WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant-specific pra studies

  1. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom [PSE and G, Salem, NJ (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  2. Studi Awal Pra Desain Pabrik Bioetanol dari Nira Siwalan

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    Novarian Budisetyowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioetanol kini banyak dikembangkan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil. Bioetanol untuk campuran bensin harus memiliki kemurnian sebesar 99,5-100%. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari nira siwalan ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Bahan baku berupa nira siwalan diasamkan dengan menggunakan H2SO4, kemudian disterilisasi sebelum difermentasi di fermentor selama 36 jam. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Bakteri ini mampu mengurai gula tanpa kehadiran oksigen dan menghasilkan etanol dan karbondioksida. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari nira siwalan ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Bahan baku berupa nira siwalan diasamkan dengan menggunakan H2SO4, kemudian disterilisasi sebelum difermentasi di fermentor selama 36 jam. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Setelah dari fermentor nira yang sudah difermentasi dinetralkan pH nya menggunakan NH4OH di tangki netralisasi. Dari tangki netralisasi nira dipompakan melewati preheater sebelum masuk ke kolom distilasi. Pemurnian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kolom distilasi sebanyak 2 buah. Pada distilasi yang pertama diperoleh kadar etanol sebesar 60% dan pada distilasi yang kedua diperoleh kadar 96%. Dari kolom distilasi 2 larutan didinginkan menggunakan cooler untuk didapatkan suhu 32oC agar sesuai dengan suhu proses dehidrasi dengan menggunakan Molecular Sieve yang diinginkan. Proses dehidrasi dilakukan untuk mendapat kadar etanol 99,5%. Etanol 99,5% yang dihasilkan kemudian disimpan dalam tangki penampung. Kebutuhan bioetanol dalam negeri pada tahun 2018 diperkirakan 3.166.015,13 kL/tahun. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi yang dilakukan, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut internal rate of return 26,53 % per tahun, pay out time 4,73 tahun, dan BEP 34,62 % Ditinjau

  3. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  4. PRA and Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  5. Hiperurisemia pada Pra Diabetes

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    Ellyza Nasrul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAsam urat (AU merupakan produk akhir dari katabolisme adenin dan guanin yang berasal dari pemecahannukleotida purin. Urat dihasilkan oleh sel yang mengandung xanthine oxidase, terutama hepar dan usus kecil.Hiperurisemia adalah keadaan kadar asam urat dalam darah lebih dari 7,0 mg/dL.Pra diabetes adalah subjek yangmempunyai kadar glukosa plasma meningkat akan tetapi peningkatannya masih belum mencapai nilai minimaluntuk kriteria diagnosis diabetes melitus (DM. Glukosa darah puasa terganggu merupakan keadaan dimanapeningkatan kadar FPG≥100 mg/dL dan <126 mg/dL. Toleransi glukosa terganggu merupakan peningkatanglukosa plasma 2 jam setelah pembebanan 75 gram glukosa oral (≥140 mg/dL dan <200mg/dL dengan FPG<126 mg/dL.Insulin juga berperan dalam meningkatkan reabsorpsi asam urat di tubuli proksimal ginjal. Sehinggapada keadaan hiperinsulinemia pada pra diabetes terjadi peningkatan reabsorpsi yang akan menyebabkanhiperurisemia. Transporter urat yang berada di membran apikal tubuli renal dikenal sebagai URAT-1 berperandalam reabsorpsi urat.Kata kunci: Hiperurisemia, Pra DiabetesAbstractUric acid (AU is the end product of the catabolism of adenine and guanine nucleotides derived from thebreakdown of purines. Veins produced by cells containing xanthine oxidase, especially the liver and small intestine.Hyperuricemia is a state in the blood uric acid levels over 7.0 mg / dL.Pre-diabetes is a subject which has a plasmaglucose level will rise but the increase is still not reached the minimum value for the diagnostic criteria for diabetesmellitus (DM. Impaired fasting blood glucose is a condition in which increased levels of FPG ≥ 100 mg / dL and<126 mg / dL. Impaired glucose tolerance is an increase in plasma glucose 2 hours after 75 gram oral glucose load(≥ 140 mg / dL and <200mg/dl with FPG <126 mg / dL.Insulin also plays a role in increasing the reabsorption ofuric acid in renal proximal tubule. So that the hyperinsulinemia in the pre

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): status report and guidance for regulatory application. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    This document describes the current status of the methodologies used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and provides guidance for the application of the results of PRAs to the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The PRA studies that have been completed or are underway are reviewed. The levels of maturity of the methodologies used in a PRA are discussed. Insights derived from PRAs are listed. The potential uses of PRA results for regulatory purposes are discussed.

  7. Review of PRA methodology for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.E

    1999-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants), which are in the design stage as well as in operation. Recently, PRA becomes one of the licensing requirements for many existing and new NPPs. KALIMER is a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) being developed by KAERI. Since the design concept of KALIMER is similar to that of the PRISM plant developed by GE, it would be appropriate to review the PRA methodology of PRISM as the first step of KALIMER PRA. Hence, in this report summarizes the PRA methodology of PRISM plant, and the required works for the PSA of KALIMER based on the reviewed results. The PRA technology of PRISM plant consists of following five major tasks: (1) development of initiating event list, (2) development of system event tree, (3) development of core response event tree, (4) development of containment response event tree, and (5) consequences and risk estimation. The estimated individual and societal risk measures show that the risk from a PRISM module is substantially less than the NRC goal. Each task is compared to the PRA methodology of Light Water Reactor (LWR)/Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). In the report, each task of PRISM PRA methodology is reviewed and compared to the corresponding part of LWR/PHWR PSA performed in Korea. The parts that are not modeled appropriately in PRISM PRA are identified, and the recommendations for KALIMER PRA are stated. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Primary care practice-based care management for chronically ill patients (PraCMan: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN56104508

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    Baldauf Annika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care management programmes are an effective approach to care for high risk patients with complex care needs resulting from multiple co-occurring medical and non-medical conditions. These patients are likely to be hospitalized for a potentially "avoidable" cause. Nurse-led care management programmes for high risk elderly patients showed promising results. Care management programmes based on health care assistants (HCAs targeting adult patients with a high risk of hospitalisation may be an innovative approach to deliver cost-efficient intensified care to patients most in need. Methods/Design PraCMan is a cluster randomized controlled trial with primary care practices as unit of randomisation. The study evaluates a complex primary care practice-based care management of patients at high risk for future hospitalizations. Eligible patients either suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure or any combination. Patients with a high likelihood of hospitalization within the following 12 months (based on insurance data will be included in the trial. During 12 months of intervention patients of the care management group receive comprehensive assessment of medical and non-medical needs and resources as well as regular structured monitoring of symptoms. Assessment and monitoring will be performed by trained HCAs from the participating practices. Additionally, patients will receive written information, symptom diaries, action plans and a medication plan to improve self-management capabilities. This intervention is addition to usual care. Patients from the control group receive usual care. Primary outcome is the number of all-cause hospitalizations at 12 months follow-up, assessed by insurance claims data. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life (SF12, EQ5D, quality of chronic illness care (PACIC, health care utilisation and costs, medication adherence (MARS, depression

  9. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.304 PRA provisions on PAE compensation. (a) Base fee. (1) The PRA will provide for...

  10. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

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    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  11. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Jim Bouchard; Heather Lucek

    2011-03-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: • Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), • Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and • Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 1: PRA fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeding, R J; Leahy, T J; Young, J

    1985-08-01

    The full range of PRA topics is presented, with a special emphasis on systems analysis and PRA applications. Systems analysis topics include system modeling such as fault tree and event tree construction, failure rate data, and human Reliability. The discussion of PRA applications is centered on past and present PRA based programs, such as WASH-1400 and the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program, as well as on some of the potential future applications of PRA. The relationship of PRA to generic safety issues such as station blackout and Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is also discussed. In addition to system modeling, the major PRA tasks of accident process analysis, and consequence analysis are presented. An explanation of the results of these activities, and the techniques by which these results are derived, forms the basis for a discussion of these topics. An additional topic which is presented in this course is the topic of PRA management, organization, and evaluation. 84 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  14. PRA: A PERSPECTIVE ON STRENGTHS, CURRENT LIMITATIONS, AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS

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    ALI MOSLEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings.

  15. Insights on PRA Review Practices: Necessity for Model Shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is increasingly used as a technique to help ensure design and operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the nuclear industry. Hence, there is considerable interest in the PRA quality, and as a result, a peer review of the PRA model is typically performed to ensure its technical adequacy as part of the PRA development process or for any other reason (e.g., regulatory requirement). For the PRA model to be used as a valuable vehicle for risk-informed applications, it is essential that the PRA model must yield correct and physically meaningful accident sequences and minimal cutsets for specific plant configurations or conditions relating to the applications. Hence, the existing peer review guidelines need to be updated to reflect these insights so that risk-informed applications could be more actively pursued with confidence.

  16. 24 CFR 401.302 - PRA administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement.... The PAE must keep complete and accurate records of all activities related to the PAE's performance under the PRA. The PAE must retain the records for at least 3 years after the PRA terminates....

  17. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  18. Assessing risk: the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in patient safety improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreathall, J; Nemeth, C

    2004-06-01

    Morbidity and mortality due to "medical errors" compel better understanding of health care as a system. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used to assess the designs of high hazard, low risk systems such as commercial nuclear power plants and chemical manufacturing plants and is now being studied for its potential in the improvement of patient safety. PRA examines events that contribute to adverse outcomes through the use of event tree analysis and determines the likelihood of event occurrence through fault tree analysis. It complements tools already in use in patient safety such as failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) and root cause analyses (RCAs). PRA improves on RCA by taking account of the more complex causal interrelationships that are typical in health care. It also enables the analyst to examine potential solution effectiveness by direct graphical representations. However, PRA simplifies real world complexity by forcing binary conditions on events, and it lacks adequate probability data (although recent developments help to overcome these limitations). Its reliance on expert assessment calls for deep domain knowledge which has to come from research performed at the "sharp end" of acute care.

  19. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol (20-PRA

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    M.F. Dolabela

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclo-hexanethiol (20-PRA on a human leukemic cell line (K562 following various radiation doses (5, 7.5 and 20 Gy using a source of 60Co g-rays. At 5 Gy and 1 nM 20-PRA, a substantial protective effect (58% was seen 24 h after irradiation, followed by a decrease at 48 h (11%. At the high radiation dose (20 Gy a low protective effect was also seen (35%. In addition, the antitumorigenic potential of 10 nM 20-PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of 20-PRA is 105-106 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR-1065 (N-(2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane whose protective effect is in the 0.1 to 1.0 mM range.

  20. Differential regulation of breast cancer-associated genes by progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB in a new bi-inducible breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid A; Bellance, Catherine; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB) are expressed at equal levels in normal mammary cells. However, alteration in PRA/PRB expression is often observed in aggressive breast cancer suggesting differential contribution of PR isoforms in carcinogenesis. The mechanisms underlying such processes remain to be established mainly due to paucity of appropriate cellular models. To investigate the role of PR isoforms and the impact of imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio in transcriptional regulation, we have generated an original human breast cancer cell line conditionally expressing PRA and/or PRB in dose-dependence of non-steroid inducers. We first focused on PR-dependent transcriptional regulation of the paracrine growth factor gene amphiregulin (AREG) playing important role in cancer. Interestingly, unliganded PRA increases AREG expression, independently of estrogen receptor, yet inhibitable by antiprogestins. We show that functional outcome of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on such regulation is highly dependent on PRA/PRB ratio. Using this valuable model, genome-wide transcriptomic studies allowed us to determine the differential effects of PRA and PRB as a function of hormonal status. We identified a large number of novel PR-regulated genes notably implicated in breast cancer and metastasis and demonstrated that imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio strongly impact their expression predicting poor outcome in breast cancer. In sum, our unique cell-based system strongly suggests that PRA/PRB ratio is a critical determinant of PR target gene selectivity and responses to hormonal/growth factor stimuli. These findings provide molecular support for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancers with impaired expression of PRA or PRB.

  1. Differential regulation of breast cancer-associated genes by progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB in a new bi-inducible breast cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid A Khan

    Full Text Available Progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB are expressed at equal levels in normal mammary cells. However, alteration in PRA/PRB expression is often observed in aggressive breast cancer suggesting differential contribution of PR isoforms in carcinogenesis. The mechanisms underlying such processes remain to be established mainly due to paucity of appropriate cellular models. To investigate the role of PR isoforms and the impact of imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio in transcriptional regulation, we have generated an original human breast cancer cell line conditionally expressing PRA and/or PRB in dose-dependence of non-steroid inducers. We first focused on PR-dependent transcriptional regulation of the paracrine growth factor gene amphiregulin (AREG playing important role in cancer. Interestingly, unliganded PRA increases AREG expression, independently of estrogen receptor, yet inhibitable by antiprogestins. We show that functional outcome of epidermal growth factor (EGF on such regulation is highly dependent on PRA/PRB ratio. Using this valuable model, genome-wide transcriptomic studies allowed us to determine the differential effects of PRA and PRB as a function of hormonal status. We identified a large number of novel PR-regulated genes notably implicated in breast cancer and metastasis and demonstrated that imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio strongly impact their expression predicting poor outcome in breast cancer. In sum, our unique cell-based system strongly suggests that PRA/PRB ratio is a critical determinant of PR target gene selectivity and responses to hormonal/growth factor stimuli. These findings provide molecular support for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancers with impaired expression of PRA or PRB.

  2. Using Safety Margins for a German Seismic PRA

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    Ralf Obenland

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The German regulatory guide demands the performance of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA including external events. In 2005, a new methodology guideline (Methodenband based on the current state of science and technology was released to provide the analyst with a set of suitable tools and methodologies for the analysis of all PRA events. In the case of earthquake, a multilevel verification procedure is suggested. The verification procedure which has to be used depends on the seismic risk at the site of the plant. For sites in areas with low seismic activity no analysis or only a reduced analysis is proposed. This paper describes the evaluation of safety margins of buildings, structures, components and systems for plants at sites with high seismic risk, corresponding to the German methodology guideline. The seismic PRA results in an estimation of core damage frequencies caused by earthquakes. Additionally, the described approach can also be adapted for the usage in a reduced analysis for sites with lower earthquake risks. Westinghouse has wide experience in performing seismic PRA for both BWR as well as PWR plants. Westinghouse uses the documented set of seismic design analyses dating from construction phase and from later updates, if done, as a basis for a seismic PRA, which means that usually no costly new structural mechanics calculations have to be performed.

  3. PERUBAHAN KANDUNGAN ANTIOKSIDAN, POLIFENOL DAN PROFIL PROTEIN SELAMA PRA-PERKECAMBAHA PADA BIJI KAKAO

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    Kiki Ulfaniah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] Cocoa proven as food source that rich in bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols that have a role as an antioxidant because it can stop the free radical reactions. As the change in lifestyle of the people and the development of technology, various ways have been made to improve the nutrition quality of the cocoa beans with pre-germination methods. This research aimed to study the effect of pre-germination methods that change the content of antioxidants, polyphenols and protein profiles of cocoa beans. The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jember, held from January 28 until April 30, 2013. Metodology research used Sulawesi cocoa beans type 1 beans without skin and with the seed coat, which is done with a completely randomized design (CRD in the old pre-germination 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days and repeated 4 times. The results showed that pre-germination methods provide a very real effect on the polyphenol content and antioxidant cocoa beans without without and the seed coat. The highest antioxidant content of cocoa beans without the skin of 0.47 µg/mg at the old pre-germination for 3 days and cocoa beans with the seed coat by 0.41 µg/mg in the old pre-germination 5 days. Polyphenol content of cocoa beans without skin and with the best seed coat that is in the control treatment had the highest content of 2.67 µg/mg for cocoa beans without skin and 2.46 µg/mg for cocoa beans with the seed coat. Keywords: Cocoa; Polyphenols; Antioxidants; Free Radicals; Pre-Germination [INDONESIAN] Kakao terbukti sebagai sumber makanan kaya senyawa bioaktif terutama polifenol yang mempunyai kasiat sebagai antioksidan karena mampu menghentikan reaksi radikal bebas. Seiring perubahan pola hidup masyarakat dan berkembangnya teknologi, berbagai cara telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas nutrisi pada biji kakao dengan metode pra-perkecambahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk

  4. Progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB differentially regulate expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Lee, Eun-Woo; Zhou, Lin; Leung, Peter C K; Ross, Douglas D; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Mao, Qingcheng

    2008-03-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) plays a significant role in drug disposition and in conferring multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol and progesterone can affect BCRP expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which BCRP expression in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells is regulated by progesterone. Transfection of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB resulted in a similarly increased expression of PRA and PRB, respectively. However, progesterone significantly increased BCRP expression and activity only in PRB-transfected cells. This stimulatory effect of progesterone was abrogated by the PR antagonist mifepristone (RU-486). Consistently, transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter was induced 2- to 6-fold by 10(-8) to 10(-5) M progesterone in PRB-transfected cells. Progesterone had little effect on BCRP expression and activity and transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter in PRA-transfected cells; however, cotransfection of PRA and PRB significantly decreased the progesterone-response compared with that in cells transfected with only PRB. Mutations in a novel progesterone response element (PRE) identified between -243 to -115 bp of the BCRP promoter region significantly attenuated the progesterone-response in PRB-transfected cells, and deletion of the PRE nearly completely abrogated the progesterone effect. Specific binding of both PRA and PRB to the BCRP promoter through the identified PRE was confirmed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Collectively, progesterone induces BCRP expression in BeWo cells via PRB but not PRA. PRA represses the PRB activity. Thus, PRA and PRB differentially regulate BCRP expression in BeWo cells.

  5. Load out and offshore lifting of the PRA-1 platform modules; Embarque e icamento offshore dos modulos de PRA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Raigorodsky, Jacques; Mitidieri, Jorge L.U.; Ricardi, Paulo S. [Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technology innovations are characteristics of offshore Engineering around the world. These technologies just make sense when they aim the productivity, security and costs gains compared to ordinary methods. It is in this context that the proposal of the Consorcio PRA-1 (Odebrecht e UTC) team makes sense, in the definition of basic methodology for the PRA-1 platform construction and installation. Through the innovative concept, It was defined (still in the proposal phase) the basic premise that the modules construction and assembly were onshore ending up that just few hours after the offshore installation the modules should be operational in minimal habitability conditions. This innovative method allowed the lack of Flotel, that is a platform which provide support to the offshore construction and assembly (Flotel represents a high costs to the project) and, as consequence, the contract signature by CONSORCIO PRA-1. This work aims to describe the method used for the LOUD-OUT of the PRA-1 modules and the installation of them on the jacket through a vessel provide with cranes the has performed the lifting. Theses operations became unique in Brazil due its challengers characteristics: Module 12 weight = 7203 tf and Module 35 = 5725 tf. For the accomplishment of the Load-out and offshore lifting, was performed a detailed planning and a high level of subcontract interface management. The operations mentioned above were filmed/photographed and published in the specialized media. (author)

  6. 24 CFR 401.309 - PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring... agreement of both parties. The PRA will provide for HUD to pay final compensation to the PAE and to assign... required by HUD as provided in the PRA only for matters authorized by the PRA and performed by the PAE...

  7. ANALISIS INFLASI PRA DAN PASCA KRISIS MONETER DALAM PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Sri Haryati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Penelitian ini menganalisis fluktuasi inflasi yang terjadi pada masa pra, saat, dan pasca krisis moneter. Terdapat 5 variabel yang berkorelasi dengan inflasi di Indonesia. Variabel-variabel tersebut adalah jumlah uang beredar (JUB, nilai tukar nominal (NTN, pertumbuhan ekonomi, pengeluaran pemerintah (PeP,dan  bahan bakar minyak (BBM. Sebenarnya variabel tersebut memiliki hubungan dengan inflasi pada seluruh era. Namun, variabel tesebut memiliki dominasi yang berbeda pada masing-masing eranya. Era prakrisis didominasi oleh 3 variabel, yakni; pertumbuhan ekonomi, NTN, dan JUB, era krisis didominasi oleh seluruh variabel yang ada, dan era pasca krisis didominasi oleh 3 variabel, yakni; PeP, NTN, dan JUB. Variabel-variabel ini akan dijelaskan pengaruhnya terhadap inflasi pada era yang didominasi dimana apakah memiliki hubungan sebanding atau berbanding terbalik. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ This study analyzes the fluctuations in inflation that occurred in the pre, during and post the financial crisis. There are 5 variables that correlated with inflation in Indonesia. These variables are the money supply (MS, the nominal exchange rate (NER, economic growth, government expenditure (GE, and fuel oil (BBM. Actually, these variables have a relationship with inflation on the whole era. However, the variable has a predominance of different proficiency level in each era. Pre-crisis era dominated by three variables, namely; economic growth, NER, and MS, crisis era dominated by all the variables that exist, and the post-crisis era dominated by three variables, namely; GE, NER, and MS. These variables will be explained influence on inflation in an era dominated where or whether proportional or inversely proportional relationship. © 2014 Universitas Negeri Semarang

  8. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

    2014-04-01

    A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

  9. EPRI/NRC-RES fire PRA guide for nuclear power facilities. Volume 1, summary and overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) application. The methods have been developed under the Fire Risk Re-quantification Study. This study was conducted as a joint activity between EPRI and the U. S. NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) under the terms of an EPRI/RES Memorandum of Understanding [RS.1] and an accompanying Fire Research Addendum [RS.2]. Industry participants supported demonstration analyses and provided peer review of this methodology. The documented methods are intended to support future applications of Fire PRA, including risk-informed regulatory applications. The documented method reflects state-of-the-art fire risk analysis approaches. The primary objective of the Fire Risk Study was to consolidate recent research and development activities into a single state-of-the-art fire PRA analysis methodology. Methodological issues raised in past fire risk analyses, including the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) fire analyses, have been addressed to the extent allowed by the current state-of-the-art and the overall project scope. Methodological debates were resolved through a consensus process between experts representing both EPRI and RES. The consensus process included a provision whereby each major party (EPRI and RES) could maintain differing technical positions if consensus could not be reached. No cases were encountered where this provision was invoked. While the primary objective of the project was to consolidate existing state-of-the-art methods, in many areas, the newly documented methods represent a significant advancement over previously documented methods. In several areas, this project has, in fact, developed new methods and approaches. Such advances typically relate to areas of past methodological debate.

  10. Progestin and antiprogestin responsiveness in breast cancer is driven by the PRA/PRB ratio via AIB1 or SMRT recruitment to the CCND1 and MYC promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargon, Victoria; Riggio, Marina; Giulianelli, Sebastián; Sequeira, Gonzalo R; Rojas, Paola; May, María; Polo, María L; Gorostiaga, María A; Jacobsen, Britta; Molinolo, Alfredo; Novaro, Virginia; Lanari, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    There is emerging interest in understanding the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferative effect of progestins and antiprogestins depending on the relative expression of the A (PRA) and B (PRB) isoforms of PR. In mifepristone (MFP)-resistant murine carcinomas antiprogestin responsiveness was restored by re-expressing PRA using demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Consistently, in two human breast cancer xenograft models, one manipulated to overexpress PRA or PRB (IBH-6 cells), and the other expressing only PRA (T47D-YA) or PRB (T47D-YB), MFP selectively inhibited the growth of PRA-overexpressing tumors and stimulated IBH-6-PRB xenograft growth. Furthermore, in cells with high or equimolar PRA/PRB ratios, which are stimulated to proliferate in vitro by progestins, and are inhibited by MFP, MPA increased the interaction between PR and the coactivator AIB1, and MFP favored the interaction between PR and the corepressor SMRT. In a PRB-dominant context in which MFP stimulates and MPA inhibits cell proliferation, the opposite interactions were observed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in T47D cells in the presence of MPA or MFP confirmed the interactions between PR and the coregulators at the CCND1 and MYC promoters. SMRT downregulation by siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of MFP on MYC expression and cell proliferation. Our results indicate that antiprogestins are therapeutic tools that selectively inhibit PRA-overexpressing tumors by increasing the SMRT/AIB1 balance at the CCND1 and MYC promoters.

  11. Pemikiran Suksesi Dalam Politik Islam Masa Pra Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazro'atus Sa'adah

    2016-12-01

    Abstrak: Pemikiran politik Islam muncul setelah Islam melalui Nabi Muhammad SAW berhasil membentuk sebuah ummat baru, dari peralihan kekuasaan kerajaan/kesukuan kepada Nabi yang kemudian kepada umat. Nabi Muhammad dinilai berhasil dalam mengatur komunitas barunya yang dikendalikan oleh ajarannya dalam seluruh lini kehidupan. Persoalan muncul kemudian setelah beliau wafat, yang akhirnya memunculkan pemikiran tentang suksesi. Artikel ini akan membahas tentang mengapa terjadi suksesi setelah Nabi Muhammad SAW wafat, bagaimana pemikiran para tokoh politik Islam masa pra modern terkait dengan suksesi, dan apa kontribusi pemikiran suksesi ini terhadap politik Islam di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sejarah, ditemukan bahwa Nabi Muhammad tidak menetapkan siapa yang akan menggantikannya, dan ketika beliau wafat (632 M, para sahabat memilih seorang pemimpin (imam/khalifah. Masa pemerintahan Abu Bakar, Umar dan Usman banyak terjadi perselisihan yang awalnya terkait kepentingan agama namun berkembang menjadi kepentingan politik. Ketika Ali bin Abi Talib diangkat sebagai khalifah, konflik politik berkepanjangan berkaitan dengan pembunuhan Usman, menjadikan timbulnya perang jamal antara Aisyah dan Ali. Pada masa ini perbedaan kepentingan aqidah dipolitisir lebih jauh menjadi sebuah kepentingan politik. Dinamika politik ini kemudian melahirkan mazhab politik Islam klasik yang terbagi dalam tiga mazhab besar yaitu Sunni, Syi'ah dan Khawarij, yang darinya muncul istilah-istilah khilafah, imamah, ahlul halli wal aqdi, bay’ah, walayah dan lain-lain. Dari ketiga mazhab politik ini, kemudian muncul ide pemikiran politik Islam yang sangat kompleks dan berkepanjangan dari para tokoh politik Islam pra modern yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh filosof Yunani. Di Indonesia, pemikiran suksesi dalam politik Islam masa pra modern ini pernah diwacanakan. Namun untuk pemilihan kepala Negara belum terealisasi mengingat Indonesia bukan Negara Islam.

  12. Association of Aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD with Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Adult Men with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Yuliana Intantri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral Obesity is related with chronic low grade inflammation, and is the main component of metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD is correlated with insulin resistance. Several studies have reported a strong correlation between Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS and CVD, but the association of Aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA and SOD with inflammation, insulin resistance and MetS have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of Aldosterone, PRA, and SOD with inflammation (high sensitivity c-reactive protein/hsCRP and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance/HOMA-IR in adult men with central obesity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, which was carried out on 80 male subjects with central obesity who were divided into 2 groups: the group of subjects who had fulfilled the MetS criteria and the other group of subjects who did not. After an overnight fasting, blood pressure (BP was measured on all subjects and laboratory examinations were done for measurement of the concentration of fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceride, hsCRP, insulin, aldosterone, PRA, and SOD. RESULTS: We found aldosterone had positive correlation with PRA (r=0.389; p<0.001 and triglycerides (r=0.234; p=0.036. PRA had positive correlation with SOD (r=0.220; p=0.05 and HDL-C (r=0.273; p=0.014, but not with hsCRP (r=-0.044; p=0.696 and HOMA-IR (r=0.168 p=0.136. PRA correlated with HOMA-IR in MetS (r=0.471; p=0.01. Aldosterone and PRA were correlated with diastolic pressure in those with hypertension (r=0.680; p=0.003 and r=0.608; p=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: There is no direct correlation between aldosterone or SOD and Insulin resistance, and inflammation in men with central obesity. The correlation between PRA and MetS might be through insulin resistance

  13. An evaluation of the reliability and usefulness of external-initiator PRA (probabilistic risk analysis) methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E. (Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The discipline of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has become so mature in recent years that it is now being used routinely to assist decision-making throughout the nuclear industry. This includes decision-making that affects design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation. Unfortunately, not all sub-areas within the larger discipline of PRA are equally mature,'' and therefore the many different types of engineering insights from PRA are not all equally reliable. 93 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Reduced expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase in chorion during labor is associated with decreased PRB and increased PRA and GR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; He, Ping; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Jie; Gao, Lu; You, Xingji; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2013-05-01

    The chorion laeve controls the levels of active prostaglandins within the uterus by NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). The expression of PGDH in chorion is modulated by glucocorticoids and progesterone. In this study, we investigated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and progesterone receptor A and B (PRA and PRB) in the regulation of PGDH expression in chorion, and we determined whether reduced PGDH expression in chorion during labor is associated with the changes in GR and PR expression by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited PGDH expression whereas progesterone stimulated PGDH expression in chorionic trophoblasts. DEX suppressed PGDH expression in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells. The inhibitory effect of DEX did not occur in GR knockdown cells. Progesterone inhibited PGDH in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells and it stimulated PGDH in PRB overexpression cells whereas it suppressed PGDH in PRA overexpression cells. Knockdown of c-Jun resulted in a loss of progesterone- and DEX-induced effects. PGDH was down-regulated in chorion tissues during labor. PRB was decreased whereas PRA and GR were increased in chorion during labor. Glucocorticoids inhibit PGDH expression via GR in chorionic trophoblasts. Progesterone enhances PGDH expression through PRB, whereas it inhibits PGDH expression via GR and PRA. Decreased PGDH expression is associated with increased GR and PRA, although decreased PRB, in chorion during labor.

  15. Plant-specific myosin XI, a molecular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki eTominaga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, organelle movement, positioning, and communications are critical for maintaining cellular functions and are highly regulated by intracellular trafficking. Directional movement of motor proteins along the cytoskeleton is one of the key regulators of such trafficking. Most plants have developed a unique actin–myosin system for intracellular trafficking. Although the composition of myosin motors in angiosperms is limited to plant-specific myosin classes VIII and XI, there are large families of myosins, especially in class XI, suggesting functional diversification among class XI members. However, the molecular properties and regulation of each myosin XI member remains unclear.To achieve a better understanding of the plant-specific actin–myosin system, the characterization of myosin XI members at the molecular level is essential. In the first half of this review, we summarize the molecular properties of tobacco 175-kDa myosin XI, and in the later half, we focus on myosin XI members in Arabidopsis thaliana.Through detailed comparison of the functional domains of these myosins with the functional domain of myosin V, we look for possible diversification in enzymatic and mechanical properties among myosin XI members concomitant with their regulation.

  16. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and shutdown...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  18. COMPARISON OF NOVORONEZH UNIT 5 NPP AND SOUTH UKRAINE UNIT 1 NPP LEVEL I PRA RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUSICKI,Z.; GINSBERG,T.

    2002-04-18

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar WER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics.

  19. Elastin and Mechanics of Pig Pericardial Resistance Arteries (pPRA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Leurgans, Thomas; Rosenstand, Kristoffer

    Resistance arteries are remodeled in hypertension and diabetes. Elastin was reported to play a role herein. The parietal pericardium is opened during cardio-thoracic surgeries and might be a valuable biopsy for research in cardio-vascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that resistance arteries...... can be isolated from the pericardium to study the micro-architecture of elastin and vascular wall mechanics. The pericardium of pigs served to test the hypothesis. pPRAs were microdissected. Their structure was examined using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. Diameter-tension...... and pressure-diameter-length relationships were recorded in myographs. Findings are compared to rodent mesenteric resistance arteries and –basilar arteries (rMRA, rBA) with comparable lumen diameter (±300µm at 100mmHg). pPRA have no clear external elastic lamina (present in rMRA, but not rBA), scant elastin...

  20. The Preliminary Detection of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai NGAMRIABSAKUL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume are normally fermented and eaten by local villagers in Southern Thailand, especially in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. It is well known that fresh seeds can make the person who eats them even in small amounts feel dizzy. The amounts and types of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds and the effect of heat and fermentation on the amount of the substances have never been reported before. Amygdalin, a type of cyanogenic glycoside, was detected in this preliminary study. It was found that fresh leaves contained 30 ppm of amygdalin, while fresh seeds contained much more amygdalin; 660 ppm, equivalent to a small amount of HCN, 0.005 ppm. Cooked and later fermented seeds had considerably less amygdalin than the fresh ones, 100 ppm and 25 ppm, respectively. It is clearly shown that heat (boiling and fermentation can reduce the amount of amygdalin in the seeds.

  1. Current and future applications of PRA in regulatory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speis, T.P.; Murphy, J.A.; Cunningham, M.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have proven valuable in providing the regulators, the nuclear plant operators, and the reactor designers insights into plant safety, reliability, design and operation. Both the NRC Commissioners and the staff have grown to appreciate the valuable contributions PRAs can have in the regulatory arena, though I will admit the existence of some tendencies for strict adherence to the deterministic approach within the agency and the public at large. Any call for change, particularly one involving a major adjustment in approach to the regulation of nuclear power, will meet with a certain degree of resistance and retrenchment. Change can appear threatening and can cause some to question whether the safety mission is being fulfilled. This skepticism is completely appropriate and is, in fact, essential to a proper transition towards risk and performance-based approaches. Our task in the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is to increase the PRA knowledge base within the agency and develop appropriate guidance and methods needed to support the transitioning process.

  2. Pra Desain Pabrik Bioetanol Dari Nira Batang Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredi Susanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Etanol merupakan salah satu bahan kimia yang memiliki peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia misalnya digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri turunan alkohol. Akan tetapi etanol yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai campuran bahan bakar harus mempunyai grade sebesar 99,5-100% volume, grade tersebut mutlak karena jika berkadar di bawah 90%, mesin tidak dapat menyala karena kandungan airnya terlampau tinggi. Bioetanol dengan kadar kemurnian 95% masih layak dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bakar motor. Hanya saja, dengan kadar kemurnian itu perlu penambahan zat antikorosif pada tangki bahan bakar agar tidak menimbulkan karat. Salah satu bahan baku yang dimanfaatkan untuk produksi bioetanol adalah sorghum karena memiliki kadar glukosa yang cukup tinggi. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari batang sorghum ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Batang sorghum digiling dalam roll mill dan ditambahkan air sehingga menghasilkan nira. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Bakteri ini mampu mengurai gula tanpa kehadiran oksigen dan menghasilkan etanol dan karbondioksida. Konsumsi premium pada 2017 diperkirakan sebesar 63.052.915 kL/tahun. Proses pembuatan bioetanol ini berlangsung secara kontinyu, 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun dengan perencanaan sebagai berikut, Kapasitas produksi : 355.916,41 kL/tahun, Bahan baku : 5.000.000 ton/tahun. Pabrik bioetanol ini akan didirikan di Sukoharjo pada tahun 2017. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi yang dilakukan, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: Internal Rate of Return : 36 %  per tahun, Pay Out Time : 4.09  tahun, dan BEP : 25.13 %.

  3. Pra Desain Pabrik Bioetanol Dari Nira Batang Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Candra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Etanol merupakan salah satu bahan kimia yang memiliki peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia misalnya digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri turunan alkohol. Akan tetapi etanol yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai campuran bahan bakar harus mempunyai grade sebesar 99,5-100% volume, grade tersebut mutlak karena jika berkadar di bawah 90%, mesin tidak dapat menyala karena kandungan airnya terlampau tinggi. Bioetanol dengan kadar kemurnian 95% masih layak dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bakar motor. Hanya saja, dengan kadar kemurnian itu perlu penambahan zat antikorosif pada tangki bahan bakar agar tidak menimbulkan karat. Salah satu bahan baku yang dimanfaatkan untuk produksi bioetanol adalah sorghum karena memiliki kadar glukosa yang cukup tinggi. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari batang sorghum ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Batang sorghum digiling dalam roll mill dan ditambahkan air sehingga menghasilkan nira. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Bakteri ini mampu mengurai gula tanpa kehadiran oksigen dan menghasilkan etanol dan karbondioksida. Konsumsi premium pada 2017 diperkirakan sebesar 63.052.915 kL/tahun. Proses pembuatan bioetanol ini berlangsung secara kontinyu, 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun dengan perencanaan sebagai berikut, Kapasitas produksi : 355.916,41 kL/tahun, Bahan baku : 5.000.000 ton/tahun. Pabrik bioetanol ini akan didirikan di Sukoharjo pada tahun 2017. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi yang dilakukan, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: Internal Rate of Return : 36 % per tahun, Pay Out Time : 4.09 tahun, dan BEP : 25.13 %

  4. How Can You Support RIDM/CRM/RM Through the Use of PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DoVemto. Tpmu

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is one of key Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) tools. It is a scenario-based methodology aimed at identifying and assessing Safety and Technical Performance risks in complex technological systems.

  5. PRA-1 offshore platform start-up within seven days; Operacionalizacao da plataforma offshore PRA-1 em sete dias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Mitidieri, Jorge; Faria, Jose Luis Coutinho de; Ribeiro, Juan Carlos; Moura, Mario Arthur [Construtora Norberto Oderbrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technologic innovations are very hard features with regards to Offshore Engineering and Construction over the worldwide. The innovations only make sense since they are focus on the high productivity, safe job and cost reduction compared with the current technologies. Inside the scenario mentioned above is Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A. concept for the PRA-1 platform Engineering and Construction. Through a very advanced and innovation concept, it was defined as the Main Strategic Planning of the undertaking not use a temporary platform support (named in Brazil as 'Flotel') during the 'Hook-up', commissioning and star-up offshore phase. The success of the strategic made possible through the implementation of new engineering tools, and, besides this, through a very careful offshore planning focused on minimizing and make easier as much as possible the offshore activities. The planning can be basically spitted on the following parts: A- Onshore preparations (Assembly, Integration and Commissioning of the Utilities and Accommodation Modules) B- Offshore detailed planning of the critical activities concerning the start-up of the systems responsible for leaving the platform ready for 'live'. This operation was defined as 'seven days of platform live support' (main target of this paper). (author)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF DYNAMIC PRA TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY AVERAGE COMPONENT PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vaibhav; Agarwal, Vivek; Gribok, Andrei V.; Smith, Curtis L.

    2017-06-01

    In the nuclear industry, risk monitors are intended to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration. Current risk monitors are limited in that they do not properly take into account the deteriorating states of plant equipment, which are unit-specific. Current approaches to computing risk monitors use probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques, but the assessment is typically a snapshot in time. Living PRA models attempt to address limitations of traditional PRA models in a limited sense by including temporary changes in plant and system configurations. However, information on plant component health are not considered. This often leaves risk monitors using living PRA models incapable of conducting evaluations with dynamic degradation scenarios evolving over time. There is a need to develop enabling approaches to solidify risk monitors to provide time and condition-dependent risk by integrating traditional PRA models with condition monitoring and prognostic techniques. This paper presents estimation of system risk evolution over time by integrating plant risk monitoring data with dynamic PRA methods incorporating aging and degradation. Several online, non-destructive approaches have been developed for diagnosing plant component conditions in nuclear industry, i.e., condition indication index, using vibration analysis, current signatures, and operational history [1]. In this work the component performance measures at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) [2] are incorporated within the various dynamic PRA methodologies [3] to provide better estimates of probability of failures. Aging and degradation is modeled within the Level-1 PRA framework and is applied to several failure modes of pumps and can be extended to a range of components, viz. valves, generators, batteries, and pipes.

