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Sample records for plantation soil volatilizacao

  1. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  2. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  3. Understory vegetation in fast-growing tree plantations on savanna soils in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Loumeto, J.J.; Huttel, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may catalyze the regeneration of natural forest biodiversity was tested through studies of floristic diversity and structure in fast-growing tree plantations in the Congo. Study sites included experimental and industrial plantations on poor sandy coastal soils near Pointe-Noire, and experimental plantations on clay soils near Loudima. The effects of plantations species, plantation age (in 6- to 20-year-old eucalypt stands), disturbance due to herbicide use...

  4. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study.

  5. Long-term tobacco plantation induces soil acidification and soil base cation loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; He, Xinhua; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yueqiang; Xu, Chen; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Changes in soil exchangeable cations relative to soil acidification are less studied particularly under long-term cash crop plantation. This study investigated soil acidification in an Ali-Periudic Argosols after 10-year (2002-2012) long-term continuous tobacco plantation. Soils were respectively sampled at 1933 and 2143 sites in 2002 and 2012 (also 647 tobacco plants), from seven tobacco plantation counties in the Chongqing Municipal City, southwest China. After 10-year continuous tobacco plantation, a substantial acidification was evidenced by an average decrease of 0.20 soil pH unit with a substantial increase of soil sites toward the acidic status, especially those pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5, whereas 1.93 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) was mostly derived from nitrogen (N) fertilizer input and plant N uptake output. After 1 decade, an average decrease of 27.6 % total exchangeable base cations or of 0.20 pH unit occurred in all seven tobacco plantation counties. Meanwhile, for one unit pH decrease, 40.3 and 28.3 mmol base cations kg(-1) soil were consumed in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, the aboveground tobacco biomass harvest removed 339.23 kg base cations ha(-1) year(-1) from soil, which was 7.57 times higher than the anions removal, leading to a 12.52 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) as the main reason inducing soil acidification. Overall, our results showed that long-term tobacco plantation not only stimulated soil acidification but also decreased soil acid-buffering capacity, resulting in negative effects on sustainable soil uses. On the other hand, our results addressed the importance of a continuous monitoring of soil pH changes in tobacco plantation sites, which would enhance our understanding of soil fertility of health in this region.

  6. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  7. Components of Soil Respiration and its Monthly Dynamics in Rubber Plantation Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang Wu; Limin Guan; Bangqian Chen; Chuan Yang; Guoyu Lan; Guishui Xie; Zhaode Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to quantify four components and study effect factors of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems. Providing the basic data support for the establishment of the trade of rubber plantation ecosystem carbon source/sink. Methods: We used Li-6400 (IRGA, Li-COR) to quantitate four components of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems at different ages. Soil respiration can be separated as four components: heterotrophic respiration (Rh), Respiration of roots (...

  8. Effects of soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Hsiao-Hang; Slade, Eleanor M.; Willis, Katherine J.; Caliman, Jean Pierre; Snaddon, Jake Lanion

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the use of available soil management practices in oil palm plantations is crucial to enhance long-term soil fertility and productivity. However, this needs a thorough understanding of the functional responses of soil biota to these management practices. To address this knowledge gap, we used the bait lamina method to investigate the effects of different soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity, and whether feeding activity was associated with management-mediated cha...

  9. Variation of Soil Bacterial Communities in a Chronosequence of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Regarding rubber tree plantations, researchers lack a basic understanding of soil microbial communities; specifically, little is known about whether or not soil microbial variation is correlated with succession in these plantations. In this paper, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial communities in a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations that were 5, 10, 13, 18, 25, and 30 years old. We determined that: (1 Soil bacterial diversity and composition show changes over the succession stages of rubber tree plantations. The diversity of soil bacteria were highest in 10, 13, and 18 year-old rubber tree plantations, followed by 30 year-old rubber tree plantations, whereas 5 and 25 year-old rubber tree plantations had the lowest values for diversity. A total of 438,870 16S rDNA sequences were detected in 18 soil samples from six rubber tree plantations, found in 28 phyla, 66 classes, 139 orders, 245 families, 355 genera, and 645 species, with 1.01% sequences from unclassified bacteria. The dominant phyla were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia (relative abundance large than 3%. There were differences in soil bacterial communities among different succession stages of rubber tree plantation. (2 Soil bacteria diversity and composition in the different stages was closely related to pH, vegetation, soil nutrient, and altitude, of which pH, and vegetation were the main drivers.

  10. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  11. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small- Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affected the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the age increasing of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of so...

  12. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  13. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  14. [Effects of intensive management on soil C and N pools and soil enzyme activities in Moso bamboo plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Li, Yong Fu; Li, Yong Chun; Xiao, Yong Heng; Yue, Tian; Jiang, Pei Kun; Zhou, Guo Mo; Liu, Juan

    2016-11-18

    In order to elucidate the effects of intensive management on soil carbon pool, nitrogen pool, enzyme activities in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) plantations, we collected soil samples from the soil surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) layers in the adjacent Moso bamboo plantations with extensive and intensive managements in Sankou Township, Lin'an City, Zhejiang Province. We determined different forms of C, N and soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities. The results showed that long-term intensive management of Moso bamboo plantations significantly decreased the content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), with the SOC storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers decreased by 13.2% and 18.0%, respectively. After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the contents of soil water soluble carbon (WSOC), hot water soluble carbon (HWSOC), microbial carbon (MBC) and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) were significantly decreased in the soil surface and subsurface layers. The soil N storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers in intensively managed Moso bamboo plantations increased by 50.8% and 36.6%, respectively. Intensive management significantly increased the contents of nitrate-N (NO 3 - -N) and ammonium-N (NH 4 + -N), but decreased the contents of water-soluble nitrogen (WSON) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities in the soil surface layer were significantly decreased, the soil acid phosphatase activity in the soil subsurface layer were significantly decreased, and other enzyme activities in the soil subsurface layer did not change. In conclusion, long-term intensive management led to a significant decline of soil organic carbon storage, soil labile carbon and microbial activity in Moso bamboo plantations. Therefore, we should consider the use of organic

  15. Effects of Successive Harvests on Soil Nutrient Stocks in Established Tropical Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale plantation forests in tropical regions alter biogeochemical processes, raising concerns about the long-term sustainability of this land use. Current commercial practices result in nutrient export with removed biomass that may not be balanced by fertilizer application. Consequent changes in a landscape's nutrient distributions can affect the growth of future plantations or other vegetation. Prior studies have reported changes in soil chemical and physical properties when plantation forests replace pastures or native vegetation, but few have examined the impacts of multiple harvest cycles following plantation establishment. This study analyzed macronutrient and carbon content of soil samples from the world's most productive plantation forests, in southeastern Brazil, to understand the long-term effects of plantation forests on soil nutrient stocks and soil fertility. Soil was collected from Eucalyptus plantation sites and adjacent vegetation in 2004 and again in 2016, after at least one full cycle of harvesting and replanting. We found that within surface soil (0-10 cm) Mg and N did not change significantly and C, P, K and Ca concentrations generally increased, but to varying extents within individual management units. This trend of increasing nutrient concentrations suggests that additional harvests do not result in cumulative nutrient depletion. However, large changes in Ca and K concentrations in individual plantation units indicate that added fertilizer does not consistently accumulate in the surface soil. Analysis of deeper soil layers and comparison to unfertilized vegetation will help to determine the fate of fertilizers and native soil nutrients in repeatedly harvested plantations. These results address the necessity of long-term investigation of nutrient changes to better understand and determine the impacts of different types of land use in the tropics.

  16. Soil changes induced by rubber and tea plantation establishment: comparison with tropical rain forest soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH(4) (+)-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH(4) (+)-N concentration and decreases NO(3) (-)-N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH(4) (+)-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO(3) (-)-N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed.

  17. Soil macrofauna and litter nutrients in three tropical tree plantations on a disturbed site in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew W. Warren; Xiaoming Zou

    2002-01-01

    Tree plantations are increasingly common in tropical landscapes due to their multiple uses. Plantations vary in structure and composition, and these variations may alter soil fauna communities. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of soil fauna in the regulation of plant litter decomposition in the tropics. However, little is known about how plantation...

  18. [Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (Parthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

  19. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  20. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  1. Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, S.D.; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Novara, A.; Pereira, P.; Brevik, E.C.; Giménez-Morera, A.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Mahecha-Pulido, Juan D.; Prima, Di Simone; Jordán, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and

  2. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  4. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  5. Effects of exotic plantation forests on soil edaphon and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Yao; Long, Zhijian; Hu, Shanglian; Zhang, Yuanbin; Jiang, Hao

    2018-06-01

    There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased. An RDA analysis revealed that soil total PLFAs, total bacteria and fungi and total Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were significantly associated with exchangeable Al 3+ , exchangeable acid, Al 3+ , available P and Mg 2+ and pH, which resulted into microbial functional changes of soil labile and recalcitrant substrate use efficiencies. Modified microbial C- and N-use efficiency due to forest conversion ultimately meets those of rapidly growing trees in plantation forests. Enlarged soil labile fractions and soil respiratory quotients in plantation forests would be a potential positive effect for C source in the future forest management. Altogether, pure plantation practices could provoke regulatory networks and functions of soil microbes and enzyme activities, consequently leading to differentiated utilization of soil organic matter fractions accompanying the change in environmental factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil C dynamics under intensive oil palm plantations in poor tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Ruegg, Johanna; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Buttler, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm cultivation mainly takes place on heavily-weathered tropical soils where nutrients are limiting factors for plant growth and microbial activity. Intensive fertilization and changes of C input by oil palms strongly affects soil C and nutrient dynamics, challenging long-term soil fertility. Oil palm plantations management offers unique opportunities to study soil C and nutrients interactions in field conditions because 1) they can be considered as long-term litter manipulation experiments since all aboveground C inputs are concentrated in frond pile areas and 2) mineral fertilizers are only applied in specific areas, i.e. weeded circle around the tree and interrows, but not in harvest paths. Here, we determined impacts of mineral fertilizer and organic matter input on soil organic carbon dynamics and microbial activity in mature oil palm plantation established on savanna grasslands. Rates of savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC net stabilization were determined using changes in isotopic signature of in C input following a shift from C4 (savanna) to C3 (oil palm) vegetation. Application of mineral fertilizer alone did not affect savanna-derived SOC decomposition or oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, but fertilization associated with higher C input lead to an increase of oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, with about 50% of topsoil SOC derived from oil palm after 9 years. High carbon and nutrients inputs did not increase microbial biomass but microorganisms were more active per unit of biomass and SOC. In conclusion, soil organic matter decomposition was limited by C rather than nutrients in the studied heavily-weathered soils. Fresh C and nutrient inputs did not lead to priming of old savanna-derived SOC but increased turnover and stabilization of new oil palm-derived SOC.

  7. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  8. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A; Keesstra, S D; Rodrigo-Comino, J; Novara, A; Pereira, P; Brevik, E; Giménez-Morera, A; Fernández-Raga, M; Pulido, M; di Prima, S; Jordán, A

    2017-11-01

    Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and trampling. Those works result in soil physical properties changes and contribute to enhanced runoff rates and increased soil erosion rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the plantation of vineyards on soil hydrological and erosional response under low frequency - high magnitude rainfall events, the ones that under the Mediterranean climatic conditions trigger extreme soil erosion rates. We determined time to ponding, Tp; time to runoff, Tr; time to runoff outlet, Tro; runoff rate, and soil loss under simulated rainfall (55 mm h -1 , 1 h) at plot scale (0.25 m 2 ) to characterize the runoff initiation and sediment detachment. In recent vine plantations (50 years; O). Slope gradient, rock fragment cover, soil surface roughness, bulk density, soil organic matter content, soil water content and plant cover were determined. Plantation of new vineyards largely impacted runoff rates and soil erosion risk at plot scale in the short term. Tp, Tr and Tro were much shorter in R plots. Tr-Tp and Tro-Tr periods were used as connectivity indexes of water flow, and decreased to 77.5 and 33.2% in R plots compared to O plots. Runoff coefficients increased significantly from O (42.94%) to R plots (71.92%) and soil losses were approximately one order of magnitude lower (1.8 and 12.6 Mg ha -1 h -1 for O and R plots respectively). Soil surface roughness and bulk density are two key factors that determine the increase in connectivity of flows and sediments in recently planted vineyards. Our results confirm that plantation of new vineyards strongly contributes to runoff initiation and sediment detachment, and those findings confirms that soil erosion control strategies

  10. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  11. Separating rhizosphere respiration from total soil respiration in two larch plantations in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifen; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiquan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2005-09-01

    The potential capacity of soil to sequester carbon in response to global warming is strongly regulated by the ratio of rhizosphere respiration to respiration by soil microbial decomposers, because of their different temperature sensitivities. To quantify relative contributions of rhizosphere respiration to total soil respiration as influenced by forest stand development, we conducted a trenching study in two larch (Larix gmelini (Rupr.) Rupr.) plantations, aged 17 and 31 years, in northeastern China. Four plots in each plantation were randomly selected and trenched in early May 2001. Soil surface CO2 effluxes both inside and outside the plots were measured from May 2001 to August 2002. Soil respiration (i.e., the CO2 effluxes outside the trenched plots) varied similarly in the two plantations from 0.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 6.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in summer. Rhizosphere respiration (i.e., CO2 efflux outside the trenched plots minus that inside the plots) varied from 0.2 to 2.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the old forest and from 0.3 to 4.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the young forest over the seasons. Rhizosphere respiration, on average, accounted for 25% of soil respiration in the old forest and 65% in the young forest. Rhizosphere and soil respiration were significantly correlated with soil temperature but not with soil water content. We conclude that the role forests play in regulating climate change may depend on their age.

  12. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  13. Ecological Diversity of Soil Fauna as Ecosystem Engineers in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati

    2012-01-01

    Taxa diversity within soil fauna functional groups can affected ecosystem functioning such as ecosystem engineers,which influence decomposition and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to describe ecological diversityvariation within soil fauna as ecosystem engineers in soil ecosystem of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation.Sampling was conducted during one year period from five different ages of plantation. Soil fauna removed from soilcore using hand sorting methods. A total of ...

  14. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V.; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. Results The results showed that the temporal patterns of so...

  15. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-15

    Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation. However, these two factors affected soil respiration differently. Soil temperature positively contributed to soil respiration, but a bidirectional relationship between soil respiration and soil water content was revealed. Higher soil moisture content resulted in higher soil respiration rates at the lowland plantations but led to adverse effects at the mid-elevation plantation. The annual soil respiration rates were estimated as 14.3-20.0 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the lowland plantations and 7.0-12.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the mid-elevation plantation. When assembled with the findings of previous studies, the annual soil respiration rates increased with the mean annual temperature and litterfall but decreased with elevation and the mean annual precipitation. A conceptual model of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of the soil respiration rate was developed. Three determinant factors were proposed: (i) elevation, (ii) stand characteristics, and (iii) soil temperature and soil moisture. The results indicated that changes in temperature and precipitation significantly affect soil respiration. Because of the high variability of soil respiration, more studies and data syntheses are required to accurately predict soil respiration in Taiwanese forests.

  16. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio T C C Rachid

    Full Text Available Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  17. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  18. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Fonseca, Eduardo S; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  19. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  20. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  1. Linear Regression between CIE-Lab Color Parameters and Organic Matter in Soils of Tea Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonggen; Zhang, Min; Fan, Dongmei; Fan, Kai; Wang, Xiaochang

    2018-02-01

    To quantify the relationship between the soil organic matter and color parameters using the CIE-Lab system, 62 soil samples (0-10 cm, Ferralic Acrisols) from tea plantations were collected from southern China. After air-drying and sieving, numerical color information and reflectance spectra of soil samples were measured under laboratory conditions using an UltraScan VIS (HunterLab) spectrophotometer equipped with CIE-Lab color models. We found that soil total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN) contents were negatively correlated with the L* value (lightness) ( r = -0.84 and -0.80, respectively), a* value (correlation coefficient r = -0.51 and -0.46, respectively) and b* value ( r = -0.76 and -0.70, respectively). There were also linear regressions between TOC and TN contents with the L* value and b* value. Results showed that color parameters from a spectrophotometer equipped with CIE-Lab color models can predict TOC contents well for soils in tea plantations. The linear regression model between color values and soil organic carbon contents showed it can be used as a rapid, cost-effective method to evaluate content of soil organic matter in Chinese tea plantations.

  2. Ecological Diversity of Soil Fauna as Ecosystem Engineers in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxa diversity within soil fauna functional groups can affected ecosystem functioning such as ecosystem engineers,which influence decomposition and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to describe ecological diversityvariation within soil fauna as ecosystem engineers in soil ecosystem of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. plantation.Sampling was conducted during one year period from five different ages of plantation. Soil fauna removed from soilcore using hand sorting methods. A total of 39 genera of soil fauna as ecosystem engineers were found during thesestudies. Thirty five genera belong to the group of Formicidae (ants, three genera of Isoptera (termites, and onegenera of Oligochaeta (earthworms. Ecological diversity variation within ecosystem engineers was detected withSimpson indices for dominance and evenness. The highest diversity of ecosystem engineers was in the young ageof plantation. This study reinforces the importance biotic interaction which contributed to the distribution andabundance within soil fauna community as ecosystem engineers in small-holder cocoa plantation.

  3. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  4. Impact of understory vegetation on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamic in aerially seeded Pinus massoniana plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping; Zhao, Fang; Ning, Jinkui; Ouyang, Xunzhi; Zang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Understory vegetation plays a vital role in regulating soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) characteristics due to differences in plant functional traits. Different understory vegetation types have been reported following aerial seeding. While aerial seeding is common in areas with serious soil erosion, few studies have been conducted to investigate changes in soil C and N cycling as affected by understory vegetation in aerially seeded plantations. Here, we studied soil C and N characteristics under two naturally formed understory vegetation types (Dicranopteris and graminoid) in aerially seeded Pinus massoniana Lamb plantations. Across the two studied understory vegetation types, soil organic C was significantly correlated with all measured soil N variables, including total N, available N, microbial biomass N and water-soluble organic N, while microbial biomass C was correlated with all measured variables except soil organic C. Dicranopteris and graminoid differed in their effects on soil C and N process. Except water-soluble organic C, all the other C and N variables were higher in soils with graminoids. The higher levels of soil organic C, microbial biomass C, total N, available N, microbial biomass N and water-soluble organic N were consistent with the higher litter and root quality (C/N) of graminoid vegetation compared to Dicranopteris. Changes in soil C and N cycles might be impacted by understory vegetation types via differences in litter or root quality. PMID:29377926

  5. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. A. Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E and A. mangium (A plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A. The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our

  6. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P. A.; Zagatto, Maurício R. G.; Brandani, Carolina B.; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R.; Gonçalves, José L. M.; Cardoso, Elke J. B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results are

  7. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P A; Zagatto, Maurício R G; Brandani, Carolina B; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R; Gonçalves, José L M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0-20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis , and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results

  8. [Species diversity and temporal niche of entomopathogenic fungi in the extensively managed tea plantation soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian-Jian; Shen, Wan-Fang; Liu, Yu-Jun; Chen, Ming-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The species diversity and temporal niche of entomopathogenic fungi community in the rhizosphere soil collected from the extensively managed Huangshan fuzz tip tea plantation were investigated. A total of 140 soil samples were collected at the location of Tangkou Town, Huangshan of Anhui Province during August, 2012 to June, 2013, and totally 1041 fungal isolates were obtained on selective medium with soil dilution plating. The results showed that the entomopathogenic fungi community in the tea plantation soil was diverse with 13 species in 6 genera. Purpureocillium lilacinum (309 strains), Beauveria bassiana (255 strains), and Metarhizium anisopliae (101 strains) were the dominant species accounting for 29.7%, 24.5% and 9.7% of the relative frequency, respectively. P. lilacinum had the widest temporal niche breadth among these dominant entomopathogenic fungi from the tea plantation soil, while B. bassiana had the narrowest. Among the entomopathogenic fungi, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii had the biggest temporal niche overlap of 1.965, while Isaria javanicus and B. bassiana had the smallest of 0.374.

  9. [Distribution pattern of meso-micro soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wanqin

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, meso-micro soil fauna were extracted and collected by Baermann's and Tullgren' s method, and their distribution pattern in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation of Hongya County, Sichuan Province was studied. A total of 13 550 specimens were collected, belonging to 6 phyla, 13 classes, and 26 orders. Acarina, Nematoda, Collembola were the dominant groups, and Enchytraeidae was the frequent one. The group and individual numbers of meso-micro soil fauna varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn or winter, fewer in summer, and the minimum in spring. The density of meso-micro soil fauna in soil profile decreased rapidly with increasing soil depth, but a converse distribution was observed from time to time in 5 - 10 cm and 10 - 15 cm soil layers. The meso-micro soil fauna collected by Baermann's and Tullgren's method had a density of 3. 333 x 10(3) - 2. 533 x 10(5) ind x m(-2) and 1.670 x 10(2) - 2.393 x 10(5) ind x m(-2), respectively, and the decreasing rate of the density with the increase of soil depth was higher for those collected by Tullgren's method. The density-group index of meso-micro soil fauna in the E. grandis plantation was the lowest in spring, but the highest in autumn or summer. There were no significant differences in the density of meso-micro soil fauna and in the density-group index between E. grandis plantation and Quercus acutissima secondary forest.

  10. Correlation of soil microbes and soil micro-environment under long-term safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Quan, Wang; Wang, Shao-Ming; Liu, Hong-Ling; Tan, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ping; Zhang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    Microbial community structure and ecological functions are influenced by interactions between above and belowground biota. There is an urgent need for intensive monitoring of microbes feedback of soil micro-ecosystem for setting up a good agricultural practice. Recent researches have revealed that many soils characteristic can effect microbial community structure. In the present study factors affecting microbial community structure and soil in Carthamus tinctorius plantations in arid agricultural ecosystem of northern Xinjiang, China were identified. The result of the study revealed that soil type was the key factor in safflower yield; Unscientific field management resulted high fertility level (bacteria dominant) of soil to turn to low fertility level (fungi dominant), and Detruded Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) showed that soil water content, organic matter, available N, P and K were the dominant factors affecting distribution of microbial community. Soil water content showed a significant positive correlation with soil microbes quantity (P soil microbe quantity (P < 0.05).

  11. Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s)) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s) and soil temperature (T(s)), explaining 82% of the variation in R(s) over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2) year(-1). The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s). The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s) at high T(s) and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s) increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s) showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s). The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s) (Q(10)) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting.

  12. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  13. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  14. Assessment of 137Cs Activity Concentration in Soil from Tea Plantation Areas in Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Seh Datul Riduan; Che Yasmin Amirudin

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs is well known man-made radionuclide produced from nuclear industry. Nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents had contributed to presence of 137 Cs into the worldwide environment including Malaysia. It has spread out to the entire world through the air and water current. Since Cameron Highlands is located at high altitude, there is a better chance of the 137 Cs to settle down on the trees and later the soil underneath. In this study, the soil samples were taken at the slopes of two different tea plantation areas namely A and B. The soil samples were oven dried, ground, sieved and packed and sealed properly in plastic containers before measurement. Each plastic container contains around 450 g of sample. The measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration was done using HPGe detector gamma spectrometer. The spectrum was analyzed using Gamma Vision software to calculate the activity concentration of 137 Cs with energy peak of 661.66 keV. The activity concentration of 137 Cs found in the samples ranged from 0.23 to 1.90 and 0.11 to 3.01 Bq/ kg for tea plantation A and tea plantation B, respectively. From the activity concentration of 137 Cs result, it was comparable to the others research regarding to 137 Cs in the soil around Asian. (Author)

  15. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  16. Infection of Phytophthora palmivora from Soil in Cocoa Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Purwantara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora palmivora causes serious losses on cocoa in Indonesia and world-wide. The research aimed to assess the potential of soil as source of inocula for Phytophthora diseases in cocoa. Soil samples were baited using a healthy cocoa pod tissue, and the pathogen was isolated for morphological and molecular identification. Baiting technique was successfully used to detect the presence of P. palmivora in soil samples, and this was confirmed by morphological and molecular identification. P. palmivora can be detected in soil in all year around in wet areas indicating that soil is a massive and consistent source of inocula. Surveys conducted on the soil of Amazonian, Amelonado and Trinitario blocks of various ages showed that P. palmivora can be found in old and young cocoa blocks, even as young as 3 or 4 years. P. palmivora infection from soil to the pods appears to be mainly through contact or rain splash. Baiting with whole healthy pods exposed at different heights above undisturbed litter and above bare soil showed that the infection still occurred at 100 cm above the soil, even though it decreased gradually with the height. Infection from litter was not different to that from bare soil, indicating that the litter layer is not acting physically as a shield preventing rain from splashing the inocula up from wet soil to the pods. However, in tests for the possibility of P. palmivora carried through air convection, no pod was found to be infected, suggesting that the pathogen was not carried through convective accend of aerosol droplets from soil surface up to pods in the canopy.Key words : Theobroma cacao, pod rot, stem canker, baiting.

  17. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  18. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  19. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of 1926 and 1717 mm were derived for the 6- and the 15-year-old stands, respectively. Transpiration made up 72% and 70% of annual ET, and modeled rainfall interception by the trees and litter layer was 2...

  20. Design of autonomous sensor nodes for remote soil monitoring in tropical banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiausas, Francis Jerome G.; Co, Jerelyn; Macalinao, Marc Joseph M.; Guico, Maria Leonora; Monje, Jose Claro; Oppus, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Determining the effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 on various soil parameters is essential in modeling and predicting its occurrence in banana plantations. One way to fulfill this is through a sensor network that will continuously and automatically monitor environmental conditions at suspect locations for an extended period of time. A wireless sensor network was developed specifically for this purpose. This sensor network is capable of measuring soil acidity, moisture, temperature, and conductivity. The designed prototype made use of off-the-shelf Parrot Flower Power soil sensor, pH sensor, Bluno Beetle, battery, and 3D-printed materials, catering specifically to the conditions of tropical banana plantations with consideration for sensor node size, communication, and power. Sensor nodes were tested on both simulated tropical environments and on an actual banana plantation in San Jose, General Santos City, Philippines. Challenges were resolved through iterative design and development of prototypes. Several tests including temperature and weather resilience, and structural stress tests were done to validate the design. Findings showed that the WSN nodes developed for this purpose are resilient to high tropical temperatures for up to 12 hours of continuous exposure, are able to withstand compressive forces of up to 8880.6 N, and can reliably collect data automatically from the area 47.96% of the time at an hourly frequency under actual field conditions.

  1. Effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Reforestation is one of the best solutions to mitigate warming gases release and to store in soil. Typhoon is one of the most hazards to disturb forest ecosystem and change carbon cycle. Typhoon disturbance is also affect soil carbon cycle such as soil respiration, carbon storage. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan. Fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Twelves continuous soil respiration chambers was divided two treatments (trench and non-trench) and observed since 2011 to 2014. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Forest biometric such as tree high, DBH, litterfall was measured in 2011-2014. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (p<0.001).However, soil respiration showed significantly negative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the tree was still young and did not reach crown closure.

  2. Earthworms in tropical tree plantations: effects of management and relations with soil carbon and nutrient use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    X Zou; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2001-01-01

    With the vast amount of abandoned tropical land due to non- sustainable farming practices, tropical tree-plantations become an effective means in restoring soil productivity and preserving ecosystem biodiversity. Because earthworms are the dominant soil fauna in moist tropical regions and play an important role in improving soil fertility, understanding the mechanisms...

  3. [Seasonal variation of soil heat conduction in a larch plantation and its relations to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jie; Cui, Song; Liu, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min

    2008-10-01

    Based on a 3-year (2003-2005) observation of soil heat flux (SHF) in a larch (Larix gmelinii) plantation, the characteristics of soil heat conduction in the plantation and their relationships with environment factors were analyzed. The results showed that there was an obvious seasonal variation of SHF in different years and sampling sites. The SHF was positive from April to August and mostly negative from September to next March, with an almost balance between heat income and outcome at annual scale. Solar net radiation had significant effects on the SHF and soil heat conductance (k), and an obvious time-lag effect was found, with 4-5 hours' time-lag in winter and 2-3 hours' time-lag in summer. Based on the real-time measurement of SHF and soil temperature difference at the study sites, the k value was significantly higher in early spring (P 0.05). Therefore, when we use the observation data of soil temperature from weather stations to estimate soil heat flux, the k value in spring (from March to May) could induce a bias estimation.

  4. [Effects of canopy density on the functional group of soil macro fauna in Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong Yang; Zhang, Dan Ju; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yan Bo; Zhao, Bo; Wei, Da Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-18

    In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0.5-0.6 and then decreased significantly under 0.6-0.9 canopy density. 3) With the increasing canopy density, the individual an dgroup number of predators in litter layer decreased significantly, the saprozoic individual number in 5-10 cm soil layer represented irregular trends. The individual number of xylophage increased with the depth of soil, and the group number in litter layer, the individual and group number in 5-10 cm soil layer decreased significantly. 4) Pielou evenness of xylophage had no significant changes with the canopy density, all the other diversity index of xylophage and saprophage were various with the increasing canopy density. The predatory Simpson index was stable under 0.5-0.8, and then decreased significantly under 0.8-0.9 canopy density. 5) The CCA (canonical correlation analysis) indicated that soil bulk density and moisture content were the main environmental factors affecting functional groups of soil macro fauna. Moisture content greatly impacted on the number of saprophagous individuals. But xylophage and predators were mostly affected by soil bulk density, and the predatory Simpson index was mainly affected by soil pH value and total phosphorus. Our research indicated that the structure of soil macro faunal functional group under 0.7 canopy density was comparatively stable, which would facilitate the maintenance of soil fertility and ecological function in Pinus massoniana

  5. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  6. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  7. [Dynamic changes in soil respiration components and their regulating factors in the Moso bamboo plantation in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jia; Li, Yong-fu; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Liu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic changes (from April 2013 to March 2014) in soil respiration components were investigated by Li-8100 in the Moso bamboo plantation in Lin' an City, Zhejiang Province. Results showed that the average annual values for the soil total respiration rate, heterotrophic respiration rate, and autotrophic respiration rate in the Moso bamboo plantation were 2.93, 1.92 and 1.01 imol CO2 . m-2 . s-1, respectively. The soil respiration rate and its components exhibited strongly a seasonal dynamic pattern. The maximum appeared in July 2013, and the minimum appeared in January 2014. The annual cumulative CO2 emissions through soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration were 37.25, 24.61 and 12.64 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1, respectively. The soil respiration and its components showed a close relation with soil temperature of 5 cm depth, and the corresponding Q10, values at 5 cm depth were 2.05, 1.95 and 2.34, respectively. Both the soil respiration and heterotrophic respiration were correlated to soil water soluble organic C (WSOC) content, but no significant relationship between autotrophic respiration and WSOC was observed. There were no significant relationships between soil respiration components and soil moisture content or microbial biomass C. The seasonal changes in soil respiration components in the Moso bamboo plantation were predominantly controlled by the soil temperature, and the soil WSOC content was an important environmental factor controlling total soil respiration and soil heterotrophic respiration.

