sahelo-sudanian, Moutourwa

  15. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8-28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs

  16. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  17. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed.

  18. “Green waste” as a substrate component in Begonia spp. potting cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Acosta Durán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest soil is the main substrate in the production of ornamental plants in pots, but its unlimited extraction causes a negative environmental impact. One alternative for replacing the forest soil is the garden waste, also called “green waste”. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the optimal dose inclusion of green waste in order to use it as substrate component for begonia (Begonia spp. container cultivation. This experiment was performed in Morelos State, Mexico, in 2015. Physical and chemical laboratory analysis, as well as an agronomic evaluation was performed. Different proportions (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of green waste and forest soil, supplemented by a general substrate (coconut fiber and sawdust, 50/50, v/v were mixed. A completely randomized design of eight treatments with eight replications was used. Green waste has similar physicochemical characteristics to forest soil. In the growth and development of begonia plants, the results were statistically equal, between treatments of 100% green waste use and forest soil use in six of the sixteen variables studied, and was superior to other treatments, in one of them. As a result of this study, we reached the following conclusion: that green waste is a material that has the necessary physicochemical characteristics for the Begonia spp. container cultivation, and that if its used as a substrate, it could replace the forest soil.

  19. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  20. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  1. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  2. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  3. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.

    1958-01-01

    In an area, where tulips had been damaged, experimental plots with tulip varieties of different sensitivities to HF were laid out in the open and in greenhouses. It was proven that the injury decreased with increasing distance from the factory. In the same area irises were injured. But in this case the cause of the damage proved to be SO2 derived from the stove in the greenhouse. In an industrial area, where fruit trees were damaged last year, potatoes were injured in a very typical way. Varieties of this crop also showed differences in sensitivity to air pollution. During another period of 1958 air pollution of high intensity occurred in the same area, so that several crops were severely damaged. The damage of the fruit and vegetables turned out to be caused by HF. In several other areas of air pollution the cause of the damage proved to be HF or SO2. Shrubs surrounding the fields were able to prevent the spread of the gases to a small extent. In an area, where the concentration of HF in the atmosphere proved to be too low to cause damage, a conifer species, Chamaecyparis, showed a rather high content of F in the leaves. It is possible that this tree species, which keeps its green color during the whole year, continuously absorbs small quantities of fluorine and may become injured. In an area surrounding an enamel industry plants were damaged by HF. Several new cases of air pollution were investigated. In two of these, the cause of the damage to the plants proved to be hydrochloric acid.

  4. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A

    1962-01-01

    Fumigation experiments were carried out with tulips, gladioli and freesia to investigate the correlation between the extent of leaf injury caused by hydrogen fluoride, the fluor content of the damaged leaves and the fluor content of the air in the fumigation chambers. Fumigation experiments with SO/sub 2/ were carried out on several vegetables, e.g. endive, spinach, celery and tomato. On 28 experimental plots distributed throughout a horticultural area, the symptoms of HF damage were studied on freesia plants. At a distance of 6 km from the industrial area, 20% of the length of the leaves appeared to be damaged. 10 km from this area the percentage of damage was 15 and on the most distant plots an injury of 5% was still present. On more than 20 places in The Netherlands investigations have been carried out about injury of plants in the neighborhood of factories. In the vicinity of a cement-industry, an investigation has been started about the extent and the composition of dust from this industry deposited on vegetables and fruits. The monthly quantity of rain water was determined and the solid deposits in the rain were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated under the microscope. In the area near a hydrocyanic acid factory, damage was done to grass and to fruit trees. It was demonstrated by leaf analyses in both cases that the damage was caused by SO/sub 2/. Other cases of crop damage were imputed to poisoning of the air by sulfur dioxide or hydrogen fluoride, to acid containing soot deposits, to zinc oxide vapors and phenol containing vapors of resins.

  5. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  6. Plants Africa gave to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kunkel

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and Ironwoods are much sought after timber trees of excellent quality. Numerous grasses and pulses are well-known for their food value, and some of the native Cucurbitaceae are appreciated additions to our vegetable diet. African plants have also made their contribution to horticulture, ranging from world-famous trees such as the African or Gabon Tulip tree and many of the South African species of Proteaceae to the multitude of East and South African succulents. The present paper provides a survey of the most important of these useful plants and will emphasize the need of further research for forestry and agricultural as well as horticultural purposes, especially as far as some still little-known but potentially important plants species are concerned.

  7. Determination of some micro and macro element concentrations in cotton-cultivated and fallow soils in the rural area of Damascus using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Samel, N.; Khalifa, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in the rural area of Damascus in the region where cotton is frequently planted. The aim of the study is to determine the concentration of some trace elements and other important elements for soil such as (Fe, Ca, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). In order to demonstrate the depletion of such elements by absorption in cotton, results are compared with cultivated soils already planted by cotton and others which are considered Fallow soil. Results, for four regions under investigation, showed that concentration of most elements in fallow soil is higher than that cultivated by cotton. However, concentration of some elements were close in two different soil samples in each region. On the other side, concentration of some elements was higher in soil cultivated by cotton compared with the fallow soil. The study has shown that a decrease in the concentration of some elements in the location of region is directed towards northeast. Result reveal a clear absorption phenomena of some elements by cotton when compared with fallow soil. It is important to consider the presented result as a first indicator which needs more studies to confirm its results in other region planted by cotton in Syria. (author)

  8. Determination of some micro and macro element's concentrations in cotton-cultivated and fallow soils in the rural area of Damascus using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khalifa, K.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Samel, N.

    2003-12-01

    This study was conducted in the rural area of Damascus in the region where cotton is frequently planted. The aim of the study is to determine the concentration of some trace elements and other important elements for soil such as (Fe, Ca, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). In order to demonstrate the depletion of such elements by absorption in cotton, results are compared between cultivated soils already planted by cotton and others which is considered fallow soil. Results, for four regions under investigation, showed that concentration of most elements in fallow soil is higher than that cultivated by cotton. However, concentration of some elements were close in two different soil samples in each region. on the other side , concentration of some elements were higher in cultivated soil by cotton compared to the one fallow soil. The study has shown that a decrease in the concentration of some elements are noticeable as the location of region is directed towards north-east. Results reveal a clear absorption phenomena of some elements by cotton when compared to fallow soil. It is important to consider the presented results as a first indicator which needs more studies to confirm its results in other regions being planted by cotton in Syria. (author)

  9. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  10. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  11. Influence of drainage and nutrient-solution nitrogen and potassium concentrations on the agronomic behavior of bell-pepper plants cultivated in a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser, Anderson Fernando; Cecilio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Nowaki, Rodrigo Hiyoshi Dalmazzo; Mendoza-Cortez, Juan Waldir; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of N (6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol L-1) and K (3, 5, 7, and 9 mmol L-1) concentrations in nutrient solutions were evaluated on bell pepper grown in a coconut-coir substrate and fertilized without drainage. An additional treatment with drainage was evaluated using N and K concentrations of 12 and 7 mmol L-1, respectively. The hybrid Eppo cultivar of yellow bell pepper was cultivated for 252 days beginning 9 November 2012. Electrical conductivity (EC), the N and K concentrations in the substrate solution, marketable fruit yield, total dry weight and macronutrient concentrations in shoots were periodically evaluated. Fruit production was lower in the system without drainage, regardless of the N and K concentrations, compared to the recommended 10-20% drainage of the volume of nutrient solution applied. Higher K concentrations in the nutrient solution did not affect plant production in the system without drainage for the substrate with an initial K concentration of 331.3 mg L-1. Fruit yield was higher without drainage at a nutrient-solution N concentration of 10.7 mmol L-1. The upper EC limit of the substrate solution in the system without drainage was exceeded 181 days after planting. Either lower nutrient concentrations in the nutrient solution or a drainage system could thus control the EC in the substrate solution.