  7. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2014-0035 MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques Paul...the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment... Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques to perform laser safety and hazard analysis for high output lasers in outdoor environments has become

  8. Um oásis urbano: dois estudos das interações pessoa-ambiente na praça Kalina Maia, Natal/RN = An urban oasis: two studies of people-environmental interactions in Kalina Maia square, Natal/RN = Un oasis urbano: dos estudios de las interacciones persona-medio ambiente en la plaza Kalina Maia, Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viegas, Cíntia Camila Liberalino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora vários fatores apontem seu atual abandono, as praças influenciam a qualidade de vida das cidades, colaborando com o microclima urbano e a restauração do equilíbrio físico/mental das pessoas. Esse artigo apresenta duas pesquisas (independentes embasadas na literatura de Psicologia Ambiental, realizadas na Praça Kalina Maia (Natal/RN, visando compreender seu uso: uma abordou atividades de lazer; outra, a socialização de idosos. Em cada estudo, o método somou diário de campo, entrevistas e observação comportamental (mapeamento ou naturalística. Os resultados revelam a setorização de usos, mostrando que, durante o dia, idosos, adultos, adolescentes e crianças ali desenvolvem várias atividades, sobretudo esportivas – que predominam na ATI (onde se concentram os idosos. Conclui-se que, se existirem condições de suporte às atividades de lazer, as praças ainda podem ser oásis urbanos, promovendo lazer e socialização, conhecimento que pode contribuir para a proposta de programas que incentivem seu uso e retroalimentem seu projeto

  9. Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) Risk Analysis Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Eric B.; Boyer, Roger L.; Stewart, Michael A.; Fougere, Pete

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) directorate at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied its knowledge and experience with Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to projects in industries ranging from spacecraft to nuclear power plants. PRA is a comprehensive and structured process for analyzing risk in complex engineered systems and/or processes. The PRA process enables the user to identify potential risk contributors such as, hardware and software failure, human error, and external events. Recent developments in the oil and gas industry have presented opportunities for NASA to lend their PRA expertise to both ongoing and developmental projects within the industry. This paper provides an overview of the PRA process and demonstrates how this process was applied in estimating the probability that a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) operating in the Gulf of Mexico and equipped with a generically configured Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) loses location and needs to initiate an emergency disconnect. The PRA described in this paper is intended to be generic such that the vessel meets the general requirements of an International Maritime Organization (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC)/Circ. 645 Class 3 dynamically positioned vessel. The results of this analysis are not intended to be applied to any specific drilling vessel, although provisions were made to allow the analysis to be configured to a specific vessel if required.

  10. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Baranowsky; Ken Canavan; Shawn St. Germain

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures

  11. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  12. Devonian conodonts from the Foča–Prača Paleozoic complex (Durmitor Nappe, southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Jurkovšek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conodont study of the Crna Rijeka borehole CR-17, positioned in the frontal part of the Durmitor Nappe (Foča – Prača Paleozoic complex, SE Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. The obtained fauna indicates an Early-Middle Devonian age and due to poor preservation an identification at a generic level is possible only. The recovered conodont elements have a high Color Alteration Index (CAI = 6,5–7 indicating a degree of metamorphism corresponding to a temperature interval from 440 °C to 720 °C.

  13. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is announcing the availability of the model safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  14. Practical Application of PRA as an Integrated Design Tool for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Prince; Shi, Ying; Pair, Robin; Quaney, Virginia; Uhlenbrock, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the first comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) during the design phase of a joint NASA/NOAA weather satellite program, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Series R (GOES-R). GOES-R is the next generation weather satellite primarily to help understand the weather and help save human lives. PRA has been used at NASA for Human Space Flight for many years. PRA was initially adopted and implemented in the operational phase of manned space flight programs and more recently for the next generation human space systems. Since its first use at NASA, PRA has become recognized throughout the Agency as a method of assessing complex mission risks as part of an overall approach to assuring safety and mission success throughout project lifecycles. PRA is now included as a requirement during the design phase of both NASA next generation manned space vehicles as well as for high priority robotic missions. The influence of PRA on GOES-R design and operation concepts are discussed in detail. The GOES-R PRA is unique at NASA for its early implementation. It also represents a pioneering effort to integrate risks from both Spacecraft (SC) and Ground Segment (GS) to fully assess the probability of achieving mission objectives. PRA analysts were actively involved in system engineering and design engineering to ensure that a comprehensive set of technical risks were correctly identified and properly understood from a design and operations perspective. The analysis included an assessment of SC hardware and software, SC fault management system, GS hardware and software, common cause failures, human error, natural hazards, solar weather and infrastructure (such as network and telecommunications failures, fire). PRA findings directly resulted in design changes to reduce SC risk from micro-meteoroids. PRA results also led to design changes in several SC subsystems, e.g. propulsion, guidance, navigation and control (GNC

  15. Određivanje alergena grinja u kućnoj prašini enzim-imunokemijskom metodom

    OpenAIRE

    Prester, Ljerka; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Macan, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Cilj ovoga rada bio je odrediti razine alergena grinja Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) i Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) u 30 uzoraka kućne prašine uzorkovane u gradskim stanovima u Zagrebu enzim-imunokemijskom metodom (ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies Ltd, Carfiff, UK). Metoda se koristi tehnikom dvaju monoklonskih protutijela, a primjenjuje se kao standardna metoda za određivanje alergena grinja u prašini. Uzorci prašine skupljeni su usisavanjem prašine s tepiha u celulozne filtre....

  16. Mercury in different environmental compartments of the Pra River Basin, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, A K; Bonzongo, J C; Nartey, V K; Adotey, D K

    2006-09-01

    Artisanal gold mining (AGM) with metallic mercury has a long history in Ghana. It is believed to be over 2,000 years old. Today, AGM has escalated in a new dimension consuming about half of the country where gold lode deposits exist along riverbanks or rivers are alluvial-gold rich. The Pra River in southwestern Ghana is a site of on going application of metallic mercury in prospecting gold, and this paper examines mercury (Hg) contamination in the different environmental compartments in its watershed. Samples of water, sediment, soil and biota (i.e., human hair and fish) were collected from locations along the course of the river during the rainy and dry seasons of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Besides the obvious Hg point sources along the Pra and its tributaries, the obtained results show that Hg levels and speciation in the studied aquatic system are controlled by precipitation, which drives the hydrology and differences in flow regimes versus seasons. The seasonal difference in Hg speciation suggests that methyl mercury (MeHg) found in the aqueous phase and riverine sediments is likely of terrestrial origin where its production is favored during the rainy season by high soil water and organic matter content. The use of the enrichment factor (EF) for the assessment of sediment quality indicated moderate to severe contamination of surface sediments in the rainy season, while in the dry season, the EF index indicates nearly no pollution of surface sediments. Accordingly, most of the Hg introduced into this river system is likely transported to depositional downstream terminal basins (e.g. the river delta and the Gulf of Guinea). With regard to biota, Hg measured in hair in the dry period was higher than data obtained on samples collected during the wet period. This could be explained at least in part by the shift in diet as a result of abundance of fish in the local markets and the concurrent increase and more active fishing during the dry season. Mercury data

  17. Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY): Properties of a Self-Report Instrument for Research on Children's Health and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pachter, Lee M.; Szalacha, Laura A.; Bernstein, Bruce A.; Coll, Cynthia García

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of racial discrimination have been demonstrated to be related to racial and ethnic disparities in mental and physical health and healthcare. There has been little study, however, of the relationship between racism and health in children, and few psychometrically valid and reliable instruments to measure perceptions of racism in children and youth exist. This paper reports on the development and testing of such an instrument, the Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY).

  18. Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY): properties of a self-report instrument for research on children's health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M; Szalacha, Laura A; Bernstein, Bruce A; Coll, Cynthia García

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of racial discrimination have been demonstrated to be related to racial and ethnic disparities in mental and physical health and healthcare. There has been little study, however, of the relationship between racism and health in children, and few psychometrically valid and reliable instruments to measure Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth (PRaCY) exist. This paper reports on the development and testing of such an instrument, the PRaCY. Development of the instrument began with open-ended qualitative interviews, from which a proto-questionnaire was created. The questionnaire gathered information on the prevalence, attribution, emotional responses, and coping responses to 23 situations identified by participants in the qualitative phase. The proto-questionnaire was administered to 277 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (38% Latino/a, 31% African-American, 19% multiracial/multicultural, 7% West Indian/Caribbean, and 5% Other). Item analysis resulted in two developmentally appropriate 10-item instruments (one for ages 7-13, another for ages 14-18). Internal consistency reliability was strong (alpha = 0.78 for both versions of the instrument). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit for both versions (younger-Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.967, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.047; older-CFI: 0.934, RMSEA: 0.056). Differential item functioning analyses demonstrated no group-specific biases in item response. PRaCY scores were appropriately associated with higher depressive symptom scores and elevated anxiety scores in the younger sample. Results indicate that the PRaCY is a valid and reliable instrument that measures perceptions of racism and discrimination in children and youth aged 8-18 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.

  19. The use of PRA in the development of ALWR (advanced light water reactor) design requirements. [Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summitt, R.L. (Safety and Reliability Optimization Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Additon, S.L. (TENERA, L.P., Bethesda, MD (USA)); Pasedag, W.F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The current hiatus in nuclear power plant orders provides an opportunity for the development of advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design concepts and regulatory requirements which incorporate the insights gained from the application of the probabilistic risk assessment. The US Department of Energy is assisting the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the incorporation of PRA insights into the specification of the utility requirements, and reactor vendors in support of the conceptual design of safety systems, for such advanced plants. This paper reviews the applications of PRA methods in this development of specifications for, and the design of simplified, rugged ALWRs with a significantly improved risk profile. Specific examples of the impact of utilizing published PRA insights, construction and use of functional PRA models, and feedback of PRA experience into the specification of the key assumptions and groundrules for ALWR PRAs are presented. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Selecting the seismic HRA approach for Savannah River Plant PRA revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papouchado, K.; Salaymeh, J. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wingo, H.E.; Benhardt, H.C.; van Buijtenen, C.M.; Mitts, T.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has prepared a level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), Rev. 0 of reactor operations for externally-initiated events including seismic events. The SRS PRA, Rev. 0 Seismic HRA received a critical review that expressed skepticism with the approach used for human reliability analysis because it had not been previously used and accepted in other published PRAs. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis (HRA). It also describes a recommended approach for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) PRA. The SRS seismic event PRA performs HRA to account for the contribution of human errors in the accident sequences. The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field.

  1. Assessing Sediment and Nutrient Transport in the Pra Basin of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    humidity 60–95%) with annual rainfall in the range of 1500–2000 mm. The average maximum and .... Annual average values of suspended sediment yield in the Pra river basin. Station. River. A (km2) ..... U S Bureau of. Reclamation, Denver ...

  2. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of a fireworks...

  3. Mutation of praR in Rhizobium leguminosarum enhances root biofilms, improving nodulation competitiveness by increased expression of attachment proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Marijke; Edwards, Anne; Swiderska, Anna; Stanger, Andrew; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Williams, Alan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Poole, Philip S; Downie, J Allan

    2014-08-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on pea roots. The praR mutant out-competed wild-type for infection of pea nodules in mixed inoculations. Analysis of gene expression by microarrays and promoter fusions revealed that PraR represses its own transcription and mutation of praR increased expression of several genes including those encoding secreted proteins (the adhesins RapA2, RapB and RapC, two cadherins and the glycanase PlyB), the polysaccharide regulator RosR, and another protein similar to PraR. PraR bound to the promoters of several of these genes indicating direct repression. Mutations in rapA2, rapB, rapC, plyB, the cadherins or rosR did not affect the enhanced root attachment or nodule competitiveness of the praR mutant. However combinations of mutations in rapA, rapB and rapC abolished the enhanced attachment and nodule competitiveness. We conclude that relief of PraR-mediated repression determines a lifestyle switch allowing the expression of genes that are important for biofilm formation on roots and the subsequent initiation of infection of legume roots.

  4. Progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB differentially contribute to breast cancer cell migration through interaction with focal adhesion kinase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellance, Catherine; Khan, Junaid A; Meduri, Geri; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2013-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) and progestins affect mammary tumorigenesis; however, the relative contributions of PR isoforms A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively) in cancer cell migration remains elusive. By using a bi-inducible MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing PRA and/or PRB, we analyzed the effect of conditional PR isoform expression. Surprisingly, unliganded PRB but not PRA strongly enhanced cell migration as compared with PR(-) cells. 17,21-Dimethyl-19-norpregna-4,9-dien-3,20-dione (R5020) progestin limited this effect and was counteracted by the antagonist 11β-(4-dimethyl-amino)-phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486). Of importance, PRA coexpression potentiated PRB-mediated migration, whereas PRA alone was ineffective. PR isoforms differentially regulated expressions of major players of cell migration, such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, uPA receptor (uPAR), and β1-integrin, which affect focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Moreover, unliganded PRB but not PRA enhanced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and colocalized with activated FAK in cell protrusions. Because PRB, as well as PRA, coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, both isoforms can interact with FAK complexes, depending on their respective nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In addition, FAK degradation was coupled to R5020-dependent turnovers of PRA and PRB. Such an effect of PRB/PRA expression on FAK signaling might thus affect adhesion/motility, underscoring the implication of PR isoforms in breast cancer invasiveness and metastatic evolution with underlying therapeutic outcomes.

  5. Genome-wide Analysis of Plant-specific Dof Transcription Factor Family in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Cai; Yuyang Zhang; Chanjuan Zhang; Tingyan Zhang; Tixu Hu; Jie Ye; Junhong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family encoding single zinc finger proteins has been known as a family of plant-specific transcription factors.These transcription factors are involved in a variety of functions of importance for different biological processes in plants.In the current study,we identified 34 Dof family genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.),distributed on 11 chromosomes.A complete overview of SIDof genes in tomato is presented,including the gene structures,chromosome locations,phylogeny,protein motifs and evolution pattern.Phylogenetic analysis of 34 SlDof proteins resulted in four classes constituting six clusters.In addition,a comparative analysis between these genes in tomato,Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) was also performed.The tomato Dof family expansion has been dated to recent duplication events,and segmental duplication is predominant for the SlDof genes.Furthermore,the SlDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth conditions.This is the first step towards genome-wide analyses of the Dof genes in tomato.Our study provides a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of the members of this gene family in tomato and other species.

  6. Analyses of freshwater stress with a couple ground and surface water model in the Pra Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, George; Owusu, Alex B.; Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Eshun, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    The optimal management of water resources requires that the collected hydrogeological, meteorological, and spatial data be simulated and analyzed with appropriate models. In this study, a catchment-scale distributed hydrological modeling approach is applied to simulate water stress for the years 2000 and 2050 in a data scarce Pra Basin, Ghana. The model is divided into three parts: The first computes surface and groundwater availability as well as shallow and deep groundwater residence times by using POLFLOW model; the second extends the POLFLOW model with water demand (Domestic, Industrial and Agricultural) model; and the third part involves modeling water stress indices—from the ratio of water demand to water availability—for every part of the basin. On water availability, the model estimated long-term annual Pra river discharge at the outflow point of the basin, Deboase, to be 198 m3/s as against long-term average measurement of 197 m3/s. Moreover, the relationship between simulated discharge and measured discharge at 9 substations in the basin scored Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.98, which indicates that the model estimation is in agreement with the long-term measured discharge. The estimated total water demand significantly increases from 959,049,096 m3/year in 2000 to 3,749,559,019 m3/year in 2050 (p < 0.05). The number of districts experiencing water stress significantly increases (p = 0.00044) from 8 in 2000 to 21 out of 35 by the year 2050. This study will among other things help the stakeholders in water resources management to identify and manage water stress areas in the basin.

  7. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Muhammed Jamsheer; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2014-01-01

    Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  8. Proline auxotrophy in Sinorhizobium meliloti results in a plant-specific symbiotic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Zamani, Maryam; Cowie, Alison; Finan, Turlough M

    2015-12-01

    In order to effectively manipulate rhizobium-legume symbioses for our benefit, it is crucial to first gain a complete understanding of the underlying genetics and metabolism. Studies with rhizobium auxotrophs have provided insight into the requirement for amino acid biosynthesis during the symbiosis; however, a paucity of available L-proline auxotrophs has limited our understanding of the role of L-proline biosynthesis. Here, we examined the symbiotic phenotypes of a recently described Sinorhizobium meliloti L-proline auxotroph. Proline auxotrophy was observed to result in a host-plant-specific phenotype. The S. meliloti auxotroph displayed reduced symbiotic capability with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) due to a decrease in nodule mass formed and therefore a reduction in nitrogen fixed per plant. However, the proline auxotroph formed nodules on white sweet clover (Melilotus alba) that failed to fix nitrogen. The rate of white sweet clover nodulation by the auxotroph was slightly delayed, but the final number of nodules per plant was not impacted. Examination of white sweet clover nodules by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of the S. meliloti proline auxotroph cells within the host legume cells, but few differentiated bacteroids were identified compared with the bacteroid-filled plant cells of WT nodules. Overall, these results indicated that L-proline biosynthesis is a general requirement for a fully effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, likely due to a transient requirement during bacteroid differentiation.

  9. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  10. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  11. Use Of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) In Expert Systems To Advise Nuclear Plant Operators And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Robert E.

    1988-03-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. f2 Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the "source term" and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other. PRISIM,4 a personal computer program to calculate the ratio of core melt probabilities described above (based on previously performed PRAs), has been developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When one or several components are removed from service, PRISM then calculates the ratio of the core melt probabilities. The inference engine of the expert system then uses this ratio and a constant risk criterion,5 along with information from its knowledge base (which includes information from the PRA), to advise plant personnel as to what action, if any, should be taken.

  12. 78 FR 22349 - Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated With PRA in Risk-Informed Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    .... SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued for public comment a document entitled: NUREG-1855... INFORMATION: NUREG-1855, Revision 1, Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated with PRA in...

  13. [Distribution of PRA patterns of clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex from Spain and South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Martha Isabel; Leao, Sylvia Cardoso; Ritacco, Viviana; Palenque, Elia; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira; Reniero, Ana; Menendez, Maria Carmen; Telles, María Alice da Silva; Hadad, David Jamil; Barrera, Lucía; García, María Jesús

    2004-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are the most frequent systemic infections associated with advanced AIDS. DNA probes for accurate identification of mycobacteria are available but are very expensive in many Latin American settings. Consequently, most Latin American diagnostic laboratories employ inaccurate and outdated tests for mycobacteria identification. Therefore, PCR restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was evaluated for the identification of 163 MAC human isolates originated from Spain and South America. The predominant PRA type in each country was: M. avium type I in Argentina (23/42, 55%) and Brazil (48/72, 67%), M. avium type II in Spain (18/26, 69%) and M. avium type III in Colombia (10/23, 43%). The Colombia frequency is noteworthy, since the PRA type III was quite infrequent in the other three countries. Furthermore, its presence has not been reported outside the Americas. The advantages and disadvantages of PRA in diagnostic mycobacteriology are discussed.

  14. 77 FR 15399 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is announcing the availability of the model safety evaluation (SE) for plant..., Revision 1, is available in ADAMS under Accession No. ML111650552; the model application is available...

  15. 77 FR 58421 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...-415- 4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . TSTF-522, Revision 0, includes a model application and is available in ADAMS under Accession No. ML100890316. The model safety evaluation (SE) of...

  16. ANALISIS KERAGAAN PANEL SANDWICH UNTUK RUMAH PRA-PABRIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresworo Nugroho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, several earthquakes struck several places in Indonesia and thousands of people died caused of their masonry house. Therefore, the idea of bamboo utilization in the form of structural sandwich panel components for anti-seismic pre-fabrication house is one of appropriate way out. This research describes the performance and behavior of engineered structure wooden-bamboo sandwich panel in full sized test. The wall frame being use were meranti wood, this frame attached by plywood as face and back, then 5 cm bamboo cutting as core; the fastener used in this study were isocyanate resin and nails. This study carried out by experimental data of full scale structural tests on shear wall (ISO 22452. These result showed that the seismic reliability of the wall frame system made of bamboo sandwich panel was appropriate and will be useful for pre-fabrication houses as anti-seismic and environment friendly residential building

  17. Conceptual Framework for Physical Protection Against Sabotage Considering Plant-specific Radiological Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joung Hoon; Yu, Dong Han [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    According to the Generation IV (Gen IV) Technology Roadmap, Gen IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) should highlight proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) as one of the four goals along with sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Especially, physical protection (PP) is the typical important characteristic of an NES that impedes the theft of materials suitable for nuclear explosives or radiation dispersal devices (RDD) and the sabotage of facilities and transportation by subnation entities and other non-Host State adversaries. These two subjects have been studied separately. Proliferation is commonly considered as an international concern and the past work on the PR assessments can be found. On the other hands, PP is regarded as a State security concern, much of which is classified and facility-dependent. Recently, more concern has been focused on the PP design and regulation because of rapid environment changes including radiological consequences by internal sabotage and nuclear terrorism by RDDs. The current PP Regulation has been applied intensively to the existing nuclear facilities and could be a possible guidance for the future GEN-IV NESs. This paper first reviews the IAEA guide document, INFCIRC/225, which was accepted as the standard international guideline in the physical protection area. It has been updated several times up to now, and is undergoing another revision. The paper introduces current substantial changes in the document regarding PP including the national nuclear security and sabotage in the nuclear facilities. Then, it presents a conceptual framework for physical protection against sabotage considering plant-specific radiological consequence after malicious acts within certain vital areas. The framework combines the newly developed method of vital area identification, the current PSA level 2 works, and physical protection concepts. This would help to improve a design concept of new physical protection

  18. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S E; Keil, L C; Geelen, G; Wade, C E; Barnes, P R; Spaul, W A; Elder, C A; Greenleaf, J E

    1986-08-01

    Blood pressure, pulse rate (PR), serum osmolality and electrolytes, as well as plasma vasopressin (PVP) and plasma renin activity (PRA), were measured in five men and two women [mean age 38.6 +/- 3.9 (SE) yr] before, during, and after inflation of an antigravity suit that covered the legs and abdomen. After 24 h of fluid deprivation the subjects stood quietly for 3 h: the 1st h without inflation, the 2nd with inflation to 60 Torr, and the 3rd without inflation. A similar control noninflation experiment was conducted 10 mo after the inflation experiment using five of the seven subjects except that the suit was not inflated during the 3-h period. Mean arterial pressure increased by 14 +/- 4 (SE) Torr (P less than 0.05) with inflation and decreased by 15 +/- 5 Torr (P less than 0.05) after deflation. Pulse pressure (PP) increased by 7 +/- 2 Torr (P less than 0.05) with inflation and PR decreased by 11 +/- 5 beats/min (P less than 0.05); PP and PR returned to preinflation levels after deflation. Plasma volume decreased by 6.1 +/- 1.5% and 5.3 +/- 1.6% (P less than 0.05) during hours 1 and 3, respectively, and returned to base line during inflation. Inflation decreased PVP from 6.8 +/- 1.1 to 5.6 +/- 1.4 pg/ml (P less than 0.05) and abolished the significant rise in PRA during hour 1. Both PVP and PRA increased significantly after deflation: delta = 18.0 +/- 5.1 pg/ml and 4.34 +/- 1.71 ng angiotensin I X ml-1 X h-1, respectively. Serum osmolality and Na+ and K+ concentrations were unchanged during the 3 h of standing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is

  20. Utjecaj praška Spiruline platensis na mikrofloru jogurta i acidofilnog mlijeka

    OpenAIRE

    Guldas, Metin; Irkin, Reyhan

    2010-01-01

    Glavni cilj ovog istraživanja bio je ispitivanje utjecaja dodatka praškastog Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis u jogurt te jogurt obogaćen s Lactobacillus acidophilus na preživljavanje mikroorganizama tijekom čuvanja u hladnjaku. Ispitivano je preživljavanje starter kulture jogurta (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) te Lactobacillus acidophilus u uzorcima pripremljenim uz dodatak 0,5 % ili 1 % (w/w) te bez dodatka spiruline, nakon čuvan...

  1. 78 FR 3921 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF... (SE) for plant- specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-426...

  2. Application of the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC Fire PRA Methodology to a DOE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Richard Yorg; Heather Lucek; Jim Bouchard; Ray Jukkola; Duan Phan

    2011-03-01

    The application NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology to DOE facility presented several challenges. This paper documents the process and discusses several insights gained during development of the fire PRA. A brief review of the tasks performed is provided with particular focus on the following: • Tasks 5 and 14: Fire-induced risk model and fire risk quantification. A key lesson learned was to begin model development and quantification as early as possible in the project using screening values and simplified modeling if necessary. • Tasks 3 and 9: Fire PRA cable selection and detailed circuit failure analysis. In retrospect, it would have been beneficial to perform the model development and quantification in 2 phases with detailed circuit analysis applied during phase 2. This would have allowed for development of a robust model and quantification earlier in the project and would have provided insights into where to focus the detailed circuit analysis efforts. • Tasks 8 and 11: Scoping fire modeling and detailed fire modeling. More focus should be placed on detailed fire modeling and less focus on scoping fire modeling. This was the approach taken for the fire PRA. • Task 14: Fire risk quantification. Typically, multiple safe shutdown (SSD) components fail during a given fire scenario. Therefore dependent failure analysis is critical to obtaining a meaningful fire risk quantification. Dependent failure analysis for the fire PRA presented several challenges which will be discussed in the full paper.

  3. Saber científico e etnoconhecimento: é bom pra quê?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauberto da Silva Quirino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Análise reflexiva e interpretativa do quadro É bom pra quê? do programa de televisão Fantástico, apresentado pelo médico Drauzio Varella, que foi veiculado em rede nacional entre os meses de agosto e setembro de 2010 em cinco episódios, com duração média de 10 minutos. O objetivo da série era discutir os usos e abusos dos tratamentos médicos feitos com produtos derivados de plantas que não passaram pelo crivo científico dos estudos clínicos, e analisar as perspectivas da fitoterapia medicinal. Na culpabilização pessoal, valorização do medo, desqualificação dos saberes paramédicos e centralidade na figura do médico, ele fundamenta suas bases discursivas, para impor legitimidade aos seus argumentos. Nessa perspectiva, as estratégias discursivas veiculadas na mídia por meio da televisão, e no caso particular do quadro do Fantástico, É bom pra quê?, visam a manutenção de uma ordem médica hegemônica, distante da preconizada neutralidade científica e da ausência de interesses econômicos.

  4. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-15

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea.

  5. Localization and trafficking of an isoform of the AtPRA1 family to the Golgi apparatus depend on both N- and C-terminal sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan Jin; Lee, Myoung Hui; Min, Myung Ki; Hwang, Inhwan

    2011-02-01

    Prenylated Rab acceptors (PRAs) bind to prenylated Rab proteins and possibly aid in targeting Rabs to their respective compartments. In Arabidopsis, 19 isoforms of PRA1 have been identified and, depending upon the isoforms, they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and endosomes. Here, we investigated the localization and trafficking of AtPRA1.B6, an isoform of the Arabidopsis PRA1 family. In colocalization experiments with various organellar markers, AtPRA1.B6 tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus localized to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants. The valine residue at the C-terminal end and an EEE motif in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain were critical for anterograde trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The N-terminal region contained a sequence motif for retention of AtPRA1.B6 at the Golgi apparatus. In addition, anterograde trafficking of AtPRA1.B6 from the ER to the Golgi apparatus was highly sensitive to the HA:AtPRA1.B6 level. The region that contains the sequence motif for Golgi retention also conferred the abundance-dependent trafficking inhibition. On the basis of these results, we propose that AtPRA1.B6 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and its ER-to-Golgi trafficking and localization to the Golgi apparatus are regulated by multiple sequence motifs in both the C- and N-terminal cytoplasmic domains.

  6. Hubungan antara Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku terhadap Pemeliharaan Kebersihan Gigi dan Mulut dengan Status Kesehatan Periodontal Pra Lansia di Posbindu Kecamatan Indihiang Kota Tasikmalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Culia Rahayu; Sri Widiati; Niken Widyanti

    2014-01-01

    Proses penuaan merupakan salah satu faktor sistemik yang mempengaruhi respon tubuh terhadap terjadinya penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut dengan status kesehatan periodontal pra lansia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian non eksperimental, dengan rancangan cross sectional. Subjek penelitian berjumlah 225 orang pra lansia dari 9 Posbindu di Kecamatan Indihiang Tasikmala...

  7. Memória (imaterial da Praça do Infante, Porto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barreira Abranches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to present the historical and archaeological background of the Praça do Infante,located in the parish of S. Nicolau, Porto, based on elements provided by the construction of an undergroundcar park.This square is part of the urban area of Porto’s historical zone, in which the coordination of the works ofgeophysical prospecting with archaeological ones was considered relevant. Thus, the former determined thelocation of the archaeological surveys, which, once completed, revealed a settlement sequence going fromthe 17th century to the 20th century, despite material remains dating back to Roman times.Today, this square is a mere flicker of the commercial and human bustle which the material memories cannotglorify.

  8. APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO MAAP4 ANALYSES FOR LEVEL 2 PRA PARAMETER IMPORTANCE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN ROBERTS

    2013-11-01

    A key element tied to using a code like MAAP4 is an uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present a MAAP4 based analysis to examine the sensitivity of a key parameter, in this case hydrogen production, to a set of model parameters that are related to a Level 2 PRA analysis. The Level 2 analysis examines those sequences that result in core melting and subsequent reactor pressure vessel failure and its impact on the containment. This paper identifies individual contributors and MAAP4 model parameters that statistically influence hydrogen production. Hydrogen generation was chosen because of its direct relationship to oxidation. With greater oxidation, more heat is added to the core region and relocation (core slump should occur faster. This, in theory, would lead to shorter failure times and subsequent “hotter” debris pool on the containment floor.

  9. An approach for using risk assessment in risk-informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Mark A.; Cheok, Michael C.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Holahan, Gary M.; King, Thomas L.; Parry, Gareth W.; Ramey-Smith, Ann M.; Rubin, Mark P.; Thadani, Ashok C

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses an acceptable approach that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has proposed for using Probabilistic Risk Assessment in making decisions on changes to the licensing basis of a nuclear power plant. First, the overall philosophy of risk-informed decision-making, and the process framework are described. The philosophy is encapsulated in five principles, one of which states that, if the proposed change leads to an increase in core damage frequency or risk, the increases must be small and consistent with the intent of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Safety Goal Policy Statement. The second part of the paper discusses the use of PRA to demonstrate that this principle has been met. The discussion focuses on the acceptance guidelines, and on comparison of the PRA results with those guidelines. The difficulties that arise because of limitations in scope and analytical uncertainties are discussed and approaches to accommodate these difficulties in the decision-making are described.

  10. Frequency of geohelminths in public squares in Pelotas, RS, Brazil Frequência de geohelmintos em praças públicas de Pelotas, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaele Quintana de Moura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of parasitic contamination of public areas in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was studied between June 2010 and May 2011, when soil samples were collected from eight city squares. Out of 400 samples submitted to centrifugal floatation technique in solution of sodium dichromate with density of 1.35, 176 (44% proved positive for at least one parasite; 29 (16.5% samples were multi-infested. The results showed that there was a significant soil contamination rate in all the parks included in the study. The positivity rate was higher for hookworms eggs (13.5% and Toxocara eggs (8.8%; Trichuris, Ascaris and Capillaria eggs were also detected. This study shows the risks to which the population is exposed in relation to zoonotic geohelminths, and suggests that sanitation and health education measures should be implemented in the municipality.A frequência de contaminação parasitária de áreas públicas de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada entre junho de 2010 e maio de 2011, com coletas mensais de amostras de solo de oito praças. Das 400 amostras submetidas à técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de dicromato de sódio com densidade de 1,35, 176 (44% apresentaram pelo menos uma forma parasitária e, das amostras positivas, 29 (16,5% estavam poliparasitadas. Os resultados demonstraram relevante índice de contaminação do solo em todas as praças avaliadas, com maiores índices de positividade para ovos de ancilostomídeos (13,5% e ovos de Toxocara (8,8%, sendo também identificados ovos de Trichuris, Ascaris e Capillaria. O estudo demonstrou a contaminação ambiental de praças públicas e os riscos a que a população está exposta em relação a doenças causadas por geoparasitos zoonóticos e sugere que medidas de saneamento e educação em saúde devem ser implementadas no município.

  11. The assessment of low probability containment failure modes using dynamic PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunett, Acacia Joann

    Although low probability containment failure modes in nuclear power plants may lead to large releases of radioactive material, these modes are typically crudely modeled in system level codes and have large associated uncertainties. Conventional risk assessment techniques (i.e. the fault-tree/event-tree methodology) are capable of accounting for these failure modes to some degree, however, they require the analyst to pre-specify the ordering of events, which can vary within the range of uncertainty of the phenomena. More recently, dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) techniques have been developed which remove the dependency on the analyst. Through DPRA, it is now possible to perform a mechanistic and consistent analysis of low probability phenomena, with the timing of the possible events determined by the computational model simulating the reactor behavior. The purpose of this work is to utilize DPRA tools to assess low probability containment failure modes and the driving mechanisms. Particular focus is given to the risk-dominant containment failure modes considered in NUREG-1150, which has long been the standard for PRA techniques. More specifically, this work focuses on the low probability phenomena occurring during a station blackout (SBO) with late power recovery in the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequent to the major risk study performed in NUREG-1150, significant experimentation and modeling regarding the mechanisms driving containment failure modes have been performed. In light of this improved understanding, NUREG-1150 containment failure modes are reviewed in this work using the current state of knowledge. For some unresolved mechanisms, such as containment loading from high pressure melt ejection and combustion events, additional analyses are performed using the accident simulation tool MELCOR to explore the bounding containment loads for realistic scenarios. A dynamic treatment in the

  12. A praça do Martim Moniz: etnografando lógicas socioculturais de inscrição da praça no mapa social de Lisboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da etnografia das situações de uso/apropriação da praça do Martim Moniz, reflete-se sobre a importância da prática etnográfica na apreensão e compreensão das circunstâncias quotidianas. Discute-se alguns dos aspectos socioculturais que, para além de terem contribuído para a inscrição dessa praça no mapa social e urbano de Lisboa, contribuíram para a invenção de uma geografia da resistência particularmente incidente nessa área da cidade. São quatro os motivos que orientam a presente reflexão: 1 a situação geográfica (sita no centro histórico de Lisboa e histórica (relativamente moderna da praça; 2 a efetiva edificação da praça ser o resultado de um conjunto controverso de políticas sociourbanísticas; 3 a representatividade dessa praça, juntamente com dois centros comerciais sitos na sua envolvência, na tentativa de construção de uma imagem identitária multiétnica e multicultural para a cidade; 4 o papel dessa praça no âmbito de um conjunto de manifestações políticas.Departing from the ethnography of use/appropriation episodes of Martim Moniz Plaza, this paper discuss about the importance of the ethnographical practice in the apprehension and understanding of the everyday circumstances. Some social/cultural aspects are discussed which contributed to the invention of a geography of resistance in this specific area of the city and also to the inscription of this plaza in the social and urban map of Lisbon. Four motives have oriented this reasoning: 1 the geographic situation of that Plaza (at Lisbon's centre; 2 it's building configuration as a result of a set of controversial social and urban policies; 3 the representativeness of this specific plaza - namely, of two shopping malls that arise, at the Plaza, as symbolic meeting points - in an attempt to construct a multi-ethnic and a multi-cultural image of the city; 4 the role of this Plaza regarding the definition of a set of political

  13. Methyl ketones in high altitude Ecuadorian Andosols confirm excellent conservation of plant-specific n-alkane patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B.; Nierop, K. G. J.

    2009-04-01

    Montane forest composition and specifically the position of the upper forest line (UFL) is very sensitive to climate change and human interference. As a consequence, reconstructions of past altitudinal UFL dynamics and forest species composition are crucial instruments to infer relationships between climate change and vegetation dynamics, and assess the impact of (pre)historic human settlement. One of the most detailed methods available to date to reconstruct past vegetation dynamics is the analysis of fossil pollen. Unfortunately, fossil pollen analysis does not distinguish beyond family or generic level in most cases, while its spatial resolution is limited amongst others by windblown dispersal of pollen, affecting the accuracy of pollen based reconstructions of UFL positions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new method based on the analysis of plant-specific groups of biomarkers preserved in suitable archives, such as peat deposits, that are unravelled into the plant species of origin by the newly developed VERHIB model. In a study of UFL positions in the Northern Ecuadorian Andes we found longer chain-length n-alkanes, (C19-C35) to occur in plant-specific patterns in the dominant vegetation in the area as well as preliminary soil and peat samples. A crucial factor in determining the applicability of these n-alkanes as biomarkers for past vegetation is their preservation in soils and peat deposits. Therefore, we investigated the preservation of C19-C35 n-alkanes in a peat core and in five excavations along an altitudinal transect (3500-3860 m.a.s.l) in the study area. We were able to establish that n-methyl ketones are the main degradation product of the n-alkanes in question, while the degradation of the n-alkanes was the main source of the n-methyl ketones. This allowed us to use the relationship between the concentrations and carbon chain length patterns of n-alkanes and n-methyl ketones to assess possible (selective) degradation of the n

  14. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA; Jaemfoerelse av SKIFS 2004:1 och Tillsynshandbok PSA mot ASME PRA Standard och Europeiska krav paa PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-15

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review

  15. Hubungan antara Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku terhadap Pemeliharaan Kebersihan Gigi dan Mulut dengan Status Kesehatan Periodontal Pra Lansia di Posbindu Kecamatan Indihiang Kota Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culia Rahayu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proses penuaan merupakan salah satu faktor sistemik yang mempengaruhi respon tubuh terhadap terjadinya penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut dengan status kesehatan periodontal pra lansia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian non eksperimental, dengan rancangan cross sectional. Subjek penelitian berjumlah 225 orang pra lansia dari 9 Posbindu di Kecamatan Indihiang Tasikmalaya, yang diambil dengan cara purposive sampling. Variabel pengaruh terdiri dari pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut. Variabel pengetahuan diukur menggunakan kuesioner tertutup dengan pilihan jawaban benar atau salah. Variabel sikap dan perilaku diukur menggunakan kuesioner dibuat menurut skala Likert. Kuesioner telah diuji validitas (koefisien korelasi ≥ 0,30 dan uji reliabilitas (alpha cronbach >0,60. Variabel terpengaruh adalah status kesehatan periodontal yang diukur menggunakan indeks CPITN. Analisa data menggunakan analisis korelasi dan regresi berganda. Hasil analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa variabel pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut mempunyai hubungan signifikan terhadap status kesehatan periodontal (F =30,681 dan p =0,001, dan memberikan kontribusi pengaruh sebesar 29,4% (R² = 0,294 terhadap status kesehatan periodontal. Perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut memberikan kontribusi pengaruh paling besar terhadap status kesehatan periodontal yaitu sebesar 6,9%. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah semakin baik pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut, semakin baik status kesehatan periodontal pra lansia. Perilaku terhadap pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut memberikan kontribusi pengaruh paling besar terhadap status kesehatan periodontal pra lansia. Correlation Between Knowledge, Attitude

  16. Análise microbiológica de areias de praças públicas da cidade de Palmas (PR / Microbiological analysis of sands in public squares of the city of Palmas (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hinojosa Valdez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO uso de areias em praças públicas para o entretenimento é uma prática comum e é principalmente realizada por crianças e adolescentes. Mas se esta areia não estiver em condições adequadas para sua utilização, pode trazer riscos à saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de coliformes em areias de recreação localizadas em praças públicas, na cidade de Palmas, Paraná. O experimento foi realizado com areias de seis praças públicas. As amostras foram processadas no laboratório de Microbiologia do Instituto Federal do Paraná, durante setembro a novembro de 2011. O método adotado para a pesquisa foi o de Tubos Múltiplos e os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados com a Tabela do Número Mais Provável. Apenas a areia da praça localizada entre a Rua Pedro Cordes e a Rua Cacique Conda, no Bairro Lagoão, não apresentou contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes e totais. O local que teve um maior índice de contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes foi à praça localizada na Rua Capitão Paulo Araújo, com a Rua Sete de Setembro no Bairro Santa Cruz. Já a praça localizada no Parque da Gruta apresentou a maior contaminação para coliformes totais. O restante apresentou pelo menos contaminação por um dosgrupos de coliformes. De modo geral, apenas uma praça está apta para sua utilização, às demais estão impróprias e merecem uma atenção maior pelas autoridades para melhorar sua qualidade higiênico-sanitária. Torna-se ainda necessário estabelecer uma efetiva legislação de qualidade sanitária para areias de recreação, para que o controle delas seja realizado rotineiramente.AbstractPlaying on sand playgrounds in public areas is an activity that is commonly performed by children and adolescents. Therefore, recreational sand in inadequate conditions is risky to human health. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of coliforms in sand playgrounds in

  17. The plant-specific CDKB1-CYCB1 complex mediates homologous recombination repair in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Annika K; Biedermann, Sascha; Harashima, Hirofumi; Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Takahashi, Naoki; Foreman, Julia; Guan, Yonsheng; Pochon, Gaëtan; Heese, Maren; Van Damme, Daniël; Sugimoto, Keiko; Koncz, Csaba; Doerner, Peter; Umeda, Masaaki; Schnittger, Arp

    2016-10-04

    Upon DNA damage, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are typically inhibited to block cell division. In many organisms, however, it has been found that CDK activity is required for DNA repair, especially for homology-dependent repair (HR), resulting in the conundrum how mitotic arrest and repair can be reconciled. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana solves this dilemma by a division of labor strategy. We identify the plant-specific B1-type CDKs (CDKB1s) and the class of B1-type cyclins (CYCB1s) as major regulators of HR in plants. We find that RADIATION SENSITIVE 51 (RAD51), a core mediator of HR, is a substrate of CDKB1-CYCB1 complexes. Conversely, mutants in CDKB1 and CYCB1 fail to recruit RAD51 to damaged DNA CYCB1;1 is specifically activated after DNA damage and we show that this activation is directly controlled by SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE 1 (SOG1), a transcription factor that acts similarly to p53 in animals. Thus, while the major mitotic cell-cycle activity is blocked after DNA damage, CDKB1-CYCB1 complexes are specifically activated to mediate HR. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, a novel class of plant-specific growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox. Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants.