  8. effects of monocultures of tectonagrandis (teak) plantations on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jighjigh

    difference (LSD) was calculated manually, the level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS. Bacteria population count for Tectona grandi in the non-rhizosphere soils. The results of the counts are presented in Table. 2. Bacteria counts ranged from (74.6 -120) × 106. Statistical analysis showed that bacteria counts differed.

  9. [Ecological stoichiometry of soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus within soil aggregates in tea plantations with different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Zi-cheng; Li, Ting-xuan

    2015-01-01

    This study selected 4 tea plantations with different ages (12-15, 20-22, 30-33 and >50 year-old) located in Ya' an, Sichuan Province, China to investigate the distribution patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) , and to examine the ecological stoichiometric characteristics of C, N and P within soil aggregates. The results showed that the coefficients of variation of SOC, TN and TP were 17.5%, 16.3% and 9.4%, respectively in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were 24.0%, 21.0% and 9.2%, respectively in the 20-40 cm soil layer. The spatial variation of TP was lower than that of SOC and TN but there were significant positive correlations among them. SOC and TN were distributed in the small-size aggregates and both of them had the greatest values in the >50 year-old tea plantation, however, the distribution of TP was relatively uniform among aggregates and ages. The coefficients of variation of C/N, C/P, and N/P were 9.4%, 14.0% and 14.9%, respectively in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were 7.4%, 24.9% and 21.8%, respectively in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Variation of C/N was lower than that of C/P and N/P. Averaged C/P and N/P values in the small-size aggregates were higher than in aggregates of other sizes, and the maximum values were in the >50 year-old plantation. C/N, C/P and N/P had good indication for soil organic carbon storage.

  10. Sediment Enrichment Ratio and Nutrient Leached by Runoff and Soil Erosion on Cacao Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteng Haridjaja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil consevation management system is an activity for diminishing sediment enrichment ratio and nutrient leachedsby water run off and soil erosion processes. The research was aimed to study sediment enrichment ratio and nutrientleached by run off and soil erosion on cacao plantations. Arachis pintoi with strips parallel contour and multiplestrip cropping of upland rice or soybean (Glycine max were planted to improve soil physical characterictic oncacao plantation as a main plant. The expriment were conducted with treatments as 10-15% and 40-45% slopes, 5-7months and 25-27 months cacao ages (as main plants. As sub plots are T1 as a monoculture which to be cleaningunder the plant canopy, T2 as a multiple strip cropping of upland rice or soybean, T3 as a combination of T2 and A.Pintoi strip. The results showed that total N, P2O5, and K2O and organic-C contents in water run off and soilsediments indicated that T3 >T2 >T1 treatment, with the contents of each nutrient: T3 (total N 0.18%; 24.87 mg 100g-1 P2O5: K2O 15.16 mg 100 g-1, T1 (total N 0.16%, 22.39 mg 100g-1 P2O5, K2O 11.50 mg 100g-1. The total N, P2O5, K2Oand organic-C soil contents 1.

  11. Rainforest Conversion to Rubber Plantation May Not Result in Lower Soil Diversity of Bacteria, Fungi, and Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Dong, Ke; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Large areas of rainforest in Asia have been converted to plantations, with uncertain effects on soil biodiversity. Using standard metagenetic methods, we compared the soil biota of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes at three rainforest sites in Malaysia with two rubber plantation sites with similar soils and geology. We predicted the following: (1) that the rubber sites would have a lower α- and β-diversity than the rainforest sites, due to the monospecific canopy cover and intensive management with herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, and (2) that due to differences in the physical and biotic environment associated with cultivation, there would be distinct communities of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. However, regarding (1), the results showed no consistent difference in α- and β-diversity of bacteria, fungi, or nematodes between rainforest and rubber plantation sites. It appears that conversion of rainforest to rubber plantations does not necessarily result in a decrease in diversity of soil biota. It may be that heterogeneity associated with the cultivation regimen compensates for loss of biotically imposed heterogeneity of the original rainforest. Regarding (2), as predicted there were statistically significant differences in community composition between rainforest and rubber plantation for bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. These differences could be related to a range of factors including light level, litter fall composition, pH, C and N, selecting a distinct set of soil taxa, and it is possible that this in itself would affect long-term soil function.

  12. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  13. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  14. Classification of andisol soil on robusta coffee plantation in Silima Pungga - Pungga District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbun, P.; Nasution, Z.; Hanum, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-02-01

    The survey study aims to classify the Inceptisol soil on Robusta coffee plantation in Silima Pugga-Pungga District, from Order level to Sub Group level. The study was conducted on location of sample soil profiles which were determined based on Soil Map Unit (SMU) with the main Andisol Order, i.e. SMU 12, SMU 15 and SMU 17 of 18 existing SMU. The soil profiles were described to determine the morphological characteristics of the soil, while the physical and chemical properties were done by laboratory analysis. The soil samples were taken from each horizon in each profile and analyzed in the laboratory in the form of soil texture, bulk density, pH H2O, pH KCl, pH NaF, C-organic, exchangeable bases (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), ZPC (zero point charge), base saturation, cation exchange capasity (CEC), P-retention, Al-Oxalate (Al-O) and Si-Oxalate (Si-O). The results showed that the classification of Andisol soil based on Soil Taxonomy only has one Sub Group namely Typic Hapludand. It is expected that the results of this study can provide information for more appropriate land management in order to increase the production of Robusta coffee plant in Silima Pungga-Pungga Sub district.

  15. [Effects of compaction on diurnal variaaton of soil respiration in Larix gmellini plantation in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Wang, Li-hai

    2010-12-01

    Taking the Larix gmellinii plantation in the experimental forest farm of Northeast Forestry University as test object, and by using Li-8100 automatic instrument, the daily CO2 emission rate of soil in summer under different degrees of man-made compaction was measured, with the regression models established. There were significant differences in the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate under different degrees of man-made compaction. In CK (no compaction), the maximum value of soil respiration appeared at 15:30-17:30, and the minimum value appeared at 03:30-05:30, which were obviously lagged behind those in compaction treatments. The maximum and minimum values of soil respiration rate in main roads appeared at 09:30-11:30 and 23:30-01:30, and those in branch roads appeared at 11:30 and 01:30-03:30, respectively. In all treatments, soil respiration rate had significant correlations with surface temperature, relative humidity, and the temperature at 10 cm soil depth, but the correlation with the soil moisture at 5 cm depth tended to be not significant when the compaction degree was increasing. Compaction altered surface soil physical structure, decreased surface soil CO2 release rate.

  16. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Shaojun Wang; Han Y. H. Chen; Yan Tan; Huan Fan; Honghua Ruan

    2016-01-01

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and c...

  17. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  18. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  19. [Impact of heavy snow storm and freezing rain disasters on soil fauna in Chinese fir plantation in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-kui; Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yan-xin; Fu, Sheng-lei; Li, Yuan-liang; Wang, Si-long

    2009-01-01

    In January 2008, southern China suffered an unusual heavy snowstorm and freezing rain over a large area for almost a month long. This catastrophic event was the worst one in past 50 years, which brought the area a serious impact on the infrastructure, ecology, and environment. To understand the long-term impact of this catastrophic event on the forest ecosystems in this area, a field investigation was conducted on the soil fauna in a pure Chinese fir plantation and a mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation in Huitong County of Hunan Province on March 23, 2008, the date 40 days after the heavy snowstorm and freezing rain. With the abundance and community composition as the main parameters and the monitoring data from the two plantations on March 23, 2007 as the reference, the flexibility and resistance of soil fauna to the disturbances of the catastrophic event was preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that there was a significant deviation of soil fauna communities in the two plantations from the reference. An outbreak increase in microfauna nematode abundance was found from 12216.9 ind x m(-2) to 118343.9 ind x m(-2) in pure Chinese fir plantation and from 25435.9 ind x m(-2) to 84573.0 ind x m(-2) in mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation, while a 27.0% and 85.6% decrease of macrofauna abundance was found in the two plantations, respectively, compared with the reference. Mesofauna abundance also had a significant decrease in litter layer but not in soil. The abundance recovery displayed a trend from quick rate for microfauna to slow rate for macrofauna, which indicated that the soil fauna functional groups, in terms of body size, could be used as a vulnerable indicator in evaluating disturbance event and post-disturbance recovery. By using community ordinations, no shift in soil fauna community composition was detected 40 days after the catastrophic event, suggesting that the community composition of soil invertebrate had a high resistance to

  20. Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil-atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as jungle rubber), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were -0.6

  1. Semi-Arid Plantation by Anatolian Black Pine and Its Effects on Soil Erosion and Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Hacisalihoglu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Anatolian Black pine [(Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] plantation on hydro-physical soil properties and soil loss were investigated. This study was carried out on the afforestation field of Anatolian Black Pine in the Gölbaşı district of Ankara province, which is included in the arid and semi-arid regions. Totally 48 soil sample in two soil depth level (0-20cm, 20-50cm were collected from forest (36 soil sample and barren (control area (12 soil sample. Hydro-physically important soil properties were analysed [Sand (%, Silt (%, Clay (%, Organic Matter (%, pH, Field Capacity (%, Wilting Point (%, Saturation (%, Available Water Holding Capacity (cm/cm Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/hr, Bulk Density (gr/cm3]. And soil loss in a unit area by using ABAG (Allgemeine Boden Abtrags Gleichung model was estimated. Soil properties and soil loss amount relations among the land use group were determined. Topsoil (0-20cm and subsoil (20-50cm properties except subsoil organic matter were significantly affected by land use group. Finally, Significant changes were found for annual soil loss amounts in a unit area. Avarage annual soil loss in planted area was found approximately 5.5 times less than barren area at 0-50 cm soil depth. Vegetation factor (C which is one of the most important components of the soil loss equation, has been significantly affected by afforestation in a short period of 40 years and thus it was a variable to reduce to soil loss.

  2. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, L.; Fischer, C.R.; Bonet, J.A.; Castaño, C.; Colinas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex), through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps. Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain). Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages. Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies) and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%). Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands. (Author)

  3. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  4. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    their neighboring mountain slopes. The interest of orange groves is not only economic, but also environmental. Although the traditional farming developed a beautiful man made landscape of terraces and irrigation ditches, the development of new irrigation systems by means of drips contributed to new plantations that removed the ditches and the terraces. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). This research evaluates the production and the cost of production, the economic investment in the establishment of the new citrus plantations and the revenues of 5 farms in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain. The soil erosion rates measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1) and by five-year survey by means of topographical measurements. The results show that the soil losses in the new plantation are extremely high, that the investments in the new plantation reached 18352 € ha-1 and that the revenues do not cover the expenses of production. Soil erosion measured since 2007 to 2011 show values that range from 7.54 to 56.76 Mg ha-1 year-1 and show a mean value of 28.45 Mg ha-1 year-1. Rainfall simulation experiments shown that the soil losses were very high as other researched found in new citrus plantations. The comparison with other land uses and agriculture crop and managements shown that soil erosion is higher in then new chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002), and even higher that on road embankments (Cerdà, 2007) and rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009), although the water repellency found was very low in comparison to organic farming orange plantations (González et al., 2012). The current situation of a high

  5. Quantifying Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates in Tea Plantation Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia Using 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Che Yasmin Amirudin; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2014-01-01

    The soil erosion and deposition in the hilly area is a great concern for the planters. In this study, the tea plantation was chosen to quantify the rates of soil erosion and deposition for it will provide information on the improvement of soil conditions and cost reduction of fertilizer consumption. The aims of this research are to determine the rate of soil erosion and deposition using environmental radionuclide, 137 Cs. Soil profile samples were collected by using scrapper plate and two cores soil sample were collected in the undisturbed forests area nearby. The 137 Cs activity concentration was measured using low background coaxial hyper pure germanium detector gamma spectrometer based on 137 Cs gamma energy peak at 661.66 keV. The highest erosion rate using Proportional Models and Mass Balance Model 1 was found in point HE top area which is 52.39 t ha -1 yr -1 and 95.53 t ha -1 yr -1 respectively while the lowest at location HF top which is 4.78 t ha -1 yr -1 and 4.97 t ha -1 yr -1 . The deposition rate was higher in HF center which is 216.82 t ha -1 yr -1 and 97.51 t ha -1 yr -1 and the lowest at HE center which is 0.05 t ha -1 yr -1 for both models used. (author)

  6. Impact of Interception on Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Dipterocarp Forest and Oil Palm Plantations in Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, F.M.; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman

    2015-01-01

    In local water balance, the dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation are two locations which demonstrated different processes in terms of interception, soil moisture and infiltration. To evaluate the process, this study was carried out at Tasik Chini watershed, Pahang, Malaysia for over ten months commencing April 2011 until January 2012. The main idea of this study is to study the characteristics of interception at two variants canopy and effect of interception on the infiltration process. The methodology used involves primary data including stremflow, through fall and soil moisture. 104 samples for stem flow and four samples for palm oil trees, 9 sets of through fall and 7 soil moisture stations were measured at dipterocarp forest and oil palm plantation, respectively the regression analysis was used to analyses the relationship between rate of infiltration and interception with soil moisture and rainfall. The result indicate that total interceptions were registered at 29.7 percent in Plot A, 29.1 percent in Plot B and 41.2 in oil palm plantation. The average for stem flow in the forest area is 8.65 mm per tree compared to 12.7 mm for every oil palm tree. Meanwhile, the average for through fall in oil palm plantation was higher compared to the forest area. This is about 0.49 mm and 0.42 mm respectively. The results of the interception at the Dipterocarp forest and palm areas were affected by physiographic characteristic such as the diameter size and branches of tree. The correlation coefficient between through fall and soil moisture in the oil palm plantation is r"2=0.49, in comparison to through fall and soil moisture in forest area is r"2=0.42. Positive correlation means that the amount of through fall increase than soil moisture will increase also. (author)

  7. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  8. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha-1•yr-1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  9. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére Plantations in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm. Invertase and urease increased significantly with time since thinning. Catalase activity was highest in the 24-year-old stand and there were no statistically significant differences between the 32- and 40-year-old stands. In addition, maximum invertase, urease, catalase, and phenol oxidase activities occurred during the summer; minimum activities occurred in autumn. Invertase and urease were positively correlated with each other, as were catalase and phenol oxidase. Most soil enzyme activity was higher in the 0–10 cm layer than at the 10–20 cm depth. As time from thinning increased, differences among soil depth became less significant. These results suggest that seasonal changes of these enzymes have different roles, as the time since thinning and thinning treatments may have both short- and long-term impacts on soil microbial activity.

  10. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  11. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from a rubber plantation on tropical peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhid, Nur; Hirano, Takashi; Okimoto, Yosuke; Nurzakiah, Siti; Nursyamsi, Dedi

    2017-03-01

    Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO 2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO 2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply. Total soil respiration (SR) and oxidative peat decomposition (PD) were separately quantified by trenching. In addition, peat surface elevation was measured to determine annual subsidence along with GWL. With GWL, SR showed a negative logarithmic relationship (p0.05). Peat surface elevation varied seasonally in almost parallel with GWL. After correcting for GWL difference, annual total subsidence was determined at 5.64±3.20 and 5.96±0.43cmyr -1 outside and inside the trenching, respectively. Annual subsidence only through peat oxidation that was calculated from the annual PD, peat bulk density and peat carbon content was 1.50cmyr -1 . As a result, oxidative peat decomposition accounted for 25% of total subsidence (5.96cmyr -1 ) on average on an annual basis. The contribution of peat oxidation was lower than those of previous studies probably because of compaction through land preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Losses of soil organic carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: Assessment of erosion and decomposition by new δ13C approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Muhammad, Damris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi province on Sumatra Island. We developed and applied a new δ13C based approach to assess and separate two processes: 1) erosion and 2) decomposition. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). The C content in the subsoil was similar in the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in the subsoil of the plantations corresponds to the losses of the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the undisturbed soils under forest with the disturbed soils under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. SOC availability, measured by microbial respiration rate and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, was lower under oil palm plantations. Despite similar trends in C losses and erosion in intensive plantations, our results indicate that microorganisms in oil palm plantations mineralized mainly the old C stabilized prior to conversion, whereas microorganisms under rubber plantations mineralized the fresh C from the litter, leaving the old C pool mainly untouched. Based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC under oil palm plantations, which therefore are a less sustainable land

  13. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  14. Runoff of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium from oil palm plantation soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, M A; Ismail, B S; Khairiatul-Mardiana, J

    2017-10-11

    This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The concentrations of both herbicides quickly diminished from those in the analyzed sample by the time of collection. The highest residue levels found in the field surface leachate were 0.031 (single dosage, triclopyr), 0.041 (single dosage, glufosinate ammonium), 0.017 (double dosage, triclopyr), and 0.037 μg/kg (double dosage, glufosinate ammonium). The chromatographic peaks were observed at "0" day treatment (2 h after herbicide application). From the applied active ingredients, the triclopyr and glufosinate losses were 0.025 and 0.055%, respectively. The experimental results showed that both herbicides are less potent than other herbicides in polluting water systems because of their short persistence and strong adsorption onto soil clay particles.

  15. Biochar amendment decreases soil microbial biomass and increases bacterial diversity in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations under simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Lei, Zhaofeng; Song, Xinzhang; Zhang, Zhiting; Ying, Yeqing; Peng, Changhui

    2018-04-01

    Biochar amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve acidic soils after overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. However, little is known of the role of biochar in soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and bacterial community structure and diversity after soil acidification induced by nitrogen (N) deposition. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we determined the effects of biochar amendment (BC0, 0 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 BC20, 20 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 and BC40, 40 t bamboo biochar ha‑1) on the soil bacterial community structure and diversity in Moso bamboo plantations that had received simulated N deposition (N30, 30 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N60, 60 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N90, 90 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 and N-free) for 21 months. After treatment of N-free plots, BC20 significantly increased soil MBC and bacterial diversity, while BC40 significantly decreased soil MBC but increased bacterial diversity. When used to amend N30 and N60 plots, biochar significantly decreased soil MBC and the reducing effect increased with biochar amendment amount. However, these significant effects were not observed in N90 plots. Under N deposition, biochar amendment largely increased soil bacterial diversity, and these effects depended on the rates of N deposition and biochar amendment. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to the soil C/N ratio, pH, and soil organic carbon content. These findings suggest an optimal approach for using biochar to offset the effects of N deposition in plantation soils and provide a new perspective for understanding the potential role of biochar amendments in plantation soil.

  16. Soil quality under two different management schemes in coffee plantations of southern Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Valbuena-Calderón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop an additive soil quality index (ASQI in agrofostery managements of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. The study took place under two intense and traditional management schemes, in nine farms (32 lots in the south of Colombia, during 2013. A separation of means analysis was held through the LSD Fisher test (P<0,05 to each of the physical and chemical variables of the soil. The variables that showed differences between the schemes were submitted to a main components analysis to select the minimum data set (MDS of the components that explained the most variability and the redundancy was veri ed within the indicators, based on the correlation. The ASQI was obtained from the total sum of soil quality index (SQI of all the indicators, taking into account that the higher the score of the ASQI, the higher the quality of the soil within the study system. The selected physical variables were the content of sand and clay; while the chemical variables were: organic carbon (OC, P, CA, Mg, total bases (TB and Ca/Mg. The best ASQI was obtained from traditional management, because the value of the selected variables matched in a bigger proportion with the quality objective identi ed for the ASQI quanti cation; in this case the crop yield, based on limit values for coffee plantations.

  17. Soil Co2 Efflux and Soil Carbon Content as Influenced by Thinning in Loblolly Pine Plantations on the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Marcus Franklin

    2003-01-01

    The thinning of loblolly pine plantations has a great potential to influence the fluxes and storage of carbon within managed stands. This study looked at the effects of thinning on aboveground carbon and mineral soil carbon storage, 14-years after the thinning of an 8-year-old loblolly pine plantation on the piedmont of Virginia. The study also examined soil respiration for one year following the second thinning of the same stand at age twenty-two. The study was conducted using three repli...

  18. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Q. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Cylindrocladiella isolates from soils collected in forest nurseries and plantations in Vietnam and Malaysia. This was achieved using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological observations. The study revealed two previously described species, Cy. lageniformis and Cy. peruviana as well as five novel taxa, described here as Cy. arbusta sp. nov., Cy. malesiana sp. nov., Cy. obpyriformis sp. nov., Cy. parvispora sp. nov. and Cy. solicola sp. nov. A relatively small collection of isolates from a limited geographic sampling revealed an unexpectedly high level of Cylindrocladiella diversity suggesting that many more species in this genus await discovery in South-East Asia.

  19. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion in orchards and vineyards has been found non-sustainable due to bare soils due to the use of herbicides and tillage (Novara et al., 2011; Taguas et al., 2015; Ochoa et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b; 2016c). Citrus plantations in sloping terrains are also non-sustainable from the soil erosion point of view due high erosion rates and the damage caused on infra-structures (Cerdà et al., 2009; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2015). This is not uncommon in Mediterranean type Ecosystems (Cerdà et al., 2010) but there is a need to reduce the soil and water losses to achieve sustainability (Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The use of mulches, geotextiles, catch crops, and vegetation was found to be very successful as a sustainable strategy to reduce the soil losses (Giménez Morera et al., 2010; Mwango et al., 2016; Nawaz et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Nowadays, chipped branches are applied in orchards and vineyards because of European subsidies; however little scientific data is available on the impact of the chipped branches mulch on soil erosion. In an orange plantation in Eastern Valencia, at the L'Alcoleja experimental station the impact of these chipped branches was tested under 45 mm h-1 rainfall simulations on laboratory plots of 0.5 m2 under with different covers of chipped branches. The results show that with a cover of 20 % with chipped branches soil erosion reduces by 78 %. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K. 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, Cerdà, A. and M. F. Jurgensen

  20. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Soil microbial community structure and diversity are largely influenced by soil pH and nutrient quality in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Guo, Zhiying; Chen, Chengrong; Jia, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Forest plantations have been recognised as a key strategy management tool for stocking carbon (C) in soils, thereby contributing to climate warming mitigation. However, long-term ecological consequences of anthropogenic forest plantations on the community structure and diversity of soil microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in determining these patterns are poorly understood. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e. slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a eucalypt species in subtropical Australia. We investigated the patterns of community structure, and the diversity of soil bacteria and eukaryotes by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. We also measured the potential methane oxidation capacity under different tree species. The results showed that slash pine and Eucalyptus significantly increased the dominant taxa of bacterial Acidobacteria and the dominant taxa of eukaryotic Ascomycota, and formed clusters of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities, which were clearly different from the clusters under hoop pine and kauri pine. Soil pH and nutrient quality indicators such as C : nitrogen (N) and extractable organic C : extractable organic N were key factors in determining the patterns of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities between the different tree species treatments. Slash pine and Eucalyptus had significantly lower soil bacterial and eukaryotic operational taxonomical unit numbers and lower diversity indices than kauri pine and hoop pine. A key factor limitation hypothesis was introduced, which gives a reasonable explanation for lower diversity indices under slash pine and Eucalyptus. In addition, slash pine and Eucalyptus had a higher soil methane oxidation capacity than the other tree species. These results suggest that significant changes in soil microbial communities may occur in response to chronic disturbance by tree plantations, and highlight

  2. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P soils.

  3. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  4. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  5. Methane and CO2 fluxes from peat soil, palm stems and field drains in two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Borneo, on different tropical peat soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Frances; Lip Khoon, Kho; Hill, Tim; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm plantations have been expanding rapidly on tropical peat soils in the last 20 years, with 50 % of SE Asian peatlands now managed as industrial or small-holder plantations, up from 11% in 1990. Tropical peat soils are an important carbon (C) store, containing an estimated 17 % of total peatland C. There are large uncertainties as to the soil C dynamics in oil palm plantations on peat due to a shortage of available data. It is therefore essential to understand the soil C cycle in order to promote effective management strategies that optimise yields, whilst maintaining the high C storage capacity of the soil. Here we present CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia on peat soils. Data were collected from different surface microforms within each plantation that experienced different surface management practices. These included the area next to the palm, in bare soil harvest paths, beneath frond piles, underneath cover crops, from the surface of drains, and from palm stems. Data were collected continuously over one year and analysed with different environmental variables, including soil temperature, WTD, O2, soil moisture and weather data in order to best determine the constraints on the dataset. Total soil respiration (Rtot) varied between 0.09 and 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1. The largest fluxes (0.59 - 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1) were measured next to the palms. Larger CO2 fluxes were observed beneath the cover crops than in the bare soil. This trend was attributed to priming effects from the input of fresh plant litter and exudates. Peat soil type was shown to have significantly different fluxes. The different plantations also had different environmental drivers best explaining the variation in Rtot - with soil moisture being the most significant variable on Sabaju series soil and soil temperature being the most significant environmental variable in the plantation with the Teraja series soil. Rtot was shown to reduce significantly with increasing

  6. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  7. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

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    Ersilia ALEXA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  8. Nitrogen contribution proportion from soil, fertilizer and pseudomonas putida like in sorghum plantation on South Sumatra's inceptisols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesumadewi, A.A.I.; Anas, Iswandi; Santosa, D.A.; Sisworo, Elsje L.

    2000-01-01

    The proportion of N which absorbed either from natural source (soil), N-fertilizer or N sub.2-fixing microorganism on sorghum plantation in marginal alang-alang lands that group to inceptisol should be studied in securing the soil fertility. In this experiment, N contribution of those N sources was determined during vegetative stage of sorghum on three subgroup of south sumatera's inceptisols. A greenhouse experiment that arranged in randomized complete block design using 2 factorial split plot was carried out in IPB Bogor from May-December 1998. The observation was focused on partition of N contribution from the soil, N-fertilizer and Pseudomonas putida like(N sub.2-fixing microorganism) on total plant-content 4 and 8 weeks after plantations (WAP). N-partition from those N-sources was done based o A-value method. Sorghum was absorb larger proportion of N from soil(63,36%-48,83% on 4 WAP and 64,58 % on WAP) than from fertilizer and P.putida like on all of the soil subgroups. Soil-N absorption was highest on oxic dystropept. Pseudomonas putida like was not able to subtite soil-N and fertilizer-N in sufficient amount to vigorous plant growth particularly on typica humitropept and typic dystropept. The microorganism was only provide a small amount of N to sorghum on oxic dystropept (23,05-23,95 % on 4 WAP and 15,91-34,44 % on 8WAP). The increment of plant root surface area could be enhance in greater extent of plant-N absorption than N sub.2-fixation. Thus, plantation of marginal tolerant sorghum still need addition of N-fertilizer

  9. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  10. Soil organic carbon dynamics of black locust plantations in the middle Loess Plateau area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N.; Liski, J.; Chang, R. Y.; Akujärvi, A.; Wu, X.; Jin, T. T.; Wang, Y. F.; Fu, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and sensitive to land use and cover change; its dynamics are critical for carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we combined a modeling approach and field measurements to examine the temporal dynamics of SOC following afforestation (Robinia pseudoacacia) of former arable land at six sites under different climatic conditions in the Loess Plateau during 1980-2010, where the annual mean precipitation ranging from 450 mm to 600 mm. The results showed that the measured mean SOC increased to levels higher than before afforestation when taking the last measurements (i.e., at age 25 to 30 yr) at all the sites, although it decreased at the wetter sites in the first few years. The accumulation rates of SOC were 1.58 to 6.22% yr-1 in the upper 20 cm and 1.62 to 5.15% yr-1in the upper 40 cm of soil. The simulations reproduced the basic characteristics of measured SOC dynamics, suggesting that litter input and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) were the major causes for SOC dynamics and the differences among the sites. They explained 88-96, 48-86 and 57-74% of the variations in annual SOC changes at the soil depths of 0-20, 0-40, and 0-100 cm, respectively. Notably, the simulated SOC decreased during the first few years at all the sites, although the magnitudes of decreases were smaller at the drier sites. This suggested that the modeling may be advantageous in capturing SOC changes at finer timescale. The discrepancy between the simulation and measurement was a result of uncertainties in model structure, data input, and sampling design. Our findings indicated that afforestation promoted soil carbon sequestration at the study sites during 1980-2010. Afforestation activities should decrease soil disturbances to reduce carbon release in the early stage. The long-term strategy for carbon fixation capability of the plantations should also consider the climate and site

  11. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterloo, M. J.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Vugts, H. F.; Rawaqa, T. T.

    1999-07-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of 1926 and 1717 mm were derived for the 6- and the 15-year-old stands, respectively. Transpiration made up 72% and 70% of annual ET, and modeled rainfall interception by the trees and litter layer was 20-22% and 8-9% in the young and the mature stands respectively. Monthly ET was related to forest leaf area index and was much higher than that for the kind of tall fire-climax Pennisetum polystachyon grassland replaced by the forests. Grassland reforestation resulted in a maximum decrease in annual water yield of 1180 mm on a plot basis, although it is argued that a reduction of (at least) 500-700 mm would be more realistic at the catchment scale. The impact of reforesting grassland on the water resources in southwest Viti Levu is enhanced by its location in a maritime, seasonal climate in the outer tropics, which favors a larger difference between annual forest and grassland evaporation totals than do equatorial regions.