  12. Transferring of Sclerotinia resistance from wild into cultivated sunflower: Combining of conventional and laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five populations of each H. molis, H. maximiliani, H. rigidus and H. tuberosus were screened for resistance to stem form of Sclerotinia. On the basis of the results obtained by screening, nine crosses of resistant populations with either other wild species populations or with cultivated sunflower were made. As in some crosses a small quantity of seed was produced and the seeds germinated poorly, modified tissue culture methods were used to enhance germination and produce clones of interesting plants. These methods were found to be efficient both for seed germination and plant production and multiplication.

  13. Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize; Sorghumhirse als Anbaualternative zum Mais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, Kerstin; Theiss, Markus; Poetzschke, Karen [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Due to their high dry matter yield potential Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum bicolor x sudanense are well fitted as feedstock for biogas production. Similar to maize, both species show a high efficiency in their use of water (C4-plants). However, Sorghum has a higher drought tolerance in comparison with maize but is more sensitive to low temperatures. Hence a cultivation of Sorghum is recommendable especially in dry and relatively warm regions, including recultivated areas and even on loess soil, provided that the required temperatures are given. Due to the fact that Sorghum is not affected by the corn root worm, it also could gain relevance in regions were the cultivation of maize is restricted. Furthermore, Sorghum is usable as a catch crop as well as a main crop because of its variable sowing time. Catch crop cultivation, however, yields a significantly lower amount of dry matter and -quality which is a result of its shorter vegetation period. Owing to its higher crude fiber concentration Sorghum achieves a lower theoretically attainable specific methane yield (Weissbach) than maize. Thus only on rare occasions Sorghum does achieve methane yields per hectare that are comparable to maize. Eventually, the competitiveness of Sorghum greatly depends on provision of enhanced cultivars achieved through genetic improvement. (orig.)

  14. Analysis on picking plant sequence and route of transplanting robotic for column cultivation%面向立柱栽培的机器人移栽苗序与路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继展; 刘炜; 毛罕平; 李萍萍

    2014-01-01

    为有效提高穴盘苗向立柱自动移栽的作业效率,以自主开发的螺旋式栽培立柱及其配套移栽机器人系统为对象,进行了无碰撞最短路径设计,进而对不同取苗-栽植方案的路径长度差异及其影响因素进行了分析。研究表明,面向立柱移栽时,单穴盘对1 m立柱移栽的累计路径长度差异在25%以上。取苗顺序对路径长度具有重要影响,其中“让苗”现象是造成累计路径长度差异的主要因素。立柱栽植顺序对路径长度的影响随立柱高度增加而显著增大,对3 m立柱移栽时16类取苗方案的自上至下植苗平均累计路径长度比自下至上高9.83%。稳定最优方案分别为最近相邻法和近端开始同向逐行或逐列取苗、自下至上栽植方案。研究成果对实现高效的立柱自动移栽具有积极意义。%Column cultivation is a promising high-yield mode in protected agriculture which has been studied and developed for several years. However, its extreme difficulty of manual management has hindered its popularization and application. As a result, an automatic operation of seedling transplanting to column was put forward. A new-type spiral cultivation column and matched seedling transplanting robot that was composed of rail-mounted autonomous vehicle, slide-arm type manipulator, double-needle electromagnet-driven end-effector, and a turning seedling supply device was developed. In view of the frequently repetitive operation of robotic seedling transplanting with changing starting and ending points of routes, the optimal design of a pick-plant sequence and non-collision shortest routing are essential to improving the success rate and efficiency. In robotic seedling transplanting, the route of a manipulator's ending is usually composed of picking an up-down route, a plant up-down route, and a transport route from pick top-point to plant top-point. For column cultivation, the transport route is quite

  15. Performance test of nutrient control equipment for hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurhaidar; Kuala, S. I.; Tribowo, R. I.; Anggara, C. E. W.; Susanti, N. D.

    2017-11-01

    Automatic control equipment has been made for the nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants. Automatic control equipment with CCT53200E conductivity controller to nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants, can be used to control the amount of TDS of nutrient solution in the range of TDS numbers that can be set according to the range of TDS requirements for the growth of hydroponically cultivated crops. This equipment can minimize the work time of hydroponic crop cultivators. The equipment measurement range is set between 1260 ppm up to 1610 ppm for spinach plants. Caisim plants were included in this experiment along with spinach plants with a spinach plants TDS range. The average of TDS device is 1450 ppm, while manual (conventional) is 1610 ppm. Nutrient solution in TDS controller has pH 5,5 and temperature 29,2 °C, while manual is pH 5,6 and temperature 31,3 °C. Manually treatment to hydroponic plant crop, yields in an average of 39.6 grams/plant, greater than the yield of spinach plants with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 24.6 grams / plant. The yield of caisim plants by manual treatment is in an average of 32.3 grams/crop, less than caisim crop yields with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 49.4 grams/plant.

  16. Cadmium induces hypodermal periderm formation in the roots of the monocotyledonous medicinal plant Merwilla plumbea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Lisková, Desana; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Merwilla plumbea is an important African medicinal plant. As the plants grow in soils contaminated with metals from mining activities, the danger of human intoxication exists. An experiment with plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) was performed to investigate the response of M. plumbea to this heavy metal, its uptake and translocation to plant organs and reaction of root tissues. Plants grown from seeds were cultivated in controlled conditions. Hydroponic cultivation is not suitable for this species as roots do not tolerate aquatic conditions, and additional stress by Cd treatment results in total root growth inhibition and death. After cultivation in perlite the plants exposed to 1 and 5 mg Cd L(-1) in half-strength Hoagland's solution were compared with control plants. Growth parameters were evaluated, Cd content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and root structure was investigated using various staining procedures, including the fluorescent stain Fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin deposition in cell walls. The plants exposed to Cd were significantly reduced in growth. Most of the Cd taken up by plants after 4 weeks cultivation was retained in roots, and only a small amount was translocated to bulbs and leaves. In reaction to higher Cd concentrations, roots developed a hypodermal periderm close to the root tip. Cells produced by cork cambium impregnate their cell walls by suberin. It is suggested that the hypodermal periderm is developed in young root parts in reaction to Cd toxicity to protect the root from radial uptake of Cd ions. Secondary meristems are usually not present in monocotyledonous species. Another interpretation explaining formation of protective suberized layers as a result of periclinal divisions of the hypodermis is discussed. This process may represent an as yet unknown defence reaction of roots when exposed to elemental stress.

  17. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  18. Development of air conditioning system and labor saving technology for efficient hydroponic cultivation; Konoritsuna suiko saibai no tame no kucho to shoryokuka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, T.; Terazoe, H.; Shoji, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, K.; Otani, F. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sekiyama, T.; Kosakai, K.; Sato, H.