  19. A plant-specific protein essential for blue-light-induced chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Luesse, Darron L; Hangarter, Roger P

    2005-09-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), light-dependent chloroplast movements are induced by blue light. When exposed to low fluence rates of light, chloroplasts accumulate in periclinal layers perpendicular to the direction of light, presumably to optimize light absorption by exposing more chloroplast area to the light. Under high light conditions, chloroplasts become positioned parallel to the incoming light in a response that can reduce exposure to light intensities that may damage the photosynthetic machinery. To identify components of the pathway downstream of the photoreceptors that mediate chloroplast movements (i.e. phototropins), we conducted a mutant screen that has led to the isolation of several Arabidopsis mutants displaying altered chloroplast movements. The plastid movement impaired1 (pmi1) mutant exhibits severely attenuated chloroplast movements under all tested fluence rates of light, suggesting that it is a necessary component for both the low- and high-light-dependant chloroplast movement responses. Analysis of pmi1 leaf cross sections revealed that regardless of the light condition, chloroplasts are more evenly distributed in leaf mesophyll cells than in the wild type. The pmi1-1 mutant was found to contain a single nonsense mutation within the open reading frame of At1g42550. This gene encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function that appears to be conserved among angiosperms. Sequence analysis of the protein suggests that it may be involved in calcium-mediated signal transduction, possibly through protein-protein interactions.

  20. A collection of plant-specific genomic data and resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatusova, Tatiana; Smith-White, Brian; Ostell, James

    2007-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a data-rich environment in support of genomic research by collecting the biological data for genomes, genes, gene expressions, gene variation, gene families, proteins, and protein domains and integrating the data with analytical, search, and retrieval resources through the NCBI Web site. Entrez, an integrated search and retrieval system, enables text searches across various diverse biological databases maintained at NCBI. Map Viewer, the genome browser developed at NCBI, displays aligned genetic, physical, and sequence maps for eukaryotic genomes including those of many plants. A specialized plant query page allows maps from all plant genomes available in the Map Viewer to be searched to produce a display of aligned maps from several species. Customized Plant Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (PlantBLAST) allows the user to perform sequence similarity searches in a special collection of mapped plant sequence data and to view the resulting alignments within a genomic context using Map Viewer. In addition, pre-computed sequence similarities, such as those for proteins offered by BLAST Link (BLink), enable fluid navigation from un-annotated to annotated sequences, quickening the pace of discovery. Plant Genome Central (PGC) is a Web portal that provides centralized access to all NCBI plant genome resources. Also, there are links to plant-specific Web resources external to NCBI such as organism-specific databases, genome-sequencing project Web pages, and homepages of genomic bioinformatics organizations.

  1. Os topônimos das praças de Maringá, Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estuda os topônimos das praças maringaenses, em número de noventa e nove até dezembro do ano 2000, a partir de pesquisa histórica em fontes primárias. A toponímia estudada buscou o significado histórico, não lingüístico, dos nomes conferidos às praças, contextualizando-os no tempo em que esses logradouros foram nominados. Como resultado, constata-se a desvinculação desses nomes com a população, visto que, na maioria dos casos, a comunidade sequer sabe quem é o personagem que nomina o espaço público. Conclui-se que dar nome às praças de Maringá não deveria ser apenas “letra morta da lei” em um papel arquivado, mas sim que houvesse um trabalho de conscientização que permitisse a perenização daquele que nominou o espaço

  2. PRA in Design: Increasing Confidence in Pre-Operational Assessments of Risks (Results of a Joint NASA/NRC Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Robert; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Siu, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    In late 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) jointly organized a workshop to discuss technical issues associated with application of risk assessments to early phases of system design. The workshop, which was coordinated by the Idaho National Laboratory, involved invited presentations from a number of PRA experts in the aerospace and nuclear fields and subsequent discussion to address the following questions: (a) What technical issues limit decision-makers' confidence in PRA results, especially at a pre-operational phase of the system life cycle? (b) What is being done to address these issues'? (c) What more can be done ? The workshop resulted in participant observations and suggestions on several technical issues, including the pursuit of non-traditional approaches to risk assessment and the verification and validation of risk models. The workshop participants also identified several important non-technical issues, including risk communication with decision makers, and the integration of PRA into the overall design process.

  3. When the Details Matter – Sensitivities in PRA Calculations That Could Affect Risk-Informed Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana L. Kelly; Nathan O. Siu

    2010-06-01

    As the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) continues its efforts to increase its use of risk information in decision making, the detailed, quantitative results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculations are coming under increased scrutiny. Where once analysts and users were not overly concerned with figure of merit variations that were less than an order of magnitude, now factors of two or even less can spark heated debate regarding modeling approaches and assumptions. The philosophical and policy-related aspects of this situation are well-recognized by the PRA community. On the other hand, the technical implications for PRA methods and modeling have not been as widely discussed. This paper illustrates the potential numerical effects of choices as to the details of models and methods for parameter estimation with three examples: 1) the selection of the time period data for parameter estimation, and issues related to component boundary and failure mode definitions; 2) the selection of alternative diffuse prior distributions, including the constrained noninformative prior distribution, in Bayesian parameter estimation; and 3) the impact of uncertainty in calculations for recovery of offsite power.

  4. Deletion of plant-specific sugar residues in plant N-glycans by repression of GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and β-1,2-xylosyltransferase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kouki; Kagaya, Uiko; Itchoda, Noriko; Tabayashi, Noriko; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Production of pharmaceutical glycoproteins, such as therapeutic antibodies and cytokines, in plants has many advantages in safety and reduced costs. However, plant-made glycoproteins have N-glycans with plant-specific sugar residues (core β-1,2-xylose and α-1,3-fucose) and a Lewis a (Le(a)) epitope, Galβ(1-3)[Fucα(1-4)]GlcNAc. Because it is likely that these sugar residues and glycan structures are immunogenic, many attempts have been made to delete them. Previously, we reported the simultaneous deletion of the plant-specific core α-1,3-fucose and α-1,4-fucose residues in Le(a) epitopes by repressing the GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) gene, which is associated with GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis, in Nicotiana benthamiana plants (rGMD plants, renamed to ΔGMD plants) (Matsuo and Matsumura, Plant Biotechnol. J., 9, 264-281, 2011). In the present study, we generated a core β-1,2-xylose residue-repressed transgenic N. benthamiana plant by co-suppression of β-1,2-xylosyltransferase (ΔXylT plant). By crossing ΔGMD and ΔXylT plants, we successfully generated plants in which plant-specific sugar residues were repressed (ΔGMDΔXylT plants). The proportion of N-glycans with deleted plant-specific sugar residues found in total soluble protein from ΔGMDΔXylT plants increased by 82.41%. Recombinant mouse granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) and human monoclonal immunoglobulin G (hIgG) harboring N-glycans with deleted plant-specific sugar residues were successfully produced in ΔGMDΔXylT plants. Simultaneous repression of the GMD and XylT genes in N. benthamiana is thus very useful for deleting plant-specific sugar residues.

  5. An evolutionary test of the isoform switching hypothesis of functional progesterone withdrawal for parturition: humans have a weaker repressive effect of PR-A than mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Günter P; Tong, Yingchun; Emera, Deena; Romero, Roberto

    2012-03-27

    A decrease in maternal serum progesterone (P4) concentrations precedes the onset of labor in most placental mammals. Humans differ by maintaining high levels of P4 throughout birth. Parturition in humans probably includes mechanisms that undercut the pregnancy sustaining function of P4. One attractive hypothesis is the isoform switching hypothesis (ISH). ISH is supported by in vitro evidence that progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) inhibits PR-B and that the PR-A/PR-B ratio increases towards term. Here, we test the hypothesis that isoform switching is an adaptation to high levels of P4 at term, predicting that, in humans, PR-A mediated repression of PR-B is stronger than in mouse. We use reporter assays with human and mouse PRs to detect species differences in the repressive effects of PR-A. We found that human PR-B is less sensitive to repression by human PR-A than mouse PR-B, contrary to our prediction. The difference between human and mouse PR-B sensitivity is most pronounced at PR-A/PR-B ratios typical for the preterm myometrium. Our results are inconsistent with the ISH. We speculate that, instead, the lower sensitivity of human PR-B to PR-A may be relevant for the maintenance of pregnancy at high progesterone levels and increasing PR-A concentrations towards term.

  6. (Estética da praça: rua, mídia e partilha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, cujo foco é a cidade do Cairo e seus modos de coexistência sectária, busca compreender a Primavera Árabe a partir da leitura de uma ética e uma estética construídas e constituídas no próprio desenrolar do processo revolucionário. Seu objetivo, menos que explicar os acontecimentos recentemente deflagrados em alguns dos países do chamado “Oriente Médio”, é refletir sobre os sentidos e as disputas, os desejos e as demandas ali evocadas. No seu recorte, a espacialidade torna-se elemento de fundamental importância. E a hipótese é que os espaços de partilha, em que se amalgamam conflitos e contratos, tecem uma (estética que é a somatória de um desejo e de uma necessidade. A abordagem teórica, a partir de aspectos ressaltados por reflexões de cunho pós-colonialista e pelos chamados “Estudos Culturais Árabes”, nos levam à ideia de que a rua, um espaço de partilha no contexto árabe, possa ser um operador teórico que contribui para a compreensão de uma prática política cuja lógica não exclui o conflito e não nega a necessidade de se encontrar formas de convivência. É esta a prática que se vê acontecer tanto em uma imagem-símbolo, propagada pela Al Jazeera, como também na própria ocupação da Praça Tahrir.

  7. Application of multivariate statistical technique for hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater within the Lower Pra Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. K.; Hayford, E. K.; Hodgson, I. O. A.

    2017-02-01

    Multivariate statistical technique and hydrogeochemical approach were employed for groundwater assessment within the Lower Pra Basin. The main objective was to delineate the main processes that are responsible for the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. Fifty-four (54) (No) boreholes were sampled in January 2012 for quality assessment. PCA using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization method of extraction for both rotated space and component matrix have been applied to the data. Results show that Spearman's correlation matrix of major ions revealed expected process-based relationships derived mainly from the geochemical processes, such as ion-exchange and silicate/aluminosilicate weathering within the aquifer. Three main principal components influence the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. The three principal components have accounted for approximately 79% of the total variance in the hydrochemical data. Component 1 delineates the main natural processes (water-soil-rock interactions) through which groundwater within the basin acquires its chemical characteristics, Component 2 delineates the incongruent dissolution of silicate/aluminosilicates, while Component 3 delineates the prevalence of pollution principally from agricultural input as well as trace metal mobilization in groundwater within the basin. The loadings and score plots of the first two PCs show grouping pattern which indicates the strength of the mutual relation among the hydrochemical variables. In terms of proper management and development of groundwater within the basin, communities, where intense agriculture is taking place, should be monitored and protected from agricultural activities. especially where inorganic fertilizers are used by creating buffer zones. Monitoring of the water quality especially the water pH is recommended to ensure the acid neutralizing potential of groundwater within the basin thereby, curtailing further trace metal

  8. Application of multivariate statistical technique for hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater within the Lower Pra Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. K.; Hayford, E. K.; Hodgson, I. O. A.

    2017-06-01

    Multivariate statistical technique and hydrogeochemical approach were employed for groundwater assessment within the Lower Pra Basin. The main objective was to delineate the main processes that are responsible for the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. Fifty-four (54) (No) boreholes were sampled in January 2012 for quality assessment. PCA using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization method of extraction for both rotated space and component matrix have been applied to the data. Results show that Spearman's correlation matrix of major ions revealed expected process-based relationships derived mainly from the geochemical processes, such as ion-exchange and silicate/aluminosilicate weathering within the aquifer. Three main principal components influence the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. The three principal components have accounted for approximately 79% of the total variance in the hydrochemical data. Component 1 delineates the main natural processes (water-soil-rock interactions) through which groundwater within the basin acquires its chemical characteristics, Component 2 delineates the incongruent dissolution of silicate/aluminosilicates, while Component 3 delineates the prevalence of pollution principally from agricultural input as well as trace metal mobilization in groundwater within the basin. The loadings and score plots of the first two PCs show grouping pattern which indicates the strength of the mutual relation among the hydrochemical variables. In terms of proper management and development of groundwater within the basin, communities, where intense agriculture is taking place, should be monitored and protected from agricultural activities. especially where inorganic fertilizers are used by creating buffer zones. Monitoring of the water quality especially the water pH is recommended to ensure the acid neutralizing potential of groundwater within the basin thereby, curtailing further trace metal

  9. 78 FR 32476 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-426...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-426... of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-426, Revision 5, ``Revise or Add... finds the proposed TS (Volume 1) and TS Bases (Volume 2) changes in Traveler TSTF-426 acceptable for...

  10. A (AUTONARRATIVA DE VIDA NA CONSTRUÇÃO DA CANÇÃO POLIFÔNICA “QUEM É ESSA AGORA/PRA RUA ME LEVAR”, DE MARIA BETHÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL BATISTA ANDRADE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis is carried out upon the hybridization of an excerpt from the book O rio do meio with the song “Pra rua me levar”. Retrieving the notion of poem-song, we aimed to show the possible emergence of the polyphonic song genre in Maria Bethania’s interpretation. The theoretical and methodological framework consists of means of speech organization and studies on life narrative. The analysis revealed specific mobilization of descriptive and narrative strategies introduced in the discourse attributed to the enunciator of the polyphonic song that reframes representations and opinions of other enunciators, reinforcing the hypothesis that this hybridization may correspond to an emerging genre.

  11. Diversification of the plant-specific hybrid glycine-rich protein (HyGRP genes in cereals

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    Kenji eFujino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific hybrid proline- or glycine-rich proteins (HyP/GRPs are involved in diverse gene functions including plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative trait locus, qLTG3-1, enhances seed germination in rice under low-temperature conditions and encodes a member with a glycine-rich motif of the HyP/GRP family. The function of this gene may be related to the weakening of tissue covering the embryo during seed germination. In the present study, the diversification of the HyP/GRP gene family was elucidated in rice based on phylogenetic relationships and gene expression levels. At least 21 members of the HyP/GRP family have been identified in the rice genome and clustered in five regions on four chromosomes by tandem and chromosomal duplications. Of these, OsHyPRP05 (qLTG3-1 and its paralogous gene, OsHyPRP21, had a glycine-rich motif. Furthermore, orthologous genes with a glycine-rich motif and the HyP/GRP gene family were detected in four genome-sequenced monocots: 12 in barley, 10 in Brachypodium, 20 in maize, and 28 in sorghum, using a BLAST search of qLTG3-1 as the query. All members of the HyP/GRP family in these five species were classified into seven main groups, which were clustered together in these species. These results suggested that the HyP/GRP gene family was formed in the ancestral genome before the divergence of these species. The collinearity of chromosomal regions around qLTG3-1 and its orthologous genes were conserved among rice, Brachypodium, sorghum, and maize, indicating that qLTG3-1 and orthologous genes conserve gene function during seed germination.

  12. 玉米丝黑穗病菌pra3基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of pra3 Gene from Sporisorium reilianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任林柱; 李莉; 王庆钰; 白容霖

    2008-01-01

    用PCR方法克隆了玉米丝黑穗病菌pra3基因,并对其序列进行了比较分析.结果表明:该基因大小为1399bp,具有3个内含子和4个外显子.比较发现,该基因片段与Schirawski等在GenBank上发表的序列同源性为100%.

  13. Growth phase-dependent expression of proteins with decreased plant-specific N-glycans and immunogenicity in tobacco BY2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants possess some desirable characteristics to synthesize recombinant glycoproteins for pharma-ceutical application.However,the mammalian glycoproteins produced in plants are somewhat different from their natural counterparts in terms of N-glycoforms.The immunogenicity of plant-specific glyco-epitopes is the major concern in human therapy.Here,the distribution of N-glycans in different growth phases of tobacco BY2 cells and their immunogenicity in mice were determined.It was ob-served that the percentage of β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose in proteins of growing cells increased and the corresponding protein extracts caused accelerated immune response in mice.Based on this observation,the recombinant erythropoietin in BY2 cells was expressed and characterized,and Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant erythropoietin contained a relatively small amount of plant-specific glyco-epitopes in the early phase of culture growth.This study may provide a simple but effective strategy for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins with human-like N-glycan structures in plant hosts to avoid a great allergenic risk.

  14. A new European plant-specific emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds for use in atmospheric transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new European plant-specific emission inventory for isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated VOC (OVOC, on a spatial resolution of 0.089×0.089 degrees, for implementation in atmospheric transport models. The inventory incorporates more accurate data on foliar biomass densities from several litterfall databases that became available in the last years for the main tree species in Europe. A bioclimatic correction factor was introduced to correct the foliar biomass densities of trees and crops for the different plant growth conditions that can be found in Pan-Europe. Long-term seasonal variability of agriculture and forest emissions was taken into account by implementing a new growing season concept. The 2004–2005 averaged annual total biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions for the Pan-European domain are estimated to be about 12 Tg with a large contribution from the OVOC class of about 4.5 Tg and from monoterpenes of about 4 Tg. Annual isoprene emissions are found to be about 3.5 Tg, insensitive to the chosen emission algorithm. Emissions of OVOC were found to originate to a large extent from agriculture. Further experiments on crop emissions should be carried out to check the validity of the applied standard emission factors. The new inventory aims at a fully transparent and verifiable aggregation of detailed land use information and at the inclusion of plant-specific emission data. Though plant-specific land use data is available with relatively high accuracy, a lack of experimental biomass densities and emission data on terpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated VOC, in particular for agricultural plants, currently limits the setup of a highly accurate plant-specific emission inventory.

  15. A criação dos clubs nas praças públicas da cidade de Porto Alegre (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Oliveira da Cunha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação das práticas esportivas nas praças públicas de Porto Alegre na década de 1920 e as melhorias instauradas nesses espaços visando a promover a sociabilidade e o lazer favoreceram a criação dos clubs das praças. O objetivo do estudo é identificar como ocorreu a emergência dos clubs nas praças públicas da cidade de Porto Alegre. Os procedimentos metodológicos de análise documental de fontes impressas revelaram que os clubs formados nas praças construíram representações similares às associações esportivas. A organização de equipes, a elaboração de estatutos, a adoção de flâmulas e a participação em competições esportivas são exemplos de representações e práticas culturais estabelecidas pelos clubs nas praças.

  16. Correlation between Progesterone Dependent Cyclin G1 and PRA/PRB Expression in Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and the Related Clinical Significance%子宫内膜腺癌中孕激素依赖的cyclin G1与PRA/PRB表达的相关性及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方明; 于海礼; 袁东智; 徐倩; 张金虎; 何亚平; 岳利民

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To study the correlation hetween cyclin G1 and progesterone receptor isoforms PRA / PRB in endometrial adenocarcinoma in order to explore the reason for the low expression of cyclin G1 in this kind of disease. Methods : Immunohistochemistry was used to test the expression of cyclin G1 and progesterone receptor PRA / PRB in 48 cases of adenocarcinoma of endometrium including 17 cases of well-differentiated carcinoma, 19 cases of mid-differentiated carcinoma and 12 cases of poor-differentiated carcinoma. The correlation between cyclin G1 protein expression and PRA or PRB expression was analyzed. Results: In well. mid and poor differentiated adenocarcinoma of endometrium, PRA positive rates were 88. 2% ( 15/17 ), 79. 0% ( 15/19 ) and 66. 7%( 8/12 )respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between PRA expression and histological grade of endometrial adenocarcinoma( P>0. 05 ); PRB positive rates were 47. 1%( 8/17 ), 15. 8%( 3/19 )and 8. 3%( 1/12 ) respectively and cyclin G1 positive rates were 35. 3% ( 6/17 ), 10. 5% ( 2/19 ) and 0% ( 0/12 )respectively. The expression of both PRB and cyclin Gl were positively correlated with histological grade of endometrialadenocarcinoma( P < 0. 05 ). There was no correlation hetweencyclin G1 expression and PRA while relationship was found between cyclin G1 expression and PRB( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion : In endometrial adenocarcinoma, the expressions of PRB and cyclin Gl protein decrease with the descending of tumor histological grade , and the expressions of both proteins are positively correlated. Thus it can be deduced that low expression of progesterone dependent cyclin G1 may he related to low expression of PRB in endometrial adenocarcinoma.%目的:探讨孕激素依赖的cyclin G1与孕激素受体亚型PRA和PRB在子宫内膜腺癌中表达的相关性及cyclin G1在子宫内膜腺癌中低表达的原因.方法:采用免疫组化SP法分别检测48例子宫内

  17. El modelo pedago?gico en la pra?ctica docente de las universidades pu?blicas del pai?s

    OpenAIRE

    Cartuche, Nancy; Tusa, Manuel; Agu?insaca, Juan; Merino, Wilman; Tene, Walter

    2015-01-01

    La investigacio?n sobre el modelo pedago?gico vigente en la pra?ctica docente de las universidades pu?blicas del pai?s, tuvo como propo?sito el ana?lisis de los modelos pedago?gicos que se expresan en la cotidianidad de la pra?ctica docente en la universidad pu?blica ecuatoriana. Se justifico? por la importancia que tiene explicar la incidencia del modelo pedago?gico que orienta la cotidianidad del trabajo docente universitario, en el mejoramiento de la calidad de la educacio?n superior y, co...

  18. A conservação do jardim histórico, um olhar sobre o componente vegetal da Praça de Casa Forte e da Praça Euclides da Cunha

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    Joelmir Marques da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O jardim moderno foi criado na cidade do Recife por Roberto Burle Marx na década de 1930. Para o paisagista o desenho de um jardim é uma reintegração estética dos elementos da paisagem envolvente onde a vegetação é o elemento principal. Com essa intenção Burle Marx projetou um conjunto de treze jardins públicos, entre 1935 a 1937, que faziam parte de um plano de aformoseamento do Recife e, dentre eles, destacam-se a Praça de Casa Forte e a Praça Euclides da Cunha por serem seus primeiros projetos. Por incluir seres vivos na sua concepção, a conservação de um jardim agrega a complexidade e a dinâmica do ciclo da vida, e sendo perecível e renovável como especifica a Carta de Florença (1981 a falta de conservação do jardim provoca degradação que somente é revertida com a restauração. Neste sentido, a conservação da vegetação de um jardim histórico tem sua particularidade por se tratar de um verde histórico, que caracteriza o conhecimento da composição florística do projeto original e a atual configurando desta forma um estudo da arqueologia botânica.

  19. Emergence of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA Technique as a Strategy towards Sustainable Development: A Sri Lankan Experience

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    D. N. Koralagama

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this millennium all the development activities are mostly focused on sustainable development, i.e. the development which fulfils the requirements of the present without disturbing the utilization of future generation. Basically, the sustainable development deals with environmental, social, and economical initiations. In relation to these three objectives, community participation plays a key role as an effective strategy for sustainable development. Among the numerous types of participation, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique is the most relevant effective method to receive the participation. Because, it has been strengthen by bottom up approach, well defined objectives, practicable solutions, and remedies. Hence, the out come of such an event is most productive rather than a top bottom approach techniques. In fact, a PRA was practiced to develop a strategic plan for tsunami affected village – Bambaranda east, in southern province of Sri Lanka. PRA sessions were carried out during February, 2007 by the Department of Agric. Economics of Ruhuna University, Sri Lanka in collaboration with Japanese Green Resource Agency, Japan.Participatory mapping, venn diagram, matrix ranking, preference ranking, and pair - wise ranking were demonstrated to gather information from the community. The tsunami affected area, including the paddy fields, four irrigation canals were shown by the group with the help of the participatory map. Preference ranking was resulted the reconstruction of irrigation canals as the most important rehabilitation activity to recover the livelihood of villagers. Intrusion of sea water into the paddy fields was the main limitation revealed by the pair - wise ranking. The second limitation marked as unavailability of enough fertilizer and the dilapidated irrigation canals was the third that has to be solved. Matrix ranking was employed to identify the most facilitated sectors by the government and other institutes in order

  20. Primer uticaja filtriranja slike u sistemima za praćenje ciljeva primenom termovizije / An example of image filtering in target tracking systems with thermal imagery

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    Zvonko M. Radosavljević

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu je dat primer primene jedne vrste niskofrekventnog filtriranja sa usrednjavanjem, koje se primenjuje u sistemima za detekciju i praćenje ciljeva u vazdušnom prostoru primenom termovizije. Date su dve metode filtriranja slike. Prva metoda koristi niskofrekventno konvoluciono filtriranje a druga usrednjavajući filtar na osnovu srednje vrednosti nivoa sivog. Ovi filtri su primenjeni u sistemima za praćenje uz pomoć infracrvenih senzora. Određivanje nivoa praga filtriranja vrši se uz pomoć statističkih osobina slike. Veoma važan korak u procesu praćenja je određivanje prozora praćenja, koji maze biti, po dimenzijama, fiksan ili adaptibilan. Pogrešna procena o postojanju cilja u prozoru može se doneti u slučaju prisustva šuma pozadine, predpojačavača, detektora, itd. Filtriranje je neophodan korak u ovim sistemima, kao značajan činilac U povećanju brzine i tačnosti praćenja. / A case of image filtering in air target detecting and tracking systems is described in this paper. Two image filtering methods are given. The first method is performed using a low pass convolving filter and the second one uses the mean value of gray level filter. The main goal of the cited filtering is implementation in IR (infra red systems. Some statistical features of the images were used for selecting the threshold level. The next step in the algorithm is the determination of a 'tracking window' that can be fixed or adaptive in size. A false estimation of a target existing in the window may be influenced by the background noise, low noise amplifier detector, etc.

  1. Avaliação da influência do tipo de cobrança e da composição do tráfego sobre o desempenho operacional de praças de pedágio

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    Marta Rodrigues Obelheiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo: Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o impacto da composição do tráfego e das condições de cobrança na capacidade de praças de pedágio. As variações das condições de cobrança de pedágio avaliadas neste estudo incluem reduções nos tempos de atendimento nas cabines manuais, bem como os impactos decorrentes da adoção, e crescente adesão, dos usuários à cobrança eletrônica de pedágio. As informações sobre tempos de atendimento utilizados no estudo correspondem a dados reais coletados em praças de pedágio do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As análises foram realizadas a partir da simulação de uma praça de pedágio através do software de microssimulação VISSIM. Os resultados evidenciaram e quantificaram o aumento de capacidade das praças associado ao treinamento de arrecadadores e à adoção de tarifas que facilitam o troco. Neste estudo melhorias associadas a estas medidas corresponderam a um aumento de até 19% na capacidade da praça. Melhorias bem mais significativas de desempenho, entretanto, podem ser atingidas com o aumento da adesão dos usuários ao sistema de cobrança eletrônica de pedágio.

    Abstract: This study aims to assess the impact of the composition of traffic and charging conditions on the capacity of toll plazas. The toll charging conditions evaluated in this study include the reductions in service times at manual toll booths, the introduction of electronic toll collection and the increase in electronic collection compliance rates. Service times adopted in this study correspond to data collected at toll plazas of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Analyses presented in this paper are based on toll plaza simulations through the microsimulation software VISSIM. The simulation outcomes evidenced and quantified the capacity increase associated with collectors training and the adoption of fares that simplified the change. In this study, improvements

  2. Plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Roland [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verkleij, Jos A.C. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.verkleij@falw.vu.nl; Nelissen, Hans J.M. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vink, Jos P.M. [Department of Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, RIZA, PO Box 17, NL-8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    The species Agrostis stolonifera, Brassica napus and Trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of Zn contamination on Zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. Parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of Zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. A significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot Zn concentration was observed for all species at increasing external Zn concentrations. However, shoot biomass production, Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation differed significantly among the tested species. The results in both experimental set-ups were quite similar concerning Zn tolerance and accumulation and improved the validity of the findings. The rather specific responses of the different plant species to Zn contamination interfere with the more generic approach used in risk assessment studies. Maximum amounts of Zn in shoot are not likely to cause a risk to herbivores. - Effects of Zn contamination showed different responses in uptake and accumulation patterns of site-specific plant species, which were similar in a semi-field experiment and under controlled conditions.

  3. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  4. DCD – a novel plant specific domain in proteins involved in development and programmed cell death

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    Doerks Tobias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of microbial pathogens by plants triggers the hypersensitive reaction, a common form of programmed cell death in plants. These dying cells generate signals that activate the plant immune system and alarm the neighboring cells as well as the whole plant to activate defense responses to limit the spread of the pathogen. The molecular mechanisms behind the hypersensitive reaction are largely unknown except for the recognition process of pathogens. We delineate the NRP-gene in soybean, which is specifically induced during this programmed cell death and contains a novel protein domain, which is commonly found in different plant proteins. Results The sequence analysis of the protein, encoded by the NRP-gene from soybean, led to the identification of a novel domain, which we named DCD, because it is found in plant proteins involved in development and cell death. The domain is shared by several proteins in the Arabidopsis and the rice genomes, which otherwise show a different protein architecture. Biological studies indicate a role of these proteins in phytohormone response, embryo development and programmed cell by pathogens or ozone. Conclusion It is tempting to speculate, that the DCD domain mediates signaling in plant development and programmed cell death and could thus be used to identify interacting proteins to gain further molecular insights into these processes.

  5. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0005, n = 12). This indicates that application of an internal standard is a reliable method to assess biomarker depth records, which enormously facilitates the use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  6. Relationship among yield and plant specific traits on triticale Romanian varieties in Timisoara environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Sarac, Ioan; Ciulca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    The paper assesses the behavior of triticale genotypes in the evolution of the environment in Timisoara area during 2001 - 2011. The triticale varieties and lines were bred in the Eastern part of Romania [RICIC Fundulea] with a different climate pattern than Timisoara. We intended to see the yield evolution during a long period of cultivation [10 years--3 varieties bred before 2000; Group 1] and the new genotypes bred after 2000; Group 2] cultivated during 6 - 2 years. Each year, new different varieties (in total 32) and new lines (in total 78) were also under observation. For 10 years, the best variety from the first Group was Titan [5643.2 ± 710.2 kg/ha; CV% = 39.8]. From the second Group, the highest yield average revealed Haiduc variety [6207.2 ± 715.0 kg/ha; CV% = 34.6. During 3 years of cultivation Nera, Matroz and Negoiu pointed out 7936 kg/ha, 7542 kg/ha and 7266 kg/ha respectively. Nedeea and Oda overpasses 8500 and 7500 kg/ha during 2010 - 2011 respectively. The 2011 agricultural year was improper for cereals. It was affected by high temperature, and small amounts of precipitations. Only 64.16% of the average amounts of precipitation were accumulated. In these conditions the best varieties were Gorun and Haiduc performing 7190 kg/ha and 7058 kg/ha respectively. 40% of the tested varieties yielded less than 4500 kg/ha. From the farmers' point of view the best varieties were Titan and Gorun. In terms of the eight plant traits studied in 2011, the phenotypic similarity [ps] between varieties was variable. According to obtained results, we advise the farmers to compose a complex of varieties that should be proper for their specific environment. The favorable combination for cultivation in a stable environmental condition are Gorun [7190 kg/ha] and Matroz [6863 kg/ha] with ps = 93.23% revealing a high similarity. In an unstable environment, the best variety combination for cultivation are: Titan [6025 kg/ha] and Haiduc [7058 kg/ha] [ps = 49.94%], Titan [6025

  7. Presença de ovos de Toxocara spp em praças públicas da cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil Presence of Toxocara spp eggs in public squares of Uberlândia city, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Costa-Cruz

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de ovos de Toxocara spp nos solos de praças públicas da cidade de Uberlândia, região do Triângulo Mineiro, no período de outubro de 1991 a janeiro de 1992. A cidade possui 89 praças distribuídas em 39 bairros. Para que se tivesse um perfil da ocorrência do parasita, foram colhidas amostras de terra e areia (quando existente de uma praça, determinada por sorteio, por bairro. As amostras de solo homogeneizadas de 5 pontos distintos das 39 praças foram colhidas em frascos plásticos e analisadas empregando-se os métodos de flutuação em solução saturada de cloreto de sódio e de solução saturada de sulfato de magnésio contendo 5% de iodeto de potássio. Para cada amostra foram realizados os dois métodos em duplicata. Os resultados mostraram estarem contaminados os solos de 9 praças (23,07%, das quais 6 localizavam-se próximas ao centro da cidade. A realização de mais de um método laboratorial permitiu a identificação do agente em maior porcentagem de locais.The objective of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp eggs in the public squares ground in Uberlândia, region of Triângulo Mineiro, from October 1991 to January 1992. The city has 89 squares distributed in 39 boroughs. In order to have an outline of the parasite's occurrence, ground and sand (when existent samples were collected from one square per boroughors. The squares were determined by draw. The homogenized ground samples of distinct points of the 39 squares, were colected in plastic flasks and analysed by the methods of fluctuation in sodium chloride saturated solution and magnesium sulphate saturated solution which contained 5% of potassium iodate. Both methods were executed twice for each sample. The results showed that the ground of 9 squares (23.07% was contaminated, 6 of which were located near downtown. The execution of more than one laboratorial method permited the agent's identification

  8. The hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A and PR-B transgenic mice: lessons on the role of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the mouse mammary gland and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayo, Rocio; Recouvreux, Sol; Simian, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) belongs to the superfamily of steroid receptors and mediates the action of progesterone in its target tissues. In the mammary gland, in particular, PR expression is restricted to the luminal epithelial cell compartment. The generation of estrogen receptor-α (ER) and PR knockout mice allowed the specific characterization of the roles of each of these in mammary gland development: ER is critical for ductal morphogenesis, whereas PR has a key role in lobuloalveolar differentiation. To further study the role PR isoforms have in mammary gland biology, transgenic mice overexpressing either the "A" (PR-A) or the "B" (PR-B) isoforms of PR were generated. Overexpression of the A isoform of PR led to increased side branching, multilayered ducts, loss of basement membrane integrity, and alterations in matrix metalloproteinase activation in the mammary gland. Moreover, levels of TGFβ1 and p21 were diminished and those of cyclin D1 increased. Interestingly, the phenotype was counteracted by antiestrogens, suggesting that ER is essential for the manifestation of the hyperplasias. Mice overexpressing the B isoform of PR had limited ductal growth but retained the ability to differentiate during pregnancy. Levels of latent and active TGFβ1 were increased compared to PR-A transgenics. The phenotypes of these transgenic mice are further discussed in the context of the impact of progesterone on mammary stem cells and breast cancer. We conclude that an adequate balance between the A and B isoforms of PR is critical for tissue homeostasis. Future work to further understand the biology of PR in breast biology will hopefully lead to new and effective preventive and therapeutic alternatives for patients.

  9. Development status of an improved method for conducting an integrated HRA/PRA based on operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, M.T.; Luckas, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cooper, S.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Since the early 1970s, Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) has been considered an integral part of Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs). However, current limitations of existing HRA approaches become apparent when the role of the human is explicitly examined in the context of real nuclear power plant (NPP) events. Recent serious events indicate that human performance is a dominant source of plant risk. Development of new or improved HRA methodologies to more realistically represent human performance is recognized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a necessary means to increase the robustness of PRAs. In order to accomplish this objective, a Detailed HRA Project, under sponsorship of the NRC`s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), was initiated in late February of 1992 by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of the BNL Detailed HRA project is to develop an improved method for HRA that enables a more realistic assessment of the human contribution to plant risk and can be fully integrated with PRA. This paper describes the research and development efforts of the project including: the development of a multidisciplinary HRA framework, the characterization and representation of errors of commission, and an approach for addressing human dependencies. Research implications and necessary development requirements are also discussed.

  10. Configurações e olhar es sobre o espaço público: as praças no contexto da cidade

    OpenAIRE

    Loboda, Carlos Roberto; UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho consiste numa reflexão sobre o entendimento dos espaços públicos urbanos (praças públicas) não somente como elementos físicos, materializados e dispersos pela malha urbana. Serão abordados, de forma sintética, os usos e não usos desses locais, sua morfologia, graus de apropriação e seus potenciais de acesso a todo cidadão. Para tanto, efetuamos uma análise das dezesseis praças existentes em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná. A cidade conta com aproximadamente 160 mil habitantes...

  11. Os espaços livres públicos e o contexto local : o caso da Praça Principal de Pitalito - Huila - Colômbia

    OpenAIRE

    Minda, Jorge Eduardo Calderón

    2010-01-01

    Visando contribuir à qualidade e adequação do desenho urbano do espaço público ao contexto local das cidades de pequeno porte, o objetivo do trabalho é estudar a praça principal de Pitalito – Huila, na Colômbia, objetivando identificar se o desenho de reforma se adapta às características físicas e ambientais do entorno. Para a consecução do objetivo, primeiramente foi realizada uma conceituação sobre os espaços livres públicos e sobre a importância da praça como o principal espaço público nas...

  12. Praćenje ostataka sulfonilurea u zemljištu u realnim uslovima primenom visoko-pritisne tečne hromatografije

    OpenAIRE

    Grahovac, Nada

    2016-01-01

    U okviru doktorske disertacije razvijena je brza i selektivna metoda zaodređivanje i praćenje ostataka herbicida na bazi sulfonilurea (nikosulfuron,oksasulfuron, tribenuron metil, tritosulfuron, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron iprosulfuron) u zemljištu primenom visoko pritisne tečne hromatografije saUV detektor sa nizom fotoosetljivih dioda (HPLC-UV-DAD). Razdvajanjesulfonilurea je izvedeno uz primenu Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 kolone. U ciljudefinisanja odgovarajućih uslova analize, ispitan je ...

  13. Pra que time ele joga?: a produção da identidade homossexual em um vídeo educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Fernandes Dinis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the discourse about homosexuality by means of a research with undergraduate students of Physical Education. For this purpose, it made use of the film "Pra que time ele joga?" as a tool of discussing the theme with the research group, aiming to observe what kind of opinions these students have about homosexuality, as well as the discursive production of the image of homosexual subject produced by the educational videotape.

  14. Analiza primene IMM algoritma za praćenje manevrišućih ciljeva / Analysis of IMM algorithm for maneuvering target tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Radosavljević

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U radu je analizirana primena IMM algoritma sa tri modela Kalmanovih filtara, za praćenje cilja pomoću osmatračkog radara. Prvi Kalmanov filtar podešen je da prati ciljeve koji se kreću po pravolinijskoj trajektoriji bez ubrzanja, drugi prati ciljeve koji se kreću ubrzano i vrše blag manevar, a treći je namenjen za praćenje ciljeva koji se kreću ubrzano i vrše oštar manevar. Dat je opis algoritma kao i vrednosti odgovarajućih parametara i matrica prelaza za Kalmanove filtre, kao i uporedna analiza algoritma u odnosu na standardan Kalmanov filtar šestog reda. Prikazani rezultati srednje kvadratne greške praćenja po x i у koordinati pokazuju opravdanost izbora predložene metode praćenja. / This paper considers comparative analysis the problem of maneuvering target tracking to IMM algorithm with 3 standard Kalman filters and same standard Kalman filter 6. order, using data from TWS radar. The first Kalman filter from IMM algorithms is tuned for tracking of target moving along the rectilinear trajectory -without acceleration, the second tracks the targets with acceleration and gentle maneuver, and the third Kalman filter tracks the target with acceleration and sharp maneuver. The mathematical model of algorithm and values of appropriate parameters and Kalman filter matrices, are presented. The results of RMSE of tracking in x and у coordinates, show the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Distribución de patrones PRA en aislamientos clínicos del complejo Mycobacterium avium procedentes de España y Suramérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Murcia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por el complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es la infección sistémica más frecuente en la fase terminal del SIDA. Las sondas de ADN disponibles en el mercado para la identificación de micobacterias son muy precisas pero extremadamente costosas. Por eso, la mayoría de los laboratorios clínicos de Latinoamérica aún tipifican micobacterias mediante pruebas fenotípicas que son lentas, laboriosas y poco precisas. En este trabajo se aplicó el análisis del polimorfismo de los fragmentos de restricción del gen hsp65 (PRA a la identificación de MAC en 163 aislamientos clínicos procedentes de España y Suramérica. El genotipo PRA predominante en cada país fue: M. avium tipo I en Argentina (23/42, 55% y Brasil (48/72, 67%, M. avium tipo II en España (18/26, 69% y M. avium tipo III en Colombia (10/23, 43%. Este último genotipo, que aún no fue descrito fuera del continente americano, resultó muy infrecuente en los otros tres países del estudio. Se discuten ventajas e inconvenientes de la aplicación del PRA al diagnóstico micobacteriológico.