  12. Net soil respiration and greenhouse gas balance along a sequence of forest disturbance to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyu Aini, Fitri; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Smith, Jo; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for land to establish oil palm and rubber plantations has led to the conversion of forests, with potential impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and on climate change. This study evaluates the net greenhouse gas balance following forest change to other land uses, i.e. one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and eight year oil palm plantation on Sumatran mineral soils. None of the plantations had ever been fertilized previously. During this study they were fertilized to provide nitrogen at the recommended rate used by farmers (33.3 kg N ha-1 y-1). The ecosystem stores carbon in litterfall, standing litter biomass (undergrowth vegetation, leaves, twigs, litter on the soil surface), soil organic matter, root biomass, and standing tree biomass. It releases carbon to the atmosphere through soil respiration fluxes, negative values indicating that carbon is stored by the land use change and positive values indicating emissions to the atmosphere. Net soil respiration was assessed using a mass balance approach: standing litter and tree biomass were measured once; the rate of carbon accumulation from standing litter and tree biomass was calculated by dividing the stock by the age of plantation or the time since logging started in the disturbed forest. The carbon accumulation in standing litter, tree biomass in the forest and soil organic matter for all land-uses was estimated from available in the literature. Root biomass for each land-use system was calculated using the root:shoot ratio. The net soil respiration of carbon dioxide from the forest, disturbed forest, one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and oil palm plantation were calculated to be -6 (± 5), 12 (± 6), 11 (± 15), 10 (± 5), 39 (± 7) Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Soil nitrous oxide, methane and litterfall were measured for 14 months and respiration fluxes were measured for 5 months across land uses and different seasons. The measured emissions of

  13. Spatial patterns of soil pH and the factors that influence them in plantation forests of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Songbai; Liu, Yongwen; Piao, Shilong

    2017-04-01

    Climate and anthropogenic activities such as afforestation and nitrogen deposition all impact soil pH. Understanding the spatial pattern of soil pH and the factors that influence it can provide basic information for generating appropriate strategies for soil resource management and protection, especially in light of increasing anthropogenic influences and climate change. In this study, we investigated the spatial and vertical pattern of soil pH and evaluated the influence of climate and nitrogen deposition using 1647 soil profiles 1 meter in depth from 549 plots in plantation forests of northern China. We found that soil pH decreased from the southwest to the northeast in the study region and had a similar spatial pattern before and after afforestation. Furthermore, our results show that climate and nitrogen deposition fundamentally influence the pattern of soil pH. Specifically, increasing precipitation significantly decreased soil pH (with a mean rate of 0.3 for every 100 mm rainfall, ppH (0.13 for every degree centigrade, ppH (ppH directly and indirectly through climate-plant-soil interactions. As the risks from both climate change and nitrogen deposition increase, there is an urgent need to further understanding of soil pH dynamics and to develop informed policies to protect soil resources.

  14. Differentiate responses of soil structure to natural vegetation and artificial plantation in landslide hazard region of the West Qinling Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Hong, M.

    2017-12-01

    Natural vegetation and artificial plantation are the most important measures for ecological restoration in soil erosion and landslide hazard-prone regions of China. Previous studies have demonstrated that both measures can significantly change the soil structure and decrease soil and water erosion. Few reports have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on mechanical and hydrological properties and further tested the differentiate responses of soil structure. In the study areas, two vegetation restoration measures-natural vegetation restoration (NVR) and artificial plantation restoration (APR) compared with control site, with similar topographical and geological backgrounds were selected to investigate the different effects on soil structure based on eight-year ecological restoration projects. The results showed that the surface vegetation played an important role in releasing soil erosion and enhance soil structure stability through change the soil aggregates (SA) and total soil porosity (TSP). The SArestoration and conservation in geological hazard-prone regions.

  15. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  16. Effects of stand age and soil properties on soil bacterial and fungal community composition in Chinese pine plantations on the Loess Plateau.

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    Peng Dang

    Full Text Available The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1, 29-year-old (PF2, and 53-year-old (PF3, on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.

  17. Effect of monospecific and mixed sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides plantations on the structure and activity of soil microbial communities.

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    Xuan Yu

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY, and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB. Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+ contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+ content, nitrate content (NH3(-, and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations.

  18. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus v.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q 10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  19. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojun; Chen, Han Y H; Tan, Yan; Fan, Huan; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-02-09

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and composition differed among stand ages. Organic fertilizers increased the total abundance of soil fauna, whereas low level inorganic fertilizers imparted increases only in the 4- and 9-yr-old stands. The number of faunal groups did not change with fertilization, but Shannon's and Margalef diversity indices increased under low level organic fertilization, and decreased under inorganic fertilization in the 9- and 20-yr-old stands. Community composition of soil fauna differed strongly with fertilization and stand age. The changes in soil fauna were strongly associated with the changes in microbial biomass carbon, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium. Our findings suggest that the responses of soil fauna to fertilization may be mediated through the fertilization effects on soil nutrient availability.

  20. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (PpH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation rates, decrease their availability, alter their rhizosphere

  1. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers

  2. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  3. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  4. Detection of White Root Disease (Rigidoporus Microporus) in Various Soil Types in the Rubber Plantations Based on The Serological Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani Dalimunthe, Cici; Tistama, Radite; Wahyuni, Sri

    2017-12-01

    The Conventional detection of White Root Disease (Rigidoporus microporus, WRD) still uses the visual method based on an abnormal color of leaf or mycelium growth on the tap root neck. The method was less effective and less efficient. The serological technique uses yolk chicken antibodies induced by immunization with mycelium extract. The purpose of this research was to examine the consistency of selected antibodies in detecting root fungi at various soil types in the rubber plantations. This research used a Completely Randomized Design non-factorial with twelve (12) treatments and two (2) replications. The results showed that the antibodies could detect WRD in various soils types. The serological detection was higher precisely than visual observation. The development of WRD mycelium varies depending on the soil types and it was different in the each estate area. In addition, this research is expected to get a serology kit to detect early symptoms of WRD in the rubber plants.

  5. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

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    Kara Allen

    Full Text Available Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber" as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC and base saturation (P≤0.05-0.09 had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05 compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09. This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05 and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05. Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  6. Conversion of rainforest into agroforestry and monoculture plantation in China: Consequences for soil phosphorus forms and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinchuang; Ren, Changqi; Cheng, Hanting; Zou, Yukun; Bughio, Mansoor Ahmed; Li, Qinfen

    2017-10-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect quantity and quality of phosphorus (P) in soils. Land use change is likely to alter microbial community structure and feedback on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of mechanistic links between microbial responses to land use and shifts in the amount and quality of soil phosphorus (P). We investigated effects of the conversion of rainforests into rubber agroforests (AF), young rubber (YR), and mature rubber (MR) plantations on soil P fractions (i.e., labile P, moderately labile P, occluded P, Ca P, and residual P) in Hainan Island, Southern China. Microbial community composition and microbial enzyme were assayed to assess microbial community response to forest conversion. In addition, we also identified soil P fractions that were closely related to soil microbial and chemical properties in these forests. Conversion of forest to pure rubber plantations and agroforestry system caused a negative response in soil microorganisms and activity. The bacteria phospholipid fatty acid (PLFAs) levels in young rubber, mature rubber and rubber agroforests decreased after forest conversion, while the fungal PLFAs levels did not change. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (16:1w5c) had the highest value of 0.246μmol(gOC) -1 in natural forest, followed by rubber agroforests, mature rubber and young rubber. Level of soil acid phosphatase activity declined soon (5 years) after forest conversion compared to natural forest, but it improved in mature rubber and agroforestry system. Labile P, moderately labile P, occluded P and residual P were highest in young rubber stands, while moderately labile, occluded and residual P were lowest in rubber agroforestry system. Soil P fractions such as labile P, moderately labile P, and Ca P were the most important contributors to the variation in soil microbial community composition. We also found that soil P factions differ significantly among

  7. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes – loam and clay Acrisol soils – each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, “jungle rubber”) as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4 + immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05–0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05–0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51–0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 – -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  8. Soil carbon accumulation in a Populus spp. plantation supplied with high atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagomarsino A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the experimental area POPFACE (Tuscania, Viterbo, where a poplar short rotation forest (SRF was treated with 550 ppm of atmospheric CO2 for six years. The experimental plots (Control and FACE were divided in two halves, one of which was treated with nitrogen fertilization. The general aim of this research was to quantify the impact of the two rotation cycles, the CO2 enrichment and the nitrogen fertilization on: i soil organic matter fractions more relevant for microbial metabolism; ii microbial C mineralization activity and iii the ecosystem capacity to store C in the soil. On soil samples collected from 2000 to 2004, the soil Organic C (TOC, the total extractable C (TEC and several labile C fractions (MBC, WSC, ExC were analysed. The microbial mineralization activity was also analysed. In comparison with the previous culture crop, the plantation increased the organic C storage in soil by about 23% in the second rotation cycle. Under elevated CO2, the increase of above- and belowground productivity supported a greater accumulation of labile C in soil, favouring a microbial C immobilization process. Fertilization treatment induced short-term changes in the soil C content, without overall modifications in the second rotation cycle.

  9. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  10. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  11. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of

  12. Radiocesium concentrations in soil and leaf after decontamination practices in a forest plantation highly polluted by the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Chayama, Shinya; Hisadome, Keigo

    2018-08-01

    Owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident a vast amount of radiocesium was released polluting the land. Afterwards, a variety of decontamination practices has been done, reducing the ambient dose rates. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of eight forest decontamination practices by means of monitoring the radiocesium ( 137 Cs) concentration in soil and leaf samples, and the daily discharge rates in ten plots during 27 months (May 2013-July 2015). A forest plantation located 16 km southwest to the FDNPP and within the exclusion area was selected. Radiocesium concentrations were analysed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The differences in radiocesium activities between the different plots were statistically significant (p soil and leaf fraction were 96.6% and 3.4%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of nitrogen addition on soil fauna communities in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Zhuang; Yue Sun; Jiacun Gu; Yang Xu; Zhengquan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Soil fauna play a key role in regulating carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. As soil fauna are sensitive to environmental changes, increases in soil nitrogen (N) availability resulting from global changes may profoundly influence the structure and function of soil faunal communities. However, the response of soil fauna in forest ecosystems to increases in soil N availability is still poorly understood. In order to explore the relationship between soil N availabil...

  14. Harvest traffic monitoring and soil physical response in a pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald; John L. Torbert

    2000-01-01

    Mechanized forest harvest operations induce changes in soil physical properties, which have the potential to impact soil sustainability and forest productivity. The assessment of soil compaction and its spatial variability has been determined previously through the identification and tabulation of visual soil disturbance classes and soil physical changes associated...

  15. [A comparative study on soil fauna in native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation forests in subtropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaokui; Wang, Silong; Hu, Yalin; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Xiuyong

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the response of soil animal communities to the replacement of native secondary forest by Chinese fir plantation forest and successive rotation of Chinese fir in subtropics. Three adjacent forest stands, i.e., native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest stand (control) and Chinese fir plantation stands of first (20 yr) and second (20 yr) rotations were selected for the comparison of soil fauna. All animals were extracted from the floor litter and 0-15 cm soil layer of the stands in Summer, 2003 by using Tullgren method, wet funnel method and hand-sorting method. Compared to two Chinese fir plantation forests, the native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest had a higher abundance and a higher taxonomic diversity of animals in soil and litter, but there were no significant differences in the biomass and productivity of soil fauna between all study stands. The abundance or diversity did not differ significantly between the first rotation and second rotation stands, too. The results supported that vegetation cover might be one of the main forces driving the development of soil animal communities, and the effect of successive rotation of Chinese fir on the development of soil fauna was a slow-running process.

  16. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  17. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    We use to accept the idea that the best oranges are coming from Valecia Region in Eastern Spain. Although the oranges are originally from Eastern Asia, Valencia is having a mild climate in winter, with a low recurrency of frost and is strategically located close to the largest market of citrus: Western Europe. This resulted in a continuous growth of production and trade of citrus, and contributed to make the Valencia Region the largest World exporter (Bono, 2010). This economical success reached the highest point after the EU and Spain agreement in 1986. This expansion of citrus plantations were done on steep slopes allowed by the drip irrigation systems that does not need leveling the land as it was done by new farmers with large properties. The traditional farming of oranges was done in small properties, flood irrigation and leveled land. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). Land This research evaluate the relations between the investment (economic wealth) of the owners of citrus plantations and the soil erosion rates on their orchards. The economic wealth of the onwers was measured on the size of their properties and after an interview. The soil erosion rates were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1). The results show that the soil losses in the new plantations are extremely high (> 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), and that we can show three types of orchards: 10.1. The soil erosion rates where positively related to the size of the farms. The higher erosion rates are shown also by the scientific literature review. Chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002) show high erosion rates due to the road construction too (Cerdà, 2007) and is

  18. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  19. Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohila, A.; Laurila, T.; Aurela, M.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Aro, L.; Laine, J.; Kolari, P.; Minkkinen, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the boreal zone, large areas of natural mires have been drained and used for agriculture, resulting in net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and increased nitrous oxide emissions but decreased methane emissions. However, due to structural changes in agriculture, a substantial area of cropland on organic soil has been afforested. In order to estimate the carbon balance of afforested organic-soil cropland, we measured CO 2 and water vapour (H 2 O) fluxes during year above a Scots pine plantation (Pinus sylvestris) in the middle-boreal zone, using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. We observed CO 2 uptake by the Scots pine stand from late April to mid-October with a daily average net uptake from May to the beginning of October. However, there were also periods of daily net efflux. High ecosystem respiration rates continued throughout the winter (mean winter respiration 0.036 mg CO 2 m -2 s-1). As an annual average, the 30-year-old pine stand was a small source of CO 2 (+50 g m -2 a -1 ) to the atmosphere, showing that the CO 2 sequestration into the ecosystem was able to compensate for most of the carbon that was released by heterotrophic respiration from the drained soil. (orig.)

  20. Conversion of traditional cropland into teak plantations strongly increased soil erosion in montane catchments of Southeastern Asia (Northern Laos; 2002-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Ribolzi, O.; Huon, S.; de Rouw, A.; Silvera, N.; Latsachack, K. O.; Soulileuth, B.; Lefèvre, I.; Pierret, A.; Lacombe, G.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Valentin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion delivers an excessive quantity of sediment to rivers of Southeastern Asia. Land use is rapidly changing in this region of the world, and these modifications may further accelerate soil erosion in this area. Although the conversion of forests into cropland has often been investigated, much fewer studies have addressed the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn cultivation systems with commercial perennial monocultures such as teak plantations. The current research investigated the impact of this land use change on the hydrological response and the sediment yields from a representative catchment of Northern Laos (Houay Pano, 0.6 km²) where long-term monitoring (2002-2014) was conducted (http://msec.obs-mip.fr/). The results showed a significant growth in the overland flow contribution to stream flow (from 16 to 31%). Furthermore, sediment yields strongly increased from 98 to 609 Mg km-2. These changes illustrate the severity of soil erosion processes occurring under teak plantations characterized by the virtual absence of understorey vegetation to dissipate raindrop energy, which facilitates the formation of an impermeable surface crust. This counter-intuitive increase of soil erosion generated by afforestation reflects the difficulty to find sustainable production solutions for the local populations of Southeastern Asia. To reduce soil loss under teak plantations, the development of extensive agro-forestry practices could be promoted.

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  2. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed...

  3. 1 Catenary Variation of Soil Properties under Oil Palm Plantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    factors, especially, the soil and its spatial (and hence, catenary) ... effect on the growth of crops, tree and field ... Taxonomy ( Soil Survey Staff, 1996) and. Acrisols .... change in soil pH. With the .... properties and stand structure in a Pinus.

  4. Dynamics of soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m throughout the entire rotation in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eLaclau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although highly weathered soils cover considerable areas in tropical regions, little is known about exploration by roots in deep soil layers. Intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations are simple forest ecosystems that can provide an insight into the belowground growth strategy of fast-growing tropical trees. Fast exploration of deep soil layers by eucalypt fine roots may contribute to achieving a gross primary production (GPP that is among the highest in the world for forests. Soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m was studied throughout the complete cycle of Eucalyptus plantations. Intersects of fine roots, less than 1 mm in diameter, and medium-sized roots, 1-3 mm in diameter, were counted on trench walls in a chronosequence of 1-, 2-, 3.5- and 6-year-old plantations on a sandy soil, as well as in an adjacent 6-year-old stand growing in a clayey soil. Two soil profiles were studied down to a depth of 10 m in each stand (down to 6 m at ages 1 and 2 years. The root intersects were counted on 224 m2 of trench walls in 15 pits. Monitoring the soil water content showed that, after clear-cutting, almost all the available water stored down to a depth of 7 m was taken up by tree roots within 1.1 year of planting. The soil space was explored intensively by fine roots down to a depth of 3 m from 1 year after planting, with an increase in anisotropy in the upper layers throughout the stand cycle. About 60% of fine root intersects were found at a depth of more than 1 m, irrespective of stand age. The root distribution was isotropic in deep soil layers and kriged maps showed fine root clumping. The results showed that a considerable volume of soil was explored by fine roots in eucalypt plantations on deep tropical soils, which might prevent water and nutrient losses by deep drainage after canopy closure and contribute to maximizing resource uses.

  5. [Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Sha, Li-Qing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Wen-Yan; Wu, Bing-Xia

    2009-10-01

    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (RR) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P dry-hot season > foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season > foggy season > dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season > rainy season > dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%, P < 0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 degrees C to 32 degrees C, the Q10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.

  6. Non-labile Soil Nitrogen Retention beneath Three Tree Species in a Tropical Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Kaye; Dan Binkley; Xiaoming Zou

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest sink for N additions to forests. Species composition may affect soilNretention by altering the amount or proportion of added N stored in non-labile organic pools. We measured 15N tracer retention in labile and non-labile pools of surface (0–20 cm) mineral soils, 7 yr after the tracer was applied to a 9 yr-old Puerto Rican tree...

  7. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    three sites the soil erosion is reduced in one order of magnitude in average as a consequence of the cover of the chipped pruned branches (78.45 % in average cover) in comparison to the bare (control) soils. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H., Raizada A., Mandal D., Kumar S., Srinivas S., Mishra P. K. 2015. Identification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methods. Solid Earth, 6 (4), pp. 1247-1257. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-1247-2015v Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009.Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Colazo, J.C., Buschiazzo, D. 2015. The Impact of Agriculture on Soil Texture Due to Wind Erosion.Land Degradation and Development, 26 (1), 62-70 DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2297 Decock, C.,J. Lee, M. Necpalova, E. I. P. Pereira, D. M. Tendall, J. Six. 2015 Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. SOIL, 1, 687-694, doi:10

  8. Soil Profile Characteristics of a 25-Year-Old Windrowed Loblolly Pine Plantation in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Patterson; John C. Adams; Spencer E. Loe; R. Jarod Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Windrowing site preparation, the raking and piling of long rows of logging debris, has been reported to displace surface soil, redistribute nutrients, and reduce volume growth of southern pine forests. Many of these studies have reported short-term results, and there are few long-term studies of the effects of windrowing on soil properties and pine growth. A 16.2...

  9. Will nitrogen deposition mitigate warming-increased soil respiration in a young subtropical plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofei Liu; Zhijie Yang; Chengfang Lin; Christian P. Giardina; Decheng Xiong; Weisheng Lin; Shidong Chen; Chao Xu; Guangshui Chen; Jinsheng Xie; Yiqing Li; Yusheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Global change such as climate warming and nitrogen (N) deposition is likely to alter terrestrial carbon (C) cycling, including soil respiration (Rs), the largest CO2 source from soils to the atmosphere. To examine the effects of warming, N addition and their interactions on Rs, we...

  10. Water storage in soil: Eucalyptus urophylla plantation under different spacing compared to the cerrado vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Renato Lara de; Ferreira, Mozart Martins; Dias Junior, Moacir de Souza; Morais, Erico Jose de; Silva, Clemente Jose Gusmao Carneiro da

    1997-01-01

    This paper carried out a study at Fazenda Pe do Morro, in Bocaiuva - State of Minas Gerais - Brazil, aiming the analysis of the soil hydric deficiency. The region climate was classified as Aw, according to Koppen, an presents a temperature ranging from 11 to 35 deg C, with an average of 17 deg C during the coldest month and 20.5 deg C during the warmest month. The soil presents a red-dark latosoil texture. The soil humidity was determined by using the neutron slowing-down technique, with a 503 DR CPN probe and an 50 mCi Am/Be source

  11. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  12. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  13. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  14. Influence of the application of pre-emergent herbicides on the soil fauna of conventional sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of pre-emergent herbicides on the edaphic fauna community found in soils of conventional sugarcane plantations. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 6x3 factorial, with six control treatments of weed plants (T1: fallow; T2: manual weeding; T3:Tebuthiuron to 1,200gia.ha-1; T4: Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1; T5: Tebuthiuron to 1,000gia.ha-1 + Ametryn to 1,500gia.ha-1, T6: Tebuthiuron to 1,200gia.ha-1 + Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1 and three evaluation times (0, 40, and 80 days after herbicide application: DAHA. The abundance, the groups of the organisms, Margalef’s richness index, Pielou´s uniformity index, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity index, number of Collembola and above-ground dry mass were evaluated. There were no differences in the treatments for Margalef’s richness index, Pielou´s uniformity index, Simpson’s dominance and Shannon’s index. The abundance of organisms was higher at 80 DAHA in the manual weeding treatment. Tebuthiuron did not affect Collembola populations when used alone or in combination with ametryn. The treatment with the herbicide Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1 reduced Collembola populations in relation to the fallow treatment and manual weeding.

  15. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P organic carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P organic carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration.

  16. Effect of land management models on soil erosion in wet tropical cacao plantations in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhardi

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the world???s largest cocoa exporters and is located in a tropical wet region. In tropical regions, surface run off is a major factor behind the occurrence of erosion-driven land degradation. Both land slope and land cover influence the magnitude of surface run off and soil erosion. Cocoa plants are generally cultivated on land that has a steep slope without regard to existing land cover conditions resulting in a susceptibility to soil erosion. The purpose of this resea...

  17. Runoff, Erosion and Nutrient Sedimentation due Vegetative Soil Conservation Applied on Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrul Fuady; Halus Satriawan; Nanda Mayani

    2014-01-01

    Land cover crops play an important role in influencing erosion. Cover crops provide protection against the destruction of soil aggregates by rain and runoff. This research aims to study the effectiveness of vegetation as soil conservation in controlling erosion and runoff. This study was a field experiment on erosion plots measuring 10 m x 5 m were arranged in Split Plot design with replications as blocks, consists of a combination of two factors: the age of the oil palm and slope as the firs...

  18. Spatial distribution of ammonium and calcium in optimally fertilized pine plantation soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Edwards; Andrew Gillespie; Jennifer Chen; Kurt Johnsen; Ronald Turco

    2005-01-01

    Commercial timber production is increasingly reliant on long-term fertilization to maximize stand productivity, yet we do not understand the extent to which this practice homogenizes soil properties. The effects of 16 yr of optimal fertilization and optimal fertilization with irrigation (fertigation) on forest floor depth, pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and total...

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.N.; Zeng, D.H.; Chen, F.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Applied Ecology

    2005-07-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand N; Zeng, De-hui; Chen, Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  1. [Effects of litter and root exclusion on soil microbial community composition and function of four plantations in subtropical sandy coastal plain area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chang Peng; Wan, Xiao Hua; Yu, Zai Peng; Wang, Min Huang; Lin, Yu; Huang, Zhi Qun

    2017-04-18

    We conducted detritus input and removal treatment (DIRT) to examine the effects of shifting above- and belowground carbon (C) inputs on soil microbial biomass, community composition and function in subtropical Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis, Acacia aulacocarpa and Casuarina equisetifolia coastal sandy plain forests, and the treatments included: root trenching, litter removal and control. Up to September 2015, one year after the experiment began, we collected the 0-10 cm soil samples from each plot. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to characterize the microbial community composition, and micro-hole enzymatic detection technology was utilized to determine the activity of six kinds of soil enzymes. Results showed that changes in microbial biomass induced by the C input manipulations differed among tree species, and mainly affected by litter and root qualily. In E. urophylla × E. grandis stands, root trenching significantly decreased the contents of total PLFAs, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes by 31%, 30%, 32%, 36% and 26%, respectively. Litter removal reduced the contents of Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes by 24%, 27% and 24%, respectively. However, C input manipulations had no significant effect on soil microbial biomassunder other three plantations. According to the effect of C input manipulations on soil microbial community structure, litter and root exclusion decreased fungi abundance and increased actinomycetes abundance. Different treatments under different plantations resulted in various soil enzyme activities. Litter removal significantly decreased the activities of cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase of P. elliottii, A. aulacocarpa and C. equisetifolia, root exclusion only decreased and increased the activities of β-glucosidase in P. elliottii and A. aulacocarpa forest soils, respectively. Litter removal also

  2. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wang, Shen S. J.; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-12-01

    Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species-enzyme-C/N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C/N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG), N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP) and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases). The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01-2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99-2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait.), increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22-1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native coniferous tree species like hoop pine and

  3. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C, and nitrogen (N stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species–enzyme–C∕N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C∕N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG, N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases. The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01–2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99–2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait., increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22–1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native

  4. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaifeng Li

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C and soil organic carbon (SOC stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m. The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1 with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  5. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha -1 ) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha -1 ) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha -1 ) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha -1 ). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha -1 ) and N (2.03 Mg ha -1 ) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha -1 and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha -1 ) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  6. Soil fauna and leaf species, but not species diversity, affect initial soil erosion in a subtropical forest plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Assmann, Thorsten; Schuldt, Andreas; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In subtropical parts of China, high rainfall intensities cause continuous soil losses and thereby provoke severe harms to ecosystems. In woodlands, it is not the tree canopy, but mostly an intact forest floor that provides protection from soil erosion. Although the protective role of leaf litter covers against soil losses is known for a long time, little research has been conducted on the processes involved. For instance, the role of different leaf species and leaf species diversity has been widely disregarded. Furthermore, the impact of soil meso- and macrofauna within the litter layer on soil losses remains unclear. To investigate how leaf litter species and diversity as well as soil meso- and macrofauna affect sediment discharge in a subtropical forest ecosystem, a field experiment was carried out in Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province, PR China (BEF China). A full-factorial random design with 96 micro-scale runoff plots and seven domestic leaf species in three diversity levels and a bare ground feature were established. Erosion was initiated with a rainfall simulator. This study confirms that leaf litter cover generally protects forest soils from water erosion (-82 % sediment discharge on leaf covered plots compared to bare plots) and this protection is gradually removed as the litter layer decomposes. Different leaf species showed variable impacts on sediment discharge and thus erosion control. This effect can be related to different leaf habitus, leaf decomposition rates and food preferences of litter decomposing meso- and macrofauna. In our experiment, runoff plots with leaf litter from Machilus thunbergii in monoculture showed the highest sediment discharge (68.0 g m-2), whereas plots with Cyclobalanopsis glauca in monoculture showed the smallest rates (7.9 g m-2). At the same time, neither leaf species diversity, nor functional diversity showed any significant influence, only a negative trend could be observed. Nevertheless, the protective effect of the leaf

  7. Can Brazil nut plantations recover soil properties in former pasture lands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro Bastos, Rodrigo; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Stupak, Inge

    2017-01-01

    /N-ratio. The SOC concentration, TN and C/N-ratio did not differ significantly among vegetation types in any soil layer, even if the mean SOC concentrations of BN and SF were between those of PA and PF in the 0-5 cm layer. Bulk densities of PA (1.47 g cm-3) and PF (1.11 g cm-3) differed significantly in 0-5 cm...

  8. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  9. BALANCE OF WATER AND ENERGY FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS WITH PARTIAL SOIL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves dos Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813329Eucalyptus plots with initial development ages presented discontinuity in soil cover, resulting in greaterexposure of the leaves to wind and solar radiation, which alters soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Theobjective of this study was to study the components of the water and energy balances along the first yearof eucalyptus development in the Brazilian coastal plain region. The experimental site is located in anarea belonging to the company Fibria in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Thespace between the planted eucalyptus trees in the area studied was 3 x 3 m and the data of planting wason August 15th , 2004. The period of study lasted from the planting date until the plot reached an ageof 19 months. It was verified that there was a greater availability of energy during the summer and theprecipitation directly influenced the energy balance where during the period of study the energy available necessary for evapotranspiration was always greater than the fraction necessary for heating the soil-plantatmospheresystem, presenting a λE/Rn ratio of 59.57%. It was also observed that the water balance with themodeled evapotranspiration showed a good correspondence with the observed moisture content, presentinga determination coefficient of 0,94. In the majority of trees, greater indices of leaf and root system areasfavored evapotranspiration, indicating that most energy available was utilized for changing the phase ofwater

  10. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  12. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  13. Diversity and functional properties of acid-tolerant bacteria isolated from tea plantation soil of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Gunajit; Deka, Priyadarshini; Das, Pompi; Bora, Sudipta Sankar; Samanta, Ramkrishna; Boro, Robin Chandra; Barooah, Madhumita

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we report on the bacterial diversity and their functional properties prevalent in tea garden soils of Assam that have low pH (3.8-5.5). Culture-dependent studies and phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria. Further, 70 acid-tolerant bacterial isolates characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach could be grouped to the genus Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevundimonas, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Aeromonas. Among the 70 isolates, 47 most promising isolates were tested for their plant growth promoting activity based on the production of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophore, and HCN as well as solubilization of phosphate, zinc, and potassium. Out of the 47 isolates, 10 isolates tested positive for the entire aforesaid plant growth promoting tests and further tested for quantitative analyses for production of IAA, siderophore, and phosphate solubilization at the acidic and neutral condition. Results indicated that IAA and siderophore production, as well as phosphate solubilization efficiency of the isolates decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the acidic environment. This study revealed that low soil pH influences bacterial community structure and their functional properties.