    1997-06-01

    Equipment which made experiments on air conditioning and hydroponic cultivation possible was set up at the technical research center of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., to study an air conditioning system using night power and energy saving technology for the cultivation. Vegetables suitable to the cultivation were selected. For air conditioning, adopted was a water heat storage air conditioning system using night power. The space between the shade curtain and the greenhouse roof was ventilated to prevent increase in cooling load caused by rise in curtain temperature. Moreover, the cultivation equipment was covered with transparent vinyl film to cool the inside of the equipment. The hydroponic cultivation equipment was trially manufactured which makes the continued production by one worker possible. The cultivation of spinach, leaf lettuce and chingensai throughout the year became possible. The yield of chingensai reached the target, but those of spinach and leaf lettuce were approximately 70% of the targets. Vegetables to be produced in the air-conditioned greenhouse by hydroponic cultivation are thought to be those that can have added values such non-pesticides and ingredients, young plants which were increased by cutting or tissue culturing, etc. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  20. Effect of sweet pepper cultivation on the content of phytotoxic phenolic compounds in substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Politycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the conducted study was to determine to what extent the cultivation of sweet pepper lowers the phytotoxicity of a substrate. The examined material was a highly phytotoxic substrate due to repeated cucumber growing on it. This substrate was a mixture of pine and beech bark, low peat and sawdust. Five sweet pepper cultivars: Amador, Bell Boy, Culinar, Poznańska Słodka and WSE 2/82 were planted. During vegetation of the sweet pepper phytotoxicity and phenolics levels were determined in the substrate. It was found that cultivation of sweet pepper had a significant effect on lowering phytotoxicity and phenolics content in the substrate. Among the five tested cultivars, the highest detoxicating ability was exhibited by Amador, Culinar and WSE 2/82 while the Poznańska Słodka did not show such abilities.

  1. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) on Planting and Maintenance of Orchid at Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Abu Sari; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Research on orchid mutation breeding has been carried out at Malaysian Nuclear Agency since 1990s. In this study, a large number of irradiated orchid seedlings were planted for screening and the mutants obtained were propagated from time to time. Care should be taken to make sure plants are healthy, hence resulted in reliable and accurate data. For this purpose, SOP for orchid cultivation and maintenance need to be developed. A short attachment on training was carried at Hexagon Green Sdn. Bhd orchid farm, Bukit Changgang, Banting. Besides learning the cultivation, maintenance and management of orchids, consequently the experience obtained from this attachment helped in preparing SOP at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This paper will discuss the SOP on cultivation and maintenance of orchid from the hardening until maturation stage in the glass house to ensure plants are healthy, produce of high quality flowers and disease free. (author)

  2. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  3. Mild Fe-deficiency improves biomass production and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Liu, Yue; Mao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Qian; Du, Shao-Ting

    2013-06-15

    It is of great practical importance to improve yield and quality of vegetables in soilless cultures. This study investigated the effects of iron-nutrition management on yield and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results showed that mild Fe-deficient treatment (1 μM FeEDTA) yielded a greater biomass of edible parts than Fe-omitted treatment (0 μM FeEDTA) or Fe-sufficient treatments (10 and 50 μM FeEDTA). Conversely, mild Fe-deficient treatment had the lowest nitrate concentration in the edible parts out of all the Fe treatments. Interestingly, all the concentrations of soluble sugar, soluble protein and ascorbate in mild Fe-deficient treatments were higher than Fe-sufficient treatments. In addition, both phenolic concentration and DPPH scavenging activity in mild Fe-deficient treatments were comparable with those in Fe-sufficient treatments, but were higher than those in Fe-omitted treatments. Therefore, we concluded that using a mild Fe-deficient nutrition solution to cultivate spinach not only would increase yield, but also would improve quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  5. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and Behavior of Munitions Material (TNT, RDX) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and Behavior of RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    2.2 2.2 SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING ............................................. 2.7 2.3 PLANT CULTIVATION ...cycle. 2.3 Plant Cultivation and Samoling The chemical fate of RDX in plants was evaluated using bush beans K (Phaseolus vulgaris), wheat (Triticum...particularly in light of the high tissue concentrations observed, may be important from the standpoint of food-chain transfer and ecotoxicology

  6. Evaluation, management, and cultivation of Macrocystis kelp forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Giant kelp, Macrocystis, is a marine plant of significant commercial value with great promise for expanded usage in the future. It is widely distributed among temperate waters of the southern hemisphere, although it occurs only in the eastern Pacific in the northern hemisphere. This survey of the evaluation, management, and cultivation of Macrocystis kelp forests is presented under the following section headings: Macrocystis biology (distribution and ecology, physiology, nutrition, and productivity); resource aspects; controlling factors in Macrocystis ecology (waves and storms, temperature, nutrients, grazing and predation, and competition); human influences (municipal waste waters, kelp harvesting, miscellaneous factors); kelp culturing and restoration (control of predators and competitors, transplanting and culturing); Macrocystis biomass as an energy source; and, possibilities for fertilizing Macrocystis beds. (JGB)

  7. Botanical insecticides on Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae and its parasitoids in string beans cultivated in a plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most cultivated vegetables in plastic greenhouses in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Liriomyza huidobrensis (Dip.: Agromyzidae is one of the most important insect pests occurring in this culture. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of plants and the commercial product DalNeem on L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids, as well as to analyse the population fluctuation of L. huidobrensis and parasitoids of this insect pest. The experiment was carried out on string beans cultivated in a greenhouse, where in each of the four central lines of culture, five plots were established with five plants per plot. The experimental design was random blocks with four replications. DalNeem was the treatment that best controlled L. huidobrensis. On the other hand, the treatments did not affect the parasitoids Chrysocharis bedius (Hym.: Eulophidae or Opius sp. (Hym.: Braconidae. In plants without the use of these treatments, the population of L. huidobrensis exhibited a sharp decline with the increase of the parasitoids C. bedius, Opius sp., Eucoilinae (Hym.: Figitidae and Diptera.

  8. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  9. GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF FORMOSA ‘PAPAYA’ CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT DOSES OF COATED AND CONVENTIONAL UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL BARBOSA DA SILVA JÚNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizer management is one of the most important agronomic techniques applied in papaya cultivation, which generally extracts large amounts of nutrients from soil, especially nitrogen. This study aimed to assess the phytotechnical and physiological attributes and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya hybrid Caliman 01 as a function of different doses of coated and conventional urea in the region of Bom Jesus - PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (2 × 4 and distributed in a randomized block design with four replications, corresponding to 2 nitrogen sources (coated urea, 43% of N; and conventional urea, 45% of N and 4 doses nitrogen (350, 440, 530 and 620 g per plant. The N doses used corresponded to 80, 100, 120 and 140% of the nitrogen fertilization. It was used six plants per plot with two row borders, totaling 192 plants cultivated in the field. It was assessed the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (int.PAR, radiation interception efficiency (PAREff., leaf area index (LAI, plant height, stem diameter and yield. The coated urea promotes a higher growth and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya compared to the conventional urea. The application of 1.0 g of coated N promotes the production of 2.87 g of fruit per hectare while the application of 1.0 g of conventional N produces only 1.89 g of fruit per hectare, showing that the source of polymerized N increases the use efficiency of N applied to soil.

  10. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  11. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  12. Review of optimum temperature, humidity, and vapour pressure deficit for microclimate evaluation and control in greenhouse cultivation of tomato: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse technology is a flexible solution for sustainable year-round cultivation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), particularly in regions with adverse climate conditions or limited land and resources. Accurate knowledge about plant requirements at different growth stages, and under vario...

  13. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  14. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  15. Co-combustion of cultivable raw materials in existing power supply plants -a study on the potential for such plants in the eastern Laender. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, W.; Kappelmann, K.H.