  16. A plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase is involved in the control of G2/M progression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, A; Stals, H; Reichheld, J P; Segers, G; De Veylder, L; Barroco, R P; Casteels, P; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2001-09-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the key transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. All the CDKs known to control G(2)/M progression in yeast and animals are distinguished by the characteristic PSTAIRE motif in their cyclin-binding domain and are closely related. Higher plants contain in addition a number of more divergent non-PSTAIRE CDKs with still obscure functions. We show that a plant-specific type of non-PSTAIRE CDKs is involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression. In synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells, the corresponding protein, accumulated in a cell cycle-regulated fashion, peaking at the G(2)/M transition. The associated histone H1 kinase activity reached a maximum in mitosis and required a yet unidentified subunit to be fully active. Down-regulation of the associated kinase activity in transgenic tobacco plants using a dominant-negative mutation delayed G(2)/M transition. These results provide the first evidence that non-PSTAIRE CDKs are involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression in plants.

  17. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huchen; Torres-Garcia, Jesus; Latrasse, David; Benhamed, Moussa; Schilderink, Stefan; Zhou, Wenkun; Kulikova, Olga; Hirt, Heribert; Bisseling, Ton

    2017-08-30

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Plant-specific Zinc Finger-Homeobox and Mini Zinc Finger Gene Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu; Claude W.dePamphilis; Hong Ma

    2008-01-01

    Zinc finger-homaodomain proteins (ZHD) are present in many plants;however,the evolutionary history of the ZHD gene family remains largely unknown.We show here that ZHD genes are plant-specific,nearly all intronless,and related to MINI ZINC FINGER (MIF) genes that possess only the zinc finger.Phylogenetic analyses of ZHD genes from representative land plants suggest that non-seed plant ZHD genes occupy basal positions and angiosperm homologs form seven distinct clades.Several clades contain genes from two or more major angiosperm groups,including eudicots,monocots,magnoliids,and other basal angiosperms,indicating that several duplications occurred before the diversification of flowering plants.In addition,specific lineages have experienced more recent duplications.Unlike the ZHD genes,&fiFs are found only from seed plants,possibly derived from ZHDs by loss of the homeodomain before the divergence of seed plants.Moreover,the MIF genes have also undergone relatively recent gene duplications.Finally,genome duplication might have contributed substantially to the expansion of family size in angiosperms and caused a high level of functional redundancy/overlap in these genes.

  19. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  20. Role of the plant-specific endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible gene TIN1 in the formation of pollen surface structure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Iwata, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells triggers the transcriptional activation of ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes to maintain cellular homeostasis. This process is known as the ER stress response or the unfolded protein response. We have identified tunicamycin induced 1 (TIN1), a plant-specific ER stress-inducible Arabidopsis thaliana gene. The TIN1 protein is localized in the ER; however, its molecular function has yet to be clarified. In this study, we performed functional analysis of TIN1 in planta. RT-PCR analysis showed that TIN1 is highly expressed in pollen. Analysis using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene demonstrated that the TIN1 promoter is active throughout pollen development, peaking at the time of flowering and in an ovule of an open flower. Although a T-DNA insertion mutant of TIN1 grows normally under ambient laboratory conditions, abnormal pollen surface morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope. Based on the current and previous observations, a possible physiological function of TIN1 during pollen development is discussed. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology.

  1. Plant-specific insertions in the soybean aspartic proteinases, soyAP1 and soyAP2, perform different functions of vacuolar targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Kaede; Asakura, Tomiko; Ueda, Haruko; Tamura, Tomoko; Tamura, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Misaka, Takumi; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Abe, Keiko

    2006-07-01

    Most aspartic proteinases (APs) of plant origin are characterized by the presence of plant-specific insertion (PSI) in their primary structure. PSI has been reported to function as signals for both transport of AP molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and for their targeting to the vacuole. To determine the functions of the PSIs in soyAP1 and soyAP2 identified in our previous study, we examined their subcellular localization by transient expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in the protoplasts of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells. Both soyAP1-GFP and soyAP2-GFP were targeted to the vacuole. To confirm the role of the PSI, we prepared PSI-deleted soyAP1 and soyAP2, and investigated their vacuolar targeting by the same method. While the former deletion mutant was always transported to the vacuole, the latter sometimes remained in the ER and was only sometimes transported to the vacuole. These observations indicated that, in the case of soyAP1, the PSI is not involved in vacuolar targeting, also suggesting that the function of the PSI differs depending on its origin.

  2. Diagnóstico quantitativo e qualitativo da arborização das praças de Aracaju, SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Linhares de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aracaju foi uma cidade planejada com simplicidade e rigor geométrico. Desde a sua fundação, ela vem passando por constantes alterações, havendo cada vez menos áreas verdes no ambiente urbano. A arborização urbana bem planejada é muito importante, pois as árvores trazem benefícios à cidade nos processos de ordens ecológica (clima e poluição, biológica (saúde física do homem e psicológica (saúde mental do homem. Porém, a falta de planejamento dessa arborização e o uso inadequado de algumas espécies são empecilhos para se atingirem esses benefícios. Dessa forma, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a composição florística de 22 praças de Aracaju, SE, como forma de conhecer a atual situação de sua arborização e possibilitar intervenções para melhorar a adequação técnica do espaço verde urbano. O levantamento florístico foi realizado através de censo, no período de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em cada praça, com o reconhecimento e identificação de todos os indivíduos arbóreos, utilizando-se as técnicas tradicionais de coleta e herborização. Realizou-se a identificação das espécies com o auxílio de literatura específica. Foram identificados 1.290 indivíduos, distribuídos em 20 famílias botânicas, 46 gêneros e 64 espécies, sendo nove espécies não identificadas. Das espécies identificadas, 58% são exóticas no território brasileiro e 42%, espécies nativas. As praças apresentam similaridade entre si, com coeficiente de Jaccard variando de 0,00 a 0,66, e a Praça Almirante Tamandaré e a Praça Graccho Cardoso foram as de maior similaridade (66%.

  3. NOVOS LETRAMENTOS NA CULTURA DIGITAL: O REMIX VEM PRA RUA - O GIGANTE ACORDOU COMO UM HÍBRIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosivaldo Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da internet, das mídias e redes sociais digitais e de celulares se constituiu como um diferencial importantíssimo no grande movimento social que mexeu com o País e com as visões sobre ele nas manifestações ocorridas em junho de 2013. Essas mídias e redes sociais digitais (YouTube, Flickr, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. se constituíram como canais de informação, ambientes comunicacionais, pontos de encontro, enfim, em redes e, às vezes, até em comunidades que facilitaram os relacionamentos entre os que estavam conectados e dispostos a se manifestarem de algum modo. Nessa direção, os novos letramentos digitais e o novo ethos como defendido por Lankshear e Knobel (2007 proporcionaram contribuições significativas para o uso das tecnologias digitais de informação e comunicação na propagação dessas manifestações, e, buscando compreender o modo como esses novos letramentos favoreceram isso, neste artigo buscamos, a partir das noções de hibridismo e intercalação (GARCÍA CANCLINI, 2008 [1989]; BAKHTIN, 2002 [1934-5] e  nas discussões de Lankshear e Knobel (2007; 2008 sobre remix e sobre linguagens hipermidiática e híbrido digital (SANTAELLA, 2003; 2004, realizar uma análise qualitativa do remix digita Vem pra rua - O gigante acordou,  no que diz respeito as técnicas de produção e constituição desse gênero na construção de novos significado, considerando o horizonte espacial e temporal (VOLOCHINOV/BAKHTIN, [1926]1976 nos quais foi produzido

  4. Elastin and Mechanics of Pig Pericardial Resistance Arteries (pPRA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Leurgans, Thomas; Rosenstand, Kristoffer

    Resistance arteries are remodeled in hypertension and diabetes. Elastin was reported to play a role herein. The parietal pericardium is opened during cardio-thoracic surgeries and might be a valuable biopsy for research in cardio-vascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that resistance arteries...... can be isolated from the pericardium to study the micro-architecture of elastin and vascular wall mechanics. The pericardium of pigs served to test the hypothesis. pPRAs were microdissected. Their structure was examined using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. Diameter...

  5. Kajian Fisiologis Penggunaan Bovine Somatotropin (bST Pada Sapi Pra Afkir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzarnisa Araby

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological bovine somatotropin (bST on post lactating dairy ABSTRACT. To increase of milk production nationally with used in dairy cattle business can assist to increase milk production, eighteen post lactating dairy cows in the highland Cipelang Bogor, were used to study the effect used of bovine somatotropin and lactating time. The experimental cows were assigned into a Randomized Block Design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement. The first factor was using of somatotropin (bSTwith three levels (non bST injection, biweekly injection and three weekly injection. The second factor was lactating time with two levels (4th lactating time and 6 th lactating time Parameters measured were heart rate, respiration frequency, rectal temperature, milk production efficiency, milk production, 4% FCM (fat corrected milk., Milk composition, weigh gain, milk quality consist of protein, fat, pH. Bovine somatotropin significantly increased heart rate and respiration rate. Also bovine somatotropin injection at 4th lactating time significantly increased milk production. There were an interaction between bST dan lactating time on milk production and weight gain. Bovine somatotropin injection biweekly in cows on 4th lactating time ration increased milk production by 16-26 %, but injection in cows 6th lactating time increased milk production by 8-18 % combination with somatotropin doze 250/ml/14 days. Somatothropine supplementation was injection biweekly and three weekly did significantly affect to milk production, body temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate however in normal physiology . Bovine somatotropine can increase post lactating dairy production interval 14 days better than 21 days.

  6. AMT and gravity across praTertiary rock complex of Kebumen, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laesanpura, Agus; Dahrin, Darharta; Sugianto, Asep

    2017-07-01

    Kebumen area is located in central Java Province, Indonesia, where outcrop of Pretertiary rock of old accretion wedge presence. However, the subsurface of the area, limestone, igneous rock, and Conglomeratic-clay of Karangsambung Formation, is poorly understood in subsurface. The current survey of gravity and AMT data is executing to delineate this boundary. The gravity profile and three point AMT is measure for reconnaissance study. The field observations for rock formations are also scrutinized, but the soil is prohibiting to seen more deep in detail. The general result of interpretation and modeling, show reaching depth of one and half kilo meter, the gravity data cover the mayor rock, but the AMT is more significance in better delineating the boundary. Hence the lithology could be distinguished for mélange rock (1000 Ohm.m) and Karangsambung Formation of clay-conglomerate (80 Ohm.m), but also diabase of volcanic-plutonic rock (4000 Ohm.m). The preliminary result shows two mayor results, for limestone and Diabase. Limestone is spread-out on this area, probably the olistolith, and its extensions is more pronounce in the sounding point than the surface observations only. The mysterious of diabase, is more possible as sill product rather than vertical dike.

  7. Sejarah Masuknya Islam dan Pendidikan Islam Masa Kerajaan Banten Periode Pra Kemerdekaan

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    Muslimah muslimah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coming of islamic scholars as Islamic spreader in Banten must deal with the condition of the people who had embraced Hinduism. The people were already familiar with the superstitions of heresy and khurafat. The cause of this condition were stupidity, clumsiness and Dutch colonialism. This literature review will ease the observers of history and Islamic education, because this literature review discusses specifically and systematically about the history of the entry of Islam and Islamic education in the Sultanate of Banten in the period of 1552-1935 years. The findings of this study explain that the entry of Islam in the Sultanate of Banten was done peacefully by Sharif Hidayatullah (Sunan Gunung Jati together with his son, Maulana Hasanudin, who then became the first sultan of Sultanate of Banten, continued by Maulana Yusuf and the next sultans; What Islamic scholars did in the Sultanate of Banten such as spreading the teachings of Islam as well as balancing life and religion, eradicating stupidity and encouraging jihad against the invaders; At first, Islamic educational institutions in Banten were conducted in homes and mosques individually and then got developed into madrasah.

  8. PERAWATAN PRA PROSTODONTIK DENGAN SPLIN OKLUSAL PADA KASUS KEHILANGAN GIGI YANG DISERTAI GANGGUAN SENDI TEMPOROMANDIBULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira S Wardani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-prosthetic treatment is very important step to get a successful prosthodontic treatment. This study reported a case of patient with missing teeth on left and right lower first and second molar, with TMJ symptoms. Other symptoms felt by the patients were ear pain, and shoulder pain. After detailed examination, pre-prosthetic treatment needed by the patient was the TMJ treatment. The usage of occlusal splint as one of the methods to treat the TMD were i.e. to eliminate the occlusal disorder, to reduce the neuromuscular activity, and to regain a stable centric relation. After splint treatment, an open bite on the posterior teeth appeared. To solve this problem, a removable frame prosthesis enhanced with overlay rest was fabricated. With this prosthesis, the TMJ symptoms stopped recurring. It was concluded that to achieve a successful prosthesis, a detailed and comprehensive treatment was needed, including the pre-prosthetic treatment, along with the patient’s motivation and cooperation.

  9. MEDIA REKAM JEJAK TAHAPAN PRA DESAIN DENGAN POSTER : MENINGKATKAN KINERJA DAN LUARAN PADA STUDIO PERANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibria Conytin Nugrahini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Pre-design process in studio design class includes observation phase, analysis and programming, a directed process of searching and recording information. Based on an early observation, currently pre-design activities in class or studio often has been less optimal due to the low of students performance and the creativities. This causes the output generated from pre-design process was not maximized while undocumented or do not have a good track records. This paper aims to explore the use of posters as a creative ideas in the documentation of of pre-design stage. This is a class-action research as the result of the development of pre-design activities with inquiry methods using the poster as a medium track record in architectural design studio. Research methods include observation and assessment pre-design student outcomes, and questionnaire. Poster outcomes observation were ratings based on several criterias. The questionnnaires tested the posters feasibility in improving the performance and outcomes based on the process and student experiences. Because it is class-action reasearch, this study is limited to the studio class where the author conducted lectures and studio guidance. The results showed an increase in the performance of students in search of matter, observations, material analysis, as well as programming in the use of posters as track record media. In addition, students were satisfied and more creatively visualize their ideas in the pr e-design phase by using the poster media

  10. P39, a novel soybean protein allergen, belongs to a plant-specific protein family and is present in protein storage vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Baird, Lisa M; Jung, Rudolf; Zeece, Michael G; Markwell, John; Sarath, Gautam

    2008-03-26

    Soybean lecithins are seeing increasing use in industry as an emulsifier and food additive. They are also a growing source of human food allergies, which arise principally from the proteins fractionating with the lecithin fraction during manufacture. A previous study (Gu, X.; Beardslee, T.; Zeece, M.; Sarath, G.; Markwwell, J. Int Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2001, 126, 218-225) identified several allergenic proteins in soybean lecithins and a soybean IgE-binding protein termed P39 was discovered. However, very little was known about this protein except that it was coded by the soybean genome. This paper investigates key biological and immunological properties of this potential soybean lecithin allergen. P39 is encoded by a multigene family in soybeans and in several other higher plants. The soybean P39-1 protein and its essentially indistinguishable homologue, P39-2, have been cloned and studied. These proteins and their homologues belong to a family of plant-specific proteins of unknown function. In soybeans, P39-1 is seed specific, and its transcript levels are highest in developing seeds and decline during seed maturation. In contrast, P39 protein was detectable only in the fully mature, dry seed. Subcellular fractionation revealed that P39 protein was strongly associated with oil bodies; however, immunolocalization indicated P39 was distributed in the matrix of the protein storage vacuoles, suggesting that association with oil bodies was an artifact arising from the extraction procedure. By the use of recombinant techniques it has also been documented that IgE-binding epitopes are present on several different portions of the P39-1 polypeptide.

  11. hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory PCR e análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 (PRA para identificação de micobactérias no laboratório clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Feher da SILVA

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to four weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA of the hsp65 gene was used as a rapid method for identification of 103 clinical isolates. Band patterns were interpreted by comparison with published tables and patterns available at an Internet site (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005. Concordant results of PRA and biochemical identification were obtained in 76 out of 83 isolates (91.5%. Results from 20 isolates could not be compared due to inconclusive PRA or biochemical identification. The results of this work showed that PRA could improve identification of mycobacteria in a routine setting because it is accurate, fast, and cheaper than conventional phenotypic identification.Mais de 70 espécies de micobactérias já foram definidas e algumas delas podem causar enfermidade em humanos, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. A identificação de espécie, na maioria dos laboratórios clínicos, se baseia em características fenotípicas e testes bioquímicos e resultados definitivos só são obtidos após duas a quatro semanas. Métodos rápidos de identificação reduzem o tempo necessário para o diagnóstico e podem antecipar a instituição do tratamento específico, aumentando as chances de sucesso. A análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 amplificado por PCR (PRA foi utilizada como método rápido de identificação em 103 isolamentos clínicos. Os padrões de bandas foram interpretados por comparação com tabelas publicadas e padrões disponíveis em um site de Internet (http

  12. Full-Time Faculty View Information Literacy as Important but Are Unlikely to Incorporate it Into Their Teaching. A Review of: Bury, S. (2011. Faculty attitudes, perceptions and experiences of information literacy: A study across multiple disciplines at York University, Canada. Journal of Information Literacy, 5(1. Retrieved from http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/PRA-V5-I1-2011-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon C. Tewell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore faculty attitudes towards information literacy (IL; in particular,faculty perception of student IL competencies, importance of IL skills and instruction, and ideal means of planning and delivering IL instruction.Design – Online survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public research university located in Toronto, Canada.Subjects – 221 full-time faculty.Methods – The author designed and distributed an online survey to all full-time York University faculty (n=1,451 in March 2007 using Zoomerang software. The survey consisted of between 26 and 36 questions depending on responses selected by respondents, and included both open- and closed-ended questions. The author handcoded the qualitative data and used SPSS to analyze the quantitative data. The survey had 221 usable responses giving a response rate of 15.2%.Main Results – The study revealed a high degree of concern among survey respondents regarding undergraduate students’ information literacy skills, accompanied by a perceived gradual increase in IL abilities corresponding to student year. Faculty ranked each of the Association of College and Research Libraries’ (ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education as being extremely important. No ACRL standard ranked below 6 on a scale of 1 to 7, suggesting full agreement with the value of IL proficiency. Of the faculty 78.7% felt that IL education should be a joint collaboration between faculty and librarians. A considerable majority of respondents (81.7% answered that IL instruction should be required for all students. Far fewer faculty incorporated IL teaching in practice, with 52.9% engaging in IL instruction and 47.1% not incorporating IL instruction at all. Of the faculty who incorporated librarian-led IL sessions into their courses, 85% of faculty perceived a “substantial impact” or “some impact” on their students’ IL competencies.Conclusions – The author concludes that this study adds

  13. Espaços livres em praças inglesas do século XVII: o caso de Convent Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Derntl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Covent Garden é considerada uma experiência modelar entre as primeiras transformações no espaço urbano ainda de aparência medieval de Londres no século XVII. A partir da iconografia da época e das indicações da bibliografia pertinente, procura-se apresentar uma análise abrangente da configuração formal dessa praça. Destaca-se a existência de diferentes tipos de espaços livres contribuindo para determinar seu desenho: além do espaço central, também fizeram parte da praça o pátio da igreja de St. Paul, a oeste e os jardins da mansão Bedford, ao sul. Conclui-se que o desenho apresentado por Covent Garden não era completamente regular ou simétrico e teria sido bem diferente das squares londrinas dos séculos XVII e XVIII.

  14. Effects of histone acetylation and H3K4 methylation on PRA/PRB in human uterine smooth muscle cells during pregnancy%组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化对人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧; 陈诚; 梁志清

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂(trichostatin A,TSA)、H3 K4甲基化酶抑制剂(5’-deoxy-5’-methylthioadenosine,MTA)处理人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞,干预组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化水平,探讨组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化对人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB的影响.方法 分离纯化人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞(n=16),免疫组化定位孕激素受体(progesterone receptor,PR)及孕激素受体B(progesterone receptor B,PRB)在子宫平滑肌细胞核的表达.分别利用不同浓度TSA、MTA对其进行处理,Real-time PCR检测PR、PRA、PRB mRNA的表达;染色质免疫共沉淀技术(Chromatin immunoprecipitation,ChIP)比较处理前后PRA、PRB启动子区H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4三甲基化水平.结果 TSA可使PRA/PRB明显增高(P<0.05),使PRA启动子区H3、H4乙酰化水平明显上升(P<0.05).MTA可使PRA/PRB明显下降(P<0.05),PRA启动子区H3K4乙酰化水平明显下降(P<0.05).两种药物的干预主要通过对PRA的调控来调节PRA/PRB比值.结论 组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化和H3K4甲基化均可使人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB比值发生改变,可能参与“功能性孕激素撤退”机制的调节.

  15. Tortura e transição democrática: uma análise histórica do filme “Pra frente, Brasil”

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    Paulo Jorge Corrêa Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende analisar o filme “Pra frente, Brasil” situando o mesmo no contexto da abertura democrática dos anos 1980. Para tal, busca-se tecer o contexto e o lugar social onde foi concebido o filme. Na análise, atenta-se para o papel da tortura presente na obra cinematográfica e para os elementos semióticos usados no filme para incutir uma visão específica no espectador. Ademais, considerando-se que o mesmo sofre censura prévia do governo, procura-se questionar a superficialidade da democracia mesmo no agonizar da ditadura civil-militar.

  16. Variáveis meteorológicas e cobertura vegetal de espécies arbóreas em praças urbanas em Cuiabá, Brasil

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    Angela Santana de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência da vegetação nas variáveis meteorológicas foi avaliada por meio do índice de área foliar (IAF e índice de sombreamento arbóreo (ISA em duas praças públicas em Cuiabá-MT, Brasil. Medidas de temperatura do ar (T e umidade relativa (UR foram obtidas sob a copa das árvores em diferentes sítios da cidade para o período seco e chuvoso no ano de 2009. A análise dos valores médios destas variáveis mostraram maiores valores de T e menores UR ocorrendo durante o período seco e sendo semelhantes nas duas praças. Com relação à UR, entretanto, não houve diferenças significativas entre a medida sob as árvores e a atmosfera. O índice de área foliar foi calculado e variou em função das espécies arbóreas das praças, e mostrou valores entre 5,64 e 2,79 m². m-2, sendo a média do IAF e do ISA na Praça Popular superiores ao da Praça 8 de Abril. Conclui-se que as espécies arbóreas melhoraram o ambiente térmico em virtude da atenuação da radiação proporcionada pelo sombreamento das diferentes espécies, principalmente no horário com menor ângulo solar.

  17. Contamination of public parks in Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil by Toxocara spp. eggs Contaminação de praças públicas de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil, por ovos de Toxocara spp

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    Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate soil contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples (500 g were collected every month over a 12-month period, from 25 parks in different parts of the city (northern, southern, eastern, western and central areas. Two 10-g aliquots of the material collected from each park were subjected to the centrifuge-flotation method to recover Toxocara spp. eggs. Twenty-four out of the 25 squares studied (96.0% were contaminated and the number of eggs recovered ranged from 1 to 398 per sample. Eggs were recovered all over the year. Despite the number being greater in autumn (p O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a contaminação do solo de praças públicas por ovos de Toxocara spp. em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo. Amostras de solo (500 g foram coletadas mensalmente, durante um período de 12 meses, de 25 praças de cinco diferentes setores da cidade (norte, sul, leste, oeste e central. Duas alíquotas de 10 g do material coletado foram submetidas ao método de centrífugo-flutuação (sulfato de zinco; d = 1.200 g/cm³, para recuperação dos ovos. Das 25 praças estudadas, 24 (96,0% estavam contaminadas e o número variou de 1 a 398 ovos por amostra analisada. A recuperação foi verificada durante todos os meses do ano, sendo maior no outono (p < 0,001. Entretanto, não houve correlação entre o número de ovos e a temperatura média (r = -0,492; p = 0,148 e a precipitação pluviométrica (r = -0,299; p = 0,402 mensal. Não houve influência da localização dos parques sobre a quantidade de ovos (p = 0,7116. Devido ao alto nível de contaminação de parques públicos por ovos de Toxocara spp., a prevenção da contaminação de áreas públicas pelos agentes de larva migrans é indicada.

  18. Metabolomic Profiling of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-Induced Root Nodules Reveals Both Host Plant-Specific and Developmental Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lardi, Martina; Murset, Valérie; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Mesa, Socorro; Ahrens, Christian H.; Zamboni, Nicola; Pessi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont, which can grow inside root-nodule cells of the agriculturally important soybean and other host plants. Our previous studies described B. diazoefficiens host-specific global expression changes occurring during legume infection at the transcript and protein level. In order to further characterize nodule metabolism, we here determine by flow injection–time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis the metabolome of (i) nodules and roots...

  19. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific.

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    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Electron microscopy of Microsporum cookei after 'in vitro' treatment with protoanemonin: a combined SEM and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, D

    1989-10-01

    The ranunculaceous derivative protoanemonin (PrA) was studied as an antifungal agent on the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei. The ultrastructural changes that PrA brought about in this fungus were observed with both the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The main anomalies noted were abnormally shaped hyphae and within the cytoplasm, multimembranous bodies which were irregular in shape and size, and tubules of 25 and 60 nm in diameters. Mitochondria, nuclei and vacuoles were also variously affected by PrA. Although multifarious, the observed cellular alterations in M. cookei can be considered the result of a PrA interaction with cytoplasmic microtubules. Since these cell structures contain a great number of ASH groups, our previous hypothesis, that sulphydryl groups are the primary targets of this molecule, appears to be supported.

  1. As praças dr. Augusto Silva e Leonardo Venerando Pereira, 1701 Lavras - MG, segundo a visão dos seus freqüentadores The park dr. Augusto Silva, Lavras - MG, according to viewpoint of its users

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    Alessandra Teixeira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As praças públicas, além de contribuírem para o embelezamento das cidades, também desempenham uma função importante no contexto urbanístico ambiental. A Praça Dr. Augusto Silva, situada no município de Lavras, MG, também já foi chamada de Largo da Matriz, Praça Central e Jardim Municipal, que foi inaugurado oficialmente em 29 de novembro de 1908, quando passou a ter o nome de um ilustre médico lavrense. A praça Dr. Augusto Silva, possui atualmente, área de 7.552,65 m² e apresenta como prolongamento a praça Leonardo Venerando Pereira, com área atual de 2.041,72 m². Até 1940, esse prolongamento era denominado de Praça da Bandeira. Constatou-se, que desde o início da década de 1910, o local foi palco de grandes celebrações e encontros políticos e também foi muito freqüentado pela população. A Praça possui rica vegetação, onde se destacam uma centenária Tipuana (Tipuana tipu, diversos ipês (Tabebuia spp., palmeiras-imperiais (Roystonea oleracea. Objetivando-se avaliar a situação atual e usos, foi realizada uma avaliação, mediante análise quantitativa e pesquisa junto à população. Foram feitas uma série de avaliações referentes aos seguintes itens: aspectos urbanísticos, físicos e a vegetação. A pesquisa de opinião foi aplicada a aproximadamente 600 usuários, na própria praça, em dias da semana e horários diferentes, por meio de um questionário com perguntas diretas ao próprio entrevistado. Os dados coletados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando o Software SPSS, de onde foram obtidas as freqüências porcentuais. A maior parte dos entrevistados julga a praça como um ponto de encontro entre amigos, onde contemplam a sua beleza e descansam. Por meio de pesquisa de opinião realizada com os usuários da praça, pôde-se identificar que se trata de um local muito freqüentado por várias faixas etárias, em diferentes períodos do dia. A praça Dr. Augusto Silva mostra-se de grande import

  2. A literatura infanto-juvenil como “suporte” na formação didática de professores de língua materna: uma reflexão teórico-metodológica a partir do texto de Elias José, em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim

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    Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é chamar a atenção dos docentes que trabalham na formação de professores de língua materna, notadamente nos cursos de pedagogia e letras, para a função didática da literatura infantojuvenil. Em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim, publicada em 1997. Elias José, formado em letras e pedagogia, aborda problemas e soluções de caráter sociolinguístico que podem ocorrer no contexto da sala de aula. Ele conta a trajetória escolar de um menino que falava diferente por ser da zona rural e que, graças a uma professora cheia de criatividade e intuição pedagógica, consegue transformar o inferno em que ele vivia na escola, inicialmente, com uma professora bastante repressora e cheia de preconceito, num verdadeiro paraíso em que estudar era algo prazeroso, lúdico e transformador. This article aims to make a sociolinguistic reading of Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim, by Elias José (1997 and, at the same time, to get the attention of those who deal with the formation of teachers in the mother language (L1. Elias José, graduated in Letters and Education, deals with socioliguistic problems and solutions which may occur in classroom contests. He tells the story of a student who used a different variety of language owing to his country origin. At the beginning of his school life he suffered different kinds of prejudice. But when another teacher arrived at school with a different pedagogic approach, he discovered the pleasure and happiness of studying.

  3. PENELITIAN PROGRAM PEMBERIAN MAKANAN TAMBAHAN DI DALAM USAHA PERBAIKAN GIZI ANAK PRA-SEKOLAH YANG DISELENGGARAKAN DI TAMAN GIZI DESA CIJENGKOL KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

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    Ig. Djokosusanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah diteliti pengaruh pemberian makanan tambahan di Taman Gizi di desa Cijengkol, kabupaten Sukabumi terhadap 26 anak pra-sekolah yang berasal dari keluarga-keluarga golongan sosial-ekonomi rendah.Keadaan gizi anak-anak eksperimen dibandingkan dengan anak-anak kontrol menunjukkan perbaikan yaitu dengan menurunnya jumlah penderita kurang protein-kalori pada akhir program.Dinilai dari segi antropometri gizi ternyata pengaruh makanan tambahan selama tiga bulan tidak memberikan hasil yang nyata. Ada beberapa faktor yang diduga telah menyebabkan keadaan tersebut, yaitu jangka waktu pemberian makanan tambahan terlalu singkat, kurangnya nafsu makan pada anak-anak tersebut, serta adanya penyakit infeksi kronik tuberkulosis. Penyakit saluran pernafasan, baik yang akut maupun yang menahun (tuberkulosis diduga merupakan sebab penting sebagai penghambat perbaikan gizi anak-anak tersebut.Usaha penyuluhan gizi praktis hanya sampai pada tingkat tambahan pengetahuan. Ibu-ibu yang dididik/diberi penyuluhan belum dapat merubah sikap dan menerapkan pengetahuan yang diperolehnya itu di rumah mereka masing-masing. Keadaan sosial-ekonomi yang rendah serta terbatasnya sumber-sumber yang ada di keluarga merupakan faktor-faktor yang sangat erat hubungannya dengan tidak mampunya ibu-ibu tersebut di dalam menyediakan makanan yang baik bagi anggota-anggota keluarga.

  4. O uso dos espaços urbanos pelas crianças: explorando o comportamento do brincar em praças públicas

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    Giordana Machado da Luz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O acesso aos espaços públicos tem estado cada vez mais restrito devido às mudanças sociais e espaciais. Contudo, é importante por oportunizar às crianças o desenvolvimento de habilidades físicas, cognitivas, sociais e psicológicas, através da atividade do brincar. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar de que forma as características sócio-físicas do espaço público intervêm no comportamento de crianças. Para tanto foram realizadas observações de crianças de 6 a 12 anos, através da técnica de mapeamento comportamental centrado-na-pessoa, em quatro praças da cidade de Criciúma, Estado de Santa Catarina. Os resultados apontam que um ambiente seguro, diversificado e flexível possibilita não apenas a atividade física e a socialização, mas favorece habilidades cognitivas e psicológicas ao influenciar no tipo de brincadeira e nível de interação entre as crianças.

  5. Configurações e olhar es sobre o espaço público: as praças no contexto da cidadeA look to urban public spaces and their settings: city squares in city contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Loboda, Carlos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho consiste numa reflexão sobre o entendimento dos espaços públicos urbanos (praças públicas) não somente como elementos físicos, materializados e dispersos pela malha urbana. Serão abordados, de forma sintética, os usos e não usos desses locais, sua morfologia, graus de apropriação e seus potenciais de acesso a todo cidadão. Para tanto, efetuamos uma análise das dezesseis praças existentes em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná. A cidade conta com aproximadamente 160 mil habitantes...

  6. Análise quali-quantitativa da arborização na praça XV de novembro em Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil

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    Gustavo de Nobrega Romani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Praça XV de Novembro, implantada em meados do século XIX, tem grande valor histórico-cultural, além de se constituir em uma das principais áreas verdes do centro da cidade de Ribeirão Preto. Visando ao conhecimento detalhado da vegetação para fins de orientação do manejo e conservação dessa área, foi feito um levantamento quali-quantitativo e fitossociológico das árvores e palmeiras da praça. Foram medidas altura e Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP e identificados todos os indivíduos de porte arbóreo (árvores e palmeiras presentes na Praça, em nível de espécie. A praça ocupa uma área de 15.456,00 m², onde foram amostradas 42 espécies distribuídas por 19 famílias, num total de 161 indivíduos. Apesar de o local apresentar arborização com alto índice de diversidade de espécies (Shannon-Weaver de 3,14, os exemplares necessitam de maior atenção quanto a problemas ligados à fitossanidade e podas adequadas, fazendo que resulte em espaço seguro para os frequentadores e em boa qualidade paisagística.

  7. A new branch of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and the osmotic signal converge on plant-specific asparagine-rich proteins to promote cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maximiller D L; Reis, Pedro A B; Valente, Maria Anete S; Irsigler, André S T; Carvalho, Claudine M; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Aragão, Francisco J L; Boston, Rebecca S; Fietto, Luciano G; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2008-07-18

    NRPs (N-rich proteins) were identified as targets of a novel adaptive pathway that integrates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and osmotic stress signals based on coordinate regulation and synergistic up-regulation by tunicamycin and polyethylene glycol treatments. This integrated pathway diverges from the molecular chaperone-inducing branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in several ways. While UPR-specific targets were inversely regulated by ER and osmotic stresses, NRPs required both signals for full activation. Furthermore, BiP (binding protein) overexpression in soybean prevented activation of the UPR by ER stress inducers, but did not affect activation of NRPs. We also found that this integrated pathway transduces a PCD signal generated by ER and osmotic stresses that result in the appearance of markers associated with leaf senescence. Overexpression of NRPs in soybean protoplasts induced caspase-3-like activity and promoted extensive DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, transient expression of NRPs in planta caused leaf yellowing, chlorophyll loss, malondialdehyde production, ethylene evolution, and induction of the senescence marker gene CP1. This phenotype was alleviated by the cytokinin zeatin, a potent senescence inhibitor. Collectively, these results indicate that ER stress induces leaf senescence through activation of plant-specific NRPs via a novel branch of the ER stress response.

  8. Escavações arqueológicas na praça 7 de Setembro e arredores – Rio Grande, RS, Brasil

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    Pedro Augusto Mentz Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou encontrar vestígios materiais que auxiliem na localização do Forte Jesus, Maria, José, marco da colonização portuguesa no Rio Grande do Sul. Em julho de 2002, janeiro, fevereiro e novembro de 2003, a equipe do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Antropologia e Arqueologia – LEPAN realizou quatro cortes experimentais e escavações, resultando na obtenção de relativa quantidade de material e a constatação de quatro camadas estratigráficas, a última representando o século XX, as duas seguintes o XIX e a primeira, o XVIII. Na base de um dos cortes experimentais foi revelada uma estrutura de mais ou menos 1,0m de largura, formada por seixos rolados ou fragmentos de rochas irregulares, com 10cm em média cada um. As escavações, então, direcionaram-se no sentido de verificar sua forma e dimensões. Tratava-se de uma construção ou paliçada quase circular com 8,60 x 8,80m internamente, que protegia, no seu interior, um poço (cacimba? com 3,00 x 2,60m. Conforme os dados históricos, este foi o primeiro que abasteceu a cidade e os ocupantes do Forte Jesus, Maria, José, nas proximidades. A praça anteriormente denominava-se Praça do Poço. No estacionamento localizado na esquina das ruas Fernando Duprat e República do Líbano e ainda num terreno contíguo na última rua também foram realizadas escavações. A área total escavada é de aproximadamente 300m² e a profundidade média de 1,20m. Material recolhido: ósseo (restos de alimentação, botões, escova de dente, etc.; metal (moedas dos séculos XVIII ao XX do Brasil e, ainda, dos Estados Unidos e Holanda, balas de chumbo, chaves, baioneta, grilhão, etc.; lítico (pedras utilizadas em estruturas; cerâmica (neobrasileira, colonial, colonial vidrada; louça (faiança portuguesa, faiança fina inglesa, salt glazed, biscuit [cachimbos holandeses]; vidro (fragmentos de garrafas, vidros de remédio e perfumaria, vidraças, etc.. O material recolhido ao

  9. A cultura organizacional do restaurante chalé da praça XV em Porto Alegre: espaços e tempos sendo revelados

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    Letícia Dias Fantinel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca desvendar aspectos da cultura organizacional de um restaurante, ponto turístico da cidade de Porto Alegre, compreendendo sua dimensão simbólica por meio das representações sociais que circulam em seu ambiente, notadamente no que tange às categorias espaço e tempo. Em virtude da complexidade do tema, foram utilizados conceitos e quadros de referência teóricos da antropologia e de outras ciências humanas. O Chalé da Praça XV é um patrimônio que se localiza no centro histórico da cidade, espaço antigo, valorizado no passado pela população e hoje considerado uma vítima da degradação urbana. O método etnográfico foi utilizado na identificação das representações que circulam nesse espaço. O trabalho de campo etnográfico foi conduzido no restaurante entre fevereiro e maio de 2008. Identificaram-se as representações de tempo e espaço elaboradas por clientes e funcionários do restaurante, e desvendaram-se as homogeneidades e as heterogeneidades de sua cultura organizacional. As categorias de análise estabelecidas evidenciam as heterogeneidades presentes em seu espaço como lugar antropológico. Por fim, apresentam-se algumas alternativas para que se pense a gestão do estabelecimento, considerando, entre outros aspectos, seu potencial turístico insuficientemente explorado.

  10. O gigante adormecido vem pra rua: construções enunciativas de Johnnie Walker e Fiat durante as manifestações brasileiras de 2013

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    Carolina Fernandes da Silva Mandaji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste trabalho são as manifestações ocorridas nos meses de junho e julho de 2013 em todo o Brasil. Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre as construções enunciativas de discursos midiáticos no cenário nacional e internacional.  Esta investigação se propõe a entender os processos enunciativos, e portanto, discursivos e interacionais no uso da materialidade sincrética e audiovisual de anúncios publicitários das marcas Johnnie Walker e Fiat. Tanto a campanha “Keep walking, Brazil” como  a “Vem pra rua” da Fiat foram (re contextualizadas em outros processos enunciativos durante as manifestações brasileiras. Será possível identificar que tipo de interação discursiva ocorre entre marcas e público a partir de tal (re contextualização? Qual relação enunciativa existe entre as marcas e as manifestações e quais são os papeis enunciativos e discursivos propostos por tal relação?  Tais perguntas irão nos levar ao contexto de produção das campanhas, mas também a uma nova apreensão de sentido pautada por processos enunciativos que não os das próprias marcas, mas sim, de novas posições enunciativas. A base metodológica guia-se pelos estudos da Semiótica Discursiva de A. J. Greimas e pelos pressupostos teóricos da Sociossemiótica proposto por Eric Landowski e nas pesquisas de Ana Claudia de Oliveira.