  14. Effects of phosphorus addition on nitrogen cycle and fluxes of N2O and CH4 in tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Mori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to test the effects of phosphorus (P addition on nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and methane (CH4 uptakes, using tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand. Soil samples were taken from five forest stands—Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Hopea odorata, and Xylia xylocarpa—and incubated at 80% water holding capacity. P addition stimulated N2O emissions only in Xylia xylocarpa soils. Since P addition tended to increase net ammonification rates in Xylia xylocarpa soils, the stimulated N2O emissions were suggested to be due to the stimulated nitrogen (N cycle by P addition and the higher N supply for nitrification and denitrification. In other soils, P addition had no effects on N2O emissions or soil N properties, except that P addition tended to increase the soil microbial biomass N in Acacia auriculiformis soils. No effects of P addition were observed on CH4 uptakes in any soil. It is suggested that P addition on N2O and CH4 fluxes at the study site were not significant, at least under laboratory conditions.

  15. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal do solo e quociente metabólico, além de atributos químicos de fertilidade. Foi verificado que os plantios de A. mangium não proporcionaram aumentos significativos do carbono orgânico do solo em comparação às áreas de referência. Entretanto, na média geral, esses plantios proporcionaram aumento do carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo e redução do quociente metabólico, indicando a possibilidade de acúmulo de carbono orgânico no solo em longo prazo. Também foi observado que, em comparação ao plantio da fazenda Cigolina e às áreas de referência, o carbono microbiano do solo foi maior e acompanhado de menor quociente metabólico no plantio de A. mangium no CEAB, mostrando que a estrutura de plantio exerceu influência sobre a biomassa microbiana do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Acacia mangium plantation in the Roraima's Savanna, on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass. Soil samplings were collected on the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in two Acacia mangium plantation sites, about five years old, and in two sites of native savanna as

  16. FEASIBILITY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES ON OIL PALM PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of soil and water conservation techniques. The production of oil palm comprising the fresh fruit bunch, number of bunches, and average of bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting schedule. Tabular data were analyzed by logical comparison among the blocks as a result of application of bund terraces and silt-pit. Financial and sensi-tivity analysis of the effect of the techniques on FFB production were done. Bund terrace treatment was more effective (4.761 ton or 21.5% in increasing FFB production than the silt-pit treatment (3.046 ton or 13.4% when it is compared to that of the control block. The application of bund terraces and silt-pit also presents positive effects i.e. increases the average bunch weight and the number of bunch compared to that of the control. Furthermore, the financial analysis as well as sensitivity analysis shows that the bund terrace application is profitable and feasible (B/C = 3.06, IRR = 47% while the silt pit treatment is profitable but not feasible.

  17. [Effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter in soil solution in a young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao Chun; Chen, Yue Min; Yuan, Shuo; Zheng, Wei; Si, You Tao; Yuan, Zhi Peng; Lin, Wei Sheng; Yang, Yu Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the forest soil solution from the subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, using negative pressure sampling method, the dynamics of DOM in soil solutions from 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil layer was monitored for two years and the spectroscopic features of DOM were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increased the aromatic index (AI) and the humic index (HIX), but had no significant effect on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration in both soil layers. There was obvious seasonal variation in DOM concentration of the soil solution, which was prominently higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter.Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry indicated that the DOM in forest soil solution had absorption peaks in the similar position of six regions, being the highest in wave number of 1145-1149 cm -1 . Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that DOM was mainly consisted of protein-like substances (Ex/Em=230 nm/300 nm) and microbial degradation products (Ex/Em=275 nm/300 nm). The availability of protein-like substances from 0-15 cm soil layer was reduced in the nitrogen treatments. Nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of DOC in soil solution, maybe largely by reducing soil pH, inhibiting soil carbon mineralization and stimulating plant growth. In particular, the decline of DOC concentration in the surface layer was due to the production inhibition of the protein-like substances and carboxylic acids. Short-term nitrogen deposition might be beneficial to the maintenance of soil fertility, while the long-term accumulation of nitrogen deposition might lead to the hard utilization of soil nutrients.

  18. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Vineyards are known to suffer from soil erosion around the world (Novara et al., 2011; 2013; 2015; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Rodrigo-Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b, 2016b). As in other crops in the Mediterranean such as citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), olives (Taguas et al., 2015), persimmon (Cerdà et al., 2016) or apricot (Keesstra et al., 2016) plantations, there is a need to survey the spatial and temporal changes in soil erosion in vineyards. Soil redistribution in agricultural land is determined by human management due to the control it exerts on the vegetation cover and soil properties. This is why the time since plantation is important in soil erosion spatial and temporal distribution. Especially because during the plantation of the saplings, the soil is compacted and all other vegetation is removed. In our experiment we selected four paired plot research sites in the Les Alcusses valley, in Eastern Spain. We selected recently planted vineyards (1-year old) and 40-years old plantations. In total 80 rainfall simulations were performed with an intensity of 55 mm h-1 on small 0.25 m2 circular plots to determine the soil detachment by rainfall. The results show that soil erosion rates in the 40-year old vineyards were high (### a rate??), and in the recently planted ones were extremely high, on average six times higher. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude

  19. Natural vegetation restoration is more beneficial to soil surface organic and inorganic carbon sequestration than tree plantation on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Dong, Yunshe; Wang, Yunqiang; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yafeng; Cui, Buli; Zhou, Weijian

    2014-07-01

    Natural vegetation restoration and tree plantation are the two most important measures for ecosystem restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. However, few studies have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC and SIC) sequestration or have further used SOC and SIC isotopes to analyze the inherent sequestration mechanism. This study examined a pair of neighboring small watersheds with similar topographical and geological backgrounds. Since 1954, natural vegetation restoration has been conducted in one of these watersheds, and tree plantation has been conducted in the other. The two watersheds have now formed completely different landscapes (naturally restored grassland and artificial forestland). Differences in soil bulk density, SOC and SIC content and storage, and SOC and SIC δ(13)C values were investigated in the two ecosystems in the upper 1m of the soil. We found that SOC storage was higher in the grassland than in the forestland, with a difference of 14.90 Mg ha(-1). The vertical changes in the δ(13)CSOC value demonstrated that the two ecosystems have different mechanisms of soil surface organic carbon accumulation. The SIC storage in the grassland was lower than that in the forestland, with a difference of 38.99 Mg ha(-1). The δ(13)CSIC values indicated that the grassland generates more secondary carbonate than the forestland and that SIC was most likely transported to the rivers from the grassland as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The biogeochemical characteristics of the grassland were favorable for the formation of bicarbonate. Thus, more DIC derived from the dissolution of root and microbial respired CO2 into soil water could have been transported to the rivers through flood runoff. It is necessary to study further the transportation of DIC from the grassland because this process can produce a large potential carbon sink. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Long-Term Soil Productivity in Christmas Tree Farms of Oregon and Washington: A Comparative Analysis between First- and Multi-Rotation Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christmas tree production removes organic matter and associated nutrients from a site and can change soil physical properties, reduce mycorrhizal populations, and result in pesticide over-use/accumulation. These impacts have been implicated in potential field productivity declines. Assessing Christmas tree productivity is complicated by genetics, management, and market forces. We approached the perceived or possible productivity decline by examining soil properties on 22 pairs of sites. Each pair was comprised of an early rotation and late rotation plot with 1 and 3 or more rotations of Christmas trees, respectively. All sites were located on commercial Christmas tree plantations from the major production areas in Washington and Oregon. Chemical properties assessed to 45cm included pH, total C and N, and extractable P, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil physical properties assessed included aggregate stability and soil resistance. In general, we found little impact on soil resources that would impact long term production of Christmas trees. These impacts may have been mitigated by farmers following extension service recommendations. Nitrogen, K, and Ca appeared to be primarily affected by harvesting, but replacement by fertilizer application was probably adequate.

  1. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed...... that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil...... respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05). Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher...

  2. Towards robust subsidence-based soil carbon emission factors for peat soils in south-east Asia, with special reference to oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm and Acacia pulpwood plantations are being established at a rapid rate on drained peatland in south-east Asia. Accurate measurements of associated carbon losses are still scarce, however, due mainly to difficulties of excluding autotrophic carbon fluxes from chamber-based flux measurements and uncertainties about the extent of waterborne losses. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to determining total net carbon loss from subsidence records that is applicable to steady state conditions under continuous land use. We studied oil palm and Acacia plantations that had been drained for 5–19 years. Very similar subsidence rates and dry bulk density profiles were obtained, irrespective of crop type or age of the plantation, indicating that the peat profiles were in a steady state. These are conditions that allow for the deduction of net carbon loss by multiplying the rate of subsidence by the carbon density of the peat below the water table. With an average subsidence rate of 4.2 cm y-1 and a carbon density of 0.043 g cm-3, we arrive at a net carbon loss of ~18 t ha-1 y-1 (~66 t CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for typical oil palm and Acacia plantations more than five years after drainage, without large differences between the plantation types. The proposed method enables calculation of regional or project-specific carbon loss rates to feed into mitigation schemes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  3. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  4. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil and water losses in eucalyptus plantation and natural forest and determination of the USLE factors at a pilot sub-basin in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Christofaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring water erosion and the factors that control soil and water loss are essential for soil conservation planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and water losses by water erosion under natural rainfall in eucalyptus plantations established in 2001 (EF2, and 2004 (EF1, native forest (NF and bare soil (BS, during the period of 2007 to 2012; and to determine the USLE factors: rain erosivity (R, erodibility (K of a Red Argisol and the cover-management factor (C for EF1, EF2 and NF at a pilot sub-basin, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The R factor was estimated by the EI30 index, using rainfall data from a gauging station located at the sub-basin. The soil and water losses were monitored in erosion plots, providing consistent data for the estimation of the K and C factors. The sub-basin presented an average erosivity of 4,228.52 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. The average annual soil losses em EF1 and EF2 (0.81 e 0.12 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively were below of the limit of tolerance, 12.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. The percentage values of water loss relating to the total rainfall decreased annually, approaching the values observed at the NF. From the 5th year on after the implantation of the eucalyptus systems, soil losses values were similar to the ones from NF. The erodibility of the Red Argisol was of 0.0026 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1mm-1 and the C factor presented values of 0.121, 0.016 and 0.015 for EF1, EF2 and NF, respectively.

  6. Seasonal variability in soil-surface CO{sub 2} efflux in selected young tree plantations in semi-arid eco-climate of Madurai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, S.G.; Lalrammawia, C.; Paliwal, K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    2008-07-10

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been increasing in response to the disruption of the global carbon cycle by anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, agricultural practices and burning of fossil fuels. This has resulted in large shifts among carbon pools. The efflux of CO{sub 2} from soil results from the combined rates of autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial and soil fauna) respiration. It is often called soil respiration. The response of soil respiration (SR) to varying soil temperature and soil moisture was studied in three year-old plantation sites of Dalbergia sissoo, Dalbergia latifolia, Albizia lebbeck, Hardwickia binata and Cassia siamea during 2005--06. Significant seasonal differences in SR rates were observed in each site (P {<=} 0.001). The highest rates of soil CO{sub 2} efflux were generally found during the rainy season and the lowest during summer in all the study sites. Highest SR rates were found in D. sissoo, 9.89 {+-} 0.78 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in November and December, followed by H. binata, 9.68 {+-} 0.45 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in September and October 2005, A. lebbeck, 8.84 {+-} 0.43 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} between November 2005 and January 2006, D. latifolia, 7.6 {+-} 0.12 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in November and December 2005 and C. siamea, 7.3 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in December 2005. There was a positive and significant (P {<=} 0.001) relationship between SR rates and soil moisture in all the sites (r{sup 2} above 0.60), except C. siamea (r{sup 2} = 0.30). A poor relationship was observed between SR and soil temperature in all the sites (r{sup 2} below 0.2). Examination of the seasonal pattern of SR rates suggests that much of the variability could be attributed to variations in soil moisture. There was a strong indication suggesting that the soil-water deficits served to reduce SR rates during summer and after subsequent rain events. Overall sensitivity of SR rate to soil moisture seems to

  7. Land use change from rainforests to oil palm plantations and food gardens in Papua New Guinea: Effects on soil properties and S fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alepa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil sulfur (S fractions were assessed in oil palm and food garden land use systems developed on forest vegetation in humid tropical areas of Popondetta in northern Province. The study tested a hypothesis that S in food gardens are limiting nutrient factor and are significantly lower than in plantations and forests. Subsistence food gardens are under long-term slash and burn practice of cropping and such practice is expected to accelerate loss of biomass S from the ecosystem. From each land use, surface soil (0–15 cm samples were characterised and further pseudocomplete fractionated for S. Conversion of forest to oil palm production decreased (p<0.001 soil pH and electrical conductivity values. The reserve S fraction in soil increased significantly (p<0.05 due to oil palm production (∼ 28 % and food gardening activity (∼ 54 %. However, plant available SO_4^(2--S was below 15 mg kg^(−1 in the food garden soils and foliar samples of sweet potato crop indicating deficiency of plant available S. Soil organic carbon content (OC was positively and significantly correlated to total S content (r=0.533; p<0.001 among the land use systems. Thus, crop management practices that affect OC status of the soils would potentially affect the S availability in soils. The possible changes in the chemical nature of mineralisable organic S compounds leading to enhanced mineralisation and leaching losses could be the reasons for the deficiency of S in the food garden soils. The results of this study conclude that long-term subsistence food gardening activity enriched top soils with reserve S or total S content at the expense of soluble S fraction. The subsistence cropping practices such as biomass burning in food gardens and reduced fallow periods are apparently threatening food security of oil palm households. Improved soil OC management strategies such as avoiding burning of fallow vegetation, improved fallows, mulching with fallow biomass, use of

  8. Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O effluxes and concentrations in soil profiles down to 15.5m depth in eucalypt plantations under contrasted rainfall regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germon, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Christophe, J.; Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Robin, A.; Rosolem, C. A.; Gonçalves, J. L. D. M.; Guerrini, I. A.; Laclau, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Silvicultural practices in planted forests affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases at the soil surface and the major factors driving greenhouse gas production in forest soils (substrate supply, temperature, water content,…) vary with soil depth. Our study aimed to assess the consequences of drought on the temporal variability of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes throughout very deep soil profiles in Eucalyptus grandis plantations 3 months before the harvest then in coppice, the first 18 months after clear-cutting. Two treatments were compared: one with 37% of throughfall excluded by plastic sheets (TE), and one without rainfall exclusion (WE). Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were made every two weeks for 30 months using a closed-path Li8100 system in both treatment. Every two weeks for 21 months, CO2, CH4 and N2O surface effluxes were measured using the closed-chamber method and concentrations in the soil were measured at 7 depths down to 15.5 m in both TE and WE. At most measurement dates, soil CO2 efflux were significantly higher in TE than in WE. Across the two treatments and the measurement dates, CO2 concentrations increased from 4446 ± 2188 ppm at 10 cm deep to 15622 ± 3523 ppm at 15.5 m, CH4 concentrations increased from 0.41 ± 0.17 ppm at 10 cm deep to 0.77 ± 0.24 ppm at 15.5 m and N2O concentrations remained roughly constant and were on average 478 ± 55 ppb between soil surface and 15.5 m deep. CO2 and N2O concentrations were on average 20.7 and 7.6% lower in TE than in WE, respectively, across the sampling depths. However, CH4 concentrations in TE were on average 44.4% higher than in WE, throughout the soil profile. Those results suggest that extended drought periods might reduce the production of CO2 and N2O but increase the accumulation of CH4 in eucalypt plantations established in deep tropical soils. Very deep tropical soils cover huge areas worldwide and improving our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of gas concentrations in deep soil layers

  9. Evolution of soil organic carbon during a chronosequence of transformation from cacao (Theobroma cacao l. plantation to grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Salvador Morales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the soil use change of the Cocoa Agroforestry System (CAS on soil organic carbon (SOC levels and other indicating soil chemical fertility properties (apparent density ρb, cation exchange capacity CEC, total soil N TSN, when a soil use change occurs from CAS to grassland (GL. For this, in order to be selected was recorded, considering different time intervals (1-5, 6-10 y 11-20 years. However, a CAS of 20-35 years was considered as a reference. In addition, soil samples were taken at -30 cm depth to determine the contents of SOC, TSN, CEC, ρb, soil organic matter (SOM and the soil C/N relationship. Consequently, an in situ resistance to soil penetration was evaluated. The results indicated the change in soil use from CAS to GL, did not cause a significant decrease in the amount of stored SOC (0-30 cm during the considered time with respect to CAS. However, if only the first -10 cm of soil is sampled, a significant soil compaction is observed throughout a decrease in the CEC value in the long term (20 years.

  10. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wang

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and bulk density and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements. Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05. The primary forest had a 2.35-2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C-H, C-O, and O-H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05. However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes.

  11. Sandy soil plantation in semi-arid zones by polyacrylamide gel conditioner prepared by ionizing radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation modified polymers for biomedical and biochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzam, R.A.I.

    1983-07-01

    Polyacrylamide gel prepared by ionizing radiation was found to be capable of furnishing adequate conditions for sandy-soil plantation in semi-arid zones. The gel can be tailored for any soil texture under various climatic conditions. The sand-gel combination maintains three cycles of complete destruction and reformation without significant changes in erosion index. Water holding capacity and retention at different suctions in treated sand are increased. This increases water use efficiency. Fertilizers use efficiency is also increased to almost three times that of fertile clayey soil

  12. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  13. Evaluation of soil erosion risk using Analytic Network Process and GIS: a case study from Spanish mountain olive plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhay, Olexandr; Arriaza, Manuel; Boerboom, Luc

    2009-07-01

    The study presents an approach that combined objective information such as sampling or experimental data with subjective information such as expert opinions. This combined approach was based on the Analytic Network Process method. It was applied to evaluate soil erosion risk and overcomes one of the drawbacks of USLE/RUSLE soil erosion models, namely that they do not consider interactions among soil erosion factors. Another advantage of this method is that it can be used if there are insufficient experimental data. The lack of experimental data can be compensated for through the use of expert evaluations. As an example of the proposed approach, the risk of soil erosion was evaluated in olive groves in Southern Spain, showing the potential of the ANP method for modelling a complex physical process like soil erosion.

  14. Assessing soil calcium depletion following growth and harvesting of Sitka spruce plantation forestry in the acid sensitive Welsh uplands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple mass balance has been used to estimate soil calcium depletion during the growth of a 50 year old Sitka spruce crop on acid, base-poor peaty podzol soils in upland Wales. Growth of the crop will deplete the soil calcium reserve by an amount (205 kg Ca ha-1 approximately equivalent to the exchangeable calcium pool to the bottom of the profile and equal to 14% of the total soil calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Despite these predictions, measurements of exchangeable calcium show no differences beneath mature forest and acid grassland, implying that i weathering rates in forest soils are greater than long-term estimates and predictions by the PROFILE soil chemistry model ii the trees can access other sources of calcium or iii there are significant errors in the mass balance. Following stem-only harvesting, growth of a 50 year old second rotation crop will lead to further depletion of soil calcium, but this amount (79 kg Ca ha-1, is less than for a second rotation crop following whole-tree harvesting (197 kg Ca ha-1. After the first crop, stem-only harvesting would allow a further 18 rotations before depletion of the total calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Whole-tree harvesting would allow for seven rotations after the first crop. These calculations assume that all sources of calcium are equally available to the crop. This can only be resolved by dynamic modelling of the calcium cycle at the ecosystem scale based on appropriate field measurements. The potential for significant soil acidification is therefore greater following whole-tree harvesting and, in line with current recommendations (Nisbet et al., 1997, this technique should probably be avoided on acidic, nutrient-poor soils unless remedial measures are included to enhance the soil base cation status.

  15. Nitrogen contribution proportion from soil, fertilizer and pseudomonas putida like in sorghum plantation on South Sumatra's inceptisols; Proposi Sumbangan Nitrogen Oleh Tanah, Pupuk Dan Pseudomonas putida like Dalam Tanaman Sorghum Pada Inceptisol Sumatera Selatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesumadewi, A A.I. [Departement Agriculture Udayana, Bali (Indonesia); Anas, Iswandi; Santosa, D A [Departement Agriculture, Bogor Agriculture Institute (Indonesia); Sisworo, Elsje L [Center for Application of Isotop and Radiation, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2000-02-23

    The proportion of N which absorbed either from natural source (soil), N-fertilizer or N sub.2-fixing microorganism on sorghum plantation in marginal alang-alang lands that group to inceptisol should be studied in securing the soil fertility. In this experiment, N contribution of those N sources was determined during vegetative stage of sorghum on three subgroup of south sumatera's inceptisols. A greenhouse experiment that arranged in randomized complete block design using 2 factorial split plot was carried out in IPB Bogor from May-December 1998. The observation was focused on partition of N contribution from the soil, N-fertilizer and Pseudomonas putida like(N sub.2-fixing microorganism) on total plant-content 4 and 8 weeks after plantations (WAP). N-partition from those N-sources was done based o A-value method. Sorghum was absorb larger proportion of N from soil(63,36%-48,83% on 4 WAP and 64,58 % on WAP) than from fertilizer and P.putida like on all of the soil subgroups. Soil-N absorption was highest on oxic dystropept. Pseudomonas putida like was not able to subtite soil-N and fertilizer-N in sufficient amount to vigorous plant growth particularly on typica humitropept and typic dystropept. The microorganism was only provide a small amount of N to sorghum on oxic dystropept (23,05-23,95 % on 4 WAP and 15,91-34,44 % on 8WAP). The increment of plant root surface area could be enhance in greater extent of plant-N absorption than N sub.2-fixation. Thus, plantation of marginal tolerant sorghum still need addition of N-fertilizer.

  16. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)-much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls-while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed.

  17. Degradation of Triazine-2-(14C Metsulfuron-Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Ismail

    Full Text Available Triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm, and PRP-1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of (14CO2 in (14C-triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine "ring-opened."

  18. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guallpa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  19. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Shitan, Mahendran; Kumar Karmokar, Provash; Najwa, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

  20. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Maznah

    Full Text Available Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR. This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

  1. Bare soil and rill formation following wildfires, fuel reduction treatments, and pine plantations in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil H. Berg; David L. Azuma

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated erosion commonly occurs after wildfires on forested lands. As burned areas recover, erosion returns towards prefire rates depending on many site-specific characteristics, including fire severity, vegetation type, soil type and climate. In some areas, erosion recovery can be rapid, particularly where revegetation is quick. Erosion recovery is less well...

  2. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  3. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  4. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nplantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and CEucalyptus stand).

  5. The water quality of streams draining a plantation forest on gley soils: the Nant Tanllwyth, Plynlimon mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Nant Tanllwyth stream in the Plynlimon region of mid-Wales is related to the key hydrobiogeological controls and the effects of conifer harvesting based on an analysis of rain, cloud, stream and groundwater measurements. The results show the normal patterns of stream water quality response to hydrology. Thus, there is a high damping of atmospheric inputs due to storage in a highly heterogeneous soil and groundwater system. Correspondingly, there is a highly dynamic response for components such as calcium, bicarbonate and aluminium. This response links to the relative inputs of acidic and aluminium-bearing soil waters under high flow conditions and base enriched bicarbonate bearing waters from the groundwater areas under baseflow conditions. The introduction of a deep borehole near the main stem of the river opened up a groundwater flow route to the stream and other parts of the catchment. There were two aspects to this. Firstly, it caused a change to the stream water quality, particularly under baseflow conditions, by increasing the concentrations of calcium and magnesium and by reducing the acidity. The monitoring shows that this change has persisted for over eight years and that there is no sign of reversion to pre-borehole times. Secondly, it caused a change in the groundwater level and chemistry at a borehole on the other side of the river. This feature shows that the fracture system is of hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological complexity. The effects of conifer harvesting are remarkable. At the local scale, felling leads to the expected short term increase in nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from the disturbance of the soil and the reduction in uptake into the vegetation. Correspondingly, there is a reduction in sodium and chloride linked to reduced scavenging of atmospheric inputs from cloud water by the vegetation and also due to increased dilution potential due to reductions in transpiration by the trees. However

  6. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  7. Seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevillea trees Banco de sementes do solo proveniente de cafezais arborizados com grevílea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the composition and dynamics of seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevilea trees in the experimental fields of the Southwest Bahia State University, on Vitória da Conquista campus. The experiments were carried out from September 2006 to May 2007. The coffee trees (Coffea arabica were sown at three x one m spacing, associated with grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta and maintained at densities of 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 and 31 plants ha-1, under direct sunlight. One hundred grams of soil were taken from each treatment with four repetitions and later identified and counted with a 10x magnifying glass. To determine seedling emergence, four soil samples of 1000 g were collected from each experimental field and transported to the greenhouse. Seedling emergence was observed by counts after 15, 30 and 45 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks of seven treatments (soil from different tree densities and four replicates; the experimental unit consisted of a plastic tray (0, 30 x 0.22 x 0.06 m containing 1.000 g of soil. The variables utilized to characterize the bank and its dynamics were: relative frequency, relative density, relative abundance, importance index and species diversity (Shannon-Weaver index.Increased number of monocotyledon seeds and sprouts were verified in the treatments maintained under full sunlight.Com o objetivo de estudar a composição e a dinâmica do banco de sementes provenientes de solos de cafezais arborizados com grevíleas, desenvolveu-se um ensaio no campo experimental da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, no campus de Vitória da Conquista. Os cafeeiros (Coffea arabica foram dispostos em espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, associados a grevíleas (Grevillea robusta mantidas em densidades de 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 e 31 plantas ha-1, e a pleno sol, no período de setembro de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para avaliação do número de sementes, foram retirados 100 g de solo de

  8. Estoques de carbono no solo e na biomassa em plantações de eucalipto Carbon storage in the soil and in the biomass of eucalypt plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Gatto

    2010-08-01

    stored in the soil and in the biomass of these forest stands. The main objective of this study was to estimate the amount of soil-stored carbon (SSC of eucalypt plantations and determine soil and climate characteristics that influence SSC. The study was carried out in the Central-Eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in five micro-regions (CO, RD, SB, SA, and VI with varying soil and climatic conditions. Soil carbon was determined to a depth of 100 cm. Carbon in the forest floor was estimated by allometric equations. The carbon stored in the soil-plant system differed among micro-regions and soil classes. SSC ranged from 183.1 t ha-1 in Red Latosol to 95.1 t ha-1 in Inceptisol, and was negatively correlated to soil K, Ca2+; and Mg2+ content and density in the top soil layer. SSC was highest in the micro-region VI (141.2 t ha-1; average value for all soil types and lowest in RD (80.8 t ha-1. Considering the soil-plant ecosystem and the usual rotation age (84 months, the absolute SSC value was greatest in the micro-region SA (251.6 t ha-1 and lowest in RD (186.8 t ha-1. Regression equations showed that the clay and aluminum content and altitude and water stress explained most of the SSC variation.

  9. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  10. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Poster Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer ...

  11. The relation between fine root density and proximity of stems in closed Douglas-fir plantations on homogen[e]ous sandy soils: implications for sampling design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.; Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies have been carried out in two fully stocked, fast growing Douglas-fir plantations of the Dutch ACIFORN project in three consecutive years, to obtain information on fine root densities (Olsthoorn 1991). For the present paper, data collected in early summer 1987 were used to study the relation

  12. Soil CO2 Efflux Trends Following the Thinning of a 22-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Plantation on the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.F. Selig; J.R. Seiler

    2004-01-01

    Due to the growing concern over increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it has become increasingly important to understand the influence forest practices have on the global carbon cycle. The thinning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in the Southeastern United States is a common silvicultural practice and has great...

  13. Atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos convertidos de savana para plantios de Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima. = Chemical attribuites and microbial activity in soils converted to savanna for plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. in Roraima, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Mourão Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana tem sido empregada na avaliação de solos manejados, sendo um indicador importante na caracterização de solos alterados. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de plantios de Acacia mangium com diferentes idades sobre os atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos representativos da Savana do Estado de Roraima. Os plantios de A. mangium de três e cinco anos encontravam-se em áreas de LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e os de quatro e seis anos em ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico. As áreas próximas aos plantios com as mesmas condições de solos e com cobertura vegetal primária (savana natural constituiram as testemunhas. Foram amostrados os horizontes A e B sendo avaliados os atributos químicos dos solos e a atividade microbiana. A pobreza química e elevadasaturação por alumínio (%m dos solos estudados influenciaram significativamente nos menores valores de C-CO2 evoluído pela atividade microbiana. A maior atividade microbiana ocorreu em áreas plantadas independentemente do tipo de solo, em função das melhores condições químicas. Os maiores valores de C-CO2 evoluído correlacionaram-se melhor com os teores de carbono orgânico e matéria orgânica do solo. = Microbial activity has been used in the evaluation of soils, an important indicator in the characterization of alteredsoils. Therefore, this study has as aim to evaluate the effect of replacing natural vegetation to plantations of Acacia mangium onmicrobial activity in soils of savannas in Roraima state. The areas studied consisted of plantations of acacia with three and fiveyears in Yellow Latosol with four and six years in yellow Alfisols. Areas near the plantations with the same conditions of soiland vegetation (natural savanna were considered control. Were sampled the A and B horizons, corresponding depths 0-30 and 30-60 cm respectively, with three replications for a total of 36 experimental units. The results

  14. Soil organic carbon stocks in coffee plantations under different weed control systemsEstoques de carbono orgânico do solo em cafezais sob diferentes sistemas de controle de plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Diniz Cogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (COS is an important indicator of soil quality, as its levels and stocks can change by soil preparation. This study aimed to evaluate COS stocks on a clayey Oxisol cultivated with coffee and subject to different weed control systems in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, and weed control systems were: no weeding, manual weeding, pre-emergence herbicide, post-emergence herbicide, rotary tiller, rotary mowers and disk harrow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at two positions in the coffee plantation (tire tracks and planting line, at depths of 0-3, 10-13, and 25-28 cm. A nearby native forest was sampled as a reference. A higher bulk density of soils under coffee plantations occurred compared to soil under the forest. There was little difference between COS concentrations in the plating line in relation to the native forest, but for the tire track position, the amount of COS was generally lower. After correction for soil compaction, it was estimated a loss of ca. 20% in SOC stock for te 0-30 cm depth for herbicide post-emergence, rotary tiller, manual weeding and disk barrow, and a 35% loss when using herbicide pre-emergence. SOC stocks under no weeding and rotary mowers did not differ from native forest (37 M-1g ha COS, indicating that the rotary mower, which allows temporary growth of weeds and does not disrupt soil structure, is the most appropriate weed control for the preservation of COS in coffee plantations.O carbono orgânico no solo (COS é um importante indicador da qualidade do solo, pois seus teores e estoques podem ser alterados conforme o sistema de preparo do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os estoques de COS em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argiloso cultivado com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L e submetido a diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras no sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos os

  15. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  16. Seasonal variations in phosphorus fractions in semiarid sandy soils under different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiong Zhao; Dehui Zeng; Zhiping Fan; Zhanyuan Yu; Yalin Hu; Jianwei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of soil phosphorus (P) fractions under five vegetation types – Ulmus macrocarpa savanna, grassland, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation, Pinus tabulaeformis plantation, and Populus simonii plantation ...