    1996-04-01

    The present study is dedicated to an analysis of co-combustion of biomass in existing power supply plants in the eastern Laender. The question to be resolved is whether the existing substantial potential for substituting fossil energy carriers for biomass in the short term and at low cost also offers a viable option from the viewpoint of political economy. In its final assessment the study also takes agropolitical and ecopolitical interests into account. A further basic question posed by this impact analysis is in what way the increased use of biomass as an energy carrier can contribute to farmers; income and thus help improve employment in rural area. Implicated in this is the question whether the conservation of developed land resulting from large-area biomass cultivation is desirable from the sociopolitical viewpoint. Another important aspect concerning the impact analysis is the question as to the environmental efficiency of biomass co-combustion given the Federal Government's aims regarding CO 2 abatement. The study examines how biomas co-combustion compares with other alternatives to this end in terms of CO 2 abatement costs. These deliberations provide the basis for the study's concluding recommendations to political decision makers who are confronted with the question whether and under what conditions public promotion of biomass co-combustion in the new Laender makes sociopolitical sense. (orig./SR) [de

  16. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  17. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  18. A genetic analysis of the introgression process from cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to wild prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant species can hybridise and produce fertile offspring. Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives has raised concerns with regard to GM crops, as it constitutes a possible route along which the transgene could disperse from crops into related wild species,

  19. Genetic and Biochemical Basis for the Transformation of Energetic Materials (RDX, TNT, DNTs) by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    cultivating them from seeds as described in the previous section. Seedlings were grown at 25ºC under light at 100 rpm for seven days, following which three...detector. The ratio of the mobile phase of HPLC to Ultima Flo M cocktail was 1: 2. 2.3. Cultivation of plants Wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana...Organic toxicants and plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 47:1-26 Larson SL, Jones RP, Escalon L, Parker D (1999) Classification of explosives

  20. High productivity of wheat intercropped with maize is associated with plant architectural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Werf, van der W.; Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Evers, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed cultivation of crops often results in increased production per unit land area, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Plants in intercrops grow differently from plants in single crops; however, no study has shown the association between plant plastic responses and the yield

  1. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, Galina N; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Voronova, Anastasia N; Burundukova, Olga L; Muzarok, Tamara I; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2016-04-01

    Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440-640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine.

  2. Effect of explant density and volume of cultivation medium on in-vitro multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. varieties "Brigitta" and "Legacy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in-vitro multiplication of two varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., “Brigitta” and “Legacy” in response to five explants densities (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 and four flask volumes (10, 20, 30 and 40 mL for cultivation. For both varieties the cultivation medium WPM (Woody Plant Medium was used. The experiment was completely randomized with 20 treatments and 12 repetitions per treatment. After 45 days of cultivation we evaluated the height of shoots, number of shoots/explant, number of nodes/shoot and number of shoots/flask. Variety “Brigitta” had highest shoots at higher densities and flask volumes, while variety “Legacy” had the highest average shoot height with intermediate densities and high volumes. Regarding the number of shoots/explant, the volume of the medium had no influence on “Brigitta”, however, higher plant densities affected this parameter. With variety “Legacy” the maximum number of shoots was achieved with lower plant densities and intermediate culture volumes per flask. In relation to the number of nodes per explant "Brigitta had lower numbers as compared to “Legacy”, but with both varieties the number of nodes decresed with smaller volumes of medium in the flasks. For the number of shoots per flask, “Brigitta” responsed best at higher densities exceeding 40 shoots per flask. In contrast, “Legacy” produced maximum results at density of 25 explants in 30 mL of medium. It is concluded that for the optimum multiplication of both varieties the correct selection of both, the planting density and the volume of multiplication medium are important.

  3. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  4. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fournomiti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods: Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27, Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16 strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results: Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  7. Solid state processing of massive uranium mononitride, using uranium and uranium higher nitride powders as starting materials (1962); Preparation a l'etat solide de mononitrure d'uranium massif a partir de poudres d'uranium et de nitrures superieurs d'uranium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    The mechanism and the optimum conditions for preparing uranium mononitride have been studied. The results have been used for hot pressing (250 kg/cm{sup 2}, 1000 deg. C, under vacuum) a mixture of powders of uranium and uranium higher nitrides. The products obtained have been identified by X-ray measurements and may be - at will and depending upon the stoichiometry - either UN, or a cermet a U{sub {alpha}}-UN. As revealed by the curved shape of grain boundaries, the sinters obtained here do not easily evolve towards physico-chemical equilibrium when submitted to heat treatment. This behaviour is quite different from the one observed with uranium monocarbide prepared by a similar method. This fact may be ascribed to the insolubility in the matrix UN of particles of UO{sub 2} being present as impurities. The density, hardness and thermal conductivity of these products are higher than those measured on uranium nitride or cermets U-UN obtained by other methods. (author) [French] Apres une etude prealable du mecanisme et des conditions optimales de nitruration de l'uranium, on a montre qu'il est possible de preparer par frittage sous charge (250 kg/cm{sup 2}, 1000 deg. C sous vide) d'un melange de poudres d'uranium et de nitrures superieurs d'uranium, un produit qui a ete identifie par diffraction de rayons X. On peut ainsi obtenir a volonte, soit le monocarbure UN, soit un cermet U{sub {alpha}}-UN dans le cas de compositions sous-stoechiometriques. Au contraire du monocarbure d'uranium prepare dans des conditions analogues, les produits obtenus ici, soumis a un traitement thermique, n'evoluent pas facilement vers un etat d'equilibre physico-chimique caracterise par l'existence de joints de grains rectilignes. On attribue ce phenomene a l'insolubilite de l'impurete UO{sub 2} dans UN. La densite, la durete, la conductibilite thermique de ces produits se revelent superieures a celles des nitrures d'uranium ou des cermets U-UN obtenus par les autres methodes. (auteur)

  8. Sorghum. A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants; Sorghumhirsen. Ein Beitrag zur Diversifizierung des Energiepflanzenspektrums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the joint project 'Cultivation technology sorghum - A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants' extensive investigations of the cultivation technology in sorghum were conducted. Within this joint project sorghum will be tested under various conditions according to its suitability as a raw material for the production of biogas. Additionally, the cultivation of sorghum in Germany shall be optimized under cultivation techniques and environmental aspects.

  9. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  10. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  11. Tritrophic interactions in wild and cultivated brassicaceous plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.

    2008-01-01

    Plants have evolved a range of defence traits that prevent or reduce attack by insect herbivores. Direct defence traits hamper or reduce the performance and behaviour of the herbivores, whereas indirect defence promote the efficiency of natural enemies to attack the herbivores. Here, I focused on

  12. Effect of decontamination of planting soil using zeolite slurry that inhibits transition of radioactive cesium from soil to plant bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yutaka; Akita, Hiroyuki; Kikawada, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant by the tsunami resulting from the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused the radiation contamination of cultivated field in Fukushima Prefecture. Some decontamination techniques such as surface soil grab, deep cultivation, and adding zeolite to the soil were tested in the rice fields of Fukushima Prefecture. Zeolite is usually used in the form of particle. It inhibits the transition of radioactive cesium from soil to plant bodies. Here, zeolite slurry was also used. The inhibition effect of the zeolite slurry was checked not only in the field but also in a laboratory experiment using some vegetables. The laboratory test results proved the effect of decontamination for vegetable; however, the field test showed uncertainness owing to the low passage coefficient of rice. (author)