  11. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PERILAKU ORANG TUA DALAM MELAKUKAN KEKERASAN VERBAL TERHADAP ANAK USIA PRA-SEKOLAH

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    Yuni Fitriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Verbal abuse in children is all forms of greeting parents to children who are threatening, scaring, and insulting. This happens every day at home should be the safest place and refuge for children. Economic, social, employment, lack of knowledge to educate children and parents lack understanding of religion contributing cause parents do violence on their children. Parents commit verbal violence as a way to educate children is naughty and not obedient, so it is necessary to study in order to know the factors related to the behavior of parents in verbal violence against children pre-school age. Quantitative research methods with descriptive analytic approach. The research sample 76 people, with a proportionate random sampling technique. Instrument questionnaire. The research variables include variables such as age, education, economics, attitudes, knowledge, experience, environment, and the dependent variable is the verbal violent behavior. The analysis of univariate and bivariate data using chi square test. Results of this study there was no correlation with the behavior of a parent education did verbally abuse her son (p = .767, there is no economic relationship with the parents' behavior on their verbal violence (p = .248, there is a correlation between age of knowledge, attitude, experience and the environment there is a relationship with the parents' behavior on their verbal violence (p < 0,001.

  12. PENGARUH PROGRAM PEMBERIAN MAKANAN TAMBAHAN TERHADAP KEADAAN GIZI ANAK-ANAK PRA-SEKOLAH DI LINGKUNGAN KEBON KELAPA BOGOR

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    Darwin Karyadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh program pemberian makanan tambahan terhadap ke­adaan gizi anak2 prasekolah di Lingkungan Kebon Kelapa, Bogor. (The effect of food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pre-school children. Presented at the Second National Pediatric Congress. Bandung. 1971. One of the main nutrition problems in developing countries is protein calorie malnutrition. The age group that has been most affected is the pre-school child. Serious dietary deficiency will impair his physical and mental developments. The pilot project was designed for the care of pre-school children with signs of malnutrition through a supplementary feeding program. The approach is to educate mothers on how to feed, with locally available foods, and care for their pre-school children; using techniques that are compatible with their under­standing and financial   limitation through   active participation. The duration of the supplementary feeding program was three months. In order to evaluate the program some anthro­pometric measurements, dietary intake study and clinical assess­ment were carried out before and after the program. The results of the study reveal that this program-approach can be recommended in the prevention and in combating malnu­trition in the pre-school child.

  13. TINGKAT KEGANASAN KANKER SERVIKS PASIEN PRA-RADIASI MELALUI PEMERIKSAAN AgNORs, MIB-1 DAN Cas- 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Kurnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kanker serviks sering ditemukan di negara berkembang. Pengobatan kanker melalui radioterapi untuk mengetahui tingkat proliferasi dan mengurangi tingkat keganasan. Biomarker proliferasi dan apoptosis berupa AgNORs, MIB-1, dan Caspase 3. Namun belum dijelaskan mengenai korelasi ketiga biomarker dalam kaitannya dengan proliferasi dan apoptosis pada sel kanker serviks. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui korelasi antara AgNORs, MIB-1, dan apoptosis pada kanker serviks. Penelitian observasional laboratoris menggunakan metode pewarnaan dengan menekankan kontras warna antara sitoplasma dan inti sel. Objek berupa sediaan mikroskopis dari 30 biopsi pasien kanker serviks. Pengambilan data dengan metode crocker dan blind manner. Analisis data menggunakan uji korelasi, dari ju mlah 21 pasien yang diamati menunjukkan. AgNORs dan MIB-1 memiliki angka relatif tinggi. Angka yang diperoleh ini berbanding terbalik dengan apoptosis yang relatif rendah. Korelasi antara AgNORs dengan MIB-1 menunjukkan r= 0,33 dan p= 0,15. AgNORs dengan apoptosis memiliki korelasi negatif yakni, r=-0,08 dan p= 0,73. MIB-1 dengan apoptosis memiliki korelasi negatif pula r= -0,18 dan p= 0,43. Kesimpulannya korelasi AgNORs dengan apoptosis memiliki kecenderungan lebih baik dari pada MIB-1 dengan apoptosis.Cervical cancer is often found in the developing countries. The treatment of cancer through radiotherapy was performed to determine the proliferation level and to reduce the malignancy level of cancer. The proliferation and apoptotic biomarkers were AgNORs, MIB-1, and Cas- 3. However, the correlation between the three biomarkers in relation to the proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells was not clear. The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation between AgNORs, MIB-1 and apoptosis in cervical cancer. This study was an observational research laboratory using a staining method to emphasize the color contrast between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the cells. The

  14. Projeto de Salvamento Arqueológico da Área Urbana de Pelotas: Praça Cel. Pedro Osório, da Casa 8 e Casa 2

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    Fábio Vergara Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este relatório  busca apresentar as atividades relativas ao projeto de salvamento arqueológico da Área Urbana de Pelotas, mais especificamente os trabalhos realizados na Praça Cel. Pedro Osório, Casa 8 e Casa 2, desenvolvidas no período de 2002 a 2004.PALAVRAS-CHAVE:  Arqueologia histórica  –  Pelotas oitocentista  – Patrimônio cultural

  15. Educação ambiental em praça pública: relato de experiência com oficinas pedagógicas Environment education in public squares: a report about the experience with pedagogic workshops

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    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oficinas para professores do ensino fundamental foram organizadas com a finalidade de elaborar uma Proposta de Educação Ambiental em uma praça pública no centro histórico da cidade de Botucatu, no estado de São Paulo. Tais oficinas basearam-se em informações sobre o município e informações botânicas da Praça Rubião Júnior, em Botucatu, no âmbito da Educação Ambiental. O resultado foi uma proposta de Educação Ambiental para a praça com a participação efetiva dos professores, em que foi possível resgatar a história da cidade e seus aspectos sócio-econômicos. Foi também demarcada uma "trilha ecológica" nessa praça utilizando-se as plantas presentes no local, as quais foram previamente identificadas. O trabalho com os professores durante a oficina mostrou-se de fundamental importância para a formação desses profissionais e também estimulou seu interesse a respeito da história local. Essa abordagem, articulada com a diversidade cultural local, enriqueceu a proposta de E. A. e trouxe benefícios para a prática educativa.Some workshops were carried out with High School teachers to make an Environmental Education Proposal for one square in the Botucatu city's historical center. The workshops were based on historical and botanical principles and were associated with the Environmental Education. As a result an ecological trail was designed through the plants, which had been previously identified. This project proved to be very important to the teachers in their professional growth. It boosted their interest in local history. This approach and the cultural diversity encountered enriched the proposal and brought benefits to teachers' practical teaching.

  16. Análise ambiental e econômica do biodiesel obtido por meio do óleo de fritura usado em praças de pedágio

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    Carlo Alessandro Castellanelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o objetivo é demonstrar a viabilidade econômica e as vantagens ambientais da substituição do diesel pelo biodiesel, obtido do óleo de fritura usado, em geradores de energia elétrica. Para tanto, realizou-se estudo de caso em três praças de pedágio que possuem geradores a diesel, no Rio Grande do Sul. Os parâmetros técnicos para o estudo desses geradores resultam dos experimentos de bancada realizados pelo grupo de pesquisa, nos quais se verificou que o biodiesel pode ser empregado como substituto do diesel, nos geradores das praças de pedágio, em razão das vantagens tanto econômicas quanto ambientais. Assim, a realização deste estudo de caso proporcionou maior entendimento da temática proposta, além de mostrar a importância das fontes de energia renováveis em relação aos cenários ambientais, políticos e econômicos.

  17. Learning Astronomy by Playing in a Park. (Spanish Title: Aprender AstronoMía Jugando en Una Plaza.) Aprender Astronomia Brincando em Uma Praça

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Néstor

    2012-12-01

    trabalho alguns jogos de praça, considerados como módulos didáticos para imaginar processos astronômicos, a partir da concepção de que a aprendizagem em Astronomia deve-se desenvolver fortalecendo a relação do próprio corpo com o espaço tridimensional e com o tempo, tal como se vive ao observar o céu, construindo um "diálogo" entre o mundo real e as aprendizagens a construir. Os jogos apresentados (carrosséis e tobogãs) foram desenhados para trabalhar sobre a translação da Terra em torno do Sol, as fases da Lua e a gravidade, e sobre o que um observador percebe dos mesmos. Dá-se a descrição de cada jogo, discutem-se seus fundamentos físicos e astronômicos, e desenvolve-se uma crítica didática dos mesmos. Finalmente, comenta-se o papel que deveriam ter os docentes no apoio aos aprendizes no processo de interação com os jogos apresentados.

  18. Study of prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves

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    Divya Bhadoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Study on prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves. Materials and Methods: Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis patients were included. Postnatally, they were divided into two groups, posterior urethral valve (PUV and non-PUV. The studied parameters were: Gestational age at detection, surgical intervention, ultrasound findings, cord blood and follow up plasma renin activity (PRA values, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, renal scars, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Results: A total of 25 patients were included, 10 PUV and 15 non-PUV. All infants with PUV underwent primary valve incision. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 body surface area in 4 patients at last follow-up. Keyhole sign, oligoamnios, absent bladder cycling, and cortical cysts were not consistent findings on antenatal ultrasound in PUV. Cord blood PRA was significantly higher (P < 0.0001 in PUV compared to non-PUV patients. Gestational age at detection of hydronephrosis, cortical cysts, bladder wall thickness, and amniotic fluid index were not significantly correlated with GFR while PRA could differentiate between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. Conclusions: Ultrasound was neither uniformly useful in diagnosing PUV antenatally, nor differentiating it from cases with non-PUV hydronephrosis. In congenital hydronephrosis, cord blood PRA was significantly higher in cases with PUV compared to non-PUV cases and fell significantly after valve ablation. Cord blood PRA could distinguish between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV.

  19. A paisagem urbana como herança cultural: a praça Santos Dumont, Umuarama, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = The urban landscape as a cultural heritage: Santos Dumont plaza, Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fabbri Hulsmeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A paisagem urbana possui uma forte conotação histórica, e pode ser considerada uma herança cultural. Neste contexto, os espaços livres públicos podem converter-se em registros importantes, fortalecendo tradições, valores e identidades. Nos quatro principais núcleosurbanos projetados pela Companhia de Terras do Norte do Paraná CTNP, e denominada Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná CMNP após 1942, as praças exercem o papel de elementos ordenadores na configuração dos centros cívico, religioso e comercial, demonstrando a íntima relação entre os espaços livres públicos e seu entorno. Esta pesquisa1 teve o objetivo de analisar, a partir da pesquisa dos registros fotográficos, jornais de época e bibliografia referente àsraízes conceituais do traçado morfológico da cidade e seu contexto histórico, a Praça Santos Dumont, maior praça e palco de importantes momentos da história da jovem cidade de Umuarama, Estado do Paraná.The urban landscape has strong historical meaning because it can be considered as cultural heritage. In this context, public open spaces are important registries, reinforcing traditions, values and identities. In the four main cities projected by the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná (CMNP, the squares and plazas carry out the task of ordination elements for the configuration of the civic, religious and commercial centers, reinforcing the close relation between public open spaces and their surroundings. This research was done under the Scientific Initiation Program of Universidade Paranaense, and is about Santos Dumont Plaza, the biggest one that supported important historical moments of earlyUmuarama, in northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The analysis was based on the research of photographic registries, newspapers, and the publications about the conceptual roots of the urban morphology of the city and its historical context.

  20. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

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    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  1. Toxocara spp. eggs in public squares of Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil Ovos de Toxocara spp. em praças públicas no município de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva COELHO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, particularly important is the size of these animal populations. Sorocaba is a city with a dog population twice as large as that recommended by the World Health Organization. This fact has led to a survey of the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public square soils of this city. Thirty squares were selected, fifteen located in the outskirts of the city and fifteen downtown. Soil samples were collected from five distinct sites in the same area. The material was homogenized and drained and 100 g was mixed with a saturated solution of magnesium sulfate and 5% potassium iodine. The floating material was analyzed under the light microscope. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 16 squares, nine of which were located in the outskirts of the city and seven downtown. It was concluded that Sorocaba squares present a high rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs. The squares in the outskirts of the city presented a higher occurrence of these eggs in comparison with those downtown, although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05.A larva migrans visceral - LMV - é uma síndrome causada pela infecção humana por ovos larvados de helmintos como o Toxocara spp., que usualmente compromete o cão e o gato. Dentre os fatores de risco para a ocorrência da LMV, destaca-se o tamanho da população desses animais. Sorocaba é uma cidade com uma população canina duas vezes superior à recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Este fato levou à pesquisa da presença de ovos de Toxocara spp. no solo de áreas públicas nessa cidade. Foram escolhidas 30 praças, sendo 15 de regiões periféricas e 15 centrais. Coletaram-se amostras de solo de 5 locais distintos da mesma área. O material foi homogeneizado, tamisado e, em

  2. Caracterização florística e ecológica da arborização de praças públicas do município de Guarapuava, PR

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    João Alberto Kramer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar o levantamento florístico e avaliar algumas características ecológicas das principais praças públicas do Município de Guarapuava, região centro-sul do Estado do Paraná. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de janeiro de 2007 a março de 2009. Foram identificadas 98 espécies, distribuídas em 43 famílias. A abundância mensurada foi de 1.143 indivíduos. A espécie mais bem distribuída foi Tipuana tipu, enquanto as mais abundantes, Grevillea robusta e Platanus acerifolia. Com relação à origem, a maioria das espécies, tanto em riqueza quanto em abundância, é exótica. Os valores de riqueza, abundância, H' e equidade foram relativamente altos, enquanto que os de dominância e similaridade, foram baixos. Apesar do alto valor de riqueza e diversidade, a alta frequência de poucas espécies e o baixo número de indivíduos por área amostrada têm colocado as praças públicas da área avaliada em condições ecológicas ainda longe das ideais. O alto número de espécies exóticas reflete, ainda, a falta de interesse na conservação da flora regional.

  3. Measuring Effects of Reflection on Learning – A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen; Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of pra

  4. Measuring Effects of Reflectionon Learning: A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of pra

  5. Can professors be socialized in good teaching practices? The case of the Project Visibilidad Socialización Docente de Profesores Universitarios Españoles con Buenas Prácticas Docentes Podem os Professores socializar-se em boas práticas de ensino? O caso do Projeto Visibilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muradás López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the socialization to teaching experience of faculty who participated in the project Visibilidad. The main objective of this project was to obtain knowledge related to teaching from faculty who are considered good teachers in Spanish universities. This knowledge could enlighten how the socialization to teaching occurs as well as insights on how to improve the process. Based on the international literature on socialization to teaching in higher education and using a methodology of generating themes inductively, the experiences of faculty at the beginning of their careers were analyzed. The data was collected using semi-structured interviews. We found that role models of socialization, self-reflection and formal socialization are the most common experiences reported by participants. This suggests that reinforcing these elements deliberately at an institutional level, it is possible to improve the socialization process of new faculty in higher education as well as their teaching practices. El propósito de este estudio es el análisis de la experiencia de socialización docente vivida por los profesores participantes en el proyecto Visibilidad, cuyo objetivo principal fue la extracción del conocimiento experto de docentes señalados como buenos profesores en universidades españolas. El conocimiento experto de estos docentes puede dar luz a cómo hasta ahora se ha producido la socialización docente y pistas de cómo mejorar este proceso. Con base en la literatura internacional sobre socialización en Educación Superior y siguiendo un modelo inductivo de generación de categorías, se analizaron las vivencias en el inicio de la carrera docente de profesores universitarios. Los datos fueron obtenidos de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se encontró que los modelos de referencia de socialización, la reflexión autodidacta por parte de los profesores, y su formación son los tópicos con ma

  6. Reduced uncertainty of regional scale CLM predictions of net carbon fluxes and leaf area indices with estimated plant-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Baatz, Roland; Montzka, Carsten; Schmidt, Marius; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of carbon fluxes and states at regional scales are required to reduce uncertainties in regional carbon balance estimates and to support decision making in environmental politics. In this work the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) was applied at a high spatial resolution (1 km2) for the Rur catchment in western Germany. In order to improve the model-data consistency of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI) for this study area, five plant functional type (PFT)-specific CLM4.5-BGC parameters were estimated with time series of half-hourly NEE data for one year in 2011/2012, using the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The parameters were estimated separately for four different plant functional types (needleleaf evergreen temperate tree, broadleaf deciduous temperate tree, C3-grass and C3-crop) at four different sites. The four sites are located inside or close to the Rur catchment. We evaluated modeled NEE for one year in 2012/2013 with NEE measured at seven eddy covariance sites in the catchment, including the four parameter estimation sites. Modeled LAI was evaluated by means of LAI derived from remotely sensed RapidEye images of about 18 days in 2011/2012. Performance indices were based on a comparison between measurements and (i) a reference run with CLM default parameters, and (ii) a 60 instance CLM ensemble with parameters sampled from the DREAM posterior probability density functions (pdfs). The difference between the observed and simulated NEE sum reduced 23% if estimated parameters instead of default parameters were used as input. The mean absolute difference between modeled and measured LAI was reduced by 59% on average. Simulated LAI was not only improved in terms of the absolute value but in some cases also in terms of the timing (beginning of vegetation onset), which was directly related to a substantial improvement of the NEE estimates in

  7. Differences in treatment approach between Dutch paediatric dentists and general practitioners, a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, D.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This case control study was to assess whether paediatric dentists perform significantly more diagnostic, preventive and curative care in a clinical setting then do general dental practitioners. METHODS: 16 paediatric dentists were approached and a matching control group of 16 general dental pra

  8. 75 FR 33324 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-NEW, Study of Sharing To Assess Community Resilience...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Federal Register notice (75 FR 1648) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval. The... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010--NEW, Study of Sharing To Assess... collection (1010--NEW). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), we are...

  9. Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection for $\\Pra\\ \\simeq 0.8$ and $4\\times 10^{11} \\alt \\Ra\\ \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$: Ultimate-state transition for aspect ratio $\\Gamma = 1.00$

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiaozhou; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental results for heat-transport measurements by turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio $\\Gamma \\equiv D/L = 1.00$ ($D = 1.12$ m is the diameter and $L = 1.12$ m the height). They are for the Rayleigh-number range $4\\times10^{11} \\alt \\Ra \\alt 2\\times10^{14}$ and for Prandtl numbers \\Pra\\ between 0.79 and 0.86. For $\\Ra \\Ra_1^*$ the data rise above the classical-state power-law and show greater scatter. In analogy to similar behavior observed for $\\Gamma = 0.50$, we interpret this observation as the onset of the transition to the ultimate state. Within our resolution this onset occurs at nearly the same value of $\\Ra_1^*$ as it does for $\\Gamma = 0.50$. This differs from an earlier estimate by Roche {\\it et al.} which yielded a transition at $\\Ra_U \\simeq 1.3\\times 10^{11} \\Gamma^{-2.5\\pm 0.5}$. A $\\Gamma$-independent $\\Ra^*_1$ would suggest that the boundary-layer shear transition is induced by fluctuations on a scale less than the sample dimensions r...

  10. Percepção ambiental sobre as mudanças climáticas globais numa praça pública na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil

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    Alexandre de Gusmão Pedrini

    Full Text Available Resumo: O entendimento do público sobre a problemática das Mudanças Climáticas Globais (MCGs é pouco conhecido no Brasil. O entendimento obtido nessa pesquisa foi pela Percepção Ambiental Pública (PAP de visitantes ao evento "Desapegue-se" ocorrido na Praça Edmundo Rego na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Um questionário foi aplicado aleatoriamente para o estudo dos conceitos-chaves: a Meio Ambiente (MA; b Ambiente Marinho (AM; c Educação Ambiental (EA; d Mudanças Climáticas Globais (MCGs; e Aquecimento Global (AG. Os resultados referem-se a dados coletados entre abril e julho de 2014. Foram 82 visitantes, sendo mulheres a maioria (66%, com nível superior (40% e faixa salarial predominante de 2-5 salários mínimos. A maioria (entre 70 e 80% percebe adequadamente as MCGs, o AG, o MA e o AM. A EA é percebida apenas como mudança comportamental por 59% do grupo de visitantes. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que esse público teria informação básica conceitual adequada. Cabe às escolas papel preponderante na apresentação e debate das MCGs.

  11. Desiccation and zinc binding induce transition of tomato abscisic acid stress ripening 1, a water stress- and salt stress-regulated plant-specific protein, from unfolded to folded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgur, Yehuda; Rom, Slava; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Shkolnik, Doron; Shadrin, Natalia; Konrad, Zvia; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2007-02-01

    Abscisic acid stress ripening 1 (ASR1) is a low molecular weight plant-specific protein encoded by an abiotic stress-regulated gene. Overexpression of ASR1 in transgenic plants increases their salt tolerance. The ASR1 protein possesses a zinc-dependent DNA-binding activity. The DNA-binding site was mapped to the central part of the polypeptide using truncated forms of the protein. Two additional zinc-binding sites were shown to be localized at the amino terminus of the polypeptide. ASR1 protein is presumed to be an intrinsically unstructured protein using a number of prediction algorithms. The degree of order of ASR1 was determined experimentally using nontagged recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Purified ASR1 was shown to be unfolded using dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, microcalorimetry, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The protein was shown to be monomeric by analytical ultracentrifugation. Addition of zinc ions resulted in a global change in ASR1 structure from monomer to homodimer. Upon binding of zinc ions, the protein becomes ordered as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and microcalorimetry, concomitant with dimerization. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf soluble ASR1 is unstructured in the absence of added zinc and gains structure upon binding of the metal ion. The effect of zinc binding on ASR1 folding and dimerization is discussed.

  12. A construção imagético-imaginária do não-lugar do desejo em VOU-ME EMBORA PRA PASÁRGADA de Manuel Bandeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Rios Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A transitoriedade das referências ainda não nos parece ter tirado a necessidade da poesia diante da caótica teia de significação do bombardeamento de informação diária. Tudo é muito novo e torna-se obsoleto com uma velocidade aterradora. Nesse contexto, trazer à tona uma leitura imagético-imaginária de um poema tão aclamado de Manuel Bandeira parece ser a contracorrente que nos apregoa à retomada de um referencial, contudo apreciando-o a partir de outro ponto axiológico: o não-lugar do desejo. Com efeito, procuramos discutir aqui a construção das imagens que compõem o espaço de Pasárgada em “Vou-me embora pra Pasárgada” de Bandeira, tendo como princípio analítico a desconstrução do arquétipo do paraíso cristão para a construção do lugar imaginário. Como referencial teórico, partiremos da fenomenologia de Gaston Bachelard em A poética do Espaço (1978, da construção do imaginário a partir das discussões filosóficas de Jean Paul Sartre em O imaginário (1996 e das considerações do antropólogo Marc Augé sobre a significação dos Não-lugares (1996.

  13. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  14. Peran Orang Tua Pada Remaja Yang Berperilaku Seks Pra-Nikah Remaja Di Dusun VIII Desa Bandar Klippa Kecamatan Percut Sei Tuan Kabupaten Deli Serdang Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Sagala, Justriana Feriaty

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abuse in the adolescent is increase. This condition is influenced by the advanced technology, misinterpretation of sex that causes the adolescent do the pre-marital sex behavior. In this sense, the parents has an important role in build the character and knowledge of adolescent. This research aims to study the influence of the role of parents to the adolescent with the premarital sex behavior at Dusun VIII Desa Bandar Klippa sub-district of Percut Sei Tuan regency of ...

  15. Uji Biologis Konsumsi Pakan, Populasi Bakteri Rumen dan pH Pellet Complete Calf Starter pada Pedet Friesian Holstein Pra Sapih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maharani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Biological test feed intake, population rumen bacteria and ph pellet complete calf starter friesian holstein on pre weaning calf  ABSTRACT. The study aims to assess the quality of the formula Complete Calf Starter (CCS with 5% molasses instead of milk to the development of rumen microbial calf Holstein Friesian (HF pre-weaning. The material used is 20 head calf FH pre weaning age of 2 weeks. Feed intake data taken from 20 respondents consisted of 16 females and 4 calf tail male calf. Data rumen bacterial populations and pH were taken from 5 head of cattle slaughtered at the age of 2 weeks (one tail, 4 weeks (2-tailed and 6 weeks (2-tailed. The study was designed as a descriptive non-parametric. Parameters measured were rumen bacterial populations, pH and feed intake. The results showed the average consumption of dry matter (DM and CCS calf milk FH ages 2, 4, 6 weeks respectively at 506, 517, 528 grams. Rumen bacterial populations in calves aged 2, 4, and 6 weeks of 80x106, 45x106 and 19x106 kol/m. ruminal pH in calves aged 2, 4 and 6 weeks was 5.71, 5.36 and 5.55. Biological test showed that the use of complete calf starter (CCS in the form of pellets FH calves at the age of 2 weeks to stimulate the development of the rumen (feed intake, the population of bacteria and pH but not in calves aged 4 and 6 weeks. This is because the number of bacterial populations declined due to impaired absorption is impaired absorption of VFA marked low rumen pH.

  16. Risk factors for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli on pig farms : A longitudinal study in the context of reduced use of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, Wietske; Dorado-García, Alejandro; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Mevius, Dik; Heederik, Dick J J

    2017-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) in food animals is a public health concern. This study aimed to determine prevalence of ESBL-E. coli on pig farms and to assess the effect of reducing veterinary antimicrobial use (AMU) and farm management pra

  17. Bioremediation system on-line for removal radionuclides in radioactive waters; Sistema de biorremediation on-line pra la eliminacion de radionuclidos en aguas radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J. A.; Garcia, A. M.; Ruibal, C.; Moreno, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    In previous studies developed in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Valencia, Spain), has been observed that the microorganisms in the radioactive waters of the spent nuclear fuel pool are capable of colonizing the metallic surfaces of the walls and pipes and perform biofilm. These biofilm retain the nuclides contributing to decontaminate the water. In this project, carried out in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, a pilot plant has been designed for the bio decontamination of the radioactive water. At present, the radioactive water coming from the spent nuclear fuel pools, pass through ionic exchange resins. After, these resins are managed as radioactive waste. In this project, the water passes through a bioreactor with stainless steel balls capable of being colonized by the microorganisms in the water. Inside the bioreactor the water gets in contact with the material of the balls, and a biofilm, which retains the nuclides in the water, is developed. The biofilm is easily removed by any conventional procedure of radiochemical decontamination of materials and the nuclides can be collected in a small volume for recovery final disposition or containment. Later, the material of the bioreactor could be managed as not radioactive material. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Proximate composition and functional properties of pra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... The water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foaming ... the chemical constituents except for the presence of hydrocyanic ... reported for hazelnut (14%), pecan (9%) and walnut (6%) but lower than ...

  19. Overview of NRC PRA research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, M.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The NRC`s research program in probabilistic risk analysis includes a set of closely-related elements, from basic research to regulatory applications. The elements of this program are as follows: (1) Development and demonstration of methods and advanced models and tools for use by the NRC staff and others performing risk assessments; (2) Support to agency staff on risk analysis and statistics issues; (3) Reviews of risk assessments submitted by licensees in support of regulatory applications, including the IPEs and IPEEEs. Each of these elements is discussed in the paper, providing highlights of work within an element, and, where appropriate, describing important support and feedback mechanisms among elements.

  20. Inactivation of the β(1,2)-xylosyltransferase and the α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 Cells by a Multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 Strategy Results in Glycoproteins without Plant-Specific Glycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercx, Sébastien; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Chaumont, François; De Pauw, Edwin; Boutry, Marc; Navarre, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Plants or plant cells can be used to produce pharmacological glycoproteins such as antibodies or vaccines. However these proteins carry N-glycans with plant-typical residues [β(1,2)-xylose and core α(1,3)-fucose], which can greatly impact the immunogenicity, allergenicity, or activity of the protein. Two enzymes are responsible for the addition of plant-specific glycans: β(1,2)-xylosyltransferase (XylT) and α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase (FucT). Our aim consisted of knocking-out two XylT genes and four FucT genes (12 alleles altogether) in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Three XylT and six FucT sgRNAs were designed to target conserved regions. After transformation of N. tabacum BY-2 cells with genes coding for sgRNAs, Cas9, and a selectable marker (bar), transgenic lines were obtained and their extracellular as well as intracellular protein complements were analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies recognizing β(1,2)-xylose and α(1,3)-fucose. Three lines showed a strong reduction of β(1,2)-xylose and α(1,3)-fucose, while two lines were completely devoid of them, indicating complete gene inactivation. The absence of these carbohydrates was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of the extracellular proteins. PCR amplification and sequencing of the targeted region indicated small INDEL and/or deletions between the target sites. The KO lines did not show any particular morphology and grew as the wild-type. One KO line was transformed with genes encoding a human IgG2 antibody. The IgG2 expression level was as high as in a control transformant which had not been glycoengineered. The IgG glycosylation profile determined by mass spectrometry confirmed that no β(1,2)-xylose or α(1,3)-fucose were present on the glycosylation moiety and that the dominant glycoform was the GnGn structure. These data represent an important step toward humanizing the glycosylation of pharmacological proteins expressed in N. tabacum BY-2 cells. PMID:28396675

  1. A dominant mutation in mediator of paramutation2, one of three second-largest subunits of a plant-specific RNA polymerase, disrupts multiple siRNA silencing processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Sidorenko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Paramutation involves homologous sequence communication that leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing. We demonstrate that mop2 (mediator of paramutation2, which alters paramutation at multiple loci, encodes a gene similar to Arabidopsis NRPD2/E2, the second-largest subunit of plant-specific RNA polymerases IV and V. In Arabidopsis, Pol-IV and Pol-V play major roles in RNA-mediated silencing and a single second-largest subunit is shared between Pol-IV and Pol-V. Maize encodes three second-largest subunit genes: all three genes potentially encode full length proteins with highly conserved polymerase domains, and each are expressed in multiple overlapping tissues. The isolation of a recessive paramutation mutation in mop2 from a forward genetic screen suggests limited or no functional redundancy of these three genes. Potential alternative Pol-IV/Pol-V-like complexes could provide maize with a greater diversification of RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing machinery relative to Arabidopsis. Mop2-1 disrupts paramutation at multiple loci when heterozygous, whereas previously silenced alleles are only up-regulated when Mop2-1 is homozygous. The dramatic reduction in b1 tandem repeat siRNAs, but no disruption of silencing in Mop2-1 heterozygotes, suggests the major role for tandem repeat siRNAs is not to maintain silencing. Instead, we hypothesize the tandem repeat siRNAs mediate the establishment of the heritable silent state-a process fully disrupted in Mop2-1 heterozygotes. The dominant Mop2-1 mutation, which has a single nucleotide change in a domain highly conserved among all polymerases (E. coli to eukaryotes, disrupts both siRNA biogenesis (Pol-IV-like and potentially processes downstream (Pol-V-like. These results suggest either the wild-type protein is a subunit in both complexes or the dominant mutant protein disrupts both complexes. Dominant mutations in the same domain in E. coli RNA polymerase suggest a model for Mop2

  2. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  3. A STUDY ON THE MOST IMPORTANT SQUARES OF JABOTICABAL AND TAQUARITINGA (SP = ESTUDO SOBRE AS PRINCIPAIS PRAÇAS DE JABOTICABAL E TAQUARITINGA (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Squares and gardens have always impressed the human imagination. Theyimprove life quality and beautify the landscape in towns and cities. These open areas were crucial in the past and have their own history and memory which are not enough recalled nowadays. This work was a study of the main squares of two towns – Jaboticabal and Taquaritinga – in São Paulo State-Brazil, with the objective to verifywhat kinds of relations that had occurred between their inhabitants and these squares across the time. The results showed that, depending on the period, people used their squares and gardens in a different manner. It was found very little similarity in the way of interaction between these two town inhabitants with their respective squares. = As praças e os jardins sempre povoaram o imaginário humano. Dentro dascidades, melhoram a qualidade de vida e embelezam a paisagem. Muito importantes no passado, esses espaços verdes têm história e memória próprias, que são pouco lembradas atualmente. O presente trabalho estudou as principais praças de duas cidades do interior paulista – Jaboticabal e Taquaritinga – a fim de verificar que relações vêm ocorrendo entre os habitantes e essas praças no decorrer do tempo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, de acordo com a época, maneiras diferentes existem em como as pessoas usufruem das praças de suas cidades. Verificaram-se também poucas semelhanças entre jaboticabalenses e taquaritinguenses, no que diz respeito a como interagem com as suas praças.

  4. KESINAMBUNGAN MOTIF HIAS MASA PRA-ISLAM STUDI KASUS PADA MIMBAR MASJID KAJORAN THE CONTINUITY OF ORNAMENTAL MOTIVES IN PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD A CASE STUDY INTHE PODIUMOF KAJORAN MOSQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Widyastuti

    2016-06-01

    ABSTRAK             Masuknya agama Islam memberikan warna baru dalam bidang kesenian khususnya seni hias. Dalam agama Islam terdapat larangan untuk menggambar makhluk hidup sehingga dilakukan upaya untuk menyamarkannya. Pada mimbar masjid Kajoran terdapat hiasan dengan motif binatang dan tumbuh-tumbuhan. Berdasarkan pengamatan diketahui bahwa selain motif-motif geometris, pada mimbar tersebut juga terdapat motif-motif berupa gajah, naga, burung, dan bunga teratai. Kemungkinan makna motif-motif hias tersebut masih relevan dengan ajaran Islam. Hal ini menunjukkan besarnya toleransi agama Islam terhadap kebudayaan yang telah ada pada suatu daerah, selama tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran agama Islam.   Kata Kunci: mimbar, motif hias, masjid Kajoran

  5. DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joab Trajano Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

    Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis

  6. [Selective hypoaldosteronism with hyperkalemia. Clinical and physiopathological study of 22 cases with hypo- or hyperreninemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, G; Mazzanti, G; Fabiani, M G; Zulli, L; Parma, A

    1988-11-01

    Twenty-two patients with selective hypoaldosteronism (SH) were studied. In 18 of them decreased levels of plasma renin activity (PRA) were associated with the syndrome: 12 patients showed the idiopathic form of SH, while in 6, the syndrome was attributable to the administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. In the remaining 4 patients, the hypoaldosteronism was characterized by associated increased PRA levels but functional studies excluded a diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency. From a critical review of the literature and from the present observations it seems likely that SH is a syndrome with a heterogeneous pathogenesis. The possibility exists that the major alterations in potassium homeostasis that characterize the syndrome of SH, though mainly attributable to deficiency of aldosterone secretion may actually depend on the concurrence of underlying mechanisms, in particular on the presence of distal nephron dysfunctions.

  7. Photoionization of multishell fullerenes studied by ab initio and model approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    Photoionization of two buckyonions, C$_{60}$@C$_{240}$ and C$_{20}$@C$_{60}$, is investigated by means of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). The TDDFT-based photoabsorption spectrum of C$_{60}$@C$_{240}$, calculated in a broad photon energy range, resembles the sum of spectra of the two isolated fullerenes, thus illustrating the absence of strong plasmonic coupling between the fullerenes which was proposed earlier. The calculated spectrum of the smaller buckyonion, C$_{20}$@C$_{60}$, differs significantly from the sum of the cross sections of the individual fullerenes because of strong geometrical distortion of the system. The contribution of collective electron excitations arising in individual fullerenes is evaluated by means of plasmon resonance approximation (PRA). An extension of the PRA formalism is presented, which allows for the study of collective electron excitations in multishell fullerenes under photon impact. An advanced analysis of photoionization of buckyonions, performed using m...

  8. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Campos Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,7% de Strongyloides stercortalis, 4,2% tanto para ovos de Toxocara canis quanto de Trichuris vulpis, 2,5% para cistos de Endolimax nana, e 0,8% tanto para cistos de Giardia intestinalis quanto para os de Entamoeba coli.The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%, followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2% each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%, and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8% each.

  9. The Optimal Approach for Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy through Mono Port regarding Left or Right Sides: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseok Byon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown the feasibility and safety of both transperitoneal and posterior retroperitoneal approaches for single incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy, but none have compared the outcomes according to the left- or right-sided location of the adrenal glands. Materials and Methods. From 2009 to 2013, 89 patients who received LAMP (laparoscopic adrenalectomy through mono port were analyzed. The surgical outcomes attained using the transperitoneal approach (TPA and posterior retroperitoneal approach (PRA were analyzed and compared. Results and Discussion. On the right side, no significant differences were found between the LAMP-TPA and LAMP-PRA groups in terms of patient characteristics and clinicopathological data. However, outcomes differed in which LAMP-PRA group had a statistically significant shorter mean operative time (84.13 ± 41.47 min versus 116.84 ± 33.17 min; P=0.038, time of first oral intake (1.00 ± 0.00 days versus 1.21 ± 0.42 days; P=0.042, and length of hospitalization (2.17 ± 0.389 days versus 3.68 ± 1.38 days; P≤0.001, whereas in left-sided adrenalectomies LAMP-TPA had a statistically significant shorter mean operative time (83.85 ± 27.72 min versus 110.95 ± 29.31 min; P=0.002. Conclusions. We report that LAMP-PRA is more appropriate for right-sided laparoscopic adrenalectomies due to anatomical characteristics and better surgical outcomes. For left-sided laparoscopic adrenalectomies, however, we propose LAMP-TPA as a more suitable method.

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vehec, T.A.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Fort Calhoun was selected as the sixth plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Fort Calhoun plant.

  11. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Garner, L.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant.

  12. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant.

  13. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R C; Moffitt, N E; Gore, B F; Vo, T V; Vehec, T A [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant.

  14. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant.

  15. O processo de renovação das áreas centrais na cidade contemporânea: O caso do conjunto arquitetônico e paisagístico da Praça do Congresso, em Criciúma (SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rogério De Lucca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A expansão urbana desordenada no Brasil e a consolidação da cidade corporativa têm estimulado, com a conivência do Estado neoliberal, a propagação de modos de ocupação cada vez mais vinculados a interesses imobiliários imediatos. A ausência de planejamento urbano de caráter social é percebida principalmente nos médios e grandes centros urbanos, onde se registra um agressivo processo de renovação das áreas centrais, cada vez mais ousado, alterando inclusive, irreversivelmente, a paisagem de núcleos históricos. É o caso de setores da centralidade urbana de Criciúma/SC, cidade produzida sob influências econômicas da mineração de carvão e, posteriormente, por outras atividades industriais. É destaque o conjunto arquitetônico e paisagístico da Praça do Congresso, objeto de estudo deste artigo, formado a partir das primeiras décadas do século XX com residências em estilos variados, desde chalés com influências no Romantismo europeu a exemplares da arquitetura modernista. Juntas com a praça, configuravam um espaço de referência em qualidade de vida e importante para a preservação de vínculos identitários e de memória. Considera-se, no entanto, que as transformações mais recentes são parte de um quadro nacional de empobrecimento da urbanização e demonstram que a subserviência das políticas públicas a interesses econômicos imediatos tendem a desaparecer, em breve, com parte importante da diversidade dos conjuntos históricos brasileiros.

  16. A literatura infanto-juvenil como “suporte” na formação didática de professores de língua materna: uma reflexão teórico-metodológica a partir do texto de Elias José, em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo é chamar a atenção dos docentes que trabalham na formação de professores delíngua materna, notadamente nos cursos de pedagogia e letras, para a função didática da literatura infantojuvenil.Em Uma escola assim, eu quero pra mim, publicada em 1997. Elias José, formado em letras epedagogia, aborda problemas e soluções de caráter sociolinguístico que podem ocorrer no contexto da salade aula. Ele conta a trajetória escolar de um menino que falava diferente por ser da zona rural e que, graçasa uma professora cheia de criatividade e intuição pedagógica, consegue transformar o inferno em que elevivia na escola, inicialmente, com uma professora bastante repressora e cheia de preconceito, numverdadeiro paraíso em que estudar era algo prazeroso, lúdico e transformador.