  17. 生物炭对杉木人工林土壤氮素的影响%Effect of applying biochar plantations of Chinese fir soil nitrogen in different developmental stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志超; 孟李群; 李惠通; 贾代东; 刘爱琴

    2017-01-01

    Biochar, as a good sequestration agent, is also a new material for improving soil physical and chemical properties. Chinese fir plantation, at different developmental stage in Xinkou teaching state forest farm of Fujian Sanming, were studied to explore the effects of different types of biochar on soil nitrogen forms. Two different kinds of biochar ( wood-biochar, bamboo-bio-char) were choosed to find the influence of different type of biochar on soil fertility in the Chinese fir plantation. The results showed as follows:the biochar had little effect on soil total nitrogen on the surface in the 1st year. Biochar treatment had significantly increased soil hydrolysis nitrogen in the 1st year, then decreased in the 2nd year, and there was no significant difference compared to the control in the 3rd year. Two types of biochar had little influenced on inorganic nitrogen in the soil, bamboo-biochar treatment increased, but the woody-biochar treatment decreased mostly. There were significant interactive effects among biochar treatment, developmental stage and soil layer on the soil hydrolysis nitrogen. The influence of biochar on different developmental Chinese fir stages follow by:youth stand> middle stand> mature stand. Two types of biochar comparison showed that, bamboo-biochar is better than wood-biochar on soil improvement.%为探讨不同类型生物炭对杉木人工林土壤氮素形态的影响,以福建省三明市莘口教学林场不同发育阶段杉木人工林为研究对象,选择2种不同类型生物炭(竹炭和木炭),研究其对杉木人工林土壤不同形态氮素的影响。结果表明:2种生物炭对土壤全氮含量影响较小且主要集中于表层,施炭处理1a后,土壤水解氮含量均有显著提高,但从第2年开始水解氮含量逐渐下降,在第3年水解氮含量与对照无显著差异;2种生物炭对土壤无机态氮含量影响差异较小,竹炭处理的土壤无机氮含量有所增加,而木炭

  18. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  19. Effects of differnt juvenile mixed plantations on growth and photosynthetic physiology of pinus yunnanensis franch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ou, G. L.; Chen, D. D.; Liu, G. Y.; Li, Q. Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Han, M. Y.; Chen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The growth characteristics, photosynthetic gas exchange features, physiological and biochemical resistance, and soil nutrition contents of different juvenile mixed plantations were analyzed. Moreover, the synergic effect mechanism of the different species was elucidated to improve the stand quality of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. plantations and guide the screening of P. yunnanensis mixed plantations. The mixed plantations were P. yunnanensis-Alnus nepalensis-Quercus acutissima, P. yunnanensis-A. nepalensis-Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides, and P. yunnanensis-Q. acutissima-C. glaucoides. Individual juvenile plantations of pure P. yunnanensis, A. nepalensis, Q. acutissima, and C. glaucoides were used as control groups. Results showed that pure P. yunnanensis juvenile plantation consumed more soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total potassium (TK) than the other plantations. This plantation also showed poorer growth characteristics, poorer photosynthetic capability, lower water utilization efficiency (WUE), and biochemical resistance in infertile soil, as shown by the nutrition and water competition. Increasing soil organic matters, TN, TP, and TK of the different mixed plantations evidently enhanced height, ground diameter growth rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), WUE, carboxylation efficiency (CE), soluble sugar (SS) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, different mixed forests slightly influenced the characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange and physiological and biochemical resistance of A. nepalensis. All stand types facilitated growth of tree height and basal diameter of Q. acutissima sapling. Although Q. acutissima inhibited physiological and biochemical resistance of leaves to a certain extent, they increased WUE significantly. Different stand types slightly influenced growth features, Pn, Tr, and WUE of C. glaucoides sapling. Moreover, they inhibited the osmotic adjustment system

  20. Quantification and site-specification of the support practice factor when mapping soil erosion risk associated with olive plantations in the Mediterranean island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydas, Christos G; Sekuloska, Tijana; Silleos, Georgios N

    2009-02-01

    Due to inappropriate agricultural management practices, soil erosion is becoming one of the most dangerous forms of soil degradation in many olive farming areas in the Mediterranean region, leading to significant decrease of soil fertility and yield. In order to prevent further soil degradation, proper measures are necessary to be locally implemented. In this perspective, an increase in the spatial accuracy of remote sensing datasets and advanced image analysis are significant tools necessary and efficient for mapping soil erosion risk on a fine scale. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was implemented in the spatial domain using GIS, while a very high resolution satellite image, namely a QuickBird image, was used for deriving cover management (C) and support practice (P) factors, in order to map the risk of soil erosion in Kolymvari, a typical olive farming area in the island of Crete, Greece. The results comprised a risk map of soil erosion when P factor was taken uniform (conventional approach) and a risk map when P factor was quantified site-specifically using object-oriented image analysis. The results showed that the QuickBird image was necessary in order to achieve site-specificity of the P factor and therefore to support fine scale mapping of soil erosion risk in an olive cultivation area, such as the one of Kolymvari in Crete. Increasing the accuracy of the QB image classification will further improve the resulted soil erosion mapping.

  1. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  2. Links between root carbohydrates and seasonal pattern of soil microbial activity of diverse european populations of Pinus sylvestris grown in a provenance plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kaliszewska-Rokicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of soil dehydrogenase (DHA was measured in the mineral soil in a forest stand of 15 to 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from geographically diverse populations, as an indicator of biological activity of soil microorganisms, in a provenance experiment in Poland. The pine populations originated from six European countries (Sweden, Russia, Latvia, Poland, Germany, France and differed widely in aboveground biomass and productivity. Soil DHA during two growing seasons showed pronounced seasonal variability, which was significantly related to the fine root concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. Higher DHA was found in soil under canopies of the central and southern European populations than in those from more northern parts of the Scots pine range. Significant positive correlation between soil DHA and aboveground tree biomass suggest that these patterns most likely resulted from differences in carbon dynamics and productivity among populations.

  3. Assessment of soil nitrogen and phosphorous availability under elevated CO2 and N-fertilization in a short rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, A.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Angelis, de P.; Grego, S.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation by elevated [CO2] is largely regulated by nitrogen and phosphorus availability in the soil. During a 6 year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment with poplar trees in two short rotations, inorganic forms of soil nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, microbial and total

  4. Near-surface distributions of soil water and water repellency under three effluent irrigation scemes in a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thwaites, L.A.; Rooij, de G.H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water repellent soils are difficult to irrigate and susceptible to preferential flow, which enhances the potential for accelerated leaching to groundwater of hazardous substances. Over 5 Mha of Australian soil is water repellent, while treated municipal sewage is increasingly used for irrigation.

  5. Comparative effects of sulfuric and nitric acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial community in subtropical plantation of Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Wenrui; Wang, Ling; Xie, Dejin; Huo, Wentong; Wu, Yanwen; Zhang, Jinchi

    2017-12-01

    Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes. Second, soil pH with NAR decreased more rapidly with the amount of acid rain increased in summer than with SAR treatments. Only strongly acid rain (both SAR and NAR) was capable of depressing litter decomposition and its inhibitory effect was stronger on leaf than on fine root litter. Meanwhile, NAR had a higher inhibitory effect on litter decomposition than SAR. Third, in summer, autumn and winter, PLFAs were negatively impacted by the increased acidity level resulting from both SAR and NAR. However, higher acidity level of NAR (pH=2.5) had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity, especially in summer. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) and fungi (18:1ω9) were more sensitive to both SAR and NAR, and actinomycetes was more sensitive to SAR intensity. Finally, soil total carbon, total nitrogen and pH were the most important soil property factors affecting soil microbial activity, and high microbial indices (fungi/bacteria) with high soil pH. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO 4 2- to NO 3 - in acid rain is an important factor which could affect litter decomposition and soil microbial in subtropical forest of China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  7. Métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e componentes da acidez do solo Weed control methods and soil acidity components in coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras perenes, como na cultura do cafeeiro, o controle de plantas invasoras tem sido feito por meio de métodos manuais, mecanizados, químicos e associações destes. De modo geral, têm-se avaliado os diferentes métodos sob o ponto de vista de eficiência e de custo no controle das plantas invasoras; no entanto, a influência deles sobre as condições químicas do solo, praticamente, não tem sido estudada, principalmente a longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro sobre os componentes da acidez de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico da região de São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG. Sete tratamentos de controle de plantas invasoras foram avaliados: roçadora (RÇ, grade (GR, enxada rotativa (RT, herbicida de pós-emergência (HC, herbicida de pré-emergência (HR, capina manual (CM e testemunha sem capina (SC, dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Amostras de solo, em cada tratamento, foram coletadas a cada dois anos, a partir de 1980, nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m, para avaliação de pH, Al3+, acidez potencial (H + Al e saturação por Al3+ (m. O sistema HR aumentou o teor e a saturação por Al3+ e a acidez potencial e diminuiu o pH, quando comparado com os demais métodos de controle de plantas invasoras, principalmente com a testemunha (SC. O tratamento SC mostrou efeito contrário ao do HR, aumentando os valores de pH e diminuindo o teor de Al3+ e a saturação por Al3+, em ambas as camadas de solo. O RÇ foi o tratamento que mais se aproximou do SC, e os demais tratamentos, no geral, não apresentaram comportamento diferenciado.In perennial agriculture, such as coffee plantation, weeds are controlled by hand, mechanized, and chemical weeding and their combinations. Methods that differ in terms of efficiency and costs have been evaluated; however, the influence of these methods on the soil chemical conditions has

  8. Nitrogen Alters Initial Growth, Fine-Root Biomass and Soil Organic Matter Properties of a Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Plantation in a Recently Afforested Grassland in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel W. D. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilization effects on Eucalyptus growth and soil carbon (C stocks are still controversial. We set up an N fertilization experiment in southern Brazil to evaluate initial tree growth and changes in soil organic matter (SOM. Four N levels (24–Reference, 36, 48 and 108 kg ha−1 of N were tested and tree growth was assessed during the first two years. Afterwards, representative trees were chosen to evaluate fine-root biomass (FRB and its spatial distribution. Soil was sampled to a 40-cm depth and SOM was fractionated in Particulate (POM and Mineral-Associated Organic Matter (MAOM for C and N content, and δ13C determination. Positive N effect on tree growth was seen only for tree height. N addition resulted in higher FRB. Changes in SOM were more expressive in top-soil layers. Overall, afforestation had positive effects on soil C. Increasing reference N dose resulted in higher C and N content in both SOM fractions. C and N dynamics were tightly correlated, especially in MAOM. Eucalypt-derived C was on average three-fold higher in POM. In summary, we showed that N fertilization may have positive but limited effects on tree growth, nevertheless it enhances fine-root biomass and C and N accumulation in SOM pools.

  9. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  10. Effects of three years of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in a Korean pine plantation of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Jinbo; Jin, Guangze

    2017-12-31

    Continuously enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition alters the pattern of N and carbon (C) transformations, and thus influences greenhouse gas emissions. It is necessary to clarify the effect of N deposition on greenhouse gas emissions and soil N dynamics for an accurate assessment of C and N budgets under increasing N deposition. In this study, four simulated N deposition treatments (control [CK: no N addition], low-N [L: 20kgNha -1 yr -1 ], medium-N [M: 40kgNha -1 yr -1 ], and high-N [H: 80kgNha -1 yr -1 ]) were operated from 2014. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored semimonthly, as were soil variables such as temperature, moisture and the concentrations of total dissolved N (TDN), NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 4 + , and dissolved organic N (DON) in soil solutions. The simulated N deposition resulted in a significant increase in TDN, NO 3 - and DON concentrations in soil solutions. The average CO 2 emission rate ranged from 222.6mgCO 2 m -2 h -1 in CK to 233.7mgCO 2 m -2 h -1 in the high-N treatment. Three years of simulated N deposition had no effect on soil CO 2 emission, which was mainly controlled by soil temperature. The mean N 2 O emission rate during the whole 3years was 0.02mgN 2 Om -2 h -1 for CK, which increased significantly to 0.05mgN 2 Om -2 h -1 in the high-N treatment. The N 2 O emission rate positively correlated with NH 4 + concentrations, and negatively correlated with soil moisture. The average CH 4 flux during the whole 3years was -0.74μgCH 4 m -2 h -1 in CK, which increased to 1.41μgCH 4 m -2 h -1 in the low-N treatment. CH 4 flux positively correlated with NO 3 - concentrations. These results indicate that short-term N deposition did not affect soil CO 2 emissions, while CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were sensitive to N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  12. Soil CO2 efflux in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the virginia Piedmond and South Carolina coastal plain over a rotation-length chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; P. Eric Wiseman; Christopher A. Maier

    2005-01-01

    We measured soil surface CO2 efflux (Fx) in loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L.) located on the Virginia Piedmont (VA) and South Carolina Coastal Plain (SC) in efforts to assess the impact climate, productivity, and cultural practices have on Fs in the managed loblolly pine...

  13. Micromicetos del suelo de una plantación de plátano (Musa paradisiaca en Teapa, Tabasco, México Soil microfungi from a banana (Musa paradisiaca plantation in Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Del Olmo-Ruiz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la micobiota presente en el suelo de un cultivo de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. en el municipio de Teapa en el estado de Tabasco, México. Los objetivos fueron conocer las especies habitantes de este suelo y la dinámica de la comunidad con respecto a la composición de especies a lo largo de un año. Se llevaron a cabo 4 muestreos durante temporadas distintas y los aislamientos se realizaron mediante la técnica de dilución en placa. Se recuperaron 91 colonias, correspondientes a 30 especies diferentes de hongos mitospóricos, de las cuales únicamente Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces y Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fueron especies residentes de ese suelo y el resto, esporádicas. El índice de similitud de Sorensen evidenció una sucesión de especies entre las temporadas de muestreo. Del total de especies determinadas en este estudio, 8 no habían sido encontradas como habitantes de suelos mexicanos. Asimismo, se mostró que el suelo analizado es un hábitat muy rico en micromicetos y que es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de colecta para tener un mayor conocimiento sobre la diversidad en nuestro país.In this study, we analyzed the soil microfungal community from a banana (Musa paradisiaca L. plantation in Teapa, a municipality of Tabasco State in Mexico. The objectives were to determine the fungal species present and to analyze the community composition throughout an entire year. We performed 4 samplings during different seasons and the fungal isolates were recovered using the dilution plate technique. We isolated 91 strains from 30 different mitosporic species where only Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were considered as resident species while the remaining species were sporadic. The Sorensen similarity index suggested that species succession had occurred among the sampling seasons. From all the species identified in this survey, 8 had not been found as

  14. The role of plantation sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  15. Ecological Stoichiometric Characteristics of Two Typical Plantations in the Karst Ecosystem of Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation has been widely adopted to restore soil fertility and ecosystem service function in the rocky desertification region of southwestern China. However, there has been limited research concerning the stoichiometry of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and nutrient resorption rate of plantations in karst ecosystems. In this study, we selected plantations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. (PY and Eucalyptus maideni F. Muell. (EM in Yunnan Province. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in different soil layers (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, and 20–30 cm were examined. The nutrient limitation and nutrient resorption efficiency were also analyzed. The leaf C and N concentrations in the PY plantation were higher than that in the EM plantation; the P concentration demonstrated the opposite trend, both in green and senesced leaves. Soil C, N, and P concentrations in the EM plantation were much greater than in the PY plantation at all three depths and decreased with the depth of the soil. In addition, the high ratios of C:P, N:P, C:Available P, and N:Available P in soil coupled with the ratios of N:P in leaves indicate that the EM plantation has a greater P deficiency than the PY plantation. In the EM plantation, the relatively low P concentrations in senesced leaves indicates efficient TP (Total phosphorus resorption, which highlights that the high reuse proficiency of P could have favored moderating P limitation in the karst ecosystem. This research aids in understanding the stoichiometric characteristics that mediate forest properties, and provides a basis for management of vegetation in karst ecosystems.

  16. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  17. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and Acacia mangium plantation on a sandy tropical soil. ... An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the ...

  18. Time scale dependent negative emission potential of forests and biomass plantations via wood burial, torrefied biomass, biochar and pyrogas condensate sequestration in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kammann, Claudia; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Foidl, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    The efficiency of Negative Emission Technologies (NET) is dependent on (1) the transformation of the biomass carbon into a form that can be sequestered, (2) the mean residence time of the sequestered carbon, (3) the regrowth and thus carbon re-accumulation of the harvested biomass, and (4) the positive or negative priming of soil carbon. These four parameters define the time scale dependent C-balance of various NET-Systems and permit a global economic and environmental evaluation. As far as geologic CO2 storage is considered to be feasible with close to zero losses and if the energy for transport, transformation and disposal is taken from the process bioenergy, conventional BE-CCS has a C sequestration potential of 50 - 70 % depending on the type of biomass and the technology used. Beside unknown risks of deep stored CO2 and high costs, regrowth of C-accumulating biomass is hampered in the long-term as not only carbon but also essential soil nutrients are mined. Under this scenario, biomass regrowth is expected to slow down and soil carbon content to decrease. These factors enlarge the time horizon until a BE-CCS system becomes carbon neutral and eventual carbon negative (when biomass regrowth exceeds the difference between the harvested biomass carbon and BE-CCS stored carbon). Thermal treatment of biomass under a low oxygen regime (torrefaction, pyrolysis, gasification) can transform up to 85% of biomass carbon into various solid and liquid forms of recalcitrant carbon that can be sequestered. Depending on the process parameters and temperature, the mean residence time of the torrefied or pyrolysed biomass can last from several decennials to centennials when applied to the soil of the biomass production site. The carbon can thus be stored at comparatively low costs within the ecosystem itself. As the thermal treatment preserves most of the biomass-accumulated nutrients (except N), natural nutrient cycles are maintained within the biomass system. Depending on the

  19. Profundidade do solo e micro-relevo em bananais irrigados: impactos na nutrição mineral e potencial produtivo Soil depth and microrelief in irrigated banana plantation: impacts on mineral nutrition and yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o papel da profundidade do solo e da microtopografia em aspectos nutricionais e produtivos de bananais irrigados. O estudo foi conduzido na Chapada do Apodi (CE, em área com variações na profundidade do solo. Os tratamentos foram sítios (locais em diferentes classes de micro-relevo (côncavo, convexo e retilíneo que abrangeram quatro profundidades de solo: A 0,92 m; B 0,77 m; C 0,65 m; D 0,52 m. Foram avaliados: altura da planta mãe (APM, altura da planta filha (APF, diâmetro do pseudocaule da planta mãe (DPPM, massa de folhas frescas (MFF e secas (MFS, teores de fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, enxofre (S e sódio (Na no tecido vegetal e massa dos cachos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições para avaliações de crescimento e cinco repetições para avaliações referentes à massa de folhas, estado nutricional e produção. A análise estatística foi feita pela ANOVA e DMS a 5% de significância. APM e DPPM foram maiores em A e C, enquanto que menores médias ocorreram no solo mais raso (D. MFF e MFS foram superiores em A e D que também apresentaram maior acúmulo de nutrientes nas folhas. Entretanto, maiores teores foliares e níveis adequados de P ocorreram em A, que também apresentou maior massa de cachos em relação aos solos mais rasos. Isto mostra que a profundidade efetiva do solo e o micro-relevo influenciam a absorção de nutrientes, o crescimento e o potencial produtivo de bananeiras irrigadas na Chapada do Apodi.The aim of this research was to verify whether soil depth affects aspects of mineral nutrition and yield potential of irrigated banana plantations. The study was carried out at Apodi Plateau (CE, Brazil, in an area characterized by soil depth variations. The treatments were sites in different microrelief classes (concave, convex and retilinea with four different soil depths: A 0.92 m; B 0.77 m; C 0.6 5m; D 0.52 m. The

  20. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  1. The effect of plantation silviculture on soil organic matter and particle-size fractions in Amazonia O efeito de manejo silvicultural de eucalipto sobre matéria orgânica e frações de solo na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis and other clonal plantations cover about 3.5 million ha in Brazil. The impacts of intensively-managed short-rotation forestry on soil aggregate structure and Carbon (C dynamics are largely undocumented in tropical ecosystems. Long-term sustainability of these systems is probably in part linked to maintenance of soil organic matter and good soil structure and aggregation, especially in areas with low-fertility soils. This study investigated soil aggregate dynamics on a clay soil and a sandy soil, each with a Eucalyptus plantation and an adjacent primary forest. Silvicultural management did not reduce total C stocks, and did not change soil bulk density. Aggregates of the managed soils did not decrease in mass as hypothesized, which indicates that soil cultivation in 6 year cycles did not cause large decreases in soil aggregation in either soil texture. Silt, clay, and C of the sandy plantation soil shifted to greater aggregate protection, which may represent a decrease in C availability. The organic matter in the clay plantation soil increased in the fractions considered less protected while this shift from C to structural forms considered more protected was not observed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a dinâmica dos agregados do solo e das suas frações derivadas dos mesmos em duas texturas de solo, cada uma com uma plantação de Eucalipto e uma floresta primaria imediatamente adjacente. Eucalyptus grandis e outros clones cultivados em plantações cobrem aproximadamente 3,5 milhões de hectares no Brasil. Os impactos de manejo intensivo de plantações de rotação curta sobre a estrutura de solo e a dinâmica de carbono (C são em grande parte desconhecidos em ecossistemas tropicais. No longo prazo, a sustentabilidade desses sistemas é provavelmente ligada à manutenção da matéria orgânica e à estrutura de agregação do solo, principalmente em áreas de solos de baixa fertilidade. Manejo silvicultural n

  2. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  3. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases...... and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate...... of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  4. Different water use strategies of juvenile and adult Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Jia

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE, plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation.Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0-30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0-50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0-50 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations.The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE.

  5. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  6. The relationship between ancient trees health and soil properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Key words: Ancient trees health, soil properties, Beijing. INTRODUCTION ... growth. Soil chemical properties play an invaluable role ..... situation on soil nutrients and fertilization in eucalyptus plantations in. GuangXi. Soil and ...

  7. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  8. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However...

  9. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Liu

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming.

  10. Biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration in four different aged Casuarina equisetifolia coastal shelterbelt plantations in South China.

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    Faming Wang

    Full Text Available Thousands of kilometers of shelterbelt plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted to protect the southeast coastline of China. These plantations also play an important role in the regional carbon (C cycling. In this study, we examined plant biomass increment and C accumulation in four different aged C. equisetifolia plantations in sandy beaches in South China. The C accumulated in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass increased markedly with stand age. The annual rate of C accumulation in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass during 0-3, 3-6, 6-13 and 13-18 years stage was 2.9, 8.2, 4.2 and 1.0 Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC at the top 1 m soil layer in these plantations was 17.74, 5.14, 6.93, and 11.87 Mg C ha(-1, respectively, with SOC density decreasing with increasing soil depth. Total C storage in the plantation ecosystem averaged 26.57, 38.50, 69.78, and 79.79 Mg C ha(-1 in the 3, 6, 13 and 18- yrs plantation, with most of the C accumulated in the aboveground biomass rather than in the belowground root biomass and soil organic C. Though our results suggest that C. equisetifolia plantations have the characteristics of fast growth, high biomass accumulation, and the potential of high C sequestration despite planting in poor soil conditions, the interactive effects of soil condition, natural disturbance, and human policies on the ecosystem health of the plantation need to be further studied to fully realize the ecological and social benefits of the C equisetifolia shelterbelt forests in South China.

  11. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

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    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  12. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  13. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  14. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  15. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  16. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  17. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  18. Quantifying carbon sequestration in forest plantations by modeling the dynamics of above and below ground carbon pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive pine plantation management may provide opportunities to increase carbon sequestration in the Southeastern United States. Developing management options that increase fiber production and soil carbon sequestration require an understanding of the biological and edaphic processes that control soil carbon turnover. Belowground carbon resides primarily in three...

  19. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  20. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  1. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  2. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  3. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  4. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  5. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  6. Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  7. Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, J M

    1981-12-01

    Firewood is the chief of source of energy in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire quantity of fuelwood is collected from the adjoining forests by the villagers as a matter of traditional right. The use of gobar gas plant is uneconomical because of the lower temperatures prevailing in major portions of the year. The anticipated requirement of fuelwood for 1990 and 2000 is of the order of 5.88 and 8.23 million m/sup 3/, respectively. Through the present fuelwood requirements have not attained critical dimensions, the hacking of forests in and around the habitations is creating serious environmental problems. Programs have been initiated for raising energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. An outline of the programs underway and projects proposed are presented. The main problem in implementation are inadequacy of funds. The removal of this constraint will help in solving the anticipated energy crisis in this area at the same time affording sufficient environmental protection.

  8. Long rotation swidden systems maintain higher carbon stocks than rubber plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Berry, Nicholas; De Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    in fallows were 1.5 ± 0.12 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and 1.9 ± 0.14 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in rubber plantations. When comparing time-averaged carbon stocks of swidden systems to rubber plantations with 30 year rotation periods, the stocks of swidden systems with rotation times of 5 and 10 years were 19% and 13% lower......Conversion of shifting cultivation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations is one of the dominant land use changes in montane mainland areas of Southeast Asia, with the area of rubber expected to quadruple by 2050. However, the impacts of this transition on total ecosystem carbon stocks...... are poorly quantified. We undertook a chronosequence study to quantify changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following conversion from swidden agriculture to rubber plantations in Northern Laos. We measured above-ground biomass stocks and collected volume specific soil samples across rubber plantations...

  9. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  10. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  11. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykvist, N.; Grip, A.; Malmer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Utilization the nuclear techniques use to estimate the water erosion in tobacco plantations in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Reinaldo H.; Peralta, José L.; Carrazana, Jorge; Fleitas, Gema; Aguilar, Yulaidis; Rivero, Mario; Morejón, Yilian M.; Oliveira, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a relevant factor in land degradation, causing several negative impacts to different levels in the environment, agriculture, etc. The tobacco plantations in the western part of the country have been negatively affected by the water erosion due to natural and human factors. For the implementation of a strategy for sustainable land management a key element is to quantify the soil losses in order to establish policies for soil conservation. The nuclear techniques have advantages in comparison with the traditional methods to assess soil erosion and have been applied in different agricultural settings worldwide. The tobacco cultivation in Pinar del Río is placed on soils with high erosion levels, therefore is important to apply techniques which support the soil erosion rate quantification. This work shows the use of "1"3"7Cs technique to characterize the soil erosion status in two sectors in a farm with tobacco plantations located in the south-western plain of Pinar del Rio province. The sampling strategy included the evaluation of selected transects in the slope direction for the studied site. The soil samples were collected in order to incorporate the whole "1"3"7Cs profile. Different conversion models were applied and the Mass Balance Model II provided the more representative results, estimating the soil erosion rate from –18,28 to 8,15 t ha"-"1año"-"1. (author)

  13. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  14. The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stille, L.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Wicke, B.; Singh, R.; Singh, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the

  15. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  16. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  17. Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management.

  18. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, P.H.M.; Poggiani, F.; Laclau, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha - '1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  19. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  20. ALTERAÇÕES EM ALGUNS ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DO SOLO DECORRENTES DA IRRIGAÇÃO E ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA E POTÁSSICA EM BANANEIRA APÓS DOIS CICLOS DE CULTIVO CHANGES ON SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES DUE TO NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION IN BANANA PLANTATION AFTER TWO CROP CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo causadas pela adubação nitrogenada e potássica em bananeira sob duas condições de irrigação, coletaram-se amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico (Eutrustox, provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Jaboticabal (SP durante dois anos. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas principais constituídas por dois regimes hídricos: irrigado (microaspersão e sequeiro, e as subparcelas, pelas combinações de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0; 200; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N e quatro de potássio (0; 300; 600 e 900 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. A adubação nitrogenada causou decréscimos significativos nos valores de pH do solo, saturação por bases e teor de Mg trocável. O cultivo de bananeiras, especialmente sob irrigação, determinou redução significativa nos teores de K trocável do solo em dois ciclos de produção. Os efeitos da cultura sobre alguns atributos do solo indicam a necessidade de monitoramento periódico da fertilidade, visando à manutenção de condições satisfatórias para produção, especialmente quanto à acidez e aos teores de K e Mg trocáveis.Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to nitrogen and potassium fertilization and irrigation in a banana plantation. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out on an Eutrustox (Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico in São Paulo State, Brazil, during two crop seasons. A split-plot design was used with irrigation (micro-sprinkler and no irrigation applied to main plots and a combination of four rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg N ha-1 year-1 and K (0, 300, 600 and 900 kg K2O ha-1 year-1 as the sub-plots treatments. Soil pH, base saturation and exchangeable Mg decreased with increasing in N rates. Exchangeable K was

  1. Microbial biomass and bacterial functional diversity in forest soils: effects of organic matter removal, compaction, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingchao Li; H. Lee Allen; Arthur G. Wollum

    2004-01-01

    The effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, C-to-N ratio, and functional diversity were examined in a 6-year loblolly pine plantation on a Coastal Plain site in eastern North Carolina, USA. This experimental plantation was established as part of the US Forest Service's Long Term Soil...