  13. Estimation of soya cultivation efficiency in conditions of Belarus lands polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutseva, G.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Production of high-protein soya crop including lands polluted by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, causes to the necessity of carrying out research to study the radionuclide transfer into production of this crop. As a result of research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil into seeds and green mass of various soya varieties have been determined to allow a prediction of radionuclide transfer into production. Limiting densities of radionuclide pollution for moderately improved sod - podzol sandy soils for production of the soya products corresponding of 137Cs and 90Sr content to the national permissible levels are established. Use of the crop in plant cultivation and cattle-breeding branch is accompanied by high energy - conserving effects. Soya products contains high quantity of total energy per kilogram of forage. The most highly energy-conserving forages are waste products of soya processing: an oil cake - up to 87,4 Mj and soil-seed meal up to 79,7 Mj. High profitability of this crop cultivation is provided by production for seeds. It is economically defensible a soya beans cultivation for processing and for fodder. For reception of seeds for food purposes there are restrictions on pollution of soil: 1125 kBk/square ? (30 Ci/square km) and 90Sr to 2,6 kBk/square ? (0,07 Ci/square km)

  14. EXPLORING POSSIBILITIES OF CULTIVATION A UNPOLLUTED PLANT PRODUCE IN Pb AND Cd CONTAMINATED SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas TOMOV

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of heavy metals in such way that soil function and product quality are not impeded is a prerequisite to sustainable agriculture. Growing anthropogenic fl uxes of toxic heavy metals in agro-ecosystems affect on purity of farm products and soil fertility. In the article we describe a fi eld experiment – cultivation of potatoes on soil with a medium level of pollution / Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd etc/. We studied the most toxic of them – Pb and Cd; as well as the possibilities for reducing their phytoavailability and accumulation in potatoes tubers, applying soil amendments.

  15. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  16. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  17. The production of 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in wild and cultivated Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baranyai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent establishment of Sphagnum farming areas has created large artificial habitats where Drosera grows under semi-natural conditions. Here we test the suitability, for pharmaceutical purposes, of two Drosera species collected from such areas. We measured the concentration of the biologically active compounds 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in Drosera rotundifolia and D. intermedia. All three compounds were found in pharmacologically suitable concentrations with 7-methlyjuglone characteristic for D. rotundifolia and plumbagin for D. intermedia. The concentrations required for pharmacological purposes were achieved within one year, but higher concentrations occurred in older plants and plants in flower. Concentrations did not differ between plants collected in the morning and in the afternoon. Drosera plants cultivated under semi-natural conditions are suitable as sources of raw materials for industrial pharmacological applications.

  18. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties; Cultivo In Vitro De Anteras De Trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) EN Las Variedades De Icatenza Y PAVON-76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique O, Olga L

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level.

  19. Domestication and sustainable production of wild crafted plants with special reference to the Chilean Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Hermine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle threats for sustainable production of wild collected medicinal plants are related to ecological factors, such as endemism, and botanical factors critical for survival, such as the collection of roots or barks or slow growing species. The sustainable way to produce raw material on a large scale would be species specific management of the wild resources that guarantees conservation of biodiversity, or bringing the species under cultivation. A checklist proposed by WHO, UICN and WWF (1993 indicates that domestication of any medicinal plant concerns plant selection and breeding, studies about propagation, cultivation techniques, plant protection, time of harvest, among others. The different domestication steps are illustrated for the Chilean maqui (Aristotelia chilensis, a wild tree whose fruits are demanded in increasing volumes by the international market because of its high antioxidant capacity. High yielding plants with good fruit quality have been selected from wild populations and accessions have been cultivated under different environmental conditions to select the most suitable genotypes for the establishment of commercial orchards.

  20. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  1. Microbiome selection could spur next-generation plant breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbours in different plant tissues i.e the ‘plant microbiome’, form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont’. The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding.

  2. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  3. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  4. Solar energy efficiency of cocoa clones cultivated under three species of shade trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Regazzoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to know the solar energy efficiency of four clones of cocoa that cultivated under three different shading plants. This experiment has been done from September until December 2013 located at Kaliwining Experiment Farm with characteristic 45 m above sea level, soil type is low humic gley, soil texture is silty clay loam, and climate classification type D based on Scmidht and Fergusson Classification. This experiment used Nested Design as Experimental Design with species of shading plant as main plot which are Teak (Tectona grandis L., Krete (Cassia surattensis (Burm. F., Lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala L. and Cocoa clones as sub plot which are Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KKM 22, KW 165. The observation of solar energy efficiency consists of daily solar radiation intensity, solar radiation intensity above plant, solar radiation intensity under plant, and also plant total dry weight. The experimental result showed that there is differences (heterogenity between shading location based on homogenity test by Bartlett Method. There are some interaction between the kind of shading plant and clones in parameter of interception efficiency, absorbtion efficiency, the efficiency of solar energy that caught by plant, and solar energy conversion efficiency. The efficiency of solar energy that caught by plant will affect the solar energy conversion efficiency with R2 = 0,86.

  5. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  6. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  7. Plants: An International Scientific Open Access Journal to Publish All Facets of Plants, Their Functions and Interactions with the Environment and Other Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W.G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the two major groups of living organisms that are an essential entity to the function of the biosphere. Plants can be found in all known parts of the earth, in all shapes and sizes. They include the green algae, mosses, ferns, vines, grasses, bushes, herbs, flowering plants and trees. Although some plants are parasitic, most produce their own food through photosynthesis. Most plants initiate from a seed. The importance of plants in the food chain dates back to ancient times. The first humans gathered wild plants for food. As settlements developed, food crops were cultivated, leading to selection of high-yielding cultivated varieties to feed the growing populations. Unlike plants, humans and other animals are unable to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they are dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants. Plants are found in natural ecosystems such as rain forests, and also in agricultural areas and urbanized settings. They are an essential part of our daily lives providing food, clean air, and important ecosystem functions. The study of plants and their function could be considered the most complex of interactions. From the time a seed germinates, it goes through a myriad of physiological processes that can be closely studied using modern tools and molecular biological methods. An open access journal such as Plants will give millions of readers access to that information around the world. PMID:27137635

  8. Uptake of plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium in plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schmidt, W.

    1984-01-01

    The root-uptake of Np, Pu, Am, and Cm from three different artificially contaminated soils in grass, maize, spring wheat, and potatoes was investigated under greenhouse conditions in pots filled with 9 kg contaminated soil and in lysimeters with a surface area of 0,5 m 2 containing the soils in undisturbed profils up to a depth of 80 cm. Only the plough layer of 30 cm was contaminated with Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Crop cultivation was done corresponding to usual practice in agriculture. Results of the 1st vegetation period are represented. Transfer factors obtained deviate considerably from those which are recommended for the estimation of long-term exposure of man in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  9. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  10. Cultivated Land Changes and Agricultural Potential Productivity in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid and continuous population growth and the associated declining quality of cultivated land, food security in China has been attracting the attention of scholars both domestically and internationally. In recent decades, the implications of the cultivated land balance policy have promoted spatial changes of cultivated land. Estimating the agricultural potential productivity and assessing its response to cultivated land changes could provide a scientific basis for strategic decision-making concerning grain production and thus guarantee food security. In the present study, the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ model was applied to estimate the agricultural potential productivity. Data from the second national land survey were first applied to characterize the changes of cultivated land (by comparing the cultivated land in 2009 with that in 2012 and their influence on potential productivity in Mainland China. We propose a utilization degree of total potential productivity (UTP and its ratio coefficient (RUTP to reveal the utilization status of potential productivity and its change characteristics at the provincial level. It was found that there was a trend for cultivated land to be shifted away from cities, and the average productive capability per hectare of cultivated land declined from 7386.5 kg/ha to 6955.2 kg/ha by occupying highly productive cultivated land generally near the cities and compensating less productive cultivated land in remote areas. UTPs and RUTPs indicate a significant difference in the utilization status of potential productivity among the 31 provinces of Mainland China. Grain production with the aim of sustainable development should be strategized according to the particular facts of each province. The methods we applied can mine the impacts of cultivated land changes on potential productivity and the utilization of potential productivity effectively.