  17. A study of temperature effect on the activity of plasma angiotensinⅡ and renin%温度对血管紧张素Ⅱ及肾素活性结果影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚一帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the concentration changes of plasma angiotensinⅡ(AⅡ) and renin activity (PRA) in different temperature conditions. Methods Ninety blood samples were collected from 30 patients and divided into 3 groups. In the first group, the procedure followed the handling protocol provided by the manufacturers for the AⅡand PRA kits precisely. The other two groups kept at room temperature and 40C for 2 hours respectively, and then processed samples by the handling protocol the first group followed. In addition, other 20 specimens were separately stored for 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days at 4°C and -20°C to evalu-ate the stability of AⅡand PRA. Results When blood samples were kept at room temperature for 2 hours, the PRA and AⅡde-creased significantly (P0.05),在4℃环境中,AⅡ与PRA前3天结果没有显著性差异,P>0.05。3天到14天有显著性差异,P0.05。 PRA在7天内的结果无统计学差异,P>0.05。而7天到14天有显著性差异,P<0.05。结论 AⅡ和PRA对温度敏感,室温放置能使其结果偏低,而在低温环境中能够保持结果稳定。建议AⅡ和PRA标本的运送与预处理都应该在低温中进行,并制定详细的操作规程确保在日常工作中流程的可靠。

  18. Criteria of quality in radio guided surgery for detection and removal of sentinel node in non-palpable lesions; Criterios de calidad en cirugia radioguiada pra deteccion y extirpacion de ganclio centinela en lesiones no palpables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, D.; Esteve, S.; Sanchez, K.; Rodriguez, P.; Barquero, R.; Ferrer, N.; Arranz, L.

    2013-07-01

    The first objective of this study is to carry out a theoretical study of the dose absorbed in the breast, comparing different types of source used, and according to location of the same. On the other hand, for the location of these nodes, or tumors in the operating room, can be used as well as portable gamma-cameras, intraoperative sensor probes of gamma radiation, facilitating the work the surgeon. Currently there is no protocol at national level describing quality control tests to be carried out on these computers. The second objective of the study is to collect a series of tests that enable to verify the correct operation of an intraoperative probe. These tests are classified according to their frequency, specialist, and test type, and allow you to check if the effectiveness of the operation of the probe is provided in your acquisition. Among the parameters that let you check the performance specifications are sensitivity, angular resolution and spatial resolution. (Author)

  19. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SKY FRUIT (Swietenia macrophylla SEED OIL [Pengaruh Pra-perlakuan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Antioksidan Minyak Biji Buah Tunjuk Langit (Swietenia macrophylla

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    Hayati Mohd Yusof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatments on chemical and antioxidant properties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrohylla seed oil. The seeds were treated with different heat pretreatments (roasting, steaming, and microwaving and subsequently subjected to oil extraction by using a Bligh and Dyer method. It was found that different pretreatments significantly (p<0.05 affected yield and peroxide value of the extracted oils. However, no significant effect of pretreatment was observed on free fatty acid content of the seed oils. The oils exhibited significantly different levels of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity due to different heat pretreatments. The results revealed that the mean percentages of DPPH scavenging activity of untreated (control seed oil (87.69% and steamed seed oil (83.40% were significantly higher than those of roasted seed oil (75.71% as well as the microwaved one (63.98%. In contrast, the pretreatments did not significantly affect total phenolic content (TPC of the seed oils with the TPC mean values ranging from 0.016 to 0.022 mg/g (as gallic acid. Data gained from this study provided valuable information for edible oil industries in searching for alternative source of edible oil with medicinal benefits.

  20. A configuração da via pública interferindo na apreensão da praça: o caso de conjuntos habitacionais em Teresina

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    Wilza Gomes Reis Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Commerce and spaces of leisure already had been together for much time, in the Average Age the market assumed the role that today fits to the square of collective space of leisure. Today the market acquires the consumption function eminently, more is not lived deeply the environment and the people. The incessant search for the profit, or same for the survival, moves our society and each place that can potentially relieve money is explored to the maximum. Located houses next to moving streets are changedded quickly into commercial points, modifying the configuration of a space created for housing in commerce environment. But these ways are not populated only by private establishments, them also present public spaces, that suffer the consequences of these alterations. The present work presents a study of three squares located in the habitacionais sets Itararé, Piauí Park and Promorar Park, in the city of Teresina, Piauí, observing as the changes in the original function of the streets of entorno, that they had been projected, initially, as surrounding residential, have modified the performance of the public spaces.

  1. "É melhor pra você!": normatização social da infância e da família no Brasil "It will be in your favor!": social regulation of childhood and family in Brazil

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    Nelson Gomes de Sant'Ana e Silva Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa os discursos/práticas especialistas, em funcionamento desde fins do século XIX, como mecanismos de normatização de valores e comportamentos da infância/família brasileira. Utilizou-se a abordagem genealógica para pesquisar conteúdos veiculados nos Arquivos Brasileiros de Higiene Mental. Objetivou-se promover visibilidade de especialistas do conhecimento, fomentando uma desnaturalização de práticas/saberes considerados verdades universais. Identificaram-se fundamentos políticos, ideológicos e morais que sustentam discursos/práticas contemporâneos supostamente neutros e, frequentemente, acrescidos de assistencialismo e/ou militância. Aponta-se para necessidade de reavaliações das implicações políticas, éticas e sociais presentes tanto na formação como nas práticas psi.This report analyzes specialist speeches/practices which have acted as mechanisms for Brazilian children/families since the end of the 19 century. A genealogic approach was used to carry out a study on the contents published in the Brazilian Mental Hygiene Archives. It also aims at enhancing the experts of the knowledge which make unnatural practices/opinions considered as universal truths. This analysis has identified political, ideological and moral bases supporting contemporaneous speeches/practices disguised as neutrality, which are often increased by "assistentialism" and/or militancy. It shows the need for revaluation of political and social consequences in the graduation and in the psychology practice.

  2. Impressões dos transeuntes da Praça do Geraldo sobre os Enfermeiros Impresiones de los transeúntes de la Plaza de Geraldo acerca de los enfermeros Geraldo Square transients Perceptions about Nurses

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    Maria Margarida Santana Fialho Sim-Sim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório que em abordagem de rua, recolhe em 412 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com idades entre os 16 e 96 anos, em enunciado aberto de termos, as impressões que possuem relativamente aos enfermeiros. A amostra é de conveniência. Identificam-se maioritariamente impressões positivas através dos atributos enunciados, predominando a simpatia, valorizando-se as dimensões de desempenho profissional e contacto social positivo. Na imagem desejada salienta-se o contacto social e a interacção inclusiva. Os jovens são o grupo que mais enuncia impressões negativas. Observa-se uma tendência dos mais idosos para valorizar traços de contacto social positivo com os enfermeiros.Estudio de exploración que se centró en las calles, aplicado a 412 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 16 a 96 años de edad, con declaración de términos en abierto, sobre las impresiones que tienen acerca de los enfermeros. La muestra se ha obtenido en horarios variados. Se identifican impresiones positivas en su mayoría a través de los atributos enumerados, en las que predomina la amabilidad, se valoran las dimensiones de actuación profesional y las relaciones sociales positivas. En la imagen deseada se subraya el contacto social y la interacción inclusiva. Los jóvenes forman parte del grupo que enuncia en su mayoría las impresiones negativas. Se observa una tendencia de las personas mayores para valorar rasgos de contacto social positivo con los enfermeros.This study has an exploratory nature, and 412 individuals of both sexes, with ages between 16 and 96, were approached at the street and asked to give their impressions of nurses. This is a convenience sample. Most of the opinions are positive; the qualities expressed include kindness, and the fields predominantly rated are work efficiency and positive social contact. Social contact and inclusive interaction are the two key-characteristics of a good nurse. Younger people have the largest number of negative

  3. STATUS GIZI IBU SEBELUM HAMIL SEBAGAI PREDIKSI BERAT DAN PANJANG BAYI LAHIR DI KECAMATAN BOGOR TENGAH, KOTA BOGOR: STUDI KOHOR PROSPEKTIF TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK TAHUN 2012 - 2013

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    Anies Irawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWeight and length at birth are the good indicators to evaluate the possibility of survival, growth, and chronic disease as adults. This analysis aims to assess the effect of maternal nutritional status as pre-pregnant and pregnant on birth weight and length of infants at risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The design of this study was a prospective cohort, starting from pre pregnancy, during pregnancy until infant birth. Data analysis used multiple logistic regression. The result showed that 6 percent of infants birth weight <2500 g and 26.4 percent of infants birth weight to chronic disease risk (<3000 g. Approximately 30.1 percent of infants stunted at birth (<48 cm and 62.6 percent infants at birth length <50 cm (standard WHO 2006. Mean of height pre-pregnancy is 151.9±5.6 cm and mean of body mass index (BMI pre-pregnancy is 20.6±3.1 kg/m2. Maternal BMI pre-pregnancy is a major risk factor for birth weight infants < 3000 g after controlled by maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal age, parity, diarrhea, energy and protein intake and sex of the baby. Maternal height is a major risk factor for infant birth length (<50 cm after controlled by pre-pregnant maternal BMI, maternal age, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, diarrhea, energy and protein intake. Conclusions, maternal nutritional status is a risk factor for pre-pregnant weight and birth length.Keywords: infant, birth weight, body mass index, length, maternalABSTRAKBerat dan panjang saat lahir merupakan indikator yang baik untuk melihat kemungkinan kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan, dan penyakit kronis ketika dewasa. Analisis ini bertujuan menilai pengaruh status gizi ibu ketika pra hamil dan hamil terhadap berat dan panjang bayi lahir yang berisiko pada penyakit kronis ketika dewasa. Disain penelitian adalah kohor prospektif sejak ibu pra hamil sampai bayi lahir. Studi kohor ini dimulai sejak tahun 2012 dan direncanakan berlanjut sampai tahun 2030. Data yang

  4. Pra Desain Pabrik Dimethyl Ether (DME dari Gas Alam

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    Ajeng Puspitasari Yudiputri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan data PT Pertamina (Persero, total konsumsi LPG 2008 mencapai 1,85 juta ton dan 600.000 ton di antaranya untuk program konversi. Pada 2009 kebutuhan LPG akan meningkat menjadi 3,67 juta ton dan 2 juta ton di antaranya untuk program konversi sampai akhir tahun. Namun, sumber pasokan LPG dari dalam negeri diperkirakan tidak akan beranjak dari angka 1,8 juta ton per tahun dalam beberapa tahun mendatang. Sehingga, Indonesia harus menutup kebutuhan dengan mengimpor LPG dalam jumlah cukup besar. Maka dari itu dibutuhkan bahan bakar gas lain yang mampu mengatasi permasalahan yang ditimbulkan tersebut. Dimethyl Ether (DME merupakan senyawa ether yang paling sederhana dengan rumus kimia CH3OCH3. Produksi DME dapat dihasilkan melalui sintesis gas alam. DME berbentuk gas yang tidak berwarna pada suhu ambien, zat kimia yang stabil, dengan titik didih -25,1oC. Tekanan uap DME sekitar 0,6 Mpa pada 25oC dan dapat dicairkan seperti halnya LPG. Viskositas DME 0,12-0,15 kg/ms, setara dengan viskositas propana dan butane (konstituen utama LPG, sehingga infrastruktur untuk LPG dapat juga digunakan untuk DME. Berdasarkan data Departemen ESDM pada Januari 2012, total cadangan gas alam Indonesia tercatat mencapai 150,70 Trillion Square Cubic Feet (TSCF. Berdasarkan jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 103,35 TSCF merupakan gas alam terbukti, sementara 47,35 TSCF sisanya masih belum terbukti. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa senyawa DME merupakan senyawa yang sesuai untuk bahan substitusi LPG. Dan ditinjau dari analisa ekonomi, didapatkan besar Investasi : $ 636,447,074.69 ; Internal Rate of Return\t: 20.51%; POT: 4.13 tahun; BEP : 37.36 %; dan NPV 10 year : $ 518,848,692. Dari ketiga parameter sensitifitas yaitu fluktuasi biaya investasi, harga bahan baku, dan harga jual dari produk, terlihat bahwa ketiganya tidak memberikan pengaruh yang cukup signifikan terhadap kenaikan atau penurunan nilai IRR pabrik. Sehingga pabrik DME dari Gas Alam ini layak untuk didirikan.

  5. PRA PERANCANGAN KAPAL PARIWISATA DI GREEN CANYON PANGANDARAN

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    Parlindungan Manik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kapal yang akan dirancang sebagai pengembangan pariwisata di objek wisata Green Canyon dan daerah sungai Cijulang harus memperhitungkan ukuran utama, rencana garis, rencana umum, analisa hidrostatik, stabilitas kapal dan analisis olah gerak kapal, serta pemilihan peralatan penyelamatan dan motor induk berdasarkan hasil perhitungan daya motor sesuai dengan hambatan yang dialami kapal, sehingga sarana pariwisata yang dirancang memiliki image yang baik karena sangat mengutamakan faktor keamanan dan kenyamanan penumpang. Metode perancangan kapal pariwisata ini menggunakan kapal pembanding sebagai acuannya, dengan lambung kapal berbentuk katamaran, agar menambah kesan keselamatan, keamanan dan kenyamanan penumpang. Setelah ukuran utama didapatkan maka analisa kelayakan lambung bisa didapatkan dari software pendukung perancangan kapal. Ukuran utama yang dihasilkan dari perhitungan adalah Lwl: 9,50 m, B: 4,00 m, T: 0,6 m, H: 1,5 m. Kapal pariwisata ini menggunakan dua buah tenaga penggerak berupa diesel outboard motors dengan daya yang dihasilkan sebesar 20 HP. Pada tinjauan stabilitas, hasil menunjukkan nilai GZ terbesar dan periode oleng tercepat terjadi pada saat kapal standby. Pada tinjauan olah gerak kapal pariwisata ini memiliki olah gerak yang baik terbukti tidak terjadi deck weaknes. Kemudian pada hasil gambar rencana umum, kapal memiliki space yang cukup untuk menampung penumpang lebih banyak, menata peralatan keselamatan, peralatan komunikasi dan navigasi

  6. Pra Desain Pabrik Sorbitol dari Tepung Tapioka dengan Hidrogenasi Katalitik

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    Hellen Kartika Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol yang dikenal juga sebagai glusitol, adalah suatu gula alkohol yang dimetabolisme lambat di dalam tubuh. Sorbitol banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku untuk industri barang konsumsi dan makanan seperti pasta gigi, permen, kosmetika, farmasi, vitamin C, termasuk industri tekstil dan kulit. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku tepung tapioka. Pabrik sorbitol ini direncanakan akan didirikan di Propinsi Jawa Tengah tepatnya di Kabupaten Batang dengan kapasitas produksi 30.000 ton/tahun. Proses produksi Sorbitol menggunakan proses hidrogenasi katalitik. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku pati melalui dua tahap proses utama yaitu proses perubahan starch menjadi glukosa melalui hidrolisa double enzym. Enzim yang digunakan yaitu α-amylase dan glukoamylase. Proses hidrogenasi katalitik dilakukan dengan mereaksikan larutan dekstrose dan gas hidrogen bertekanan tinggi dengan menambahkan katalis nikel dalam reaktor (Reaktor Hidrogenasi. Gas hidrogen masuk dari bawah reaktor secara bubbling dan larutan dekstrose diumpankan dari atas reaktor sehingga kontak yang terjadi semakin baik. Sorbitol yang di hasilkan dalam pradesain pabrik sorbitol ini dengan konsentrasi 58,2%. Pendirian pabrik sorbitol memerlukan biaya investasi modal tetap (fixed capital sebesar Rp 168.801.192.952, modal kerja (working capital  Rp 29.788.445.815, investasi total Rp 198.589.638.767, Biaya produksi per tahun Rp 368.832.813.809 dan  hasil penjualan per tahun Rp 540.000.078.750. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 26,32%. ROI sesudah pajak 48,5 %, POT sesudah pajak 2,14 tahun. Dari segi teknis dan ekonomis, pabrik ini layak untuk didirikan.

  7. Sistem Penunjang Keputusan Pra Rancang Bangun Industri Intermediate Minyak Pala

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    Muhamad Malik Gunawan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A lot of industries such as pharmacy, food industry, cosmetics industries use nurmeg oil for their products. Demand of nutmeg oil is very high its abaut 3-4% every year. Indonesia can export nutmeg oil up to 75 % world demands. Nutmeg oil which was expoted by Indonesia was crude nutmeg oil how ever some times have inconsistency quality. In order to produce nutmeg oil with better quality, nutmeg oil intermediate industry is needed. Decision support system is used to suggest the most potential process based on expert opinions. Methodology used was system approach and it was support with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Exponencial Comparison Method (MPE and financial feasibility analysis. The system was named SPKIMPA. This system consist four models there are selection model, election model, Institution model and financial feasibility model. From verification result it was know that the most potential process was fractionation. The intermediate industry is feasible to run with Net Present Value (NPV value Rp 426.627.432,83,- and Internal Rate Return (IRR value  45.28 %. Another result from verification system was created partnership with upperstream industry and also with downstream industry.

  8. PENGARUH TRADISI ARAB PRA ISLAM TERHADAP HUKUMAN RAJAM

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    Ali Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written to answer the question of how the punishment of adultery in the tradition of pre-Islamic Arabia and whether the punishment of stoning in adultery punishment traditions influenced by pre-Islamic? This is also done as most of the literature (especially fiqh which is likely to assume muhsan stoning sentence for the perpetrator is Sunnah and is therefore considered final. This is different from the Qur'an which contains only the caning without perpetrator category. The author uses socio-historical approach to look at the possibility of the adoption of pre-Islamic law in jurisprudence historically recognized authority but had methodological problems. Of search performed, there were no rules on punishment of adultery in the religion of Jahiliah. The punishment for adultery, which are so cruel, is found in the ancient Egyptian Penal Code, the laws of Hammurabi, and the Old Testament. Original stoning is not Islam. This punishment has been published in the books before the Islam religion. Islam then adopted with improvements in many facets.

  9. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T., E-mail: t.price@bham.ac.uk

    2016-07-11

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  10. 17例子宫恶性中胚叶混合瘤临床病理特征及PRA、PKB蛋白表达及其意义%Clinicopatho1ogic feature and PRA,PRB expressions of 17 cases uterine malignant mixed mesoderma1 tumor and their significannce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 赵俊红; 解其贵; 王言奎

    2008-01-01

    背景与目的: 子宫恶性中胚叶混合瘤(malignant mixed mesodermal tumor,MMMT)是罕见的妇科恶性肿瘤,预后极差,是临床诊治的难点.本研究旨在探讨本病的临床、病理特征及孕激素受体亚型(progesterone receptor subtype A and B,PRA and PRB)蛋白在子宫MMMT的表达及其意义.方法:回顾性分析17例患者的临床资料,并对其病理切片行光镜观察并应用免疫组化法测定PRA、PRB的表达情况,随访其中的11例患者.结果: ①子宫MMMT表现缺乏特异性,主要表现为阴道出血.②病理上肿瘤成分复杂,形态多样,有上皮和间叶两种成分组成,相互间有穿插和移行变化.③同源性PRA阳性占55.6%,PRB阳性占33.3%;异源性PRA阳性占37.5%,PRB阳性占37.5%,两种亚型间差异无显著性(P>0.05).PRA在Ⅰ期和Ⅱ期患者的表达率分别为66.7%和40%:PRB患者分别为55.6%和20%.④Ⅰ期患者平均存活43.8个月(32~59个月),Ⅱ期平均存活34.25个月(19~41个月):Ⅲ期1例,存活5个月. 结论: 子宫MMMT的诊断主要依赖组织形态学,疾病进展可能与PRA、PRB的丢失有关,PRA、PRB的表达可能与病理类型无关.预后可能与临床分期及PRA、PRB的表达有关.

  11. Paleoparasitology at "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium: a biostatistics analysis of trichurid eggs between the Old and New World Paleoparasitologia na "Praça das Armas", Namur, Bélgica: uma análise bioestatística de ovos de tricurídeos entre o Velho e o Novo Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological findings about human occupation and their domestic animals, from Gallo-Roman period up to recent times, were described at the archaeological site of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium, by preventive archaeological excavations. Organic sediment samples from cesspools, latrines and structures-like were analyzed and revealed intestinal parasite eggs (helminthes in all of the different archaeological contexts. The parasitic association Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. was found although it is not easy to determinate the specific parasite species. Trichurids were described inboth New and Old Worlds since the prehistorical time. To elucidate the zoological origin of the organic remains, the parasites and the prior function of the sanitary structures Trichuris eggs were statistically analyzed for morphometric parameters, and suggest that it could be an important tool to help the whole paleoparasitological diagnosis.Achados paleoparasitológicos sobre a ocupação humana e seus animais domésticos, desde o período Galo-Romano até períodos recentes, foram registrados no sitio arqueológico da "Praça das Armas", em Namur, Bélgica, através de excavações de salvamento arqueológico. Amostras de sedimentos orgânicos coletados de fossas, latrinas e estruturas semelhantes foram analisadas e revelaram ovos de helmintos intestinais, em todos os diferentes contextos arqueológicos. A associação parasitária Ascaris sp. e Trichuris sp. foi encontrada, sem identificação de espécie. Tricurídeos foram descritos em ambos, Novo e Velho Mundo, desde tempos pré-históricos. Para contribuir na elucidação da origem zoological dos vestígios orgânicos, dos parasitos e a função primárias das estruturas sanitárias, ovos de Trichuris foram analisados estatisticamente através dos seus parâmetros morfométricos, e sugerem que esta pode ser uma importante ferramenta para o diagnóstico paleoparasitológico.

  12. Comparison of two impression techniques for auricular prosthesis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, U M; Seenivasan, M K; Vaidhyanathan, A K; Veeravalli, P T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the accuracy of a new impression technique, the triple-layer impression technique (TLIT), with the conventional impression technique (CIT) to fabricate an auricular prosthesis. Fifteen male subjects (aged 22-45 yr) were selected. Ten markings were made on the subject's ear (super aurale [sa], sub aurale [sba], pre aurale [pra], post aurale [poa], A, A1, B, B1, C, and C1) and five measurements (sa-sba, pra-poa, A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1) were made. Custom-made trays were used to record impression in CIT and TLIT. Impressions were made using alginate, and models were cast with type IV gypsum product. Markings were transferred on the cast. Measurements were rechecked on the models. Distribution analysis of difference in measurements between the two impression techniques and the subject's actual values was evaluated. Sign test was used to analyze the statistical significance. Statistically significant differences were found in measurements A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1 between the two techniques when compared with the subject's actual dimensions (p < 0.01). TLIT was found to produce accurate models when compared with CIT. The TLIT used in the study was cost effective, less technique sensitive, and tailor made to reduce chairside orientation time during wax try-in appointments for rehabilitating patients, especially those with unilateral auricular defects.

  13. Latent Difference Score Modeling: A Flexible Approach for Studying Informant Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter; Sentse, Miranda; Jongerling, Joran

    2017-04-13

    The current study proposes a flexible approach to studying informant discrepancies: Latent Difference Scores modeling (LDS). The LDS approach is demonstrated using an empirical example in which associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent discrepant parenting perceptions, and concurrent and later adolescent externalizing behaviors, were investigated. Early adolescents (N = 477, aged 12-15 years), mothers (N = 470), and fathers (N = 440) filled out questionnaires about mothers' and fathers' parenting. Results using the LDS approach are compared to results obtained by the 2 existing approaches for informant discrepancies: Observed Difference Scores modeling (ODS) and Polynomial Regression Analyses (PRA). Results from the LDS approach show that adolescents perceive their mothers' and fathers' parenting less favorably than mothers and fathers themselves, and that stronger mother-adolescent discrepancies are consistently related to stronger father-adolescent discrepancies. Parent-adolescent discrepancies were concurrently associated with more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, but not longitudinally. Results generalized across the 2 discrepancy approaches, but only very few significant associations were found in the PRA. Advantages and limitations of all 3 approaches to studying informant discrepancies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reflexiones y demandas de estudiantes egresados de la Universidad de Granada sobre la formación práctica. Aportaciones para la construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Reflexiones y Demandas de Egresados de la Universidad de Granada sobre la Formación Práctica: Aportes para la Mejora del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen López López

    2010-12-01

    ="EN-GB">Abstract:

    The so-called Convergence Process in Higher Educaton in Europe is causing a high relevant rationalization at different levels: structural, curricular and professional. One of the most repeated demands is the request for a revitalization of the practical aspect of received training. In this work we have collected the contributions given by a group of postgraduated students concerning ten key aspects related to a comparison of different teaching practice periods in different spanish universities.

     

    El Proceso de Convergencia en la Educación Superior a nivel europeo está causando una reconversión a nivel estructural, curricular y profesional de gran relevancia. Entre las demandas más reiteradas figuran las que solicitan una revitalización de la vertiente práctica de la formación. Este trabajo recoge las aportaciones, mediante grupo de discusión integrado por estudiantes egresados de la Licenciatura de Pedagogía, en torno a diez aspectos claves derivados del estudio comparado de los programas de Formación Práctica (Prácticum de distintas universidades españolas

  15. The Studies on Theraputic Effects of Benazapril and Bisoprolol Combinationin in Hypertensive Patients and Plasma Renin Activity%贝那普利联合比索洛尔的降压疗效与血浆肾素水平的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈晓霞; 袁兰所; 冯亚宾; 陈茗莉; 赵志华; 王艳玲; 郑群

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between plasma renin activity ( PRA ) and theraputic effects of henazapril and bisoprolol combination in essential hypertensive patients finding the effect screening PRA tangent point. Methods A total of 200 patients with mild to moderate hypertension without severe organic diseases at cardiovascular clinic in Harrison International Peace Hospital from Jan. ,2007 to Oct.,2010.100 males and 100 females,aged≥6 years at an average of 48 yrs, were enrolled in the first-phase single-blind study,i. e. a 3-week treatment of henazapril 10mg QD,the patients with blood pressure meeting the standard (<140/90 mm Hg ) were out; the left were then randomly assigned to benazapril 10 mg QD group( 75 cases ) , benazapril 10 mg QD plus bisoprolol 5 mg QD group ( 75 cases ) in double-blind, randomized study. SBP and DBP were recorded before and after the double-blind therapy. PRA was detected before single-blind study and low-PRA level hypertension patients were excluded. Results Compared with their haseline values, blood pressure reduction was more prominent in patients in henazapril and bisoprolol combinationin group,SBP:[ ( 130. 0 ±13.0 ) mm Hg vs ( 125. 9±9. 7 ) mm Hg ],P <0. 05. DBP :[ ( 89. 7 ± 8. 6 ) mm Hg vs ( 84.0± 7. 9 ) mm Hg ],P <0. 05 . Receiver operating characteristic curve( PRA)> 2. 69μg/( h · min ) was the best tangent point above which the effect of henazapril and bisoprolol combination was more significant in high PRA hypertensive patients. The prediction sensitivity and specificity is 100% and 94. 8% respectively. Conclusion The theraputic effects of benazapril and bisoprolol comhination in hypertensive patients is better than benazapril dosage increase. PRA > 2. 69 μg/( h . min ) is the best effective tangent point for high PRA hypertension.%目的 探讨贝那普利的降压疗效与血浆肾素水平的相关性,寻找原发性高血压的血浆肾素水平的疗效筛选切点.方法 选取2007年1

  16. Ain't We Never Gonna Study No Grammar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Eileen A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the dilemmas involved with teaching Standard American English (SAE) while still accepting and not judging nonstandard dialects. Relates how the teacher used "Pygmalion" by George Bernard Shaw to show students why they needed to learn SAE. (PRA)

  17. Lack of genetic association among coat colors, progressive retinal atrophy and polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2006-10-01

    An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.

  18. Ultradian oscillations in plasma renin activity: their relationships to meals and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, G; Follenius, M; Muzet, A; Ehrhart, J; Schieber, J P

    1985-08-01

    The 24-h pattern of PRA was studied in 6 supine normal subjects, and the relationship between sleep stages and PRA oscillations was analyzed using 18 nighttime profiles and the concomitant polygraphic recordings of sleep. Blood was collected at 10-min intervals. The slow trends obtained by adjusting a third degree polynomial to the 24-h data were not reproducible among individuals, and no circadian pattern was detected. Sustained oscillations in PRA occurred throughout the day. Spectral analysis revealed that PRA oscillated at a regular periodicity of about 100 min during the night. This periodicity was modified during the daytime by meal intake, which induced PRA peaks with large interindividual variations in size. A close relationship was found between the nocturnal PRA oscillations and the alternance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep. Non-REM sleep invariably coincided with increasing or peaking PRA levels. REM sleep occurred as PRA was declining or at nadirs. More precisely, increases in PRA marked the transition from REM sleep to stage II, whereas stages III and IV usually occurred when PRA was highest. This relationship between the periodic nocturnal oscillations in PRA and the alternance of the REM-non-REM cycles may translate a similar oscillatory process in the central nervous system or may be linked to hemodynamic changes during sleep that might be partly controlled by the renin-angiotensin system.

  19. STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela Mannangi

    2015-02-01

    women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. In our study the serum sodium levels were markedly decreased as compared to healthy controls. According to Saruta T et al Plasma Renin Activity (PRA and Plasma Aldosterone (PA may be suppressed in hypothyroidism probably due to dysfunction of juxtaglomerular cells and glomerul osa cells respectively. The suppression of PRA and PA in patients with hypothyroidism is related to exaggerated sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. CONCLUSION : We conclude that significant decreased Na + and increased K + levels were seen in female hypothyroid patients compared to controls. Hence monitoring of serum levels of these electrolytes will be helpful during the management of hypothyroid patient

  20. 77 FR 27490 - Plant-Specific Adoption, Revision 4 of the Improved Standard Technical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Technical Specifications, NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants....resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' Revision 4... ML12100A177 ML12100A178 Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' NUREG-1431, ``Standard...

  1. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  2. Biosynthesis of plant-specific stilbene polyketides in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Dannert Claudia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylpropanoids are the precursors to a range of important plant metabolites such as the cell wall constituent lignin and the secondary metabolites belonging to the flavonoid/stilbene class of compounds. The latter class of plant natural products has been shown to function in a wide range of biological activities. During the last few years an increasing number of health benefits have been associated with these compounds. In particular, they demonstrate potent antioxidant activity and the ability to selectively inhibit certain tyrosine kinases. Biosynthesis of many medicinally important plant secondary metabolites, including stilbenes, is frequently not very well understood and under tight spatial and temporal control, limiting their availability from plant sources. As an alternative, we sought to develop an approach for the biosynthesis of diverse stilbenes by engineered recombinant microbial cells. Results A pathway for stilbene biosynthesis was constructed in Escherichia coli with 4-coumaroyl CoA ligase 1 4CL1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and stilbene synthase (STS cloned from Arachis hypogaea. E. coli cultures expressing these enzymes together converted the phenylpropionic acid precursor 4-coumaric acid, added to the growth medium, to the stilbene resveratrol (>100 mg/L. Caffeic acid, added in the same way, resulted in the production of the expected dihydroxylated stilbene, piceatannol (>10 mg/L. Ferulic acid, however, was not converted to the expected stilbene product, isorhapontigenin. Substitution of 4CL1 with a homologous enzyme, 4CL4, with a preference for ferulic acid over 4-coumaric acid, had no effect on the conversion of ferulic acid. Accumulation of tri- and tetraketide lactones from ferulic acid, regardless of the CoA-ligase expressed in E. coli, suggests that STS cannot properly accommodate and fold the tetraketide intermediate to the corresponding stilbene structure. Conclusion Phenylpropionic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, can be efficiently converted to stilbene compounds by recombinant E. coli cells expressing plant biosynthetic genes. Optimization of precursor conversion and cyclization of the bulky ferulic acid precursor by host metabolic engineering and protein engineering may afford the synthesis of even more structurally diverse stilbene compounds.

  3. DNA binding by the plant-specific NAC transcription factors in crystal and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Ditte Hededam; Lindemose, Søren; Grossmann, J. Günter;

    2012-01-01

    NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) plant transcription factors regulate essential processes in development, stress responses and nutrient distribution in important crop and model plants (rice, Populus, Arabidopsis), which makes them highly relevant in the context of crop optimization and bioenergy production. Th...

  4. Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 μg g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 μg g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

  5. ATLs and BTLs, plant-specific and general eukaryotic structurally-related E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-02-01

    Major components of the ubiquitin proteasome system are the enzymes that operate on the transfer of ubiquitin to selected target substrate, known as ubiquitin ligases. The RING finger is a domain that is present in key classes of ubiquitin ligases. This domain coordinates the interaction with a suitable E2 conjugase and the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to protein targets. Additional domains coupled to the same polypeptide are important for modulating the function of these ubiquitin ligases. Plants contain several types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that in many cases have expanded as multigene families. Some families are specific to the plant lineage, whereas others may have a common ancestor among plants and other eukaryotic lineages. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATLs) and BCA2 zinc finger ATLs (BTLs) are two families of ubiquitin ligases that share some common structural features. These are intronless genes that encode a highly related RING finger domain, and yet during evolutionary history, their mode of gene expansion and function is rather different. In each of these two families, the co-occurrence of transmembrane helices or C2/C2 (BZF finger) domains with a selected variation on the RING finger has been subjected to strong selection pressure in order to preserve their unique domain architectures during evolution.

  6. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  7. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  8. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics.

  9. Considerations on a regulatory framework for environmental management of produced water resulting from the extraction of petroleum in the state of Bahia; Consideracoes acerca de um modelo regulatorio pra o gerenciamento ambiental da agua produzida resultante da extracao de petroleo do estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Roberta Tourinho Dantas [Instituto do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hidricos (INEMA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vieira, Victor Menezes [Geo Innova Ltda., Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Produced water is the main byproduct associated to oil and gas extraction process. This water, considered by regulation as a residue, has the potential to cause adverse impact on environment. As extraction progresses and reservoirs mature increasing volumes of water are produced and need to be wisely managed. Due to Reconcavo Basin advanced stage of maturity, the state of Bahia has become a very large producer of water in the country. Remarkably, no state environmental regulation is in place to provide management guidelines and proper disposal rules for this waste. The present study intends to argue the need for a regulatory framework involving the management of water produced in state onshore sedimentary basins, identifying and discussing critical variables involved in this process. The following methodological instruments were used in the study: literature and normative survey, interaction with key stakeholders and field work. Environmental regulation has, as its main purpose, protection and preservation of the environment against potential polluting activities, while recognizing the importance of socioeconomic development. In this sense, implementing specific rules for management of produced water not only serves to harmonize productive activities such as oil and gas extraction with protective policies, but also brings institutional benefits that could represent a significant reduction in operating costs associated with inadequate management of this waste. It also tends to improve industry image as perceived by society. However, success of regulatory compliance is dependent of a number of variables, which, in the case of produced water management includes: physicochemical characterization; establishment of benchmark studies to guide application of proper techniques for injection and disposal; the choice of efficient regulatory instruments; expertise and experienced human resources within regulatory agencies responsible for monitoring activities and enforcing

  10. A gente vive pra cuidar da população: estratégias de cuidado e sentidos para a saúde, doença e cura em terreiros de candomblé We live to take care of the population: health care strategies and meanings for health, disease and healing in candomblé temples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Santos Mota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos que exploram a interface entre religião e saúde demonstram que, entre as motivações que orientam a filiação religiosa, figura de modo destacado a busca de soluções para aflições e enfermidades. A terapêutica religiosa constitui assim uma das alternativas de cura, cuja adesão por parte de seus seguidores é influenciada, entre outros fatores, por experiências individuais ou coletivas de sua eficácia e/ou pela fidelidade a uma religião que regulam a vida em geral, incluindo as condutas relativas ao cuidado com o corpo, com a saúde etc. Este estudo explora as inter-relações entre saúde, religiosidade e identidade étnica em um bairro popular de Salvador, marcado pelo pluralismo religioso. Ao investigar as narrativas de famílias afrodescendentes membros do candomblé, busca-se compreender a relação entre a cosmologia religiosa do candomblé e as concepções e práticas de saúde e doença e cuidado. Para atingir essa compreensão, é preciso também apreender modos de organização social, crenças, visão de mundo e práticas no universo do candomblé, detendo-se especialmente nos aspectos associados com o complexo saúde-doença-cuidado. Trata-se de um estudo etnográfico desenvolvido através da observação participante e de entrevistas semi-estruturadas.Studies which explore the relations between religion and health have been showing that one of the main reasons for joining a religious institution is the quest for health care. Therefore, the choice of religious healing is influenced by previous experiences of success or by the bond with a system of beliefs that regulates social life, including health care practices. This study explores the connections between religiousness and ethnic identity in a popular neighborhood in Salvador that is characterized by its religious plurality. The main goal of the research was to investigate the relations between the cosmology of Candomblé and the conceptions and practices

  11. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  12. The Effect of the Arg389Gly Beta-1 Adrenoceptor Polymorphism on Plasma Renin Activity and Heart Rate and the Genotype-Dependent Response to Metoprolol Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2012-01-01

    A gene-drug interaction has been indicated between beta-1 selective beta-blockers and the Arg389Gly polymorphism (rs1801253) in the adrenergic beta-1 receptor gene (ADRB1). We studied the effect of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR) and the genotype......(metoprolol concentration) varied significantly between genotypes (P = 0.024). In Gly/Gly subjects, PRA decreased significantly with metoprolol concentration before (P = 0.025) and after exercise (P effect on PRA. The effect of metoprolol concentration...... on PRA in Gly/Gly subjects was enhanced by exercise (P = 0.044). No significant differences in HR were seen between genotype groups. Resting PRA was lower in Gly/Gly than in Arg/Arg subjects, and the effect of exercise and metoprolol concentration on PRA was stronger in Gly/Gly subjects than...

  13. Upaya Peningkatan Tingkat Pengetahuan Siswi MAN 2 Palembang Mengenai Sindrom Pra Menstruasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aditya Alfarizki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Premenstrual syndrome characterized by affective, physical, and behavior symptoms with moderate to severe grade, that usually recurrent every luteal phase of menstrual cycle and disappear within menstruation. The frequency of premenstrual syndrome is still high, in Indonesia and all over the world. To overcome this situation, there should be a health promotion. The aim of this community service was to increase the girl’s knowledge of premenstrual syndrome. This community service was held in one day on November 2016 in public islamic high school MAN 2 Palembang. The schedule was start with pre test consist of 15 questions, counseling sesssion using power point media, discussion session, and post test consist of the same questions to measure the knowledge after counseling. Pre test score showed that 13.9% students had good knowledge and post test score showed an increase of good knowledge (66.7%. Conclusion, heatlh education through counseling method bring a change of knowledge.

  14. Overview of EVA PRA for TPS Repair for Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Duncan, Gary; Roeschel, Eduardo; Canga, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following the Columbia accident in 2003, NASA developed techniques to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) in the event of damage to the TPS as one of several actions to reduce the risk to future flights from ascent debris, micro-meteoroid and/or orbital debris (MMOD). Other actions to help reduce the risk include improved inspection techniques, reduced shedding of debris from the External Tank and ability to rescue the crew with a launch on need vehicle. For the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission the crew rescue capability was limited by the inability to safe haven on the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in a greater reliance on the repair capability. Therefore it was desirable to have an idea of the risk associated with conducting a repair, where the repair would have to be conducted using an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Previously, focused analyses had been conducted to quantify the risk associated with certain aspects of an EVA, for example the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) or Space Suit; however, the analyses were somewhat limited in scope. A complete integrated model of an EVA which could quantify the risk associated with all of the major components of an EVA had never been done before. It was desired to have a complete integrated model to be able to assess the risks associated with an EVA to support the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) in making risk informed decisions. In the case of the HST Servicing Mission, this model was developed to assess specifically the risks associated with performing a TPS repair EVA. This paper provides an overview of the model that was developed to support the HST mission in the event of TPS damage. The HST Servicing Mission was successfully completed on May 24th 2009 with no critical TPS damage; therefore the model was not required for real-time mission support. However, it laid the foundation upon which future EVA quantitative risk assessments could be based.

  15. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    land degradation, particularly small scale mining (galamsey) activities are allowed to continue. ... In order to improve water quality and restore impaired watersheds, ...... Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – Land Reclamation 42.