  2. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  3. HUBUNGAN KEDEKATAN EKOLOGIS ANTARA FAUNA TANAH DENGAN KARAKTERISTIK TANAH GAMBUT YANG DIDRAINASE UNTUK HTI Acacia crassicarpa (Ecological Proximity Relationship Between Soil Fauna and The Characteristics of Drained Peatland for Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Lisnawati

    2014-10-01

    yang tinggi dan mempunyai tingkat kematangan yang masih rendah.   ABSTRACT Management of peatlands for HTI cultivation of Acacia crassicarpa begins by making drainage ditches and land clearing, followed by the preparation of land for planting. As for the maintenance activity, it includes weed control using herbicides and fertilizer. Management and maintenance activities certainly have implications for the ecological condition of peatlands, where the changes in ecological conditions due to land conversion will impact the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. Abundance and diversity of soil fauna and ecosystem function showed a very complex relationship not widely known this far.  Soil fauna tendency to select certain habitat is affected by several ecological factors, both biotic and abiotic. The study aims to assess the ecological proximity between the characteristics of peatland drained for HTI cultivation of A. crassicarpa and the abundance of soil fauna. The study was conducted in HTI peatlands of PT. Arara Abadi, Rasau Kuning District, Siak Regency, Riau. Soil fauna sampling was conducted by taking soil sample of 25 x 25 x 25 cm in size.  Separation of soil fauna from the soil was performed by a modification to a barlese funnel. Observed variables were the abundance and the diversity of soil fauna, peat maturity (C/N, water contentof peatand ground water table.  For observing ecological proximity, hierarchical analysis was used.  Result showed that the highest of soil fauna abundance was found in A. crassicarpa stand, 2 year’s old of age. The species diversity of soil fauna in research location included as medium abundant by H’ value 1,2. Formicidae was potential become a low level-humidity bioindicators of peatsoil, which described by those pattern : low water content and higher level of peat maturity. Entomobryidae was potential become a high water content  bioindicator and low level of peat maturity.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  5. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  6. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  7. Determination of fertility rating (FR) in the 3-PG model for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystem, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. Phytocentric and geocenctric approaches were used to assess soil fertility in loblolly pine plantations throughout their geographic range in the United States. The model to assess soil fertility using a phytocentric approach was constructed using the relationship between site index and aboveground productivity. Geocentric models used physic...

  8. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  9. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  10. Structure and Composition of Vegetation of Longleaf Pine Plantations Compared to Natural Stands Occurring Along an Environmental Gradient at the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Smith; Victor B. Shelburne; Joan L. Walker

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-four plots in 33-43 year old longleaf pine plantations were compared to 30 remnant plots in longleaf stands on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Within these stands, the structure and composition of primarily the herb layer relative to a presumed soil moisture or soil texture gradient was studied using the North Carolina Vegetation Survey methodology....

  11. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  12. Application of the neutron gamma method to a study of water seepage under a rice plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puard, M.; Couchat, P.; Moutonnet, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the share of percolation in the pollution by pesticides (particularly Lindane) being carried down in the drainage water of rice plantations, an application of the neutron gamma method under rice cultivation in the Camargue is suggested. A preliminary laboratory study enabled a comparison to be made between deuteriated water (DHO) and tritiated water (THO) used as water tracers in the determination of the dispersive phenomena and retention in a column of saturated soil [fr

  13. Carbon Stocks across a Fifty Year Chronosequence of Rubber Plantations in Tropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C sequestration remains unclear. The biomass C accumulation including latex C and C distribution in soil of five different-aged stands (7, 13, 19, 25 and 47 years old were examined. The total biomass C stock (TBC and total net primary productivity (NPPtotal, whether with or without latex C, had a close quadratic relationship with stand age. Regardless of stand age, around 68% of the C was stored in aboveground biomass, and NPPlatex contributed to approximately 18% of C sequestration. Soil organic carbon stock in the 100-cm depth remained relatively stable, but it lost about 16.8 Mg ha−1 with stand age. The total ecosystem C stock (TEC across stands averaged 159.6, 174.4, 229.6, 238.1 and 291.9 Mg ha−1, respectively, of which more than 45% was stored in the soil. However, biomass would become the major C sink rather than soil over a maximal rubber life expectancy. Regression analysis showed that TEC for rubber plantation at 22 years is comparable to a baseline of 230.4 Mg ha−1 for tropical forest in China, and would reach the maximum value at around 54 years. Therefore, rubber plantation can be considered as alternative land use without affecting net forest ecosystem C storage. In addition to the potential C gains, a full set of ecosystem and economic properties have to be quantified in order to assess the trade-offs associated with forest-to-rubber transition.

  14. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  15. Comparison of bacteria diversity between tobacco plantation soils of rotational cropping and continuous cropping%烤烟轮作与连作土壤细菌群落多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉琪; 晋艳; 陈泽斌; 夏振远; 杨宇虹; 徐照丽

    2012-01-01

    Total DNA of microbe in rotational cropping and continuous cropping soil were extracted and amplified by PCR with universally bacteria-specific rDNA primers. Clone libraries were set up to evaluate responses of soil bacteria community to different tobacco cropping systems (rotational and continuous cropping). PCR-RFLP analysis was carried out with restriction endonuclease Hae III and Afa I. 147 and 177 types of restriction endonuclease were obtained from these samples. Statistical analysis using diversity index measurement showed both Shannon-wiener index and species richness of rotational cropping soil were higher than that in continuous cropping soil. Bacterial phylogenetic trees of the samples revealed that Acidobacteria was dominant group in continuous cropping soil library while acidobacteria,γ-pro-teobacterium, α-proteobacterium were in rotational cropping soil library. It indicated that rotational farming system could improve bacterial diversity of soil while continuous cropping could simplify bacterial community structure. This phenomenon might cause functional disorder in bacterial community and destruction of ecological balance in rhizosphere soil. It might be one of the factors resulted in continuous cropping obstacle.%为了解烤烟轮作和连作对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响,分别提取轮作和连作土壤总DNA,用细菌16S rDNA特异引物扩增出细菌16S rDNA,建立克隆文库.用限制性内切酶Hae Ⅲ和AfaⅠ进行PCR-RFLP分析,分别得到177和147个酶切类型,采用多样性指数对试验结果进行分析统计表明,香农多样性指数和丰富度指数均表现为轮作大于连作.通过构建两克隆文库的系统发育树,并分析主要种群的组成表明:连作文库的优势种群主要集中在酸杆菌门,轮作文库的优势种群主要分布在酸杆菌门、γ-变形菌门、α-变形菌门.说明轮作方式可提高植烟土壤细菌群落的多样性,而连作使植烟土壤细菌群落结构

  16. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  17. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  18. Cd toxicity in Ash amended to plantations; the dilemma of different answers at different levels of description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    . Other more abundant cations like Zn regulate Cd uptake. Mycorrhiza reduce Cd uptake in several plants. In barley Cd gradually decrease from root via stem to seeds. In conclusion for ash amounts up to 10 t/ha, we do not find metal toxicity of ash or evidence for bioaccumulation of metals in soil...... growth, equally because of the pH increase and the nutrients added. The pH increase stimulates decomposition activity. Soil carbon availability is not permanently increased with ash amendment, however, which may suggest that decomposition increase is coupled to primary production increase. Plantation....... Wood ash increase plantation soil Cd, and so did Cd in grass although at a very low level, Cd in lichens and Cd in the small biomass of earthworms. The toxicity of Cd is regulated by metal binding to soil being several orders of magnitude lower than in pure liquid. Ash is toxic towards microarthropods...

  19. Nitrogen supply and demand in short-rotation sweetgum plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Intensive management is crucial for optimizing hardwood plantation success, and nitrogen (N) nutrition management is one of the most important practices in intensive management. Because management of short-rotation woody crop plantations is a mixture of row-crop agriculture and plantation forestry, we tested the usefulness of an agronomic budget modified for deciduous...

  20. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  1. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xesús Gómez-Rey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peletizada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extraível do solo. A nitrificação líquida foi igualmente estimulada. A quantidade de C microbiano nos solos com cinza pulverulenta foi inferior ao controlo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos para a respiração basal do solo. O quociente metabólico foi superior na fase inicial da incubação. Os efeitos observados foram, em geral, tanto mais intensos quanto maior a dose de cinza aplicada e mais acentuados na presença de N. A cinza aplicada sob forma peletizada não produziu um efeito tão acentuado nas características do solo nem na elevação da alcalinidade, determinando uma fraca influência na dinâmica de C e na produção de nitrato. Em sistemas como o estudado a aplicação de cinza sob forma peletizada é preferível, ao originar um efeito mais prolongado da sua acção, devendo ser acompanhada de fertilizantes azotados para aumentar a disponibilidade de N no solo.Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal respiration was not affected by treatments. Effects increased with the

  2. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Obidzinski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.

  3. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  4. Nitrogen Fertilization Increases Cottonwood Growth on Old-Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. G. Blackmon; E. H. White

    1972-01-01

    Nitrogen (150 lb ./acre as NH4N03 ) applied to a 6-year-old eastern cottonwood plantation in an old field on Commerce silt loam soil increased diameter, basal area, and volume growth by 200 percent over untreated controls. The plantation did not respond to 100 pounds P per acre from concentrated superphosphate.

  5. LEGUMINOUS COVER CROPS FOR BANANA PLANTATIONS IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEUS AUGUSTO LIMA QUARESMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures and low rainfall characterize the Brazilian semiarid regions. This regional climate demands the adoption of practices that increase the efficiency and sustainability of local farming. This study aimed to assess the ability of two perennial herbaceous leguminous species, calopo and tropical kudzu, to provide permanent soil cover in banana plantations in Jequitinhonha Valley, northeast Minas Gerais state, Brazil. To this end, we evaluated the differences of calopo and tropical kudzu in soil cover capacity and the amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface, nutrient content in senescent phytomass, as well as their effects on temperature and soil moisture, compared with bare soil in two experimental sites. The results showed that, compared with tropical kudzu, calopo had a higher soil cover capacity and was more effective at increasing organic material and nutrients in the soil owing to the relatively higher amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface. However, both calopo and tropical kudzu reduced soil temperature and increase soil moisture compared with bare soil. Overall, we concluded that these species can deposit high levels of senescence in the soil, providing several benefits to the cultivation system of banana plants in the semiarid regions.

  6. Influence of field slope and coffee plantation age on the physical properties of a red-yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Iori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern agriculture, several factors cause changes in the soil physical properties. The time of establishment of a crop (plantation age and the slope are examples of factors that moderate the impact of mechanized operations on the soil structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of machinery traffic on the physical properties of a Red-Yellow Latosol under coffee plantations with different ages (2, 7, 18, and 33 years and slope positions (3, 9 and 15 %. Samples were collected from three positions between coffee rows (lower wheel track, inter-row and upper wheel track and at two depths (surface layer and sub-surface. Changes in the total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, organic matter, bulk density, and aggregate stability were investigated. Our results showed that the slope influenced the organic matter content, microporosity and aggregate stability. The soil samples under the inter-row were minimally damaged in their structure, compared to those from under the lower and upper wheel track, while the structure was better preserved under the lower than the upper track. The time since the establishment of the crop, i.e., the plantation age, was the main factor determining the extent of structural degradation in the coffee plantation.

  7. Preliminary study on biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auliana; Kaonongbua, W.

    2018-04-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the promising crop plants which has been used as raw material for producing daily products. In agricultural ecosystems, crop plants could develop a plant-fungal association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objectives of this study were to determine the AMF biodiversity and mycorrhizal infection percentage (MIP) from field-collected soil samples of three oil palm plantations from Nong Khai, Surat Thani, and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Soil characteristics (moisture content, pH, and available phosphorus) were also measured. Thirteen AMF species belonging to seven genera were identified from all soil samples, whereas Glomus spp. and Acaulospora spp. were most commonly found species. AMF biodiversity value from Chiang Rai was statistically different from other two provinces (p biodiversity. These results confirmed that AMF normally occurs in oil palm plantations, but at different levels of biodiversity possibly due to different environmental factors in each plantation. Nevertheless, this information could be useful for using AMF in plant growth promoter and pathogen resistance programs in order to achieve the agricultural sustainability, especially in oil palm plantations.

  8. Matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, V.D.; Takahashi, P.K.; Singh, D.; Khan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii were utilized to estimate biomass yields and production costs for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala. The 'analogous site' method matches the environmental conditions, including soil, rainfall, temperature, and insolation parameters, of well-characterized experimental biomass research sites which produce known yields of these species with similar land areas, or with those areas that can be made similar through soil amendments and improvement, where no field trials exist. The result is the identification of sites with biomass growth, yield, and cost performances which are analogous to the experimental site. The 'regression model' method relates known site-specific biomass productivity with environmental and soil conditions and management practices developed from sites featuring widely different and distinct environmental conditions. Equations then enable the prediction of biomass performance and production costs for each species at any location statewide. The analytical results, using a geographical information system database and the above methods, are presented in map form to expedite the site selection process which indicates expected biomass yield and cost for several fast-growing tropical hardwood species in Hawaii

  9. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  10. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  11. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  12. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  13. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha −1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha −1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  14. Assessment of weeds as alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee plantations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is potential for weeds to be alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN, but a methodology that assesses the phytosanitary risk derived from the presence of weeds in plantations is not available. This research was conducted in order to determine if the presence of weeds in coffee plantations (organic and conventional represented a phytosanitary risk due to their role as alternative hosts of PPN. The research was developed into two plantation located in Aserrí, San José, Costa Rica during August, 2010. The most important weeds were identified in the plantations, also nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Helicotylenchus were quantified in soil and roots from selected weeds and coffee plants. A permutational analysis of variance was executed in order to determine the genera of PPN that significantly differed from the ones found in weeds to the ones found in coffee plants. Based on these results, the weeds were classified as: reservoir, trap crop, or weak host of PPN. This classification criterion, in addition to life cycle and type of parasitism of the PPN were used to assign numerical values to the weeds. The values were used to calculate the Phytosanitary Risk Index (PRI that acquired a maximum value of 10 for the weed Piper umbellatum in the organic plantation, and a maximum value of 24 for Commelina diffusa, Emilia fosbergii, Spananthe paniculata, Delilia biflora, and Spermacoce hirta in the conventional plantation. The results indicated that from a nematological perspective the presence of these weeds in coffee plantation could be a potential risk for coffee plants

  15. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  16. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  18. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  19. Biomass production in energy plantation of Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurumurti, K.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on time trends of biomass production by means of age series in energy plantations (spacing 1.3 x 1.3 m) of Prosopis juliflora is presented. The component biomass production at the age of 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months was determined. The results show considerable variation among the population of trees. However, distinct linear relationship between girth at breast height (GBH) and total height was discernible. The total biomass produced at 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months of age was 19.69, 41.39, 69.11, 114.62 and 148.63 dry tonnes per hectare, respectively. The corresponding figures for utilizable biomass (wood, bark and branch) were 14.63, 32.17, 50.59, 88.87 and 113.25 dry tonnes per hectare. At all the periods of study, branch component formed the major portion of total biomass being around 50 to 55%. Utilizable biomass was three-fourths of total biomass at all ages. The solar energy conversion efficiency ranged from 0.59% at 18 months to 1.68% at 48 months of age, the peak value being 1.87% at the age of 36 months. It is shown that the variables diameter and height can be used to reliably predict the biomass production in Prosopis juliflora with the help of the regression equations developed in the present study. It is concluded that Prosopis juliflora is an ideal candidate for energy plantations in semi arid and marginal lands, not only to meet the fuelwood demands but also to improve the soil fertility, for, this plant is a fast growing and nitrogen fixing leguminous tree.

  20. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  1. Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifang; Fu, Shenglei; Zhao, Hongting; Xia, Hanping

    2011-01-01

    We report on the effects of forest management practices of understory removal and N-fixing species (Cassia alata) addition on soil CO2 fluxes in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation (EUp), Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp), 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp), and 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) using the static chamber method in southern China. Four forest management treatments, including (1) understory removal (UR); (2) C. alata addition (CA); (3) understory removal and replacement with C. alata (UR+CA); and (4) control without any disturbances (CK), were applied in the above four forest plantations with three replications for each treatment. The results showed that soil CO2 fluxes rates remained at a high level during the rainy season (from April to September), followed by a rapid decrease after October reaching a minimum in February. Soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P plantations under various management practices.

  2. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  3. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Caracterização da matéria orgânica do solo em fragmentos de mata atlântica e em plantios abandonados de eucalipto Quality of soil organic matter in fragments of atlantic forest and abandoned eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana do Couto Miranda

    2007-10-01

    capacidade de ceder elétrons para reações químicas do solo.The organic matter dynamics in Atlantic forest ecosystems must be understood to ensure the efficiency of conservation programs. Chemical characteristics of humic substances are important because they reflect the soil genesis processes and soil management, and can be used as indicator of the organic matter quality. The purpose of this study was to test the organic matter quality as a marker of the soil environment in areas of native Atlantic forest developed on a distrophyc Gleysol and a distrophyc Cambisol and in abandoned plantations of eucalyptus of different ages, at the União Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the humified fractions of the soil organic matter and humic acids were evaluated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, in two soil layers (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. Soil fertility of the Biological Reserve was very low, representing a limiting factor for the humification process. Humic substances represented less than 50 % of the oxidized carbon, indicating that most of the organic matter consists of non-humic substances. Consequently, forest litterfall plays a central role in the plant/microorganism nutrition. The relative distribution of the humic fraction was not altered by the plant cover or soil class. The chemical nature of the humic acids was similar to fulvic acids. These characteristics were expressed by a low carbon content, high H/C and O/C ratios and high acidity values which resulted in humified material with low chemical evolution. Infrared spectroscopy indicated the effect of the soil class and plant cover on the chemical quality of the humic acids. The fluorescence intensity of humified material isolated from the Atlantic forest area was high, suggesting higher lability and capacity to release electrons for chemical reactions in the soil.

  5. Land cover changes affect soil chemical attributes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations may minimize the effects of deforestation in the Amazon. However, there are differences among species in terms of their influences on soil recovery. The effects of monospecific plantations of Acacia mangium, Dipteryx odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Parkia decussata,and Swietenia macrophylla, and areas of pasture and native forest on the chemical soil attributes of the Brazilian Amazon were evaluated. One bulked soil sample was collected per plot (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m; three plots of 128 m2 in each area. No significant differences in most of the soil attributes were observed among the forest plantations. However, soil K+ and P were higher in the Swietenia macrophylla plantations, while higher values of Ca2+, sum of bases, and pH occurred in Jacaranda copaia plantations. In the native forest, the pH, and P content were lower, whereas the soil organic matter (SOM content, soil organic carbon (SOC content, cation exchange capacity (CEC, N content, H+Al content, and Al3+ content were higher than in the plantations. The lowest values of SOM, SOC, CEC, K+, Mg2+, N, H+Al, and Al3+ occurred in the pasture. None of the forest species led to the return of the original soil chemical attributes of the native forest. However, S. macrophylla and J. copaia plantations presented the highest positive edaphic influences.

  6. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  7. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Estimating the gross budget of applied nitrogen and phosphorus in tea plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase crop yield, high fertilizer application rates have generally been used. The residual fertilizers potentially become a source of diffused pollution, and degrade soil and water quality. Such nonpoint source pollution is a major threat to reservoir eutrophication. The best management practices (BMPs are usually used to prevent eutrophication; however, the environmental distribution of the applied fertilizers has not been understood properly. This could lead to a biased assessment of the rational quantity of nitrogen and phosphorous applied and the selection of BMPs. A field investigation of 32 plantations and 4 forests in the Feitsui Reservoir watershed, Taiwan, was conducted. Storm runoff water and soils were sampled, and a mass balance was used to demonstrate the gross nutrient budget. The results showed that when applying fertilizers of 2700 kg ha−1 in tea plantations only 18.3% of applied nitrogen and 5.5% of applied phosphorus were utilized by tea plants. Less than 5% of applied phosphorus was released in storm runoff, and more than 90% remained in the field. Approximately 30% of the nitrogen was lost through storm runoff, and 52% was stored in the soil mass. Therefore, reducing fertilizer application was recommended as the principal BMP, and collecting and treating storm runoff was suggested for controlling nitrogen pollution. The current management of soil erosion is an efficient measure for controlling phosphorus pollution.

  9. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O.; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A.; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha −1 , equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha −1 of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving

  10. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  11. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  12. [Effect of soil phenolic acids on soil microbe of coal-mining depressed land after afforestation restoration by different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Yang, Li Xue

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids are one of the most important factors that influence microbial community structure. Investigating the dynamic changes of phenolic acids and their relationship with the microbial community structure in plantation soils with different tree species could contribute to better understanding and revealing the mechanisms of microbial community changes under afforestation restoration in coal-mining subsidence areas. In this study, plantations of three conifer and one deciduous species (Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and Populus ussuriensis) were established on abandoned coal-mining subsidence areas in Baoshan District, Shuangyashan City. The contents of soil phenols, 11 types of phenolic acids, and microbial communities in all plots were determined. The results showed that the contents of soil complex phenol in plantations were significantly higher than that of abandoned land overall. Specifically, soils in larch and poplar plantations had higher contents of complex phenol, while soils in larch and Korean pine plantations had greater contents of total phenol. Moreover, soil in the P. koraiensis plantation had a higher content of water-soluble phenol compared with abandoned lands. The determination of 11 phenolic acids indicated that the contents of ferulic acid, abietic acid, β-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, shikimic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid were higher in plantation soils. Although soil phenol contents were not related with soil microbial biomass, the individual phenolic acids showed a significant relationship with soil microbes. Ferulic acid, abietic acid, and β-sitosterol showed significant promoting effects on soil microbial biomass, and they showed positive correlations with fungi and fungi/bacteria ratio. These three phenolic acids had higher contents in the poplar plantation, suggesting that poplar affo-restation had a beneficial effect on soil quality in coal-mining subsidence areas.

  13. Automated Plantation Mapping in Indonesia Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpatne, A.; Jia, X.; Khandelwal, A.; Kumar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation mapping is critical for understanding and addressing deforestation, a key driver of climate change and ecosystem degradation. Unfortunately, most plantation maps are limited to small areas for specific years because they rely on visual inspection of imagery. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach which automatically generates yearly plantation maps for large regions using MODIS multi-spectral data. While traditional machine learning algorithms face manifold challenges in this task, e.g. imperfect training labels, spatio-temporal data heterogeneity, noisy and high-dimensional data, lack of evaluation data, etc., we introduce a novel deep learning-based framework that combines existing imperfect plantation products as training labels and models the spatio-temporal relationships of land covers. We also explores the post-processing steps based on Hidden Markov Model that further improve the detection accuracy. Then we conduct extensive evaluation of the generated plantation maps. Specifically, by randomly sampling and comparing with high-resolution Digital Globe imagery, we demonstrate that the generated plantation maps achieve both high precision and high recall. When compared with existing plantation mapping products, our detection can avoid both false positives and false negatives. Finally, we utilize the generated plantation maps in analyzing the relationship between forest fires and growth of plantations, which assists in better understanding the cause of deforestation in Indonesia.

  14. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  15. Relationship between Sampling Distance and Carbon Dioxide Emission under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A carbon dioxide emission on peatland under oil palm plantation was highly varied due to many factors involved. The objectives of the research were to evaluate the effect of sampling distance from center of oil palm tree on Carbon dioxide flux, and to study the factors that cause variability of carbon dioxide flux on peatland under oil palm plantation. The study was conducted on peatland at Arang-Arang Village, Kumpek Ulu Sub-District, Muaro Jambi District, Jambi Province, on six-years old oil palm plantation. The study was conducted in the form of observational exploratory. Emission measurements were performed on 5 selected oil palm trees at points within 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 cm from the center of trunk. Carbon dioxide flux was measured using (IRGA, Li-COR 820. The results showed that there was significant correlation between the distance of sampling from center of oil palm tree and Carbon dioxide flux. The farther distance from the tree, the more decreased of Carbon dioxide flux . Before applying fertilizer, variability of soil fertility was not significantly correlated with the flux of Carbon dioxide, so the difference of Carbon dioxide flux based on distance sampling can be caused by root distribution factor. After fertilizer application, variability of Carbon dioxide flux under the oil palm tree were not only affected by differences in root distribution but also greatly influenced by fertilization.

  16. The influence of the plantation establishment method on the yield of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with one- and two-year-old marshmallow plants was carried out in Zamość on brown soil of loess origin in 2002-2004. There were four methods of plantation establishment: 1 direct sowing in the field (control object; 2 direct sowing in the field with cover of polypropylene sheet; 3 by seedlings from a plastic house; 4 by seedlings produced in multi-cell propagation trays. It was found that, in the case of one-year-old plants, all the methods of plantation establishment significantly increased the yield and the number of marshmallow flowers, as compared to the control object, but the best results were obtained when the plants were propagated from seedlings produced in multi-cell trays. Taking into account the two-year-old plants, no significant impact of the plantation establishment method on flower yield was found. On average, total yields of flowers varied from 17.2 dt×ha-1 in the first year of vegetation to 27.8 dt×ha-1 in the case of the two-year-old plants.

  17. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Krashevska

    Full Text Available Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  18. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  19. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Jérôme Ogée; Asko Noormets; Julien Jouangy; Michael Gavazzi; Emrys Treasure; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the...

  20. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  1. Effects of intensive thinning on rainfall partitioning in a Japanese cedar plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Y.; Komatsu, H.; Nogata, M.; Otsuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, thinning has been conducted in coniferous plantations in Japan to reduce water shortage, flood, soil erosion, and landslide risks. Incident precipitation (Pr) in forests can be partitioned into throughfall (Tf), stemflow (Sf), and canopy interception loss (Ic). Evapotranspiration is tightly related to runoff regime, and Ic is a major component of evapotranspiration as well as transpiration. Furthermore, the ratio of Tf to Sf would be important for various hydrological aspects. Sf can preferentially divert rainwater in soil layer and cause preferential flow, which produces spatial variations in the soil water content and contributes ground water discharge. However, no studies have examined changes in Tf, Sf, and Ic due to thinning in Cryptomeria japonica forests, the most common type of plantation in Japan. We measured Tf, Sf, and Ic for one year both before and after thinning and investigated changes in Tf, Sf, and Ic due to thinning in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation. Thinning reduced stem density by 54% from 1300 to 600 stems ha-1 the basal area by 50% from 99.7 to 49.6 m2 ha-1. Tf/Pr, Sf /Pr, and Ic/Pr before thinning were 74%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. After thinning, those percentages changed to 86%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. The change in Tf/Pr was comparable to that in canopy cover. The change in Sf/Pr corresponded with change in the number of trees because Sf for each tree was not changed considerably between the periods before and after thinning. The change in Ic/Pr was greater than that predicted using the model commonly used in Japan to predict changes in Ic/Pr. This result suggests that the model might not be applicable after intensive thinning in Cryptomeria japonica forests.

  2. Entisol land characteristics with and without cover crop (Mucuna bracteata) on rubber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiah; Sembiring, M.; Hasibuan, J.

    2018-02-01

    Optimal nutrient delivery is one way to improve the quality and quantity of crop production. This is because the crops needs for nutrient is quite high, while the soil capacity in providing nutrients is limited. In addition to fertilization, nutrients can be given in the form of added organic material or planted as cover crop. The research took place from April to August 2016 in Bandar Pinang, Bandar Sumatera Indonesia Ltd. (SIPEF Group) plantation, with survey method. Soil samples were taken based on: Topography (flat and slope 15-30%), cover crop (with or without Mucuna bracteata) and plant age (seedling periods 1, 2 and 3). The soil sample is taken composite by zig zag method. The observed parameters were organic matter, N total, soil texture, bulk density and infiltration rate. Mucuna bracteata planting increased the contain of soil organic matter by 30.43% in flat area and 53.33% in hilly area, amount of N total soil by 27.27% in flat area and 7.69% at hilly area, bulk density 3.73 % In flat area and 0.41% in hilly area, soil infiltration by 48.88% with sandy clay dominant soil texture.

  3. Simulating the effects of site index variation within loblolly pine plantations using an individual tree growth and yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Site index is the most common metric of site productivity in loblolly pine plantations. Generally applied as a constant for a particular stand, it provides an overall measure of a site’s ability to grow trees. It is well known, however, that even the most uniform stands can have considerable variation in site index due to soil factors that influence microsite,...

  4. Changes in eucalypt litter quality during the first three months of field decomposition in a Congolese plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ngao, Jérôme; Bernhard Reversat, France; Loumeto, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    In fast-growing tree plantations, decomposition of leaf litter is considered as a key process of soil fertility. A three-month field experiment, spanning both rainy and dry seasons, was conducted to determine how changes in litter decomposition affect the main parameters of litter quality-namely, the concentrations of phenolic and non-phenolic carbon (C) compounds, nitrogen (N), and fibres, and the litter C mineralization rate. This Study was conducted to test (1) if these changes vary accord...

  5. Effects of mountain tea plantations on nutrient cycling at upstream watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.-C.; Shaner, P.-J. L.; Wang, L.-J.; Shih, Y.-T.; Wang, C.-P.; Huang, G.-H.; Huang, J.-C.