  11. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  12. Production of bio-fertilizer from microwave vacuum pyrolysis of waste palm shell for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Wai Lun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of waste palm shell (WPS was performed to produce biochar, which was then tested as bio-fertilizer in growing Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus. The pyrolysis approach generated a biochar containing a highly porous structure with a high BET surface area (up to 1250 m2/g and a low moisture content (≤ 10 wt%, exhibiting desirable adsorption properties to be used as bio-fertilizer since it can act as a housing that provides many sites on which living microorganisms (mycelium or plant-growth promoting bacteria and organic nutrients can be attached or adsorbed onto. This could in turn stimulate plant growth by increasing the availability and supply of nutrients to the targeted host plant. The results from growing Oyster mushroom using the biochar record an impressive growth rate and a monthly production of up to about 550 g of mushroom. The shorter time for mycelium growth on whole baglog (30 days and the highest yield of Oyster mushroom (550 g was obtained from the cultivation medium added with 20 g of biochar. Our results demonstrate that the biochar-based bio-fertilizer produce from microwave vacuum pyrolysis of WPS show exceptional promise as an alternative growing substrate for mushroom cultivation.

  13. Production of bio-fertilizer from microwave vacuum pyrolysis of waste palm shell for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Nam, Wai; Huan Su, Man; Phang, Xue Yee; Chong, Min Yee; Keey Liew, Rock; Ma, Nyuk Ling; Lam, Su Shiung

    2017-11-01

    Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of waste palm shell (WPS) was performed to produce biochar, which was then tested as bio-fertilizer in growing Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The pyrolysis approach generated a biochar containing a highly porous structure with a high BET surface area (up to 1250 m2/g) and a low moisture content (≤ 10 wt%), exhibiting desirable adsorption properties to be used as bio-fertilizer since it can act as a housing that provides many sites on which living microorganisms (mycelium or plant-growth promoting bacteria) and organic nutrients can be attached or adsorbed onto. This could in turn stimulate plant growth by increasing the availability and supply of nutrients to the targeted host plant. The results from growing Oyster mushroom using the biochar record an impressive growth rate and a monthly production of up to about 550 g of mushroom. The shorter time for mycelium growth on whole baglog (30 days) and the highest yield of Oyster mushroom (550 g) was obtained from the cultivation medium added with 20 g of biochar. Our results demonstrate that the biochar-based bio-fertilizer produce from microwave vacuum pyrolysis of WPS show exceptional promise as an alternative growing substrate for mushroom cultivation.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Growth of Wheat Cultivated in Soil Amended with Digestate from Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana PAMPILL(O)N-GONZ(A)LEZ; Marco LUNA-GUIDO; Olivia FRANCO-HERN(A)NDEZ; Fabián FERN(A)NDEZ-LUQUE(N)O; Octavio PAREDES-L(O)PEZ; Gerardo HERN(A)NDEZ; Luc DENDOOVEN

    2017-01-01

    Digestate,the product obtained after anaerobic digestion of organic waste for biogas production,is rich in plant nutrients and might be used to fertilize crops.Wheat (Triticum spp.L.) was fertilized with digestate,urea,or left unfertilized and cultivated in the greenhouse for 120 d.Emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O)) were monitored and plant growth characteristics were determined at harvest.The digestate was characterized for heavy metals,pathogens,and C and N mineralization potential in an aerobic incubation experiment.No Salmonella spp.,Shigella spp.,or viable eggs of helminths were detected in the digested pig slurry,but the number of faecal coliforms was as high as 3.6 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 dry digestate.The concentrations of heavy metals did not surpass the upper limits established by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).After 28 d,17% of the organic C (436 g kg-1 dry digestate) and 8% of the organic N (6.92 g kg-1 dry digestate) were mineralized.Emissions of CO2 and CH4 were not significantly affected by fertilization in the wheat-cultivated soil,but digestate significantly increased the cumulative N2O emission by 5 times compared to the urea-amended soil and 63 times compared to the uncultivated unfertilized soil.It could be concluded that digestate was nutrient rich and low in heavy metals and pathogens,and did not affect emissions of CH4 and CO2 when applied to a soil cultivated with wheat,but increased emission of N2O.

  15. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Ant-plant symbioses: Stalking the chuyachaqui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D W; McKey, D

    1993-09-01

    According to Quechua-speaking peoples, orchard-like stands ('Supay Chacras') of two Amazonian ant-plant species are cultivated by the devil, or 'Chuyachaqui'. These "devil gardens" offer extreme examples of specializations that have evolved repeatedly in ant-plant associations. Numerous investigations are beginning to disclose the identity of the Chuyachaqui - the forces behind evolutionary specialization in ant-plant symbioses. These developments have important implications for our understanding of modes of coevolution in symbiotic mutualism, remarkable convergent similarities in the form of ant-plant symbioses on different continents, and pronounced intercontinental differences in the diversity and taxonomic composition of associates. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Assessment of the quality of the Harran Plain soils under long-term cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Ali Volkan; Küçük, Çiğdem; Van Es, Harold M

    2017-08-19

    Soil quality refers to the ability of soils to perform their functions well. The soils of the Harran Plain, Turkey, have been put into intensive crop production with the introduction of an irrigation scheme and become increasingly degraded due to unsustainable management and cropping systems that resulted in the loss of production potential. The goal of this study was to quantify the quality of common soil series in the Plain using soil quality indexes (SQI) and to compare SQIs of two long-term crop rotations, cotton and wheat-corn cultivation, and different soil types. Over 400 samples were collected at a 0- to 30-cm depth and analyzed for 31 soil variables. The best representative soil quality variables forming a minimum data set (MDS) were selected using principal component analysis (PCA), and soil quality scores were obtained using both linear and non-linear scoring functions. The MDS included three physical (hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and plant available water content), two biological (soil organic matter and catalase enzyme activity), and nine chemical soil quality indicators (CEC, pH, plant available Cu and Fe, exchangeable Na and K, soluble Ca, Mg, and Na). Because of the low level of SOM, soil qualities were overall low with indexes obtained using two scoring functions ranging from 38.0/100 to 48.7/100. Correlations between SQI obtained using two approaches (linear vs. non-linear; r > 0.61) and using two data sets (all data vs. MDS; r > 0.79) were high. Non-linear scoring functions were more sensitive to management impacts. ANOVA models testing the individual impacts of soil types and crop management on soil quality were statistically different (p < 0.01), but the models including interactions were not. Overall, the fields under cotton cultivation were generally associated with higher clay contents and had the lowest SQIs as a result of intensive cultivation.

  18. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  19. Influences of Urban Expansion on Cultivated Lands in China Since 1970S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yu, S.; Wang, X.; Zuo, L.