  16. RABIES, PENYEBAB DAN MANAJEMEN PRA-PAJANAN SERTA PASCA-PAJANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavalli Ragunathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RABIES, ETIOLOGY,PRE-EXPOSURE AND POST-EXPOSURE MANAGEMENT ABSTRACT Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalomyelitis in virtually all the warm-blooded animals including man. The virus is found in wild and some domestic animals, and is transmitted to other animals and to humans through their saliva (i.e. following bites, scratches, licks on broken skin and mucous membrane. Guidelines throughout worldwide quote that dogs are responsible for about 97% of human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. The disease is mainly transmitted by the bite of a rabid dog. Keyword: Rabies, Epidemiology, Causes, Management

  17. POTENSI DAUN SINGKONG KERING SEBAGAI SUMBER VITAMIN UNTUK ANAK PRA SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mempelajari potensi serbuk daun singkong kering sebagai sumber provitamin A meliputi kandungan karoten dalam serbuk daun singkong kering dan pengaruhnya terhadap pemasakan serta daya terima gulai serbuk daun singkong muda dan tua kering (DSMK dan DSTK pada anak prasekolah. Sebagai pembanding adalah daun singkong muda segar yang sebelum dimasak diblancing terlebih dahulu (DSMB. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 36 anak prasekolah (3-5 tahun yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok. Daun singkong diberikan dalam bentuk masakan gulai yang diberikan bersama dengan menu makanan lengkap pada waktu makan pagi, siang dan sore selama tiga hari penuh. Daya terima daun singkong dinilai berdasarkan jumlah gulai yang dapat dikonsumsi per hari. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah daun singkong muda dan tua kering mengandung karoten cukup tinggi, yaitu berturut-turut adalah 14.270 dan 14.733 per 100 g berat kering. Penggulaian menyebabkan penurunan jumlah karoten sebesar 6.1%-8.6%. Baik DSMK maupun DSTK yang dimasak gulai dapat diterima oleh anak prasekolah. Secara statistik daya terima gulai DSMK dan DSTK tidak berbeda dengan gulai DSMB (P>0.05. Dari penelitian disimpulkan bahwa serbuk daun singkong kering merupakan sayur yang kaya dengan provitamin A yang dapat diterima anak prasekolah.                                        

  18. POTENSI DAUN SINGKONG KERING SEBAGAI SUMBER VITAMIN UNTUK ANAK PRA SEKOLAH

    OpenAIRE

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri; Heru Yuniarti; Erna Luciasari; Muhilal Muhilal

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini mempelajari potensi serbuk daun singkong kering sebagai sumber provitamin A meliputi kandungan karoten dalam serbuk daun singkong kering dan pengaruhnya terhadap pemasakan serta daya terima gulai serbuk daun singkong muda dan tua kering (DSMK dan DSTK) pada anak prasekolah. Sebagai pembanding adalah daun singkong muda segar yang sebelum dimasak diblancing terlebih dahulu (DSMB). Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 36 anak prasekolah (3-5 tahun) yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok. Daun...

  19. 76 FR 81998 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...) 492-3446. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Felix E. Gonzalez, Division of Risk Analysis, Office of...: (301) 251- 7596, email: Felix.Gonzalez@nrc.gov or Hugh W. Woods, Division of Risk Analysis, Office of... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and...

  20. 24 CFR 401.303 - PRA indemnity provisions for SHFAs and HAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring... PAE in accordance with section 513(a)(2)(G) of MAHRA, any payment under this indemnity is...

  1. PENGARUH PENERAPAN EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING TERHADAP LOYALITAS KONSUMEN KARTU PRA BAYAR SIMPATI TELKOMSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mareta kemala sari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze influences of experiential marketing variable as dependent variable and provides consumer experiences in getting benefit from communication services to simPATI consumer loyalty. This research is descriptive research with non probability sampling technique – convenience sampling method. Sample size is Hair income that is 20 times of variable, number of respondent is 100 people. The data is analyzed by using multiple regressions with SPSS program, test, F test, alpha 0.05. The research shows, (1. No significant influences between sense marketing and customer loyalty (sig=0.166. (2. There is significant influences between feel marketing and customer loyalty (Sig = 0.029. (3. No significant influences between feel marketing and customer loyalty (Sig = 0,689. (4. There is a significant influence between act marketing and customer loyalty. (5. No significant influences between relate marketing and customer loyalty (Sig = 0,572. (6. There is a significant influence between all variables experiential marketing and customer loyalty (Sig = 0,000. Researcher suggests company to review sense marketing, act marketing and relate marketing strategy that has applied and consider other factors that influences consumer loyalty and also increase feel marketing and think marketing strategies.

  2. Negligência da Omissão: de Onde Tu Vens, Pra Onde Tu Vais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Alexandrina Domingues Pereira do Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo discutir a produção científica sobre negligência da omissão de informações, visando apresentar uma agenda de pesquisa referente ao tema a partir das direções indicadas pelo estado da arte das pesquisas sobre o fenômeno. O ensaio objetiva, ainda, apresentar e caracterizar as perspectivas teóricas que prevalecem nessa produção. Por meio da revisão das produções acadêmicas nacional e internacional, publicadas entre 1988 e 2014, foram selecionados todos os artigos encontrados, sendo estes, no total, 19 trabalhos. Identificou-se, portanto, que os estudos sobre o fenômeno da negligência da omissão são ainda seminais e a literatura carece de pesquisas adicionais para melhor entendimento do fenômeno. Por meio do método da leitura científica, todos os 19 artigos encontrados foram analisados e, ao final, propõe-se uma agenda de pesquisa sobre o tema da negligência da omissão, composta a partir dos gaps identificados nos estudos que trataram dessa temática.

  3. PENGARUH PENERAPAN EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING TERHADAP LOYALITAS KONSUMEN KARTU PRA BAYAR SIMPATI TELKOMSEL

    OpenAIRE

    mareta kemala sari

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to analyze influences of experiential marketing variable as dependent variable and provides consumer experiences in getting benefit from communication services to simPATI consumer loyalty. This research is descriptive research with non probability sampling technique – convenience sampling method. Sample size is Hair income that is 20 times of variable, number of respondent is 100 people. The data is analyzed by using multiple regressions with SPSS program, test, F test, alp...

  4. Pra Desain Pabrik Substitute Natural Gas (SNG dari Low Rank Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asti Permatasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substitute Natural Gas (SNG merupakan campuran gas hidrokarbon dengan sifat mirip seperti gas alam yang dapat diproduksi dari gasifikasi dengan bahan baku berupa batubara atau biomassa. Gasifikasi adalah proses perubahan bahan baku padat menjadi gas. Dengan mengubah bahan baku padat menjadi gas, maka material yang tidak diinginkan yang terkandung di dalam bahan baku tersebut seperti senyawa sulfur, karbon dioksida dan abu dapat dihilangkan dengan menggunakan metode tertentu sehingga dapat dihasilkan gas bersih yang disebut dengan syngas. Syngas yang memiliki kandungan utama CO dan H2 kemudian dikonfersi menjadi SNG yang berupa metana (CH4 melalui proses metanasi sehingga menghasilkan produk utama berupa CH4. SNG merupakan suatu bahan bakar baru yang dapat digunakan industri untuk menggantikan gas alam. Permintaan gas alam masa mendatang diperkirakan akan tumbuh cukup pesat terkait dengan upaya industri untuk beralih ke gas untuk mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap BBM. Gas alam dan minyak bumi sebagai salah satu sumber daya alam memiliki manfaat yang sangat banyak dalam menunjang berbagai sektor kehidupan manusia. Banyaknya manfaat dari sumber daya alam gas alam menyebabkan banyaknya kebutuhan akan gas alam di dunia, dimana kebutuhan tersebut terus bertambah setiap tahunnya. Padahal gas alam yang selama ini banyak dimanfaatkan berbagai sektor di Indonesia sifatnya tidak terbarukan (non renewable serta cadangannya diperkirakan akan menurun. Pemerintah harus menggalakkan pengembangan sumber energy alternative pengganti gas alam dan minyak bumi sesuai dengan Peraturan Presiden nomor 5 tahun 2006. Salah satu energi potensial yang dapat menggantikannya adalah SNG dari batubara. Indonesia memiliki cadangan batubara dalam jumlah yang sangat banyak. Wilayah Indonesia diketahui memiliki potensi endapan batubara yang sangat luas. Data dari Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (2006 menyebutkan bahwa wilayah Sumatera Selatan memiliki jumlah cadangan batubara kualitas rendah dan sedang yang sangat banyak, yaitu masing-masing sebesar 2.426,00 juta ton dan 186,00 juta ton. Maka dari itu, pabrik SNG dari low rank coal ini akan didirikan di Kecamatan Ilir Timur, Sumatera Selatan. Rencananya pabrik ini akan didirikan pada tahun 2016 dan siap beroperasi pada tahun 2018. Diperkirakan konsumsi gas alam pada tahun 2018 sebesar 906.599,3 MMSCF sehingga pendirian pabrik yang baru diharapkan dapat menggantikan kebutuhan gas alam sebesar 4% di Indonesia, yaitu sebanyak 36.295,502 MMSCF per tahun atau sebesar 109.986 MMSCFD. Proses pembuatan SNG dari low rank coal terdiri dari empat proses utama, yaitu coal preparation, gasifikasi, gas cleaning, dan metanasi. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat Investasi 823.947.924 USD, IRR sebesar 13,12%, POT selama 5 tahun, dan BEP sebesar 68,55%.

  5. Vybrané problémy pražské dopravy

    OpenAIRE

    Těšíková, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part deals with the structure of transport, public transport and integrated transport system. The practical part deals specifically with transport in Prague. This section is devoted to road transport in Prague, Prague integrated transport and in particular cuts in Prague's public transport.

  6. Membran Polisulfon untuk Pengolahan Air: Dengan dan Tanpa Pra Perlakuan Koagulasi secara Ultrafiltrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Membran polisulfon untuk pengolahan air telah dilakukan untuk mengurangi warna air dengan proses koagulasi dan tanpa proses koagulasi. Membran ultrafiltrasi polisulfone telah dikarakte-risasi dengan mengukur fluks, permeability (Lp, dan MWCO dengan bebagai variasi berat molekul dekstran. Morfologi membran diobservasi dengan scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Analisis SEM dilakukan terhadap permukaan membran dan penampang melintang membran. Proses koagulasi optimum dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat jar test, diperoleh kondisi optimum pada 50 ppm Al2(SO43 dan pH 7. Indeks warna rejeksi diperoleh dengan koagulasi adalah 85% dan tanpa koagulasi adalah 62%.

  7. Collected EPA Responses to Comments on the Probabilistic Assessment (PRA) White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA responds to comments from American Water Works Association, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Wood Preservative Science Council, CropLife America, American Chemistry Council, General Electric Company and Bayer CropScience US.

  8. PRA PERANCANGAN WATERBUS DENGAN PENGGERAK MOTOR LISTRIK BERTENAGA SURYA DI BANJIR KANAL BARAT JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Budiarto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of traffic jams and the issues of energy problems in Jakarta have been generated an innovation and an alternative solution in public transportation development which can reducing these problems that using the renewable energy Referring to the condition and these problems, the concept must be done within pre-design of waterbus which equipped with a solar panel system engine. The using of solar system as an energy resource on the pre design of the ship must be suitable on the water condition, the selection of the solar panel, 3 dimensional with sail routes and analysis calculation when the ship sailing The research is aimed to produce main dimensional of the ship which LOA = 12,00 m, LWL = 11,47 m, Bm = 4,34 m. This ship is using two outboard electrical motors which producing 2 KW of power, 15,954 watt of battery and 52,12 m2 of solar panel with monocrystaline type with 5,520 watt of power which defined from speed of the ship at 5,25 knot with 0,4 KN resistance

  9. Música pra pensar. Rap e identità afrolusitana nella periferia di Lisbona

    OpenAIRE

    Ranocchiari, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Tesi di laurea in etnomusicologia (a.a. 2004-2005) sull'uso della musica rap come catalizzatore identitario tra figli di migranti africani a Lisbona (Portogallo). In particolare, si centra sulla figura del rapper Chullage e sul lavoro dell'associazione Khapaz di Arrentela con i giovani di Arrentela (Grande Lisboa). 

  10. Pra Desain Pabrik Dietil Karbonat dari CO2 dan Ethanol Melalui Proses Indirect Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rachmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi bahan bakar minyak pada tahun pada periode 2000-2013 meningkat dari 764 juta SBM pada tahun 2000 menjadi 1.151 juta SBM [1]. Dengan meningkatnya konsumsi bahan bakar, maka emisi gas buang berupa CO2 juga akan meningkat. Gas CO2 tidak hanya dihasilkan dari adanya emisi gas buang pada bahan bakar, tetapi gas CO2 juga banyak dihasilkan dari proses industri minyak dan gas. ExxonMobil Cepu Ltd. yang beroperasi di Bojonegoro merupakan salah satu industri pengeboran minyak yang menghasilkan emisi gas CO2 sebesar 427 TPD. Hal ini tentu sangat berpengaruh terhadap meningkatnya emisi gas CO2 di udara. Salah satu upaya untuk mengurangi emisi adalah dengan memanfaatkan gas buang tersebut menjadi Diethyl Carbonate (DEC. DEC merupakan salah satu senyawa oxygenate yang menjadi alternatif zat aditif pada bahan bakar, bersifat nontoxic dan juga dapat terurai (biodegradable. Sehingga DEC termasuk zat kimia yang ramah lingkungan[2]. Mengingat DEC juga memiliki potensi untuk meningkatkan nilai oktan tanpa menimbulkan masalah emisi gas buang yang berarti, maka perancangan pabrik DEC perlu untuk dilakukan. Dari kapasitas bahan baku CO2 sebesar 427 TPD akan dihasilkan produk DEC : 284 ribu ton/tahun, Butylene Carbonate : 93 ribu ton/tahun dan 1,2 Butanediol : 223 ribu ton/tahun. Dari analisa ekonomi diperoleh : Total Cost Investment: MUSD 568.44; Internal Rate of Return : 36.88%; POT: 3.26 tahun; BEP : 41.3 %; dan NPV 10 year : MUSD 3331.9. Sehingga pendirian pabrik ini perlu dipertimbangkan sebagai salah satu upaya untuk menurunkan CO2.

  11. Is hepatitis C virus infection a risk factor for panel-reactive antibody positivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, F N; Sezer, S; Güz, G; Arat, Z; Turan, M; Haberal, M

    2000-01-01

    Patients with high levels of panel-reactive antibody (PRA) represent an increasingly large group in the waiting lists for cadaveric renal transplantation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been found to be associated with a high prevalence of positivity of autoimmune serological tests. We planned this study to evaluate the effect of HCV positivity on the PRA levels in our hemodialysis (HD) patients. We included 38 HCV-infected (group I: 20 male, 18 female patients, mean duration of HD 73.6 +/- 50.6 months) and 43 hepatitis marker-negative (group II: 23 male, 20 female patients, mean duration of HD 22.2 +/- 22.4 months) HD patients. The PRA positivity ratio and number of transfusions were not significantly higher in group I than in group II (PRA ABC; 28.9%, 19.4, P > 0.05, PRA DR; 21.8%, 20.9, P > 0.05, respectively, and blood transfusions 7.0 +/- 5.7, 6.6 +/- 5.2, respectively, P = 0.06). HD duration correlated significantly with PRA positivity in our patients (PRA-positive patients: 56.1 +/- 57.9 months, PRA-negative patients: 43.3 +/- 41.9 months, P = 0.021). In conclusion, HD duration was found to be the main factor affecting PRA sensitivity independently of HCV positivity and blood transfusion.

  12. A tailored antiplatelet strategy in STEMI patients based on CYP2C19 genotyping is feasible in daily practice-POPular Genetics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmeijer, T.O.; Janssen, P.W.A.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Schipper, J.C.; Van 'T Hof, A.W.; Dewilde, W.J.M.; Postma, M.J.; De Boer, A.; Deneer, V.H.M.; Ten Berg, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel, pra- sugrel or ticagrelor) is essential to prevent atherothrombotic events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Although ticagre

  13. Radioisotope-pharmacodynamic studies without exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graul, H.; Graul, E.H.; Loew, D.; Kunkel, R.

    1983-10-01

    On the basis of a clinico-pharmacological study using a new diuretic combination it is shown that not only the RIA determination, but also the measurement of the total amount of potassium in the body with the aid of the /sup 40/K potassium-nuclide confirmed therapeutic efficacy. Furosemide (30 mg) and the combination furosemide-retard (30 mg) and triamterene (50 mg) influence the plasmarenin-aldosterone system (PRA-system) differently. After both furosemide alone and the combination, the plasma-renin activity increased significantly (p <= 0.05) within the 1st 1.5 hours. While the values rapidly normalized after the combination, the activity after furosemide alone increased significantly up to and after 4.5 h. Approx. 3 h after furosemide the plasma aldosterone concentration increased significantly (p <= 0.05); this was not the case after the combination. Neither potassium in the serum nor the total amount of potassium in the body - measured with the aid of the /sup 40/K potassium nuclide - decreased after 8 days of treatment with the combination of furosemide-retard and triamterene. Both methods have proved of value in the clinico-pharmacological examination of diuretics. They are of great importance, easy to apply, involve no exposure to radiation, and are inexpensive.

  14. A study on development of methodology and guidelines of risk based regulation for optimization of regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong; Kang, Kee Sik; Paek, Won Phil; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Hyeon Seop [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-15

    This project consists of the three phase as follow : define the RBR(Risk Based Regulation) concept and analysis of state of art to RBR to NRC, EPRI etc., develop the application area and guideline of RBR to the selected area, develop the regulatory guideline with considering the plant specific conditions in detail. For the first year of this study elementary work for risk based regulation concept was analysed and performed as follows : state of the art of RBR research status, methodology establishment for usage of PSA(Probabilistic Safety Assessment), establishment of the methodology of risk based regulation, and application area for RBR.

  15. Comparison of risk sensitivity to human errors in the Oconee and LaSalle PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.; Higgins, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative analyses of plant risk sensitivity to human errors in the Oconee and La Salle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRAs). These analyses were performed to determine the reasons for the observed differences in the sensitivity of core melt frequency (CMF) to changes in human error probabilities (HEPs). Plant-specific design features, PRA methods, and the level of detail and assumptions in the human error modeling were evaluated to assess their influence risk estimates and sensitivities.

  16. Estudio de casos: REA (recursos educativos abiertos en clases de Historia de México (Case Study research: OERs (Open Educational Resources in class of Mexican History (Étude de cas: REA (Ressources éducatives ouvertes en cours d’Histoire au Mexique (Processo de investigação de estudo: aplicação e utilização dos REA (recursos educativos abertos na prática do ensino da história do México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninel Rodríguez-Altamirano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo presenta una experiencia innovadora en el aula en el nivel medio superior en la materia de Histo- ria de México, al basarse en la investigación de estudio de casos, observando cómo repercutió la aplicación de Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA, en la mejora de la práctica docente, el aprendizaje significativo y la motivación por parte de los alumnos. Teniendo como resultados que el uso de REA hace más participativos, atentos y con una gran motivación a los alumnos.AbstractThis article presents an innovative experi- ence in the classroom of middle level ed- ucation in the field of History of Mexico, based on case studies, observing how impacted the implementation of Open Educational Resources, OERs, in improv- ing teaching practice, and meaningful learning motivation. As a result, the use of Open Educational Resources fosters participation, attention and motivation in the students..RésuméDans cet article, on présente une expé- rience innovatrice dans la salle de classe de niveau intermédiaire-supérieur du cours Histoire du Mexique. Cette étude, inscrite dans le cadre des études de cas, a analysé la façon comme la mise en pra- tique des Ressources Éducatives Ouvertes (REA a eu des répercussions dans l'amé- lioration des pratiques de l'enseignant et dans l'apprentissage significatif et la mo- tivation chez les élèves. Les résultats dé- montrent que les REA rendent les élèves plus participatifs, attentifs et motivés.ResumoEste artigo apresenta uma experiência inovadora em sala de aula da educa- ção de nível médio na área de História do México, com base em estudos de caso, observando como impactaram a implementação do Open Educational Resources (OER, na melhoria da prática docente, o aprendizagem significativa e motivação. Com o resultado que a uti- lização dos OER fomentar participação, attenção e motivação.

  17. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Grandy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n=460, and 30% reported losing weight (n=895. More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.01. For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%–44% compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.0001. Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM.

  18. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  19. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, boiling point, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV,and peroxide value (PV of Corn and Mustard oils were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the oil. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the degree of oxidation after heating and frying processes. Results revealed that due to the temperature change in the oil there is a notable difference in the spectral band which showed that the proportions of the fatty acids were changed. The spectra of Corn oil at the boiling point and at multiple frying times with a piece of potato showed frequencies in range of 2852.7–2926.0 cm−1 while in Mustard oil an additional peak was observed at 3633.8 cm−1 which exhibits the secondary oxidized product formation.

  20. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Fraction from the Bark of Acacia mearnsii on Itching Associated with Allergic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the inhibitory effect of polyphenol-rich aqueous extract from the bark of Acacia mearnsii (PrA on itching associated with atopic dermatitis (AD. HR-1 mice were fed a normal diet, special diet (AD group, or special diet containing 3% PrA (PrA group for 6 weeks. In the AD group, itching frequency and transepidermal water loss increased compared to the control group. In the PrA group, an improvement in atopic dermatitis symptoms was observed. Ceramide expression in the skin decreased in the AD group compared to the control group, but no decrease was observed in the PrA group. mRNA expression of ceramidase decreased in the PrA group compared to the AD group. The results of this study have revealed that PrA inhibits itching in atopic dermatitis by preventing the skin from drying. It is considered that the mechanism by which PrA prevents the skin from drying involves the inhibition of increased ceramidase expression associated with atopic dermatitis.

  2. Initial guidance on digraph-matrix analysis for systems interaction studies at selected LWR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Sacks, I.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1982-08-12

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing guidance to search for and evaluate systems interactions at light water reactors (LWRs). In addition, related efforts are being made to incorporate such analyses into the framework of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Preliminary results indicate that there are at least three concepts on how systems interactions can be analyzed independently or incorporated into an overall PRA. One point of view is that systems interactions can be adequately analyzed by enhancing existing PRAs. A second and closely related point of view is that systems interactions can be incorporated into a PRA in the event-tree stage of analysis. This approach attempts to capture systems interactions at an earlier stage of analysis. By treating dependencies in the event tree analysis portion of a PRA, the requirement of fault tree modeling at additional levels of detail is reduced. A third point of view about the Systems Interaction problem is that a new technique, called Digraph-Matrix Analysis (DMA), which utilizes matrix representation of logic diagrams, may offer a more complete and possibly more efficient analysis in certain areas. This report will present proposed initial guidance on DMA for application to systems interactions. DMA will be presented as a procedure independent from PRA. Peer review and later sample applications can provide useful feedback for refining the final guidance.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT.

  4. 76 FR 54510 - Notice of Availability of Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...--Update to TSTF-360'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML092670242... following methods: NRC's Public Document Room (PDR): The public may examine and have copied for a fee... can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you...

  5. 75 FR 39991 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Models For Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...).'' TSTF-446, Revision 3, is available in the Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS... documents related to this notice using the following methods: NRC's Public Document Room (PDR): The public may examine and have copied for a fee publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, Public File...

  6. 75 FR 29588 - Notice of Availability of the Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... process (CLIIP), the NRC is announcing the availability of the enclosed model application (with model no...,'' by relocating the current stored diesel fuel oil and lube oil numerical volume requirements from the... publicly available documents related to this notice using the following methods: NRC's Public Document...

  7. 76 FR 66763 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-510...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... proposed changes are necessary to address implementation issues associated with the inspection periods, and address other administrative changes and clarifications. The model SE will facilitate expedited approval... item improvement process (CLIIP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is announcing the...

  8. 77 FR 38856 - An Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Risk-Informed Decisions on Plant-Specific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Postulated Accidents'' directing the staff to revise the discussion on defense-in-depth. Specifically, the..., the staff should revise this guide using precise language to assure that the defense-in-depth... to defense in depth, the relevant documents should be updated also, as appropriate. In...

  9. 77 FR 29391 - An Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Risk-Informed Decisions on Plant-Specific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Postulated Accidents'' directing the staff to revise the discussion on defense-in-depth. Specifically, the..., the staff should revise this guide using precise language to assure that the defense-in-depth... to defense in depth, the relevant documents should be updated also, as appropriate. In...

  10. 78 FR 13100 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-535...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... (STS): NUREG-1433, ``Standard Technical Specifications General Electric Plants BWR/4,'' and NUREG- 1434... the STS, NUREG-1433, ``Standard Technical Specifications General Electric Plants BWR/4,'' and...

  11. Root isolations of Metarhizium spp. from crops reflect diversity in the soil and indicate no plant specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt Michael; Enkerli, Jürg; Widmer, Franco;

    2015-01-01

    elongation factor 1-alpha and characterized by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of 14 different loci. Metarhizium brunneum was the most common species isolated from plant roots (84.1% of all isolates), while M. robertsii (11.1%) and M. majus (4.8%) comprised the remainder. The SSR analysis revealed...... from each of the three crops were collected within an area of approximately 3. ha. The roots were rinsed with sterile water, homogenized and the homogenate plated onto selective media. A subset of 126 Metarhizium isolates were identified to species by sequencing of the 5' end of the gene translation...... that six multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were present among the M. brunneum and M. robertsii isolates, respectively. A single MLG of M. brunneum represented 66.7%, 79.1% and 79.2% of the total isolates obtained from oat, rye and cabbage, respectively. The isolation of Metarhizium spp. and their MLGs from roots...

  12. 77 FR 4586 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Bladey, Chief, Rules, Announcements, and Directives Branch (RADB), Office of Administration, Mail Stop... this page, the public can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are problems in accessing the...

  13. The plant-specific Dof transcription factors family: new players involved in vascular system development and functioning in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenn eLe Hir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants phloem and xylem are responsible for long-distance transport of water, nutrients, and signals that act systemically at short or long distance to coordinate developmental processes. The formation of the plant vascular system is a complex process that integrates signalling events and gene regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Thanks to transcriptomic and proteomic analysis we start to better understand the mechanisms underlying the formation and the functioning of the vascular system. The role of the DNA-binding with one finger (Dof TFs, a group of plant–specific transcription factors, recently emerged as part of the transcriptional regulatory networks acting on the formation and functioning of the vascular tissues. More than half of the members of this TF family are expressed in the vascular system. In addition some of them have been proposed to be mobile proteins, suggesting a possible role in the control of short- or long-distance signalling as well. This review summarizes the current knowledge on Dof TFs family in Arabidopsis with a special focus on their role in vascular development and functioning.

  14. 76 FR 19510 - Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Models For Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... prohibit the use of the provisions of Limiting Condition for Operation 3.0.4.a to enter the end state Mode...). Federal Rulemaking Web site: Supporting materials related to this notice can be found at http://www...

  15. 77 FR 16869 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Michelle C. Honcharik, Senior Project Manager, Office of Nuclear..., Reactor Systems Engineer, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly-available documents online in...

  16. 76 FR 69296 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... safety evaluation (SE) (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54510), the NRC published an NOA announcing the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  17. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.; Talja, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  18. Primary Aldosteronism Caused by Unilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia: Rethinking the Accuracy of Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yu Chen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH, is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies.

  19. Effect of the Arg389Gly β₁-adrenoceptor polymorphism on plasma renin activity and heart rate, and the genotype-dependent response to metoprolol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Broedbaek, Kasper; Hjelvang, Brian R; Henriksen, Trine; Frandsen, Erik; Forman, Julie L; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2012-09-01

    1. A gene-drug interaction has been indicated between β₁-adrenoceptor-selective beta-blockers and the Arg389Gly polymorphism (rs1801253) in the adrenergic beta-1 receptor gene (ADRB1). In the present study, we investigated the effect of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR), as well as genotype-dependent responses to metoprolol and exercise. 2. Twenty-nine healthy male subjects participated in two treatment periods (placebo and 200 mg/day metoprolol). A 15 min submaximal exercise test was performed after each treatment period and PRA and HR were measured before and after exercise. 3. Before exercise, median PRA was lower in Gly/Gly subjects than in Arg/Arg subjects after both placebo (P = 0.030) and metoprolol (P = 0.020) treatment. After placebo, the exercise-induced increase in PRA was greater in Gly/Gly than Arg/Gly and Arg/Arg subjects (P = 0.033). The linear association between log(PRA) and log(metoprolol concentration) varied significantly between genotypes (P = 0.024). In Gly/Gly subjects, PRA decreased significantly with metoprolol concentration before (P = 0.025) and after exercise (P concentration had no effect on PRA. The effect of metoprolol concentration on PRA in Gly/Gly subjects was enhanced by exercise (P = 0.044). No significant differences in HR were seen between genotype groups. 4. Resting PRA was lower in Gly/Gly than Arg/Arg subjects and the effect of exercise and metoprolol concentration on PRA was stronger in Gly/Gly subjects than with the other two genotypes. Thus, Gly/Gly heart failure patients may require lower doses of metoprolol than other patients to block neurohumoral hyperactivity.

  20. Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used by the red-headed yao people in Jinping, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chun-lin; Li, Rong

    2004-02-01

    Sixty-six medicinal plant species traditionally collected and used by the Red-headed Yao people in Jinping county, Yunnan Province, SW China, were investigated and studied through the approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Among these plants, 27 species were recorded to have medicinal values for the first time recorded in literature, 23 species were found to have different medicinal functions from those recorded in the literature. Many medicinal herbs are simultaneously wild food plants. The local Yao people take medicinal baths on some special days very common to treat and prevent diseases. The Red-headed Yao medicinal herb doctors have conserved medicinal plants and their habitats over the years. Most of the folk healers are old women, who are concerned about passing on their secrets to the younger generation. They fear that the younger generations have not learned enough about the herbal traditions to keep the practice going. The authors suggest that plants used by the Red-headed Yao people need to be further studied phytochemically and pharmacologically.

  1. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  2. El Pràcticum al grau de Pedagogia de la Universitat de Barcelona: el mapa de la professió, la pràctica simulada i la immersió en una organització

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vilà-Baños

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Es presenta el treball innovador que l’equip de coordinació del Pràcticum del grau de Pedagogia de la Universitat de Barcelona ha elaborat per organitzar les assignatures vinculades a la pràctica dels professionals de la pedagogia. Amb la finalitat de preparar els futurs professionals en els aspectes més pràctics de la seva formació, s’estructuren tres assignatures: Professionalització i Sortides Laborals, Pràctiques d’Iniciació Professional i Pràctiques Externes. En aquestes assignatures es treballa de forma innovadora el perfil del pedagog i el mapa de la professió, a primer curs del grau; la pràctica simulada a través de casos, a tercer, i la immersió en una organització, com a pràctica externa, acompanyada dels seminaris de pràctica reflexiva.

  3. Teške kovine u čeličanskoj elektropećnoj prašini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrino Dj.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of corporate waste management, Sisak Steelworks initiated a thorough and systematic examination of physical and chemical properties of metallurgical waste and of its behaviour in interaction with the environment. Electric arc furnace (EAF dust has been categorized as hazardous technological waste and it can not be directly disposed of to the ground / in a land fill. Therefore, it is necessary to find a way to dispose of it in an environmentally friendly and economically acceptable manner. In order to elaborate different options and chose the optimal practice for the disposal of the accumulated volumes of hazardous metallurgical waste, comprehensive and systematic research has been conducted. This paper provides only a partial survey of the research of the heavy metal Zn, Pb, Cd content in electric arc furnace dust as well. Qualitative chemical analysis of samples of electric arc furnace dust was conducted on all observed samples and the presence of Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, K, S, P, C, O and Cl was established. The results of qualitative chemical analysis of monthly average samples of electric arc furnace dust obtained by other methods established that the mass fraction of iron was between 41.08 and 48.58 %, zinc between 3.75 and 8.10 %, lead between 0.94 and 2.07 %, and cadmium between 0.010 and 0.027 %. The results of the Zn, Pb, Cd fraction analysis in the observed samples of electric arc furnace dust are considerably lower, than the content of those metals in EAF dusts presented in the available references, where the mass fraction of zinc varies between 0.14 and 50 %, lead between 0.03 and 6.8 %, and cadmium between < 0.01 and 1.8 %. Quantitative analysis of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd fraction was carried out in grain-metrical fractions of individual samples of EAF dust as well. The results have shown that the concentrations of Fe tend to increase with smaller fraction grains compared to an average sample, whereas concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the same proportion display a descending tendency. Results of the Zn, Pb and Cd fraction analysis in the EAF dust samples from Sisak Steelworks compared to the mass fraction of those metals in EAF dust from other steel mills imply that the measured concentrations of zinc, lead, and cadmium are much higher. Therefore, it is not economically viable to recycle this dust for the lead, zinc or cadmium recovery. Consequently, the disposal of this kind of hazardous metallurgical waste must first be handled in another, environmentally acceptable and economically justifiable way. Additional investigations must be carried out before the final decision is made.

  4. Una reflexión teórico-práctica sobre la educación hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Fernández Poncela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El texto presenta una reflexión general sobre la educación hoy. Revisa algunas tendencias educativas contemporáneas. Analiza algunos testimonios de estudiantes desde la perspectiva de la inteligencia emocional a través de ejercicios cualitativos. Finalmente, la juventud no parece estar tan domesticada como se piensa. No obstante, la educación todavía requiere ampliar sus perspectivas complementando razón y emoción desde un enfoque de equilibrio global. Palabras clave: Educación, Reflexión, Emoción, Inteligencia emocional. Abstract This text presents a general reflection on today’s education. It examines some contemporary educational trends. From the perspective of emotional intelligence, it analyzes some statements from students through qualitative exercises. Finally, youth does not seem as tamed as one may think. Nonetheless, education still needs to expand its perspectives, complementing reason and emotion, and focusing on a global balance. Key words: Education, Reflection, Emotion, Emotional intelligence. Resumo O texto apresenta uma reflexão geral sobre a educação hoje. Ele revisa algumas tendências educacionais contemporâneas. Ainda analisa alguns testemunhos de estudantes a partir da perspectiva da inteligência emocional através de exercícios quali- tativos. Finalmente, a juventude não parece tão inofensiva quanto se pensa. No entanto, a educação ainda precisa ampliar suas perspectivas complementando a razão e a emoção a partir da perspectiva um equilíbrio geral. Palavras-chave: Educação, Reflexão, Emoção, Inteligência emocional. 

  5. Una reflexión teórico-práctica sobre la educación hoy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna María Fernández Poncela

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El texto presenta una reflexión general sobre la educación hoy. Revisa algunas tendencias educativas contemporáneas. Analiza algunos testimonios de estudiantes desde la perspectiva de la inteligencia emocional a través de ejercicios cualitativos. Finalmente, la juventud no parece estar tan domesticada como se piensa. No obstante, la educación todavía requiere ampliar sus perspectivas complementando razón y emoción desde un enfoque de equilibrio global. Palabras clave: Educacio...

  6. Da praça ao pergaminho: Os Sermones In circulum anni de Sovramonte de Varese, Omin, na Lombardia Franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Lombardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma pequena e quase ignorada coleção de sermões oriundos da Itália setentrional. Eles foram escritos por um frade franciscano chamado Sovramonte de Varese (Supermons de Varisio, por volta da metade do século XIII. Tais sermões são úteis para entender as dinâmicas entre a apresentação oral do sermão e a sua escrita. Após uma detalhada reconstrução da biografia de Sovramonte, o artigo apresenta a coleção priorizando dois temas: a usura e a heresia. Ambos permitem-nos recuperar a ação do frade no contexto urbano supostamente de Milão. Tentar-se-à introduzir a questão das relações desta coleção com obras contemporâneas, como os sermões de Felipe o Chanceler e Santo Antônio de Pádua, para esclarecer as passagens que aparecem subentendidas em todo o trabalho de Sovramonte: a leitura, a pregação e a escrita. Palavras-chave - Supermons de Varisio, sermões medievais, pregação, ordem franciscana, usura, heresia.

  7. Automated system for review of radiotherapy treatment sheets; Sistema automatizado pra la revision de hojas de tratamiento en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Chamorro, P.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Vazquez Galinanes, A.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Gomez amez, J.; Martinez Sanchez, S.; Ossola Lentati, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    In many modern radiotherapy services begins to leaf treatment implemented in electronic form. In our department has developed an automated reporting system, that check the following parameters: treatment completed correctly, number of sessions and cumulative dose administered. Likewise treatments are verified in the allocated separate unit, and over-writing table parameters.

  8. KECENDERUNGAN TRANSISI DEMOGRAFI DAN EPIDEMIOLOGI SUATU FENOMENA PENTING TERHADAP MASALAH GIZI DAN KESEHATAN PADA PRA-LANSIA DAN LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanto Soemodinoto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive impacts of the First Long Term Development 1968-1993 have resulted improvement of health status, socio economic condition and demographic changes. Although infections diseases are still prevalent, epidemiologic transition is occuring as shown by the increase of death caused by cardiovascular diseases, cancer, degenerative and other chronic diseases. The projection of population composition has shown that by the year of 2020, the population pyramide of Indonesia will be as the pattern of developed countnes. Apart from the increase numbers of senior citizen, health problems in this population group will occur due to socio-economic and environmental changes. Considermg such condition, in the attempts to have better health status among meelderly and elderly groups, a nutrition policy should be made as an integral part of health development programs. The policy should be formulated as integral programs of human resources development. The emphasis must be concentrated on the balanceor healthy diet and  the variation of food stuffs. In addition, the approach toward positif and proactive health development should be actively promoted.   Key Word : epidemiologic transition, demographic transition, socio-economic changes, nutrition policy.

  9. Centro Cultural Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Eurico Pra do Lopes, Luiz Benedito Castro Telles Arquitectos, 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Serapiao,Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A 30 años de su inauguración, la relación entre edificio, paisaje y ciudad que plantea la arquitectura del ccsp sigue poniendo en crisis la idea moderna de objeto arquitectónico, con una propuesta que opta, prácticamente, por su desaparición.

  10. Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Esber

    Full Text Available The progesterone receptor (PR with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4 and ulipristal acetate (UPA, a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required.

  11. Chronic effects of lead on the renin-angiotensin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander, A.J.

    1988-06-01

    This paper reviews the chronic effects of lead exposure on the renin-angiotensin system in experimental animals and human beings. In rats, when lead exposure is begun several weeks after birth in doses that cause blood lead concentration (PbB) of 30 to 40 ..mu..g/L, the result is an increase in basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal renin concentration, with no change in the metabolic clearance of renin; this is presumptive evidence for increased renin secretion. PRA is also increased in 1-month-old animals whose exposure to lead (in doses that raise PbB to 9 ..mu..g/dL) was begun in utero. In contrast, older animals whose exposure was begun in utero manifest no change or a decrease in their PRA and renal renin concentration. Regardless of when the exposure is begun, lead can decrease the plasma concentration of angiotensin II at any given PRA, but the dose required for this effect is highly variable. The hypertension induced by lead exposure is associated with low PRA and a normal anigotensin II/PRA ratio. Chronic human exposure to lead also is associated with highly variable changes in PRA from study to study; it has been reported to be decreased under both basal and stimulated conditions, unchanged, or increased in a manner exponentially related to PbB. The human data are consistent with the tentative hypothesis that lead-exposed persons may have higher PRA than normal during the early periods of modest exposure but normal or depressed PRA following more chronic severe exposures. In a small preliminary study, blood lead concentration was found to be higher in high-renin hypertensive persons than in normotensive persons.

  12. Multiple short-term effects of lead on the renin-angiotensin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.M.; Vander, A.J.; Mouw, D.R.; Keiser, J.; Nicholls, M.G.

    1981-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that lead (3 mg/kg iv) sharply raises PRA in dogs. In the present study, the short-term effects of the same dose of lead on renin secretion, hepatic removal of renin, and arterial All levels were measured in anesthetized dogs. Despite large increases in PRA in all nine lead-treated dogs, renin secretion increased in only three out of nine lead-treated animals (those whith the lowest baseline renin secretion). Hepatic extraction of renin was eliminated by lead, and so total hepatic removal of renin became zero by 2 or 3 hr after lead administration. Finally, despite large increases in PRA, All levels did not rise after lead. The linear relationship of All to PRA seen in animals not treated with lead was changed, so that after lead, All levels were disproportionately low for the corresponding level of PRA. It is concluded that lead may increase renin secretion in animals otherwise unstimulated to secrete but that the major mechanism for the short-term rise in PRA after lead is elimination of hepatic removal of renin; further, lead prevents All from rising proportionately with PRA, presumably by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme.