    2015-11-01

    The expansion of agriculture to rugged mountains can exacerbate negative impacts of agricultural activities on ecosystem function. In this study, we monitored streamwater and rainfall chemistry of mountain watersheds at the Feitsui Reservoir Watershed in northern Taiwan to examine the effects of agriculture on watershed nutrient cycling. We found that the greater the proportion of tea plantation cover, the higher the concentrations of fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) in streamwater of the four mountain watersheds examined; on the other hand, the concentrations of the ions that are rich in soils (SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+) did not increase with the proportion of tea plantation cover, suggesting that agriculture enriched fertilizer-associated nutrients in streamwater. Of the two watersheds for which rainfall chemistry was available, the one with higher proportion of tea plantation cover had higher concentrations of ions in rainfall and retained less nitrogen in proportion to input compared to the more pristine watershed, suggesting that agriculture can influence atmospheric deposition of nutrients and a system's ability to retain nutrients. As expected, we found that a forested watershed downstream of agricultural activities can dilute the concentrations of NO3- in streamwater by more than 70 %, indicating that such a landscape configuration helps mitigate nutrient enrichment in aquatic systems even for watersheds with steep topography. We estimated that tea plantation at our study site contributed approximately 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 of NO3-N via streamwater, an order of magnitude greater than previously reported for agricultural lands around the globe, which can only be matched by areas under intense fertilizer use. Furthermore, we constructed watershed N fluxes to show that excessive leaching of N, and additional loss to the atmosphere via volatilization and denitrification can occur under intense fertilizer use. In summary, this study demonstrated the pervasive impacts of

  6. Temporal distribution of sediment yield from catchments covered by different pine plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sedimentation are environmental problems faced by tropical countries. Many researches on soil erosion-sedimentation have been conducted with various results. Quantifying soil erosion-sedimentation and its temporal distribution are important for watershed management. Therefore, a study with the objective to quantify the amount of suspended sediment from catchments under various pine plantation areas was conducted. The research was undertaken during 2010 to 2017 in seven catchments with various percentage of pine coverage in Kebumen Regency, Central Java Province. The rainfall data were collected from two rainfall stations. A tide gauge was installed at the outlet of each catchment to monitor stream water level. The water samples for every stream water level increment were analyzed to obtain sediment concentration. The results showed that monthly suspended sediment of the catchments was high in January to April and October to December, and low in May to September. The annual suspended sediment fluctuated during the study period. Non-linear correlations were observed between suspended sediment and rainfall as well as suspended sediment and percentage pine areas. The line trend between suspended sediment and percentage of pine areas showed that the increase in pine areas decreased suspended sediment, with the slope of the graph is sharp at the percentage of pine areas from 8% to 40%, then is gentle for pine plantation areas more than 40%.

  7. Use of radio-active phosphorus in determining the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by cacao plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahenkorah, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Both 32 P labelled phosphate solution and superphosphate were used in studying 1) in situ root distribution and activity of twenty year old Amelonado cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) during wet and dry seasons, and 2) the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by the cacao plantation. The 32 P content of the leaves was used to determine patterns of root activity. Uptake of 32 P was greatest during the wet season and root activity highest within the upper 3 cm soil layer in both wet and dry seasons. Highest 32 P activity was obtained at a distance of 120-160 cm, and lowest at 91 cm from the base of the tree. For maximum utilization of phosphate fertilizer by a plantation of twenty year old Amelonado cacao, planted at 240 cm x 240 cm spacing, the fertilizer should be broadcast during the wet season. Under low soil moisture conditions, the placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate provides information on the relative availability of fertilizer or soil phosphorus and does not necessarily reflect the activity of the root profile. Active roots of cacao tend to be more extensive and are capable of exploring a much larger area than hitherto expected

  8. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  9. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  10. Landfill: Comparison of pedogenesis between sites of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh plantation and naturalized herbaceus vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, J. W.; Marlats, R. M.; Baridon, E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was compared different levels of pedogenetics process between sites with Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and naturalized grass. The trial was installed on landfill soil cover in Villa Domínico, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine, CEAMSE, 34°40’S,50’’; 58°18’45’’W; 4m osl. At five age of trees and forteen of the Landfill was realized the following determination: 1- Physical and Chemicals caracterization of own microsite tree and analogical microsite without trees inf...

  11. The disciplining of illegal palm oil plantations in Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, Eusebius Pantja; Hospes, Otto; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Indonesian state has issued many regulations to control palm oil expansion, but they have been weakly enforced, resulting in widespread illegal plantations. During the last decade, Indonesian authorities have used force to reduce illegal plantations. This article analyses the drivers behind

  12. Plantation Forestry in Sub Saharan Africa: Silvicultural, Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the potentials of meeting the wood demand and achieving SFM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through the establishment of forest plantations. The paper reviews forest plantation ownership and distribution patterns in SSA and the factors –silvicultural, ecological, and economic that affect supply and ...

  13. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  14. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  15. Restoring southern Ontario forests by managing succession in conifer plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Thinning and underplanting of conifer plantations to promote natural succession in southern Ontario's forests for restoration purposes was examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Eleven years after application of five thinning treatments, seedling diameter, height, and stem volume of planted white ash (Fraxinus...

  16. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  17. 1 Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics under different plantation crops of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreased in the following order SOC in young cocoa (1 year) > young coffee (6 years)> old ... of establishment will necessitate the need to produce a suitable habitat for ..... America and America Society of Agronomy, SSSA Book series No. 5,.

  18. Comparative effects of Apron plus 50DS and soil amendment on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2005-09-27

    Sep 27, 2005 ... 1Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, P.M.B.5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, .... I.A.R. and T., Moor. Plantation, Ibadan The unsterilized soil was used to mimic field condition. The pots were set-up on the floor of glass-house using a ..... Allanhold Osman and Co.

  19. Razão de perdas de terra e fator C da cultura do cafeeiro em cinco espaçamentos, em Pindorama (SP Soil loss ratio and C factor for coffee plantations in five spacings in Pindorama, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Prochnow

    2005-02-01

    (Coffea arabica L. planted in five spacings (3.0 x 0.5 m, 3.0 x 1.0 m, 3.0 x 2.0 m, 3.0 x 3.0 m, and 4.0 x 2.0 m. The crop cycle was divided in two stages: from planting to 60 months and from 60 to 144 months, on an Arenic Ultic Orthoxic Tropudalf with an average slope of 0.100 m m-1. Results showed that: (a the annual average soil and water losses for coffee plantations are 4 Mg ha-1 and 18 mm respectively; (b the SLR values for the coffee tree are 0.1346, 0.0883, 0.1015, 0.1422, and 0.1001 Mg ha-1 Mg-1 ha for the spacings 3.0 x 0.5 m, 3.0 x 1.0 m, 3.0 x 2.0 m, 3.0 x 3.0 m, and 4.0 x 2.0 m respectively; (c the C Factor values for the same spacing are, respectively, 0.1354, 0.0866, 0.0995, 0.1412 and 0.1004 Mg ha-1 Mg-1 ha; (d the SLRs and C Factor values varied greatly among the spacings as well as among the crop phases, indicating a strong effect of the row spacing and plant cover; (e the spacing of 3.0 x 1.0 was the most effective to control water erosion in coffee.

  20. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  1. Influence of fuelwood trees on sodic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.K.; Jain, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The persistent acute fuelwood shortage problem in India has necessitated having tree plantations on waste lands to obtain renewable energy. Fuelwood production screening trials initiated in 1981 at the Biomass Research Centre in Banthra, India identified babul, Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, and mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC., to be the most promising and suitable leguminous trees in terms of biomass production on sodic sites. A study was carried out to assess soil enrichment due to the growth of these fuelwood trees planted a decade past on sordic soil that had had no other amendments. Results showed preferential nutrient accumulation and greater reduction in soil pH (from 9.5 to 7.9) and exchangeable sodium (from 30 to 8%) at the P. juliflora plantation compared with at the A. nilotica plantation. There was also a reduction in surface soil (0-15 cm) bulk density, but an enhancement in porosity and water holding capacity, making soil more friable. The P. juliflora plantation produced markedly more leaf litter than the A. nilotica plantation. Both the species had fibrous lateral root systems on the surface in the sodic soil. However, the penetration and spread of roots were almost 2-fold greater in P. juliflora than in A. nilotica. Thus, the potential magnitude of changes in soil properties was related to the distribution of roots and amount of litter falling on the soil surface. Prosopis juliflora appeared to be better than A. nilotica under adverse sodic soil conditions in establishing an enlarged plant-litter nutrient cycle relationship. This study also provides an assessment of soil amelioration by leguminous trees under short-rotation forestry practices. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Influence of fuelwood trees on sodic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.; Jain, R.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1992-01-01

    The persistent acute fuelwood shortage problem in India has necessitated having tree plantations on waste lands to obtain renewable energy. Fuelwood production screening trials initiated in 1981 at the Biomass Research Centre in Banthra, India identified babul, Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, and mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC., to be the most promising and suitable leguminous trees in terms of biomass production on sodic sites. A study was carried out to assess soil enrichment due to the growth of these fuelwood trees planted a decade past on sordic soil that had had no other amendments. Results showed preferential nutrient accumulation and greater reduction in soil pH (from 9.5 to 7.9) and exchangeable sodium (from 30 to 8%) at the P. juliflora plantation compared with at the A. nilotica plantation. There was also a reduction in surface soil (0-15 cm) bulk density, but an enhancement in porosity and water holding capacity, making soil more friable. The P. juliflora plantation produced markedly more leaf litter than the A. nilotica plantation. Both the species had fibrous lateral root systems on the surface in the sodic soil. However, the penetration and spread of roots were almost 2-fold greater in P. juliflora than in A. nilotica. Thus, the potential magnitude of changes in soil properties was related to the distribution of roots and amount of litter falling on the soil surface. Prosopis juliflora appeared to be better than A. nilotica under adverse sodic soil conditions in establishing an enlarged plant-litter nutrient cycle relationship. This study also provides an assessment of soil amelioration by leguminous trees under short-rotation forestry practices. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  4. [Evaluation of soil quality under different land use types in Naban River watershed, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Li, Zhao-Li; Li, Yong-Mei; Guo, Fang-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Eighty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 8 land use types (natural forest land, maize field, tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, flax field, banana plantation, and sugarcane field) in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, and the soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed, aimed to study the effects of land use type on the soil quality by the method of soil quality index (SQI). Comparing with natural forest land, all the cultivated lands had somewhat decreased soil organic matter content and higher soil bulk density, and the soil bulk density was significantly higher in tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, and banana plantation. In cultivated lands, fertilization and reclamation made the soil available potassium and phosphorus contents maintained at a higher level, probably due to the input of mineral potassium and phosphorus and the decomposition of soil organic matter. The SQI of the 8 land use types was in the order of flax field (0.595) > natural forest land (0.532) > maize field (0.516) > banana plantation (0.485) tea garden (0.480) sugarcane field (0.463) > paddy field (0.416) > rubber plantation (0.362). The soils in higher altitude production demonstration areas (1614 +/-115 m) had significant higher SQI, compared to the soils in lower altitude buffer areas (908 +/- 98 m) and junction areas (926 +/- 131 m). Among the 8 land use types, the rubber plantation in lower altitude areas had the lowest SQI, due to the lower soil organic matter and available potassium and phosphorus contents and the highest soil bulk density. Application of organic manure or intercropping with leguminous plants could be an available practice to improve the soil quality of the rubber plantation.

  5. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    be corresponded to the reflectance from the bare land part (soil) and forest crown in the Acacia forest, respectively. In accordance with this spectral characteristic, we can estimate the proportional areas of the bare land and crown cover of the tree in the acacia plantation forest that will provide essential information for evaluating the forest ecosystem. We will define Bare land and Tree Crown Ratio Index (BTRI) that represent ratio of the areas of tree crown to areas of their access roads. Such information will delineate the characteristics of Acacia plantation and natural forest in mountainous region, and enable us to compare them with the plantation and forest in flat and low land.

  6. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  7. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  8. Some ecological guidelines for large-scale biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.; Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J. [National Audubon Society, Tavernier, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The National Audubon Society sees biomass as an appropriate and necessary source of energy to help replace fossil fuels in the near future, but is concerned that large-scale biomass plantations could displace significant natural vegetation and wildlife habitat, and reduce national and global biodiversity. We support the development of an industry large enough to provide significant portions of our energy budget, but we see a critical need to ensure that plantations are designed and sited in ways that minimize ecological disruption, or even provide environmental benefits. We have been studying the habitat value of intensively managed short-rotation tree plantations. Our results show that these plantations support large populations of some birds, but not all of the species using the surrounding landscape, and indicate that their value as habitat can be increased greatly by including small areas of mature trees within them. We believe short-rotation plantations can benefit regional biodiversity if they can be deployed as buffers for natural forests, or as corridors connecting forest tracts. To realize these benefits, and to avoid habitat degradation, regional biomass plantation complexes (e.g., the plantations supplying all the fuel for a powerplant) need to be planned, sited, and developed as large-scale units in the context of the regional landscape mosaic.

  9. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  10. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  11. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota.

  12. Assessing the impact of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ch. Braun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of plantation forestry on biodiversity are controversially discussed in literature. While some authors stress positive effects, others tend to attribute a largely negative influence to plantations. One important factor steering the influence on biodiversity are management practices. A second important factor is the environmental matrix. Chile offers the option to analyse both factors jointly. The coastal range of central Chile has experienced rapid and widespread replacement of native Nothofagus spp. forests in favour of Pinus radiata plantations. Here, native forests remain limited to small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of plantations. Management is rather intensive and not designed to maintain biodiversity. While in the coastal range of central Chile the transformation from native forests to non-native tree plantations has almost come to an end, spatial extension of P. contorta and P. ponderosa plantations has just recently begun in Chilean Patagonia. While the management is similar to central Chile, plantations rather exist as small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of native plant formations (e.g. Nothofagus spp. forests and Nothofagus spp. scrublands. In the framework of this work, effects of the two diametric land usages on biodiversity are assessed and compared. Biodiversity is assessed at the α-, β- and γ-scale. At the α-scale, biodiversity impacts are inferred statistically, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s PostHoc test. Biodiversity of plants at both sites is significantly reduced in plantations when compared to native forests or scrublands. Plantation forestry lowers α-biodiversity and does not provide additional habitats for specialists. At the β-scale, weak edge effects due to the presence of native forests are observed. In total, plantation forestry tends to promote plant invasions and impairs the survival of endemics. At the γ-scale, plant species communities where predominantly native

  13. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  14. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  15. Determining the impacts of experimental forest plantation on groundwater recharge in the Nebraska Sand Hills (USA) using chloride and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Z. A.; Gates, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    Although impacts of land-use changes on groundwater recharge have been widely demonstrated across diverse environmental settings, most previous research has focused on the role of agriculture. This study investigates recharge impacts of tree plantations in a century-old experimental forest surrounded by mixed-grass prairie in the Northern High Plains (Nebraska National Forest), USA. Recharge was estimated using solute mass balance methods from unsaturated zone cores beneath 10 experimental plots with different vegetation and planting densities. Pine and cedar plantation plots had uniformly lower moisture contents and higher solute concentrations than grasslands. Cumulative solute concentrations were greatest beneath the plots with the highest planting densities (chloride concentrations 225-240 % and sulfate concentrations 175-230 % of the grassland plot). Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations (4-10 mm yr-1) represent reductions of 86-94 % relative to the surrounding native grassland. Relationships between sulfate, chloride, and moisture content in the area's relatively homogenous sandy soils confirm that the unsaturated zone solute signals reflect partitioning between drainage and evapotranspiration in this setting. This study is among the first to explore afforestation impacts on recharge beneath sandy soils and sulfate as a tracer of deep drainage.

  16. Effects of the interception of litterfall by the understory on carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Wang, Jun; Huang, Yuhui; Hui, Dafeng; Wen, Meili

    2014-01-01

    For the purposes of forest restoration, carbon (C) fixation, and economic improvement, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) has been widely planted in South China. The understory of eucalyptus plantations is often occupied by a dense community of the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma, which intercepts tree canopy leaf litter before it reaches the ground. To understand the effects of this interception of litterfall on C cycling in eucalyptus plantations, we quantified the mass of intercepted litter and the influences of litterfall interception on litter decomposition and soil respiration. The total mass of E. urophylla litterfall collected on the understory was similar to that collected by the traditional litter trap method. All of the eucalyptus litterfall is intercepted by the D. dichotoma canopy. Of the litterfall that was intercepted by D. dichotoma, 20-40% and 60-80% was intercepted by the top (50-100 cm) and bottom (0-50 cm) of the understory canopy, respectively. Intercepted litterfall decomposed faster at the bottom of understory canopy (at the base of the plants) than at the top, and decomposition was slower on the soil surface in the absence of understory than on any location in the understory canopy. Soil respiration was highest when both the understory and litter were present and was lowest when both the understory and litter were absent. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models.

  17. Effects of the interception of litterfall by the understory on carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations of South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yang

    Full Text Available For the purposes of forest restoration, carbon (C fixation, and economic improvement, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla has been widely planted in South China. The understory of eucalyptus plantations is often occupied by a dense community of the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma, which intercepts tree canopy leaf litter before it reaches the ground. To understand the effects of this interception of litterfall on C cycling in eucalyptus plantations, we quantified the mass of intercepted litter and the influences of litterfall interception on litter decomposition and soil respiration. The total mass of E. urophylla litterfall collected on the understory was similar to that collected by the traditional litter trap method. All of the eucalyptus litterfall is intercepted by the D. dichotoma canopy. Of the litterfall that was intercepted by D. dichotoma, 20-40% and 60-80% was intercepted by the top (50-100 cm and bottom (0-50 cm of the understory canopy, respectively. Intercepted litterfall decomposed faster at the bottom of understory canopy (at the base of the plants than at the top, and decomposition was slower on the soil surface in the absence of understory than on any location in the understory canopy. Soil respiration was highest when both the understory and litter were present and was lowest when both the understory and litter were absent. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models.

  18. Determination of emissions of methane and nitrous oxide in rice plantations in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane and nitrous oxide emissions fluxes were measured in 10 rice plantations located in Liberia, Guanacaste, working at least with 04 varieties of rice and two types of soil in the period August 2012 - April 2013. For the determination of flows static camera technique were used taking four air gas samples located in the headspace of the chamber using a plastic syringe of 12 ml at 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after camera location. The gas samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and ECD. Averages of flow methane and nitrous oxide were recorded between 0,12 to 1,9 kg ha-1d-1 and 0,11 - 1,1 mg ha-1d-1, respectively, and no significant difference was found (p < 0,05 in the values between different rice varieties and soil types subject experimental design.

  19. Cadmium in willow plantations - municipal waste products as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselgren, K.

    1995-07-01

    Plantations of willows (i.e. Salix spp) seem to absorb cadmium (Cd) from arable land to a greater extent than other plant cultivations. Thus, energy forestry, based upon cultivation of Salix, could possibly be used for biofuel production in combination with biological purification of arable land contaminated with Cd by atmospheric deposition and P fertilizers during the passed 100 years. Application of sewage sludge (5-7 ppm Cd of dry solids) up to 550 g Cd per hectare, or 140 g Cd hectare and year, resulted in clearly increased concentrations of Cd in the upper 10 cm layer of the soil. In deeper soil layers the differences compared with control plots were small. Lower rates of sludge application, corresponding to less than 70 g added per hectare and year, did not materially affect the Cd-content in the soil irrespective of layer. A general pattern was that the content of Cd in plant tissues decreased with increased stem diameter, increased age of stems and stands as well as increased biomass growth. Thus, concentrations of Cd in Salix material, in clones from some of the first generation of energy forest plants (S. viminalis, S. dasyclados and S. schwerinii). were fairly high in young stands. In general, 1-year-old shoots contained 5-6 ppm Cd of dry solids in stems and 10-15 ppm in leaves. In older shoots, up to three years, and older stands, up to six years, the Cd contents decreased to 1-2 ppm Cd and 2-4 ppm Cd of dry solids for stems and leaves, respectively. Abundant supplies of water and nutrients seem to stimulate the Cd uptake in Salix in terms of higher concentrations in plant tissues as well as higher plant growth levels compared with conventional energy forestry. Stands with older stems, not irrigated and not fully fertilized resulted in uptake rates in the range of 10-30 g Cd per hectare and year. 14 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  20. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  1. Application of 125I seed permanent plantation in osseous metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fujun; Wu Peihong; Lu Mingjian; Li Kui; Zhang Liang; Huang Jinhua; Fan Weijun; Zhao Ming; Gu Yangkui; Liu Jian; Wang Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of 125 I permanent plantation in treating osseous metastases. Methods: Twenty-two patients with osseous metastases were accepted radioactive seeds 125 I permanent plantation. The curative effect was appraised according to the degree of ostalgia relieving and the changing of the radiology imaging in patients. Results: Accepted radioactive seeds 125 I permanent plantation, relief of pain was obtained and the effective rate is 91% (20/22). However none of the patients showed severe side-effect. Among 32 lesions in 22 cases followed-up by CT in 2 months, 4 obtained CR, 18 obtained PR, 10 NC and 0 PD. The responsive rate was 68.7%. Conclusion: 125 I permanent plantation procedure can be a safe and effective method in treating osseous metastases and obtaining good clinical effects with minimal damage and few complications. (authors)

  2. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting

  3. Impacts of Smallholder Tree Plantation in Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    more on the environmental and hydrological effects and impacts of eucalyptus ...... to scale up plantation practices by prioritizing certain areas of intervention in ... and natural fertilizer (ex. manure) and agronomic practices such as crop.

  4. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. [Carbon density distribution characteristics and influencing factors in aerially seeded Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping; Han, Tian Yi; OuYang, Xun Zhi; Liu, Yuan Qiu; Zang, Hao; Ning, Jin Kui; Yang, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The distribution characteristics of carbon density under aerially seeded Pinus massoniana plantations in Ganzhou City of Jiangxi Province were studied. Total 15 factors, including site, stand, understory vegetation, litter and so on were selected to establish a relationship model between stand carbon density and influencing factors, and the main influencing factors were also screened. The results showed that the average carbon density was 98.29 t·hm -2 at stand level with soil layer (49.58 t·hm -2 ) > tree layer (45.25 t·hm -2 ) > understory vegetation layer (2.23 t·hm -2 ) > litter layer (1.23 t·hm -2 ). Significantly positive correlations were found among the tree, litter and soil layers, but not among the other layers. The main factors were tree density, avera-ge diameter at breast height (DBH), soil thickness, slope position, stand age and canopy density to affect carbon density in aerially seeded P. massoniana plantations. The partial correlation coefficients of the six main factors ranged from 0.331 to 0.434 with significance by t test. The multiple correlation coefficient of quantitative model I reached 0.796 with significance by F test (F=9.28). For stand density, the best tree density and canopy density were 1500-2100 plants·hm -2 and 0.4-0.7, respectively. The moderate density was helpful to improve ecosystem carbon sequestration. The carbon density increased with increasing stand age, DBH and soil thickness, and was higher in lower than middle and upper slope positions.

  6. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  7. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Saili; Jamayah Saili

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. ...

  8. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  9. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  10. Seasonal Pattern of Decomposition and N, P, and C Dynamics in Leaf litter in a Mongolian Oak Forest and a Korean Pine Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeeun Sohng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distinct seasons and diverse tree species characterize temperate deciduous forests in NE Asia, but large areas of deciduous forests have been converted to conifer plantations. This study was conducted to understand the effects of seasons and tree species on leaf litter decomposition in a temperate forest. Using the litterbag method, the decomposition rate and nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon dynamics of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica, Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis, and their mixed leaf litter were compared for 24 months in a Mongolian oak stand, an adjacent Korean pine plantation, and a Mongolian oak—Korean pine mixed stand. The decomposition rates of all the leaf litter types followed a pattern of distinct seasonal changes: most leaf litter decomposition occurred during the summer. Tree species was less influential on the leaf litter decomposition. The decomposition rates among different leaf litter types within the same stand were not significantly different, indicating no mixed litter effect. The immobilization of leaf litter N and P lasted for 14 months. Mongolian oak leaf litter and Korean pine leaf litter showed different N and P contents and dynamics during the decomposition, and soil P2O5 was highest in the Korean pine plantation, suggesting effects of plantation on soil nutrient budget.

  11. Does tree species richness attenuate the effect of experimental irrigation and drought on decomposition rate in young plantation forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudur Rahman, Md; Verheyen, Kris; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Jactel, Hervé; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Expected changes in precipitation in Europe due to climate change are likely to affect soil organic matter (OM) transformation. In forests, increasing tree species diversity might modulate the effect of changed precipitation. We evaluated the effect of tree species richness on the decomposition and stabilization rate in combination with reduced precipitation (FORBIO, Belgium) and irrigation treatment (ORPHEE, southern France) in young (6-8 yr.) experimental plantations. The species richness were one to four in FORBIO and one to five in ORPHEE. Twenty four rainout shelters of 3 m × 3 m were built around oak and beech trees in FORBIO plantation to impose a reduced precipitation treatment, whereas four of the eight blocks (175 m×100 m) in ORPHEE plantation was subjected to irrigation treatment. These treatments resulted in about 4% less soil moisture in FORBIO and about 7% higher soil moisture in ORPHEE compared to control. Commercially available green and rooibos tea bags were buried in the soil at 5-7 cm depth to measure two decomposition indices, known as 'tea bag index' (TBI). These TBI are (i) decomposition rate (k) and (ii) stabilization rate (S). The results showed no species richness effect on TBI indices in both reduced precipitation and irrigation treatment. In FORBIO, reduced precipitation resulted in decreased k and increased S compared to control around the beech trees only. In ORPHEE, both k and S were higher in the irrigation treatment compared to control. Overall, TBI indices were higher in FORBIO than ORPHEE and this might be explained by the sandy soils and poor nutrient content at the ORPHEE site. These results suggest that OM decomposition rate may be slower in drier condition and OM stabilization rate may be slower or faster in drier condition, depending on the site quality. The absence of tree species effects on OM transformation indicates that tree species richness would not be able to modulate the effects of changed precipitation patterns in

  12. Photosynthesis of seedlings of Otoba novogranatensis (Myristicaceae and Ruagea glabra (Meliaceae in abandoned pasture, secondary forest and plantation habitats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment planting in naturally recovering secondary forests or in tree plantations is increasingly being used as strategy to restore later-successional, large-seeded tropical forest trees. We seeded two tree species (Otoba novogranatensis and Ruagea glabra in three agricultural sites in Southern Costa Rica: abandoned pastures, eight to ten year old secondary forests and three year old tree plantations (containing two N-fixing of four total tree species. We measured micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, plant water potential, leaf area, foliar C and N, and photosynthesis to better understand mechanistic responses of seedlings to conditions in the different successional habitats. Micrometeorological conditions, soil water content, and plant water potential were generally similar across habitats. Certain aspects of leaves (such as Specific Leaf Area and foliar N content, and photosynthesis (e.g. quantum yield and electron transport rate were highest in the plantations, intermediate in the secondary forests, and lowest in abandoned pastures. Enhanced rates of photosynthetic biochemistry (such as Vcmax and Jmax and Photosystem II efficiency (e.g. thermal energy dissipation occurred in leaves from the plantations compared to the abandoned pastures, which may be related to higher leaf %N content. Results suggest that foliar N may be of greater importance than soil water content and micrometeorological factors in driving differences in photosynthetic processes across planting habitats. Planting seeds of these two species in plantations containing three year old trees (including two N-fixing species enhances certain aspects of their photosynthesis and growth, compared to seedlings in abandoned pastures with non-native grasses, and thus can help increase forest recovery on abandoned agricultural lands.

  13. Garlic mustard and its effects on soil microbial communities in a sandy pine forest in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander B. Faulkner; Brittany E. Pham; Truc-Quynh D. Nguyen; Kenneth E. Kitchell; Daniel S. O' Keefe; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an invasive species, on soil microbial community dynamics in a pine plantation on sandy soils in central Illinois. In situ soil carbon dioxide efflux was significantly greater in invaded sites. Similarly, in vitro carbon mineralization was significantly greater for soils...

  14. Variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo sob cafeeiro Conilon: relação com textura, matéria orgânica e relevo Spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in Conilon coffee plantation: relationships with soil texture, organic matter and relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lang Burak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atributos químicos do solo têm relação com outros atributos, inclusive os geomorfológicos, constituindo fatores que controlam sua variabilidade espacial. Dentro desta premissa, delineou-se o objetivo deste trabalho: avaliar a variabilidade dos atributos químicos do solo e sua inter-relação com as frações granulométricas e componentes da matéria orgânica do solo, contextualizando a influência do relevo, utilizando-se a geoestatística e a análise de componentes principais (ACP. A variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos em menor profundidade foi mais influenciada pelo relevo. Pela ACP, atributos relacionados com a reação do solo (pH, Ca, Mg, Al, m e V contribuíram com o primeiro componente principal (CP1 nas duas profundidades. Contudo, somente o CP1 na profundidade de 0,0 - 0,1 m foi correlacionado com o relevo: maiores altitudes e menores declividades favoreceram o maior teor da fração argila e menor teor de areia grossa, aumentando a retenção de cátions básicos no solo. Substâncias húmicas da matéria orgânica tiveram fraca influência na variabilidade dos atributos químicos, ressalvando a maior relação entre Ca e Mg com ácidos húmicos em locais de textura mais arenosa. Zonas homogêneas e correlatas com atributos geomorfológicos nas duas profundidades foram melhores obtidas para os teores de K, em comparação aos demais atributos. Dessa forma, o uso da análise espacial para segmentação da paisagem em regiões homogêneas visando otimizar o manejo da adubação depende não somente da topografia, mas também dos atributos químicos e da profundidade de amostragem.Chemical properties are related to other soil attributes, including geomorphology, and constitute one of the factors that control spatial variability. The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of soil chemistry and how it is interrelated with granulometric size fractions and organic soil components. Geostatistics and

  15. Five years of research in energy plantation in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin Botanique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1989, short rotation and intensive culture (SRIC) techniques have been experimented to grow various fast growing species of trees and shrubs for energy plantation or environmental purposes. The objectives were to evaluate the biomass productivity with respect to (1) different weed control methods during the establishment phase; (2) drainage conditions and soil quality of the plantation site; and (3) frequency of coppicing. Native or introduced species of willows and various species of shrubs, such as honeysuckle and cornel, were grown in an experimental design in the nursery of the Montreal Botanical Garden on former agricultural land. Productivity, in tons of dry material per hectare, was evaluated and compared by harvesting shoot and branch samples at the end of each growing season. Weed control is essential to the establishment of trees in SRIC. When weed repression was applied during the two first growing seasons, biomass productivity was 4 to 5 times greater than the biomass produced on the control plot of the well drained site. With good weed control, willows can yield more than 20 tons of dry material on well drained site and near 15 tons on a poorly drained site, only two years after plantation. The growth potential of shrub species is also interesting. Some of them were able to produce up to 10 tons of dry biomass per hectare per year, which is appreciable considering that such species can be used on marginal lands and for the fixation of river banks. Frequency of coppicing also influences productivity. For willows, we determined that three-year rotation cycle allowed the highest biomass productivity. Shrubs should be coppiced each year to obtain the best results. Fast growing species and SRIC techniques are not only a good way of producing wood and alcohol for energy but they also represent a way of rapidly colonizing degraded or marginal sites and of fixing river banks.