    2018-04-01

    Urban expansion has far-reaching influences on cultivated lands, and has a serious effect on grain output and safety. However, relatively little attention has been paid to monitor cultivated land losses through urban expansion over a long timeframe and multi-frequency, especially its differences on national scale systematically. In this work, the characteristics of Chinese cultivated land dynamics were described using annual occupied area per city, contribution rate of cultivated lands to urban expansion and the classification method of basic trend of cultivated land losses. Results indicate that: (1) in the past four decades, large amount of cultivated lands have been occupied during the urban expansion process, and have become the first land source for Chinese urban expansion. (2) Cultivated land loss among municipalities, provincial capitals and other cities was obviously different. The higher of cities' administrative level was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (3) Cultivated land loss in five population-size cities was unbalanced, representing obviously different loss process and contribution on urban expansion. The bigger of cities' population size was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (4) Cultivated land losses during urban expansion process were imbalanced in China, and were classified into seven trends. (5) Chinese cultivated land protection has been carried out from the awakening stage to the deep implementation stage.

  20. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-01-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  1. Comparison of physiologic effects caused by X-rays and Ems, in the cultivation in vitro of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, Marina; Zamudio R, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    In the world environment, Colombia occupies the second place like exporter of flowers; inside the national exports market the third line is constituted, among others for this market. In 1993, the total value of the exports of Colombian flowers reached the sum of 381.9 million dollars and the North American market represents the main destination with a 79.45 of participation. In this work, the induction of mutations through physical and chemical treatments, supplemented with the propagation in vitro was carried out. In the physical treatment dose of 5, 10, and 15 Gy of Rays X was used, while for the chemical treatment EMS, (Methanesulphonate of Ethyl) was used in dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. As material donor, young leaves of chrysanthemum were used, Escapade variety, of which explants of homogeneous size were taken to be cultivated in vitro between MS with different hormonal concentrations. The propagation in vitro was taken until obtaining plants, which later on were transferred to in alive conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the physiologic effects, caused by the mutagenic treatments, at tripes and plants level, obtained by means of chrysanthemum cultivation in vitro, Escapade variety

  2. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  3. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  4. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  5. Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    Thousands of years ago humans began domesticating crops as a food source. Among the wild germplasm available, they selected those that were best adapted for cultivation and utilization. Although wild ancestors have continued to persist in regions where domestication took place, there is a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices. Recognizing this danger, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide, more than 6 million accessions have been accumulated including the German ex situ genebank in Gatersleben, one of the four largest global collections, housing 150,000 accessions belonging to 890 genera and 3032 species. This review summarizes the ex situ plant genetic resources conservation behavior with a special emphasis on German activities. Strategies for maintenance and management of germplasm collections are reviewed, considering modern biotechnologies (in vitro and cryo preservation). General aspects on genetic diversity and integrity are discussed.

  6. Development Prospect of Aloe Vera Plant in Peatlands in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Purba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is one of the decent growing medium for aloe vera plant. Seeing the potential of peat land in West Kalimantan is quite extensive, this plant is cultivated commercially and becomes one of the leading commodity in peatlands in West Kalimantan, especially in Pontianak City with an area of more than 25,000 ha. With complete and varied nutrient content, this plant progress opportunities, especially for diversification is enormous ranging from food products and beverages such as juices, cocktails, aloe vera gel in syrup, jams, jellies, tarts, sweets, tea, chips and as well as agro-tourism in West Kalimantan. Existing obstacles now are market share and unstable price, trouble controlling plant diseases and peat area is flooded during the rainy season. Prospects for the future development of these plants can be carried out through the cooperation of government and relevant stakeholders,stable markets and prices, the acceleration of product promotion through fairs and business gathering activities, as well as the dissemination and application of cultivation technology and post-harvest of aloe vera.

  7. Greenhouse energy use in 2011. Tomato, cucumber and ornamental plants; Energianvaendning i vaexthus 2011. Tomat, gurka och prydnadsvaexter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Joergen [Jordbruksverket, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    During the past decade, Swedish greenhouse cultivation has seen a continual structural and energy use transformation. As the number of holdings and the cultivated area has decreased, energy use has been reduced, streamlined and has changed character. The present report is a description of the current energy use pattern in the Swedish greenhouse business, as well as an overview of changes since 2002. The focus lies on the - from an area perspective - major branches: tomato-, cucumber- and ornamental plant cultivation. Between 2002 and 2011, the number of Swedish commercial greenhouse holdings has been reduced by 40 %, while the cultivated area has decreased by 12 %. During the same period, energy consumption for cultivation has been reduced from about 1,2 TWh to just over 0,6 TWh. The relatively large decrease in energy consumption as compared to cultivation area, signifies an increased energy efficiency. For the entire greenhouse cultivation, energy consumption was reduced from 371 to 215 kWh per square meter during the 2002-2011 period. For the specific branches, the decreased amounted to 21 %, 54 % and 58 % for tomato-, cucumber and ornamental plant cultivation, respectively. The use of various energy sources exhibited a distinct alteration between 2002 and 2011. The share of fossil fuels decreased from 77 % of the total energy consumption in 2002, to 43 % in 2011. Meanwhile, the share of biofuels increased from 5 % to 37 % of the energy used. Tomato- and cucumber cultivation exhibited a biofuel share of 55 % and 56 %, respectively, while the use of biofuels in the cultivation of ornamental plants reached 31 %. Holdings exhibiting different energy source use profiles also exhibited some general differences regarding cultivation branch, geographic location, greenhouse size and use of materials. Even as the change in direction towards a higher share of biofuels in the energy mix appears clear, changes on a holding level are more complex. While 95 holdings increased

  8. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards; Modelos de distribucion espacial de la erosion en laderas cultivadas con vinedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-07-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  10. The detection of stress in pot plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbinson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Stress is considered to be major problem for plants, wether they are in cultivation or growing in natural settings. Consequently there is a need to have some means of identifying stress. Recently developed techniques for measuring photosynthetic processes using non-destructive biophysical

  11. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  12. Sulfate determines the glucosinolate concentration of horseradish in vitro plants (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnsour, Mohammad; Kleinwächter, Maik; Böhme, Julia; Selmar, Dirk

    2013-03-15

    Horseradish plants (Armoracia rusticana) contain high concentrations of glucosinolates. Former studies have revealed that Armoracia plants cultivated in vitro have markedly lower glucosinolate concentrations than those grown in soils. Yet, these studies neglected that the sulfate concentration in the growth medium may have had a strong impact on glucosinolate metabolism. Accordingly, in this study horseradish in vitro plants were cultivated with differing sulfate concentrations and the glucosinolate concentrations were quantified by ion pair HPLC. Cultivation in 1.7 mmol L(-1) sulfate (as used in the prior studies) resulted in the accumulation of 16.2 µmol g(-1) DW glucosinolates, while the glucosinolate concentration increased to more than 23 µmol g(-1) DW when 23.5 mmol L(-1) sulfate was used in the medium. Correspondingly, the glucosinolate concentration decreased to 1.6 µmol g(-1) DW when sulfate concentration was lowered to 0.2 mmol L(-1). Since the glucosinolate accumulation in relation to the sulfate concentration follows a typical saturation curve, we deduce that the availability of sulfate determines the glucosinolate concentration in horseradish in vitro plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work

    2011-01-01

    Non-indigenous Homoptera, mainly scales, aphids, and mealy bugs, intercepted on plants destined for cultivation represent an elevated risk for the establishment of invasive insects in North America. These insects [grouped as the suborder Sternorrhyncha] are often parthenogenic and are imported on viable host plants.

  14. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Crambe koktebelica (JUNGE N. BUSCH AND EFFECT OF ASEPTIC IN VITRO CULTIVATION ON ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkarova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish efficient protocols of seed surface sterilization with further multiplication in vitro for threatened species Crambe koktebelica (Junge N. Busch and to show the effect of biotechnological approach (in vitro cultivation of biodiversity conservation on plants biochemical properties. Seed surface sterilization was carried out according to the original method with further microclonal multiplication of aseptic sprouts from lateral buds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. Fatty acid content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Efficient protocol of surface sterilization that resulted in 45% of aseptic seed material 50% of which has sprouted was elaborated for C. koktebelica as well as fast microclonal multiplication methods that provided with up to 5.25 ± 0.50 new formed plantlets from 1 lateral bud (on the MS medium that contained 1 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. It was also shown that aseptic cultivation benefits to saturated fatty acid accumulation and increases protein content but on the other hand it reduces unsaturated fatty acid amount and polyfructan content as well as antioxidant activity of plant material. Obtained data confirms the prospect of biotechnology approach to biodiversity conservation and suggest the necessity of father in vitro cultivation effect on biochemical composition of plant study.

  15. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hot water for flowers and plants; De l`eau chaude pour les fleurs et les plantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-11-01

    Two examples of greenhouse geothermal heating in France are presented, one in the south-west, the other in the Massif Central, for the cultivation of flowers and tropical plants; the geothermal heat is directly or indirectly used to heat the ground or a concrete substrate under the plants. Innovative irrigation systems are also used. The geothermal heat, mild and constant, is well adapted to the greenhouse energy demand, and results in a 40 to 50 percent reduction of the energy bill

  17. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  18. Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eKaiser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By comparison with plant-microbe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plant-plant dialogue between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of Cuscuta reflexa with tomato.

  19. Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bettina; Vogg, Gerd; Fürst, Ursula B; Albert, Markus

    2015-01-01

    By comparison with plant-microbe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates, and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plant-plant dialog between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of C. reflexa with tomato.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  1. Screening plant species native to Taiwan for remediation of 137Cs-contaminated soil and the effects of K addition and soil amendment on the transfer of 137Cs from soil to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.-I.; Chung, H.-P.; Teng, S.-P.; Sheu, S.-T.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to screen plant species native to Taiwan that could be used to eliminate 137 Cs radionuclides from contaminated soil. Four kinds of vegetables and two kinds of plants known as green manures were used for the screening. The test plants were cultivated in 137 Cs-contaminated soil and amended soil which is a mixture of the contaminated one with a horticultural soil. The plant with the highest 137 Cs transfer factor was used for further examination on the effects of K addition on the transfer of 137 Cs from the soils to the plant. Experimental results revealed that plants cultivated in the amended soil produced more biomass than those in the contaminated soil. Rape exhibited the highest production of aboveground parts, and had the highest 137 Cs transfer factor among all the tested plants. The transfer of 137 Cs to the rape grown in the soil to which 100 ppm KCl commonly used in local fertilizers had been added, were restrained. Results of this study indicated that rape, a popular green manure in Taiwan, could remedy 137 Cs-contaminated soil

  2. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  3. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-01

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1 st of June 2013 to 30 th of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen

  4. Review: Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2010. Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 97-108. Native tribes generally are original conservationists; they build genuine conservation strategy of natural resources and environment for sustainable living. Dayak is a native tribe of Kalimantan that has been living for thousands of years; they use shifting cultivation to manage the communal forest lands due to Kalimantan’s poor soil of minerals and nutrients, where the presence of phosphorus becomes a limiting factor for crops cultivation. In tropical forests, phosphorus mostly stored in the trees, so to remove it, the forest burning is carried out. Nutrients released into the soil can be used for upland rice (gogo cultivation, until depleted; after that, cultivators need to open a forest, while the old land was abandoned (fallow until it becomes forest again (for 20-25 years. The consecutive land clearing causes the formation of mosaics land with different succession ages and diverse biodiversity. This process is often combined with agroforestry systems (multicultural forest gardens, where the will-be-abandoned fields are planted with a variety of useful trees that can be integrated in forest ecosystems, especially rubber and fruits. These systems of shifting cultivation are often blamed as the main factor of forest degradation and fires, but in the last 300 years, this system has little impact on forest degradation. But, this is relatively low in productivity and subsistent, so it is not suitable for the modern agriculture which demands high productivity and measurable, mass and continuous yield, as well as related to the market. The increased population and industrial development of forestry, plantation, mining, etc. make the communal forest become narrower, so the fallow periods are shortened (5-15 years and the lands are degraded into grasslands. In the future

  5. Tritium uptake in cultivated plants after short-term exposure to atmospheric tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.; Paunescu, N.

    1998-01-01

    The tritium behavior in crop plants is of particular interest for the prediction of doses to humans due to ingestion. Tritium is present in plants in two forms: tritium free water tissue (TWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT). The both forms are to be considered in models calculating the ingestion dose. Potato plants belong to the major food crops in many countries and were chosen as representatives of crops whose edible parts grow under ground. Green bean were chosen as representatives of vegetables relevant in human diet. This vegetable may be consumed as green pod and it may be conserved over a long period of time. Green bean and potato plants were exposed to tritiated water vapor in the atmosphere during their generative phase of development. The uptake of tritium and the conversion into organic matter was studied under laboratory conditions at two different light intensities. The tritium concentrations in plants were followed until harvest. In leaves, the tritium uptake into tissue water under night conditions was 5-6 times lower than under day-time conditions. The initial incorporation into organic matter under night conditions was 0.7% of the tissue water concentration in leaves of both plant species. However, under light irradiation, this value increased to only 1.8% in bean leaves and 0.9% in potato leaves, which indicates a participation of processes other than photosynthesis in tritium incorporation into organic material. Organically bound tritium (OBT) was translocated into pods and tubers which represented a high percentage of the total organically bound tritium at harvest. The behavior of total OBT in all plants under study showed that OBT, once generated, is lost very slowly until harvest, in particular when storage organs of plants were in their phase of development at the time of exposure. OBT is translocated into the storage organs which may be used in the human diet and thus may contribute to the ingestion dose for a long time after the

  6. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Nabil A; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Fayez, Mohamed; Patz, Sascha; Murphy, Brian R; Ruppel, Silke

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts.

  7. The botanical macroremains from the prehistoric settlement Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the context of current knowledge about cultivation and plant consumption in Croatia and neighboring countries during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mareković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the first extensive archaeobotanical research into a Bronze Age site in Croatia. The aim of the study was to reveal what plants were consumed (grown at Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the Bronze Age and to realize if the plant diet of the local population differed from that of the inhabitants in neighboring countries. The results show that all plant macrofossils found at Kalnik-Igrišče can be classified into one of four functional groups: cereals, cultivated legumes, useful trees and weeds. As much as 98% of the findings are of cereals and legumes. The most abundant species found are Panicum miliaceum (millet, Hordeum vulgare (barley, Vicia faba (faba bean, Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum (bread wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (emmer wheat and Lens culinaris (lentils. The findings from Kalnik-Igrišče do not differ from the findings of neighboring countries, indicating that there were similar diets and agricultural/plant-collecting activities throughout the whole of the studied area (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Italy, Austria and Hungary.

  8. Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations Require Conservation and Reintroduction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Hongfang Lu; Hongxiao Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hai’ou Bao

    2012-01-01

    China is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, with more than 30000 vascular plant species that include many endemic genera, species of ancient origin, and cultivated plants (Yang et al. 2005). Because of rapid economic development, population growth, pollution, and continuing resource exploitation, China’s plant diversity faces severe threats. According to the Chinese...

  9. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before