  16. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparoek Watanasit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ants play important roles in tropical rainforest ecosystems. In southern Thailand, many such areas have been extensivelylogged and replaced by rubber plantations. Since changes to the environment can cause changes to the diversity offlora and fauna, the objectives of this study were to determine habitat influences on the ant composition between homogenousand heterogeneous rubber plantations, and to investigate if any environmental factors can be directly correlated withchanges in the ant community. Three 100 m–line-transects, spaced 100 m apart, were laid out at two study sites. Four samplingmethods, hand collecting (HC, leaf litter sampling (LL, honey bait (HB and soil sampling (SS, were used to sample ants.Temperature, humidity, and precipitation were recorded. Samples were collected every two months from June 2004 to April2005. The results showed that a total of six subfamilies (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinaemand Pseudomyrmecinae, comprising 29 genera and 87 species were found in the two study sites. The dominant genera werePheidole and Crematogaster, followed by Pheidologeton and Pachycondyla. The sampling methods used in this studyindicated that LL and HC were most suitable for sampling ants, and any combination of sampling methods detected moreant species than a single method did. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA grouped ant species between the two typesof rubber plantation, and also divided ant species into three groups by sampling method: HC group, SS group and LL+HBgroup. DCA did not group ant species by seasonal changes, however. Further, canonical correspondence analysis detectedno effect of temperature, humidity, or precipitation on the ant community.

  17. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  18. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    World persimmon production is 4 Millions tones and China produce more than 80 % of the total world yield. Korea and Japan are the second and the third producers respectively with 0.4 and 0.2 millions tones, and all three Asian countries concentrate more than 95 % of the world production. Spain produce less than 0.1 million tones but there is a sudden increase in new plantations due to the high prices and the new marked developed in Europe, Brazil and Arabic countries. The new chemically managed and highly mechanized plantations in Eastern Spain are using high doses of herbicides and the lack of vegetation is triggering high erosion rates. This paper aims to contribute with information about the soil losses on this new persimmon plantations and to develop strategies to reduce the soil and water losses. A 15 years old plantation of persimmon (Dyospirus lotus) was selected in Eastern Spain (Canals Municipality, La Costera District) to measure the soil losses on No-Tillage bare (herbicide treatments) management and on barley straw covered plots. The straw cover was applied 3 days before the expereriments at at doses that cover more than 50 % of the soil surface using 75 gr of straw per m2. Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0.25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The measurements were carried out during July 2014 on paired plots, under very dry soil moisture contents ranging from 4.65 to 7.87 %. The results show that the 3% cover of vegetation of the control plots moved to more than 60% due to the application of the straw. This induced a delayed ponding (from 60 to 309 seconds) and surface runoff (from 262 to 815 seconds) and runoff outlet (418 to 1221 seconds). The runoff coefficients moved from 60 % in the control plots to 29 % in the straw covered and the runoff sediment concentration was dramatically reduced from 11 to 1 g l-1. The total soil losses were higher that 1 Kg per plot in

  19. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  20. Organic Matter Dynamics in Soils Regenerating from Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area of secondary forest (SF) regenerating from degraded abandoned rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation is increasing in the rainforest zone of south southern Nigeria; however, the build-up of soil organic matter following abandonment is not well understood. This study examined the build-up of soil organic matter in ...

  1. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  2. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  3. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO 2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  4. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  5. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  6. Microbial community responses in forest mineral soil to compaction, organic matter removal, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Samual E. Beattie; Robert F. Powers; Filpe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We tested three disturbance hypotheses in young conifer plantations: H1: soil compaction and removal of surface organic matter produces sustained changes in microbial community size, activity, and structure in mineral soil; H2: microbial community characteristics in mineral soil are linked to the recovery of plant diversity...

  7. Boron levels in soils cropped to coffee and their relationships to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countries. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee ...

  8. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  10. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  11. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  12. Tree species effects on soil properties and greenhouse gas fluxes in East-central Amazonia: comparison between monoculture and diverse forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira, Jr.; P.T. Beldini; P.B. de Camargo; M. Keller; S. Saleska

    2013-01-01

    Tropical plantations are considered a viable option to sequester carbon on abandoned agricultural lands, but implications of tree species selection for overall greenhouse gas budgets on plantations have been little studied. During three wet seasons, we investigated the influence of nine tree species on soil pH, temperature (ST), bulk density (BD), moisture content...

  13. [Filamentous and phosphate solubilizing fungi relationships with some edaphic parameters and coffee plantations management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Raúl Hernando; Sánchez de Prager, Marina; Sieverding, Ewald; Aguilar Dorantes, Karla; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Soil properties and the environment have multiple outcomes on fungal communities. Although, the interaction effects between management intensity, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon, soil texture and different fractions of water stable macro-aggregates on the communities of microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF), iron phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-Fe), and iron and calcium phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-(Fe+Ca)), have been previously evaluated in field conditions, this has never been performed in terms of their combined effects, neither with phosphate solubilizing fungi. To assess this, we collected 40 composite soil samples from eight Mexican and Colombian coffee plantations, with different management intensities and physico-chemical edaphic parameters, during 2008-2009. We isolated different communities of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca), by wet sieving and soil particles culture in Potato-Dextrose-Agar from soil samples, and we classified isolates in terms of their phosphate solubilizing ability. Following the principal component analysis results, we decided to analyze fungal communities and abiotic factors interactions for each country separately. Structural Equation Models revealed that organic carbon was positively associated to MFF richness and number of isolates (lambda>0.58), but its relationship with PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were variable; while the available phosphorus, pH and water stable macro-aggregate fractions did not show a clear pattern. Management intensity was negatively related to PSF-Fe (lambda coffee plantations. We found that the relationships of clay and organic carbon content, and available phosphorus and soil pH, with the species richness and number of isolates of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were highly variable; this made impossible to generalize the responses between saprotrophic fungal groups and geographic zones. The management intensity was not related to species richness and number of isolates of MFF in any coffee areas, while

  14. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  15. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  16. Opportunities and challenges in industrial plantation mapping in big data era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.; Chen, B.; Wang, J.; Kou, W.; Zhai, D.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing demand in timer, rubber, palm oil in the world market, industrial plantations have dramatically expanded, especially in Southeast Asia; which have been affecting ecosystem services and human wellbeing. However, existing efforts on plantation mapping are still limited and blocked our understanding about the magnitude of plantation expansion and their potential environmental effects. Here we would present a literature review about the existing efforts on plantation mapping based on one or multiple remote sensing sources, including rubber, oil palm, and eucalyptus plantations. The biophysical features and spectral characteristics of plantations will be introduced first, a comparison on existing algorithms in terms of different plantation types. Based on that, we proposed potential improvements in large scale plantation mapping based on the virtual constellation of multiple sensors, citizen science tools, and cloud computing technology. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for future scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  17. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  18. Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis.

    OpenAIRE

    BALIEIRO, F. de C.; FRANCO, A. A.; FONTES, R. L. F.; DIAS, L. E.; CAMPELLO, E. F. C.; FARIA, S. M. de.

    2008-01-01

    The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF), throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) were collected and analyzed in pure pl...

  19. Longevity of contributions to SOC stocks from roots and aboveground plant litter below a Miscanthus plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however the longevity and origin of this 'new' SOC must be assessed. Consequently, we combined an input manipulation experiment with physio-chemical soil fractionation to quantify new SOC and CO2 emissions from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually. Further, fractionation of SOC from the top 30 cm gave insight into the longevity of that SOC. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and soil fractionation was then used to establish the longevity of that Miscanthus-derived SOC. Ongoing results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2

  20. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  1. [Dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition under artificial forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming Jin; Chen, Liang Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan Qin; Liu, Hua; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays large areas of plantations have caused serious ecological problems such as soil degradation and biodiversity decline. Artificial tending thinning and construction of mixed forest are frequently used ways when we manage plantations. To understand the effect of this operation mode on nutrient cycle of plantation ecosystem, we detected the dynamics of microbial bio-mass carbon and nitrogen during foliar litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana and Toona ciliate in seven types of gap in different sizes (G 1 : 100 m 2 , G 2 : 225 m 2 , G 3 : 400 m 2 , G 4 : 625 m 2 , G 5 : 900 m 2 , G 6 : 1225 m 2 , G 7 : 1600 m 2 ) of 42-year-old P. massoniana plantations in a hilly area of the upper Yang-tze River. The results showed that small and medium-sized forest gaps(G 1 -G 5 ) were more advantageous for the increment of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition. Along with the foliar litter decomposition during the experiment (360 d), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in P. massoniana foliar litter and MBN in T. ciliata foliar litter first increased and then decreased, and respectively reached the maxima 9.87, 0.22 and 0.80 g·kg -1 on the 180 th d. But the peak (44.40 g·kg -1 ) of MBC in T. ciliata foliar litter appeared on the 90 th d. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in T. ciliate was significantly higher than that of P. massoniana during foliar litter decomposition. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in foliar litter was not only significantly associated with average daily temperature and the water content of foliar litter, but also closely related to the change of the quality of litter. Therefore, in the thinning, forest gap size could be controlled in the range of from 100 to 900 m 2 to facilitate the increase of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the process of foliar litter decomposition, accelerate the decomposition of foliar litter and improve soil fertility of plantations.

  2. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  3. Canopy transpiration of two black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantations with different ages in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) was widely planted to control soil erosion and restore degraded ecosystem in Loess Plateau. The water use of the plantations was concerned due to its potential effects on hydrological cycle and regional water resource. Although some studies estimated canopy transpiration (Ec) of the mature black locust plantation, variation in Ec in plantations with different ages was not clear. In this study, we selected two plantations with different ages (12 years and 27 years, denoted as young stand and mature stand, respectively) in similar topographical conditions in Yangjuangou catchment in the central of Loess Plateau. Sap flux density (Fd) and tree biometrics were measured in each stand during the growing season in 2014. Soil water content (SWC) in each plot and meteorological variables in the catchment were simultaneously monitored. Tree transpiration (Et) was derived from Fd and tree sapwood area (As). Canopy transpiration (Ec) was estimated by a product of mean stand sap flux density (Js) and stand total sapwood area (AST). The mean Fd of mature trees was 2-fold larger than that of young trees.However, tree-to-tree variation in Fd among sampled trees within mature stand was evident compared to that within young stand. Mean Et in mature stand was higher than that in young stand. Ec in mature stand was significant higher than that in young stand,with cumulative value of 54 mm and 27 mm respectively. This is attributed to higher Js in mature stand although AST in young is slightly higher than that in mature stand. The patterns of daily Ec during the growing season were similar in both stands during the study period. A exponential saturation model can explain the responses of Ec to vapor deficit pressure (VPD) and solar radiation (Rs) in both stands.The relationship between Ec and SWC was not detected. Our finding suggested that stand age should be taken into consideration when estimated vegetation water use in this region. Further

  4. Simulation of semi-arid biomass plantations and irrigation using the WRF-NOAH model - a comparison with observations from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2014-05-01

    A 10 × 10 km irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel to simulate diurnal energy balances during the summer of 2012 (JJA). The goal is to examine daytime horizontal flux gradients between plantation and desert. Simulations were carried out within the coupled WRF-NOAH atmosphere/land surface model. MODIS land surface data was adjusted by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by adding a controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme to NOAH. Two model cases studies were compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates the irrigated plantation. Control simulates the existing land surface, where the predominant land surface is bare desert soil. Central to the study is parameter validation against land surface observations from a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with desert observations, and Impact with Jojoba observations. Model evapotranspiration was validated with two Penman-Monteith estimates based on the observations. Control simulates daytime desert conditions with a maximum deviation for surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) of 0.2 °C, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.25 hPa, wind speed (U) of 0.5 m s-1, surface radiation (Rn) of 25 W m-2, soil heat flux (G) of 30 W m-2 and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) of 1.5 °C. Impact simulates irrigated vegetation conditions with a maximum deviation for T2 of 1-1.5 °C, VPD of 0.5 hPa, U of 0.5 m s-1, Rn of 50 W m-5, G of 40 W m-2 and ST5 of 2 °C. Latent heat curves in Impact correspond closely with Penman-Monteith estimates, and magnitudes of 160 W m-2 over the plantation are usual. Sensible heat fluxes, are around 450 W m-2 and are at least 100-110 W m-2 higher than the surrounding desert. This surplus is driven by reduced albedo and high surface resistance, and demonstrates that high evaporation rates may not occur over Jojoba if irrigation is optimized. Furthermore, increased daytime T2 over plantations

  5. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  6. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  7. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  8. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Daud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.

  9. Research Progress of Artificial Forest in the Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiafang, MA; Guangtao, MENG; Liping, HE; Guixiang, LI

    2017-01-01

    (1) Remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals has become a hot topic in the world, and phytoremediation technology is the most widely used. (2) In addition to traditional economic benefits, ecological benefits of artificial forest have been more and more important, which are very helpful to soil polluted with heavy metals in the environment. (3) The characteristics of heavy metal pollution of soil and plantations of repair mechanism have been reviewed, and the current mining areas, wetlands, urban plantations on heavy metal elements have enriched the research results. The purpose is to find a new path for governance of heavy metal soil pollution.

  10. Earthworm short-term response to dairy wastewater applied to a Salix plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Jørgensen, Uffe; Berg Olsen, Anne

    Odour is one problem in the management of waste water from dairy, thus the organic Thise Dairy has developed an all year round solution releasing the waste water into underground tubes at 30 cm depth in a willow energy crop plantation established in 2013. The wastewater contains 0.3% dry matter...... in the untreated control willow area, were established in Oct. 2017 and considered (non-randomized) blocks. In other words this was a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design. Plots were sampled to estimate earthworm abundance one week before and one week after treatment (map link: goo.gl/tvvMuF). The willow...... was surrounded by an agricultural field with a history of wastewater fertilisation subject to an exploratory sampling. - We found seven species of earthworms in the willow and five in the agricultural soil. Juveniles of A. tuberculata, A. caliginosa, L. herculeus, L. castaneus, are morphologically intrageneric...

  11. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  12. Socio-economic implications of structural changes in plantations in Asian countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar KN; Navamukundan, A; Sajhau JP; Sukarja R

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on the economic implications and social implications of restructuring in plantations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka - covers agricultural production, employment, working conditions of plantation workers, wages, management, and public ownership or private ownership of tea, coffee, rubber, etc. Plantations; comments on labour legislation. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in loblolly pine plantations: Methods, limitations, and research needs for estimating storage pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Bob Teskey; Lisa Samuelson; John Butnor; David Sampson; Felipe Sanchez; Chris Maier; Steve McKeand

    2004-01-01

    Globally, the species most widely used for plantation forestry is loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Because loblolly pine plantations are so extensive and grow so rapidly, they provide a great potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Because loblolly pine plantations are relatively simple ecosystems and because such a great volume of...

  14. Water repellency, plants, agriculture abandonment and fire in citrus plantations. The Canyoles river watershed study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a key soil property that determine the soil and water losses, soil fertility and plant development. Although until the 90's the soil water repellency was seeing as an uncommon soil characteristic, now is considered a key soil property to understand the soil hydrology (Alanís et al., 2016; Hewelke et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2016). The inspiring research of Leonard DeBano and Stefan H Doerr changed the fate of the science (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al. 2000). Soil water repellency was associated to forest fire affected land due to the pioneer contribution of professor DeBano in the 70's and Professor Doerr in the 90's. The research during the last two decades demonstrate that fire affects the reallocation of the hydrophobic substances and can reduce or increase the severity of the soil water repellence at different soil depths and horizons. The SWR is usually measured by sampling to show the influence of key soil properties (texture, structure, plant cover, litter, season…) on the degree of soil water repellency. The sampling is applied usually with a few drops when the Water Drop Penetration Time method is applied, and this inform of the time of penetration, but few researches focussed in the spatial distribution of the water repellency, which is a key factor of the runoff generation, the water infiltration and the water redistribution such as demonstrate the wetting fronts. Our approach research the spatial distribution of the water repellency by means of an intense sampling of soil surface water repellency. One thousand drops were distributed in a square meter (100 lines separated 1 cm and 100 drops per each line of 100 cm, with a total od 1000 drops in 1m2) on 10 sampling points on 4 land managements: ploughing and herbicide agriculture fields treatment), abandoned 10 years, and burnt. The research was carried out in citrus plantations of the Canyoles river watershed. The results show that the

  15. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  16. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  17. Development and Rainfed Paddy Soils Potency Derived From Lacustrine Material in Paguyaman, Gorontalo

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin

    2011-01-01

    Rainfed paddy soils that are derived from lacustrine and include of E4 agroclimatic zone have many unique properties and potentially for paddy and corn plantations. This sreseach was aimed to: (1) study the soil development of rainfed paddy soils derived from lacustrine and (2) evaluate rainfed paddy soils potency for paddy and corn in Paguyaman. Soil samples were taken from three profiles according to toposequent, and they were analyzed in laboratory. Data were analyzed with descripti...

  18. Using an input manipulation experiment to partition greenhouse gas fluxes from a commercial Miscanthus plantation in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Davies, Christian; Smith, Pete; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic C4 crop that can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by reducing carbon (C) emissions associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) however there is still considerable uncertainty surrounding estimates of net C exchange and the best management practices to achieve the best greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Using an input manipulation experiment, we monitored emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from living Miscanthus roots, aboveground plant litter and soil individually to quantify and partition these emissions and better understand the influence of abiotic factors on SOC and GHG dynamics under Miscanthus. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare commercial Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input (roots or senesced aboveground plant litter) to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. The delta 13C value of soil C and CO2 emitted from each treatment was measured monthly between March 2009 and March 2013. Measurements of CH4 and N2O emissions were also taken at the soil surface from each treatment. Miscanthus-derived emissions were determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and the treatments were compared to assess their effects on C inputs and outputs to the soil. Both CH4 and N2O emissions were below detection limits, mainly due to a lack of fertiliser additions and limited disturbance of the agricultural site. However, results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2 emissions in winter and spring whereas root respiration dominates the summer

  19. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  20. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  1. Irrigated plantations and their effect on energy fluxes in a semi-arid region of Israel - a validated 3-D model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2013-11-01

    A large irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel within the WRF-NOAH coupled atmospheric/land surface model in order to assess land surface atmosphere feedbacks. Simulations were carried out for the 2012 summer season (JJA). The irrigated plantations were simulated by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by implementing a newly devised, controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme within NOAH. Two model cases studies were considered and compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates a hypothetical 10 km × 10 km irrigated plantation. Control represents a baseline and uses the existing land surface data, where the predominant land surface type in the area is bare desert soil. Central to the study is model validation against observations collected for the study over the same period. Surface meteorological and soil observations were made at a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with data from the desert, and Impact from the Jojoba. Finally, estimations were made of the energy balance, applying two Penman-Monteith based methods along with observed meteorological data. These estimations were compared with simulated energy fluxes. Control simulates the daytime desert surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) with less than 0.2 °C deviation and the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) to within 0.25 hPa. Desert wind speed (U) is simulated to within 0.5 m s-1 and the net surface radiation (Rn) to 25 W m-2. Soil heat flux (G) is not so accurately simulated by Control (up to 30 W m-2 deviation) and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) are simulated to within 1.5 °C. Impact simulates daytime T2 over irrigated vegetation to within 1-1.5 °C, the VPD to 0.5 hPa, Rn to 50 W m-2 and ST5 to within 2 °C. Simulated Impact G deviates up to 40 W m-2, highlighting a need for re-parameterisation or better soil classification, but the overall contribution to the energy balance is small (5

  2. Water Erosion in a Two Year Old Stand of Eucalyptus benthamii under three Plantation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Marioti, J.; Ramos, J. C.; Flores, M. C.; Tanaka, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    semi-mechanical treatment with individual holes. Soil losses were 2.6 times greater in the treatment with furrows following the land slope when compared with the treatment with furrows perpendicular to the slope and this figure was 21.5 when the first treatment was compared with preparation by digging individual holes. Water losses in the treatment with furrows following the land slope were 3.6 and 4.1 times greater than in treatments with furrows contouring the land slope or with individual holes, respectively. So, like in annual crops, contour cultivation, with respect to the land slope, of planted forest stands is also an efficient plantation system for reducing water erosion when compared with other plantation systems.

  3. ENERGY BALANCE AND CO2 EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR IN SUB-TROPICAL YOUNG PINE (Pinus roxburghii PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Bhattacharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50–200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80 though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72 with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X – 5.382, R2 = 0.63 The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  4. Isolation and Pathogenicity of Phytophthora Species from Poplar Plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milenković

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available During a survey in three declining and three healthy poplar plantations in Serbia, six different Phytophthora species were obtained. Phytophthora plurivora was the most common, followed by P. pini, P. polonica, P. lacustris, P. cactorum, and P. gonapodyides. Pathogenicity of all isolated species to four-month and one-year-old cuttings of Populus hybrid clones I-214 and Pánnonia, respectively, was tested using both a soil infestation and stem inoculation test. Isolates of P. polonica, P. × cambivora, P. cryptogea, and P. × serendipita from other host plants were included as a comparison. In the soil infestation test, the most aggressive species to clone I-214 were P. plurivora, P. × serendipita, and P. pini. On clone Pánnonia, P. gonapodyides and P. pini were the most aggressive, both causing 100% mortality, followed by P. cactorum, P. × cambivora, and P. polonica. In the underbark inoculation test, the susceptibility of both poplar clones to the different Phytophthora species was largely similar, as in the soil infestation test, with the exception of P. polonica, which proved to be only weakly pathogenic to poplar bark. The most aggressive species to clone I-214 was P. pini, while on clone Pánnonia, the longest lesions and highest disease incidence were caused by P. gonapodyides. Phytophthora cactorum and P. plurivora were pathogenic to both clones, whereas P. × cambivora showed only weak pathogenicity. The implications of these findings and possible pathways of dispersion of the pathogens are discussed.

  5. Costs and returns of producing hops in established tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ha; Shadi Atallah; Tamara Benjamin; Lori Hoagland; Lenny Farlee; Keith. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of two publications that analyzes economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. This study explores growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands, while the second study investigates producing American ginseng in older (20- to 30-year-old) forests. The economic analysis presented in this...

  6. Establishment of a Nothofagus alessandrii plantation using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of information regarding the establishment of Nothofagus alessandrii plantations, including any impacts that shading and weed control may have on early survival and growth. A trial was therefore initiated where four shade levels (0% and Rachel® plastic net of 50%, 65%, and 80%) and two weed control ...

  7. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  8. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  9. Cottonwood Response to Nitrogen Related To Plantation Age and Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Blackmon

    1977-01-01

    When applied at plantation age 4,336 kg N/ha increased diameter growth of cottonwood on Sharkey clay by 33 percent over unfertilized controls. Fertilizing at ages 2 and 3 resulted in no response, nor was there any benefit from applying nitrogen fertilizer to cottonwood on Commerce silt loam. On both sites, foliar N levels were increased by fertilization regardless of...

  10. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  11. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  12. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  13. pesticide residues in water from tpc sugarcane plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We report herein, the analysis of water samples collected from TPC Sugarcane Plantation and its environs in Kilimanjaro region, which is the earliest intensive user of pesticides in Tanzania. A total of 50 water samples collected from 18 sampling sites between 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for pesticide ...

  14. Realising the benefit of research in eucalypt plantation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of these technologies have all contributed to measured gains. The continued development and application of appropriate forest technology will be critical to a sustainable future for the industry in South Africa. Issues pertaining to this are discussed. Keywords: eucalypt plantations; technology transfer; yield improvement

  15. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  16. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison

    2003-01-01

    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  17. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  18. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog

    1974-01-01

    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  19. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater efforts are required on surveillance of major diseases and tree breeding to improve disease resistance. Because acacia plantations deliver high economic benefits and there are opportunities for improving productivity, an R&D strategy focused on underpinning sustainable management and application would serve ...

  20. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  1. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  2. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane cultivation under different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Paulo R. de; Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Prado, Renato de M.; Maldonado Júnior, Walter; Zerbato, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil preparation along with its chemical adjustment is the most important step in sugarcane plantation, especially because it provides proper conditions for plant development. The objective of the present research was to evaluate sugarcane response to the application of different phosphorus doses and their location, associated with both minimum soil tillage and conventional soil tillage. The experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot randomized block design, where the main plots ...

  3. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Rotation Length on Long-Term Productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20–30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 and about 15–20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha−1 year−1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of

  4. Response of Bird Community to Various Plantation Forests in Gunung Walat, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronika Kaban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plantation forests possibly harbor different bird communities. This study was aimed to reveal responses of bird community to the different plantation (Schima wallichii, Agathis loranthifolia, Pinus merkusii, and mixed plantation, identify species shared in all plantation, and species confined to a particular plantation. The study site was plantation forests, using the point count method for 64 effective hours. There were 40 bird species (maximum prediction 52 in all forest plantations and each type had 26–31 species. Number of individuals, species density, and diversity index in Schima plantation were higher, followed by Agathis, Pinus, and mixed plantations. Mixed plantation could have harbored more species based on the prediction by Chao. Although there were some differences in tree species, tree sizes, and tree heights, the response of bird composition in all plantations was not differed (93–81% similarity probably because of the short distances among the forests, the abundance of food insects, and the same late-successional stages. There were 15 (37.5% widely distributed species in all forest types. Eight species were confined only to a specific forest type. Four species were considered true confined species, namely Javan sunbird (Schima forest, Grey-cheeked bulbul (in Pinus, Crescent-chested babbler (Agathis, and Mountain white-eye (Agathis.

  5. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  6. Why is it so difficult to determine the yield of indoor cannabis plantations? A case study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Maalsté, Nicole; Van Damme, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Together, the Netherlands and Belgium are the largest indoor cannabis producing countries in Europe. In both countries, legal prosecution procedure of convicted illicit cannabis growers usually includes recovery of the profits gained. However, it is not easy to make a reliable estimation of the latter profits, due to the wide range of factors that determine indoor cannabis yields and eventual selling prices. In the Netherlands, since 2005, a reference model is used that assumes a constant yield (g) per plant for a given indoor cannabis plant density. Later, in 2011, a new model was developed in Belgium for yield estimation of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations that assumes a constant yield per m 2 of growth surface, provided that a number of growth conditions are met. Indoor cannabis plantations in the Netherlands and Belgium share similar technical characteristics. As a result, for indoor cannabis plantations in both countries, both aforementioned yield estimation models should yield similar yield estimations. By means of a real-case study from the Netherlands, we show that the reliability of both models is hampered by a number of flaws and unmet preconditions. The Dutch model is based on a regression equation that makes use of ill-defined plant development stages, assumes a linear plant growth, does not discriminate between different plantation size categories and does not include other important yield determining factors (such as fertilization). The Belgian model addresses some of the latter shortcomings, but its applicability is constrained by a number of pre-conditions including plantation size between 50 and 1000 plants; cultivation in individual pots with peat soil; 600W (electrical power) assimilation lamps; constant temperature between 20°C and 30°C; adequate fertilizer application and plants unaffected by pests and diseases. Judiciary in both the Netherlands and Belgium require robust indoor cannabis yield models for adequate legal prosecution of

  7. Influence de la mortalité des cacaoyers sur la stabilité de la production dans une plantation industrielle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastide, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Cocoa Tree Mortality on Production Stability in a Private Estate. Yields in a 1,674 ha cocoa estate were analysed in Indonesia. The plantation, which was set up between 1981 and 1990 at Ransiki (Papua province, benefited from suitable soil and climatic conditions: good rainfall distribution and rich soils. The planting material comprised hybrids of various origins, Amelonados and local selections. Density measurements inside the plantation revealed a gradual reduction in the number of cocoa trees, from 1,250 at the outset to 835 trees/ha after 21 years. At the same time, overall yields for the same period remained stable. Cocoa tree mortality, which was responsible for the gradual reduction in density, did not affect production; neither did it alter the uniformity of the plant cover in the plots. This situation reflected an increase in tree productivity. The conditions for stabilized cocoa yields appeared to be linked not only to suitable edapho-climatic conditions and limited parasite pressure, but also to the ability of cocoa trees to increase their yields in conditions of decreasing stand due to the natural thining of the original plant population.

  8. Soil wettability in forested catchments in South Africa; as measured by different methods and as affected by vegetation cover and soil characteristics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in South Africa had shown that water repellency in the soils of timber plantations was associated with a greater risk of overland flow and soil erosion on mountain slopes. This paper reports on a follow-up study to determine how...

  9. Accumulation of soil organic C and N in planted forests fostered by tree species mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lei, Pifeng; Xiang, Wenhua; Yan, Wende; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing trend of converting monocultures into mixed forests, more and more studies have been carried out to investigate the admixing effects on tree growth and aboveground carbon storage. However, few studies have considered the impact of mixed forests on belowground carbon sequestration, particularly changes in soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as a forest grows. In this study, paired pure Pinus massoniana plantations, Cinnamomum camphora plantations and mixed Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora plantations at ages of 10, 24 and 45 years were selected to test whether the mixed plantations sequestrate more organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in soils and whether this admixing effect becomes more pronounced with stand ages. The results showed that tree species identification, composition and stand age significantly affected soil OC and N stocks. The soil OC and N stocks were the highest in mixed Pinus-Cinnamomum stands compared to those in counterpart monocultures with the same age in the whole soil profile or specific soil depth layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) for most cases, followed by Cinnamomum stands and Pinus stands with the lowest. These positive admixing effects were mostly nonadditive. Along the chronosequence, the soil OC stock peaked in the 24-year-old stand and was maintained as relatively stable thereafter. The admixing effects were also the highest at this stage. However, in the topsoil layer, the admixing effects increased with stand ages in terms of soil OC stocks. When comparing mixed Pinus-Cinnamomum plantations with corresponding monocultures within the same age, the soil N stock in mixed stands was 8.30, 11.17 and 31.45 % higher than the predicted mean value estimated from counterpart pure species plantations in 10-, 24- and 45-year-old stands, respectively. This suggests that these admixing effects were more pronounced along the chronosequence.

  10. [Effects of land use changes on soil water conservation in Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhao, He; Liu, Lei; OuYang, Zhi Yun; Zheng, Hua; Mi, Hong Xu; Li, Yan Min

    2017-12-01

    In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand ag