  13. Prenylated Rab acceptor protein is a receptor for prenylated small GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, C; Taylor, J; Vojtek, A B

    2001-07-27

    Localization of Ras and Ras-like proteins to the correct subcellular compartment is essential for these proteins to mediate their biological effects. Many members of the Ras superfamily (Ha-Ras, N-Ras, TC21, and RhoA) are prenylated in the cytoplasm and then transit through the endomembrane system on their way to the plasma membrane. The proteins that aid in the trafficking of the small GTPases have not been well characterized. We report here that prenylated Rab acceptor protein (PRA1), which others previously identified as a prenylation-dependent receptor for Rab proteins, also interacts with Ha-Ras, RhoA, TC21, and Rap1a. The interaction of these small GTPases with PRA1 requires their post-translational modification by prenylation. The prenylation-dependent association of PRA1 with multiple GTPases is conserved in evolution; the yeast PRA1 protein associates with both Ha-Ras and RhoA. Earlier studies reported the presence of PRA1 in the Golgi, and we show here that PRA1 co-localizes with Ha-Ras and RhoA in the Golgi compartment. We suggest that PRA1 acts as an escort protein for small GTPases by binding to the hydrophobic isoprenoid moieties of the small GTPases and facilitates their trafficking through the endomembrane system.

  14. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-03-15

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p<0.001) and normal renin essential hypertension(r=-0.551, p<0.05) and the chronic renal failure with hypertension. (r=-0.790, P<0.001) 2) NaE increased markedly the in chronic renal failure with hypertension (66.9+-8.69 mEq/kg of LBM, p<0.001) and the chronic renal failure without hypertension (54.9+-9.28 mEq/kg of LBM, p<0.05), while mild increase was noted in malignant hypertension (51.7+-6.24 mEq/kg of LBM, 0.050.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53+-1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09+-2.042, p<0.001). But PRA was inappropriately high in relation to prevailing NaE in the chronic renal failure with hypertension (eleven of thirteen patients) and malignant hypertension (ten of fourteen patients), while PRA variatiation was within physiologic range in the chronic renal failure without hypertension. 4) The NaE-PRA product was markedly increased in the chronic renal failure with hypertension (514.4+-42.10, p<0.001) and in malignant hypertension (442.7+-55.03, p<0.001), while moderately increased NaE-PRA product was noted in the chronic renal failure without hypertension (402.6+-59.67, p<0

  15. Studies on Renin Stimulation in Normal Controls and in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chang Soon; Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-03-15

    To find out a convenient and reliable method of detecting low renin status, we employed intravenous furosemide injection as a stimulatory maneuver. The results thus obtained were compared with those from the postural stimuli and basal plasma renin activity (PRA) in relation to sodium excretion. Intravenous furosemide test was performed in 66 control subjects and 44 patients with essential hypertension. The results were as follow; 1) Mean PRA in control subjects rose from 2.5+-1.95 ng/ml/hr (basal) to 4.5+-2.51, 5.2+-2.49 and 4.2+-2.44 ng/ml/hr at 1, 2 and 3 hrs after IV injection. One-hour response is more convenient in clinical practice. 2) Postural stimuli by assuming an upright posture for 3 hrs gave rise to considerable increase in PRA (4.0+-2.92 from 2.4+-1.85), but we found it less convenient than stimulation with furosemide. 3) The increase in PRA was much less marked in patients with essential hypertension as a whole (2.9+-2.75). Hyporesponsiveness to furosemide stimuli was found in 34.1%. Of these hyporesponders, a third had a normal basal PRA, indicating the need for this kind stimulatory procedure. 4) Younger age group showed greater renin responsiveness than older age group after furosemide stimuli. Likewise mean age of low renin patients (52.9+-5.38 years old) was significantly higher than that of high and normal renin patients (44.1+-13.78 years old).

  16. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Studies of Citrus macroptera: A Medicinal Plant Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koly Aktar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus macroptera (family Rutaceae, commonly known as Sat Kara, is a pharmacologically diverse medicinal plant. Various parts of this plant, specifically fruit, have an immense range of medicinal uses in folk medicine directed for a number of ailments. A plethora of active phytochemical constituents of this plant have been revealed so far, namely, limonene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-pinene, geranial edulinine, ribalinine, isoplatydesmine, and so forth. Several studies demonstrated the exploration of pharmacological potential of various parts such as fruits, leaves, and stems of C. macroptera as antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, thrombolytic, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective. Furthermore, inhibition of in vitro α-amylase, inhibition of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity, and potentiation of brain antioxidant enzyme are also ascertained. In present review, comprehensive study focused on knowledge regarding several phytopharmacological activities of Citrus macroptera has been described.

  17. IMPACT OF URBANISATION ON LANDUSE IN A PERI-URBAN, CHENNAI – A CASE STUDY OF CATCHMENT AND COMMAND AREA OF CHEMBARAMBAKKAM TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DHATCHAYANI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in the developmental activities of any country. Present mismanagement of water resources causes future deterioration, both in quantity and quality. Increase in population causes changes in the landuse / landcover in the peri-urban areas. The Chembarambakkam tank taken for study has recently been developed as a major source of water supply to the Chennai city. It has maximum storage capacity of 103 MFt. The major treatment plant of 530 MLD has been commissioned on July 2007. It is necessary to safeguard the existing water resources and analyse the present status of the water body. The catchment area contributes to the inflow and the quantity of water is analysed by estimating the runoff from the catchment area using Soil Conservation Services – Curve Number (SCS-CN model. Water released to the command area for irrigation is analysed from the secondary data. The landuse / landcover change in the command area was identified by comparing the satellite imageries of the years 1991 and 2003. Questionnaire and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools like village mapping and time – line analysis were used to get the social and economic data to analyse the reasons for changes in landuse. This project proves that urbanization and industrialization has reduced the irrigation to the worst level.

  18. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... Sediment source studies involving a simple mixing model was undertaken in the ... For bank erosion, river channel bank materials were sampled.

  19. Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a usual cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. Results from a Swedish screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurjonsdottir Helga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (AH has been considered a rare cause of primary hyperaldosteronism (PA. Methods In a prospective study we screened for PA in a non-selected (NSP and selected hypertensive population (SP, to define the cause of PA. We included 353 consecutive patients with hypertension; age 20 to 88 years, 165 women and 188 men, from a university-based Hypertension and Nephrology Outpatient clinics (123 SP and two primary care centres, (230 NSP from the same catch-up area. Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA were measured and the ARR calculated. Verifying diagnostic procedure was performed in patients with both elevated aldosterone and ARR. Patients diagnosed with PA were invited for adrenal venous sampling (AVS and offered laparoscopic adrenalectomy when AVS found the disease to be unilateral. Results After screening, 46 patients, 13% of the whole population (22.8% SP and 7.8% NSP had aldosterone and ARR above the locally defined cut-off limits (0.43 nmol/l and 1.28 respectively. After diagnostic verification, 20 patients (6% had PA, (14.5% SP and 1.4% NSP. Imaging diagnostic procedures with CT-scans and scintigraphy were inconclusive. AVS, performed in 15 patients verified bilateral disease in 4 and unilateral in 10 patients. One AVS failed. After laparoscopic adrenalectomy, 4 patients were found to have adenoma and 5 unilateral AH. One patient denied operation. Conclusion The prevalence of PA was in agreement with previous studies. The study finds unilateral PA common and unilateral AH as half of those cases. As may be suspected PA is found in much higher frequency in specialised hypertensive units compared to primary care centers. AVS was mandatory in diagnosis of unilateral PA.

  20. PROGRAM PPG UNTUK MEMBANGUN KOMPETENSI GURU GEOGRAFI (STUDI KASUS DI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Prani Ningsih

    2016-10-01

    menjelaskan bentuk implementasi Program PPG SM3T dalam membangun kompetensi guru geografi alumni program SM3T. Bentuk implementasi Program PPG SM3T meliputi proses pengembangan kurikulum hingga penilaian kompetensi guru geografi. Kompetensi yang dimaksud adalah kompetensi pedagogik, kompetensi kepribadian, kompetensi sosial, dan kompetensi profesional. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi kasus di Universitas Negeri Malang. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan dokumentasi. Analisis data menggunakan model interaktif Miles dan Huberman. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa bentuk implementasi Program PPG meliputi beberapa tahapan, yaitu (1 tahap pengembangan silabus oleh pihak terkait sesuai kebijakan universitas; (2 tahap pra kondisi sebagai gabungan tahap pra kondisi dan pleno 1; (3 tahap sistem pembelajaran yang terdiri dari beberapa tahapan dan kegiatan pembelajaran, yaitu (a tahap workshop SSP terdiri atas tahapan kegiatan pleno 2, yaitu pendalaman materi kurikulum 2013, pre-test, diskusi kelompok yaitu diskusi materi geografi dan pedagogik yang belum dipahami, kerja kelompok mandiri yaitu menyusun perangkat pembelajaran, gabungan tahap pleno 3, revisi dan persetujuan RPP, yaitu peer teaching, tes formatif, KKL dan melakukan kegiatan insidental seperti menulis jurnal dan artikel ilmiah; (b tahap PPL terdiri dari tahapan prosesi penyerahan mahasiswa PPL ke sekolah, pelatihan KMD oleh pihak PPG, melakukan kegiatan mengajar dan non mengajar, penelitian PTK, dan uji kinerja berupa Lesson Study; dan (c tahap uji kompetensi terdiri dari, pendalaman materi subtansial geografi, Ujian Tulis Lokal, dan Ujian Tulis Nasional. Tahapan implementasi diarahkan dalam membangun kompetensi guru geografi, yaitu pedagogik, kepribadian, sosial, dan profesional.

  1. Single antigen flow beads for identification of human leukocyte antigen antibody specificities in hypersensitized patients with chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Soyöz, Mustafa; Kılıçaslan-Ayna, Tülay; Özkızılcık-Koçyiğit, Aslı; Güleç, Derya; Pirim, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study Aims of this study were to identify class I and class II antibodies in highly sensitized patients by flow cytometry single antigen bead (FC-SAB) assay and to evaluate according to donor HLA type in order to increase their kidney transplantation chance. Material and methods We analyzed 60 hypersensitive patients of 351 individuals, who applied to our laboratory for PRA test in November 2013-December 2014. Flow cytometric PRA screening and single antigen bead commercial kits ...

  2. Expression of Estrogen Sulfotransferase 1E1 and Steroid Sulfatase in Breast Cancer: A Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Poisson Paré

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the steroid sulfatase (STS and the estrogen sulfotransferase (EST1E1 are commonly expressed in human breast carcinomas. STS and EST1E1 combined action could maintain the equilibrium between sulfated (inactive and unconjugated (active estrogens, which might have effects on development of hormone dependent breast cancer. We studied the expression of the STS and EST1E1 in 88 breast carcinomas and 57 adjacent non-malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results were correlated with the tumor expression of estrogen receptor α (ER-α and β (ER-β, progesterone receptor A (PR-A and B (PR-B and the proliferation marker CDC47, the tumoral type and stage and the age at surgery. STS expression was higher in carcinoma specimens than in adjacent normal tissues, although not to a significant level (p = 0.064 and it was positively associated with CDC47 expression (p 0.05. These observations support the hypothesis that STS is overexpressed in breast cancer and associated with a worse prognosis. EST1E1 was observed for the first time in the nuclei of epithelial and tumoral cells. Tumor expression of EST1E1 was positively correlated with ER-β (p 0.01 and PR-B (p 0.05, two steroid receptors already associated with an improve prognosis for breast cancer. Controlling the STS overexpression in carcinomas could be a way to inhibit cancer growth. The significance of the association between EST1E1 and ER-β or PR-B should be further studied since these two receptors are transcription activators and may regulate the expression of protective enzymes like EST1E1.

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes in ovarian-type stroma of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms: Comparative study of subepithelial stromal cells in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuyuki; Sasano, Hironobu; Moriya, Takuya; Takahashi, Yayoi; Sugimoto, Ryo; Mue, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Keigo; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Sugai, Tamotsu

    2016-05-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) are generally defined as cyst-forming epithelial neoplasms that arise in the pancreas and harbor characteristic ovarian-type stroma beneath the epithelium. In this study, we compared the immunoreactivity of steroid-related factors in these subepithelial stromal cells in MCNs to those in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) to further characterize this unique MCN ovarian-type stroma through evaluation of sex steroid biosynthesis. Twenty MCNs and twenty IPMNs were examined. Immunoreactivity of steroid hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR, PR-A, and PR-B), and androgen receptor (AR), was more frequently detected in MCN ovarian-type stromal cells than in IPMN stromal cells (P enzymes cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) showed immunoreactivity in 9/20 (45.0 %), 15/20 (75.0 %) and 13/20 (65.0 %), respectively, of ovarian-type stroma from MCN cases. These results demonstrate that the ovarian-type stroma of MCNs can express steroidogenic enzymes. Thus, the ovarian-type stroma of MCNs can produce sex steroids that may also act on these cells.

  4. Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use Pattern of Rocky-desertified Land in Southwest China's Poverty-stricken Karst Mountainous Areas——A Case Study in Benggu Township, Xichou County, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; BAO Guangjing; LI Zhiguo; HE Yimei

    2006-01-01

    The rocky desert in a karst area directly causes the lack of soil, water and forest, hence leading to the poverty there. In 1990, the villagers from the Muzhe Village in Benggu Township, Xichou County,Yunnan declared a war against rocky desert in an attempt to ask the fields for more yields. They invented a distinctive land rehabilitation and sustainable use pattern called "transforming heaven and earth" that had been practiced in Southwest China's karst areas. The key mechanism of the pattern was to develop terraced fields with well conserved soil,water and fertility by exploding rocks in the fields,building stone walls, gathering more soil, and improving soil quality and productivity for the fields in combination with building of irrigation facilities and roads, as well as with forestation and agriculture structure adjustment. The purpose of the pattern was to alleviate poverty in the karst areas by improving soil productivity and promoting agricultural development. A typical area was studied with the help of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and the pattern was carried out there for fifteen years, have produced excellent ecological benefits and good economic benefits. Its application in the area approved that it was a sustainable land use pattern for rocky desert areas.

  5. Plasma renin activity: An early marker of progressive renal disease in posterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A significant number of children with posterior urethral valves (PUV develop chronic renal failure (CRF due to activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS. We investigated the role of plasma renin activity (PRA in these cases and sought to establish a relationship between the accepted criteria of renal damage and PRA. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between PRA and CRF. Materials and Methods: The records of 250 patients with PUV were reviewed. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess correlations between PRA, grade of reflux, presence of scars and raised creatinine and decrease in glomerular filtration rates (GFR. A P < 0.5 was considered as significant. Results: A total of 58 patients were included. Their mean age was 16 years, range 5.3-24.2 years, mean follow-up period was 12.6 ± 3.6 years. At diagnosis, 22/58 (38% patients were in CRF and 36/58 (62% patients had normal renal function (RF. The mean PRA after treatment was higher in those who developed CRF than in those with normal RF (12.6 ± 10.2 vs. 34.6 ± 14.2 ng/ml/24 h, P = 0.02. Mean GFR at 1 year of age were 48 ± 9.8 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and 86 ± 12.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 respectively (P = 0.005. PRA correlated negatively with GFR, t = -2.816, Confidence Interval: P = 0. 007. In the temporal plot over a period of 14 years, a rise in PRA preceded the fall in GFR in patients who developed CRF. Conclusions: This study shows that RAS is activated earlier in kidneys susceptible to damage. PRA could be investigated as a marker for the early detection and prevention of ongoing renal damage.

  6. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  7. A Small G Protein as a Novel Component of the Rice Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Song, Xiaoguang; Guo, Hongyan; Wu, Yao; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid hormones that are essential for plant growth and development. The BR signal transduction pathway in the dicot model plant Arabidopsis is well established, but the components connecting the BR signaling steps in rice have not been fully explored. For example, how the BR signaling is fine-tuned in rice, especially at the BR receptor level, is largely unknown. Here we show that OsPRA2, a rice small G protein, plays a repressive role in the BR signaling pathway. Lamina inclination, coleoptile elongation, and root inhibition assays indicated that rice plants with suppressed expression of OsPRA2 were more sensitive to exogenously applied brassinolide than the wild-type plants. Conversely, rice overexpressing OsPRA2 was less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide. Further study uncovered that OsPRA2 inhibited the dephosphorylation of, and thus inactivated the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (OsBZR1). More importantly, OsPRA2 was found to co-localize with and directly bind to rice BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (OsBRI1) at the plasma membrane. Additionally, the in vitro assays showed that OsPRA2 inhibits its autophosphorylation. This OsPRA2-OsBRI1 interaction led to the dissociation of OsBRI1 from its co-receptor OsBAK1, and abolished OsBRI1-mediated phosphorylation of OsBAK1. Together, these results reveal a possible working mechanism of OsPRA2 as a novel negative regulator on OsBRI1 and OsBZR1 and extend the knowledge about the regulatory mechanism of rice BR signaling.

  8. Hand Robotic Therapy in Children with Hemiparesis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lauri; Gordon, Andrew M; Kim, Heakyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the impact of training with a hand robotic device on hand paresis and function in a population of children with hemiparesis. Twelve children with hemiparesis (mean age, 9 [SD, 3.64] years) completed participation in this prospective, experimental, pilot study. Participants underwent clinical assessments at baseline and again 6 weeks later with instructions to not initiate new therapies. After these assessments, participants received 6 weeks of training with a hand robotic device, consisting of 1-hour sessions, 3 times weekly. Assessments were repeated on completion of training. Results showed significant improvements after training on the Assisting Hand Assessment (mean difference, 2.0 Assisting Hand Assessment units; P = 0.011) and on the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale (raw score mean difference, 4.334; P = 0.001). No significant improvements between pretest and posttest were noted on the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function, the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, or the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory after intervention. Total active mobility of digits and grip strength also failed to demonstrate significant changes after training. Participants tolerated training with the hand robotic device, and significant improvements in bimanual hand use, as well as impairment-based scales, were noted. Improvements were carried over into bimanual skills during play. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand key components of neuroplasticity; (2) Discuss the benefits of robotic therapy in the recovery of hand function in pediatric patients with hemiplegia; and (3) Appropriately incorporate robotic therapy into the treatment plan of pediatric patients with hemiplegia. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the

  9. Laparoscopic anterior versus endoscopic posterior approach for adrenalectomy: a shift to a new golden standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrielink, O M; Wevers, K P; Kist, J W; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Hemmer, P H J; Vriens, M R; de Vries, J; Kruijff, S

    2017-08-01

    There has been an increased utilization of the posterior retroperitoneal approach (PRA) for adrenalectomy alongside the "classic" laparoscopic transabdominal technique (LTA). The aim of this study was to compare both procedures based on outcome variables at various ranges of tumor size. A retrospective analysis was performed on 204 laparoscopic transabdominal (UMC Groningen) and 57 retroperitoneal (UMC Utrecht) adrenalectomies between 1998 and 2013. We applied a univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests were used to compare outcome variables between both approaches. Both mean operation time and median blood loss were significantly lower in the PRA group with 102.1 (SD 33.5) vs. 173.3 (SD 59.1) minutes (p < 0.001) and 0 (0-200) vs. 50 (0-1000) milliliters (p < 0.001), respectively. The shorter operation time in PRA was independent of tumor size. Complication rates were higher in the LTA (19.1%) compared to PRA (8.8%). There was no significant difference in recovery time between both approaches. Application of the PRA decreases operation time, blood loss, and complication rates compared to LTA. This might encourage institutions that use the LTA to start using PRA in patients with adrenal tumors, independent of tumor size.

  10. Diagnostic evaluation of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilan ZHANG; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using the plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio (PAC/PRA ratio) as the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients, we studied the clinical character-istics and the diagnostic value of PAC/PRA ratio in primary aldosteronism. The plasma aldosterone concen-tration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 902 hypertensive patients from out-patient clinics or hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six suspected primary aldosteronism patients whose PAC/PRA ratio was > 25 ng/dL/ng/mL/ hr had a lamellar computed tomography (CT) scan in the adrenal gland and follow-up visits. The proportion of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients was 14% (126/902). There were 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia and 25 patients with adenoma according to the CT scan. 39% (49/126) of the patients with primary aldosteronism had hypokalemia. Twenty-five patients received surgical treatment. The efficacy and cure rates were 100% (25/25) and 48% (12/25), respect-ively. The effective rate of aldactone and the single-drug cure rate were 89% (48/54) and 24% (13/54), respectively. Primary aldosteronism affects over 10% of hypertensive patients in China. The PAC/PRA ratio can be considered as a routine screening test in hypertensives, especially resistant hypertensive patients and a high PAC/PRA ratio is an invaluable index in primary aldosteronism diagnosis.

  11. SAPHIRE models and software for ASP evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Schroeder, J.A.; Russell, K.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the past year has created 75 plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models using the SAPHIRE suite of PRA codes. Along with the new models, the INEL has also developed a new module for SAPHIRE which is tailored specifically to the unique needs of conditional core damage probability (CCDP) evaluations. These models and software will be the next generation of risk tools for the evaluation of accident precursors by both NRR and AEOD. This paper presents an overview of the models and software. Key characteristics include: (1) classification of the plant models according to plant response with a unique set of event trees for each plant class, (2) plant-specific fault trees using supercomponents, (3) generation and retention of all system and sequence cutsets, (4) full flexibility in modifying logic, regenerating cutsets, and requantifying results, and (5) user interface for streamlined evaluation of ASP events.

  12. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  13. Proses dan Hasil Belajar pada Prakerind Bidang Keahlian Kendaraan Ringan: Studi Kasus pada Industri Pasangan SMKN 3 Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuneldi Miswardi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan proses belajar siswa SMKN 3 Yogyakarta kompetensi keahlian teknik kendaraan ringan di tempat kerja dalam pelaksanaan praktek kerja industri (pra-kerind. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif studi kasus. Subjek penelitian adalah empat manager/pihak DUDI yang mengelola pelaksanaan prakerind dan tujuh siswa yang terlibat dalam ke-giatan prakerind pada empat DUDI  tersebut. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan wa-wancara. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan ialah metode Miles dan Huberman, melalui tahapan pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut. 1 Pengaturan belajar siswa di tempat kerja dengan membatasi jumlah siswa dalam pekerjaan dan menjadikan siswa sebagai helper mekanik. 2 Proses pembelajaran siswa di tempat kerja: (a belajar melalui pekerjaan dengan mengikuti mekanik; (b peran mekanik: memberikan ke-sempatan kepada siswa untuk melakukan pekerjaan secara langsung dengan bimbingan dan pengawas-an, memberikan penilaian terhadap kinerja siswa; (c cara siswa mendapatkan kompetensi di tempat kerja: (1 berkomunikasi dan bersosialisasi, (2 rajin dan ulet, (3 memiliki inisiatif dan aktif; (d pe-ngetahuan, keterampilan dan sikap yang diperoleh siswa di tempat kerja:  (1 pengetahuan tentang du-nia kerja bengkel otomotif  dan pengalaman kerja pada pekerjaan yang sesungguhnya, (2 kategori kompetensi siswa yang diperoleh dalam prakerind untuk kategori bengkel besar dan kecil adalah kate-gori specialist, sedangkan untuk kategori bengkel menengah masih dalam kategori orang yang belum berpengalaman, (3 sikap siswa sesuai dengan budaya kerja di DUDI yaitu kerja keras dan peduli mutu. Kata kunci: Pembelajaran di tempat kerja

  14. Assessment of soil loss and nutrient depletion due to cassava harvesting: A case study from low input traditional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sumithra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a major food crop for farmers and especially small holder farmers and cultivated under low input other than the irrigation. It is cultivated as mono crop or intercrop at early stage and cultivating throughout the year. It is harvested carefully because of cyanogenic glucosides and consumed with in day. Easy and un-damageable uprooting of the tuber mainly depends on soil moisture, texture and agronomic practices. The study was focused with the objectives of the assessment of soil loss due to the harvesting of cassava roots tubers under low input agriculture, and to estimate the amount of plant nutrients loss due to crop harvest for cassava. Also the observation was made the correlation between the soil loss and physical characters of the tuber, soil texture and agronomic practices. Average plant specific soil loss due to crop harvesting was 80. 7 g root−1 and crop specific soil loss due to crop harvesting was 7. 64 kg ha−1 harvest−1 loss in Valliagmam area in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Soil moisture content at harvesting time was a significant factor that explained the variations in the soil lost at cassava harvesting. Soil moisture has linear positive relationship with average plant specific soil loss due to crop harvesting. Soil nutrient loss during cassava harvesting by removal of adhering soil with root tuber was 1. 15 kg of N, 1. 99 kg of P and 2. 91 kg of K ha−1 harvest−1. Application of fertilizer is important since considerable amount nutrient loss was observed due to soil loss due to crop harvest.

  15. Fundamental and clinical study of direct immunoradiometric assay in human renin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimoto, Fumihiko; Horiuchi, Junko; Sakurai, Hyoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Takita, Takashi; Saruta, Takao.

    1988-05-01

    'Renin RIA Pasteur' kit for directly measuring renin concentration in human plasma (PRC) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. A standard curve for PRC was linear in the range of 10 - 640 pg/ml. Reproducibility, recovery, and stability were satisfactory. There was a significantly positive correlation between direct PRC and conventional plasma renin activity (PRA) and indirect PRC. PRC was directly measured in 119 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with primary aldosteronism (4), Cushing's syndrome (6), or non-functioning tumor (5). The basal PRC was 32.4 +- 18.8 pg/ml for men and 37.9 +- 22.6 pg/ml for women. PRC for primary aldosteronism was below detectable levels, and remained unchanged even after the administratin of ACTH. In the case of Cushing's syndrome, mean PRC and PRA were 19 pg/ml and 1.2 ng/ml/hr, and did not respond to ACTH. Although the administration of ATCH was significantly associated with a decreased PRC, there was only tendency toward the decreased PRA in the case of non-functioning tumors. The results indicate the usefulness of the present kit in terms of its ability to directly measure PRC without any complicated procedures. (Namekawa, K.).

  16. Arabidopsis RecQsim, a plant-specific member of the RecQ helicase family, can suppress the MMS hypersensitivity of the yeast sgs1 mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherieh-Najjar, MB; de Vries, OMH; Kroon, JTM; Wright, EL; Elborough, KM; Hille, J; Dijkwel, PP

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes that belong to the RecQ family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. RecQ members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGS1) and man (WRN, BLM and RecQL4) are involved in DNA recombination, repair and genome stability maintenance, but little is known about the function

  17. Genes encoding plant-specific class III peroxidases are responsible for increased cold tolerance of the brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beg Hab; Kim, Sun Young; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported that one of the brassinosteroidinsensitive mutants, bri1-9, showed increased cold tolerance compared with both wild type and BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants, despite its severe growth retardation. This increased tolerance in bri1-9 resulted from the constitutively high expression of stress-inducible genes under normal conditions. In this report, we focused on the genes encoding class III plant peroxidases (AtPrxs) because we found that, compared with wild type, bri1-9 plants contain higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are not involved with the activation of NADPH oxidase and show an increased level of expression of a subset of genes encoding class III plant peroxidases. Treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), led to the reduction of cold resistance in bri1-9. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, we selected four (AtPrx1, AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69) for further functional analyses in response to cold temperatures. T-DNA insertional knockout mutants showed increased sensitivity to cold stress as measured by leaf damage and ion leakage. In contrast, the overexpression of AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69 increased cold tolerance in the BRI1-GFP plants. Taken together, these results indicate that the appropriate expression of a particular subset of AtPrx genes and the resulting higher levels of ROS production are required for the cold tolerance.

  18. A Mutation in Plant-Specific SWI2/SNF2-Like Chromatin-Remodeling Proteins, DRD1 and DDM1, Delays Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ju; Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Woo, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a finely regulated complex process; however, evidence for the involvement of epigenetic processes in the regulation of leaf senescence is still fragmentary. Therefore, we chose to examine the functions of DRD1, a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein, in epigenetic regulation of leaf senescence, particularly because drd1-6 mutants exhibited a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Photosynthetic parameters such as Fv/Fm and ETRmax were decreased in WT leaves compared to leaves of drd1-6 mutants after dark treatment. The WT leaves remarkably lost more chlorophyll and protein content during dark-induced senescence (DIS) than the drd1-6 leaves did. The induction of senescence-associated genes was noticeably inhibited in the drd1-6 mutant after 5-d of DIS. We compared changes in epigenetic regulation during DIS via quantitative expression analysis of 180-bp centromeric (CEN) and transcriptionally silent information (TSI) repeats. Their expression levels significantly increased in both the WT and the drd1-6 mutant, but did much less in the latter. Moreover, the delayed leaf senescence was observed in ddm1-2 mutants as well as the drd1-6, but not in drd1-p mutants. These data suggest that SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling proteins such as DRD1 and DDM1 may influence leaf senescence possibly via epigenetic regulation.

  19. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC and PICC-LIKE (PICL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Venkatakrishnan

    Full Text Available We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC and PICC-LIKE (PICL. PICC (147 kDa and PICL (87 kDa are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC, with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response.

  20. Epigenetic control of root and nodule development : the role of plant-specific histone deacetylases and LHP1 in root cell reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, S.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, unlike in animals, most organs develop post embryonically. These organs originate from clusters of undifferentiated dividing cells that form so-called meristems. Differentiated cells can be re-activated to enter the cell cycle and to ultimately give rise to new meristems. These differenti

  1. Epigenetic control of root and nodule development : the role of plant-specific histone deacetylases and LHP1 in root cell reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, S.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, unlike in animals, most organs develop post embryonically. These organs originate from clusters of undifferentiated dividing cells that form so-called meristems. Differentiated cells can be re-activated to enter the cell cycle and to ultimately give rise to new meristems. These

  2. In silico study of interaction between rice proteins enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and phytoalexin deficient 4, the regulators of salicylic acid signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Indra; Shah, Kavita

    2012-07-01

    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), a plant-specific protein has homology with the eukaryotic lipase in their N-terminal halves and a unique domain at its C-termini. EDS1 is known to be an important regulator of biotic stress and an essential component of basal immunity. EDS1 interacts with its positive co-regulator phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), resulting in mobilization of the salicylic acid defence pathway. Limited information regarding this interaction in rice is available. To study this interaction, a model of EDS1 and PAD4 proteins from rice was generated and validated with Accelrys DS software version 3.1 using bioinformatics interface. The in silico docking between the two proteins showed a significant protein-protein interaction between rice EDS1 and PAD4, suggesting that they form a dimeric protein complex, which, similar to that in Arabidopsis, is perhaps also important for triggering the salicylic acid signalling pathway in plants.

  3. In silico study of interaction between rice proteins enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and phytoalexin deficient 4, the regulators of salicylic acid signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indra Singh; Kavita Shah

    2012-07-01

    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), a plant-specific protein has homology with the eukaryotic lipase in their N-terminal halves and a unique domain at its C-termini. EDS1 is known to be an important regulator of biotic stress and an essential component of basal immunity. EDS1 interacts with its positive co-regulator phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), resulting in mobilization of the salicylic acid defence pathway. Limited information regarding this interaction in rice is available. To study this interaction, a model of EDS1 and PAD4 proteins from rice was generated and validated with Accelrys DS software version 3.1 using bioinformatics interface. The in silico docking between the two proteins showed a significant protein–protein interaction between rice EDS1 and PAD4, suggesting that they form a dimeric protein complex, which, similar to that in Arabidopsis, is perhaps also important for triggering the salicylic acid signalling pathway in plants.

  4. Implications of Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma Aldosterone Concentration in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with volume status and vascular tone in septic shock. The present study aimed to assess whether plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC measurements compared with conventional severity indicators are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. Methods We evaluated 105 patients who were admitted for septic shock. Plasma levels of the biomarkers PRA and PAC, the PAC/PRA ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP level, and cortisol level on days 1, 3, and 7 were serially measured. During the intensive care unit stay, relevant clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. Results Patients were divided into two groups according to 28-day mortality: survivors (n = 59 and non-survivors (n = 46. The survivor group showed lower PRA, PAC, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score than did the non-survivor group (all P < 0.05. The SOFA score was positively correlated with PRA (r = 0.373, P < 0.001 and PAC (r = 0.316, P = 0.001. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of PRA and PAC to predict 28-day mortality were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.79; P = 0.001 and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.77; P = 0.003, respectively, similar to the APACHE II scores and SOFA scores. In particular, the group with PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 on day 1 showed significantly greater mortality than did the group with PRA value <3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (log-rank test, P < 0.001. According to multivariate analysis, SOFA score (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.22, PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.60, previous history of cancer (hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.72 to 6.90, and coronary arterial occlusive disease (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.08 were predictors of 28-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated

  5. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  6. Effect of nifedipine on plasma renin, aldosterone and catecholamines in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, O L; Mikkelsen, E; Christensen, N J; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B

    1979-05-21

    Acute sublingual administration of nifedipine 10--20 mg to 13 hypertensive patients caused a rapid decrease in blood pressure (BP) and a concomitant increase in heart rate (HR), plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma renin activity (PRA); there was no significant change in plasma adrenaline (A) or aldosterone (ALDO). Basal PRA was the major determinant of the rise in PRA, as a close correlation was present between the basal value and the increase caused by nifedipine (r = 0.92), p less than 0.001). The rise in PRA was also correlated with the plasma concentration of nifedipine after 60 min (r = 0.80, p less than 0.01), but it was not correlated with the decrease in BP, the rise in HR or the increase in NA. Nifedipine 30--60 mg daily for 6 weeks caused a reduction in mean BP from 133 to 113 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Body weight and serum potassium decreased but no consistent change was noted in NA, PRA, ALDO or 24 h-excretion of catecholamines. A significant correlation was present between the change in NA and that in PRA (r = 0.74, p less than 0.01). The alterations in the various parameters in the acute and chronic studies were not correlated. The findings indicate that different regulatory mechanisms are activated during acute and chronic administration of nifedipine. It is suggested that an initial rise in sympathetic activity gradually decreases during prolonged therapy, but it still remains a determinant of PRA.

  7. Late-onset progressive retinal atrophy in the Gordon and Irish Setter breeds is associated with a frameshift mutation in C2orf71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, L M; Bell, J S; Freeman, J; Hartley, C; Hayward, L J; Mellersh, C S

    2013-04-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in dogs is characterised by the degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina, resulting in vision loss and eventually complete blindness. The condition affects more than 100 dog breeds and is known to be genetically heterogeneous between breeds. Around 14 mutations have now been identified that are associated with PRA in around 49 breeds, but for the majority of breeds the mutation(s) responsible have yet to be identified. Using genome-wide association with 16 Gordon Setter PRA cases and 22 controls, we identified a novel PRA locus, termed rod-cone degeneration 4 (rcd4), on CFA17 (Praw  = 2.22 × 10(-8) , Pgenome  = 2.00 × 10(-5) ), where a 3.2-Mb region was homozygous within cases. A frameshift mutation was identified in C2orf71, a gene located within this region. This variant was homozygous in 19 of 21 PRA cases and was at a frequency of approximately 0.37 in the Gordon Setter population. Approximately 10% of cases in our study (2 of 21) are not associated with this C2orf71 mutation, indicating that PRA in this breed is genetically heterogeneous and caused by at least two mutations. This variant is also present in a number of Irish Setter dogs with PRA and has an estimated allele frequency of 0.26 in the breed. The function of C2orf71 remains unknown, but it is important for retinal development and function and has previously been associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in humans.

  8. Protein A immunoadsorption combined with rituximab in highly sensitized kidney transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hang; HU Xiao-peng; LI Xiao-bei; LIU Hang; WANG Wei; REN Liang; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2009-01-01

    Background The number of highly sensitized patients is rising, and sensitization can lead to renal transplant failure.The present study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of protein A immunoadsorption combined with rituximab (RTX) in highly sensitized recipients of kidney transplants.Methods Seven highly sensitized recipients of living-related renal transplants (4 men and 3 women, mean aged 42.5 years old (range 33-51)) were pretreated with this combination. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch number was 2-5. Panel reactive antibody (PRA) of class 1 was high in 2 cases and that of class Ⅱ was high in 1 case. All patients were pretreated with immunoadsorption 2-10 times. Immunoglobulin and PRA changes were monitored before and after absorption. The operation was conducted when PRA or immunoglobulin levels were at or below normal levels.Immunosuppressive drugs were provided 3-5 days before the operation, and one dose of RTX (375 mg/m~2) was infused with polyclonal antibody on the day of operation. Postoperative creatinine (Cr), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), PRA ratio,and immunoglobulin changes were monitored.Results All 7 patients had good recovery without delayed graft function. Acute rejection occurred in 3 cases at postoperative days 8, 10, and 14, respectively. The Banff 07 biopsy grades were la in 1 case and lla C4d0 in 2 cases.Successful reversion was achieved after giving methylprednisolone or antithymocyte immunoglobulin + cyclophosphamide. All patients were discharged with normal renal function, mean class 1 PRA was 14% and mean class Ⅱ PRA was 35%. PRA was completely negative in 3 cases.Conclusion Protein A immunoadsorption combined with RTX can safely reduce the occurrence of humoral rejection in highly sensitized renal transplant recipients.

  9. Direct renin inhibition in addition to or as an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in patients with chronic systolic heart failure: rationale and design of the Aliskiren Trial to Minimize OutcomeS in Patients with HEart failuRE (ATMOSPHERE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krum, Henry; Massie, Barry; Abraham, William T

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) represents a key therapeutic target in heart failure (HF) management. However, conventional agents that block this system induce a reflex increase in plasma renin activity (PRA), which may lead to RAAS 'escape'. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) ...

  10. Development, characterization, and skin delivery studies of related ultradeformable vesicles: transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascenso A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andreia Ascenso,1 Sara Raposo,1 Cátia Batista,2 Pedro Cardoso,2 Tiago Mendes,2 Fabíola Garcia Praça,3 Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley,3 Sandra Simões1 1Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 3Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Ultradeformable vesicles (UDV have recently become a promising tool for the development of improved and innovative dermal and transdermal therapies. The aim of this work was to study three related UDV: transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes for the incorporation of actives of distinct polarities, namely, vitamin E and caffeine, and to evaluate the effect of the carrier on skin permeation and penetration. These actives were incorporated in UDV formulations further characterized for vesicles imaging by transmission electron microscopy; mean vesicle size and polydispersity index by photon correlation spectroscopy; zeta potential by laser-Doppler anemometry; deformability by pressure-driven transport; and incorporation efficiency (IE after actives quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Topical delivery studies were performed in order to compare UDV formulations regarding the release, skin permeation, and penetration profiles. All UDV formulations showed size values within the expected range, except transethosomes prepared by “transfersomal method”, for which size was smaller than 100 nm in contrast to that obtained for vesicles prepared by “ethosomal method”. Zeta potential was negative and higher for formulations containing sodium cholate. The IE was much higher for vitamin E- than caffeine-loaded UDV as expected. For flux measurements, the following order was obtained: transethosomes (TE > ethosomes (E ≥ transfersomes (T. This result was consistent with the release and skin penetration

  11. Estrategias Pedagógicas para Desarrollar las Habilidades Metacognitivas del Alumno de Instrumento con el Fin de Maximizar la Eficacia de sus Prácticas Instrumentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinalli Peral García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre los conocimientos y estrategias pedagógicas que se pueden aplicar para desarrollar las habilidades metacognitivas del alumno de instrumento. Primero, se explican los distintos componentes de la metacognición que el profesor de instrumento debe integrar a su pedagogía para guiar a su alumnado en su desarrollo metacognitivo. A continuación, se presentan los modos de intervención pedagógicos a privilegiar para iniciar al alumno de un instrumento en un proceso metacognitivo. Finalmente, se proponen dos estrategias pedagógicas provenientes de las ciencias de la educación diseñadas para desarrollar las habilidades metacognitivas de los estudiantes, las cuales han sido adaptadas a las necesidades específicas de la práctica instrumental. Estas herramientas ofrecen al músico-pedagogo referencias para guiar el desarrollo de las habilidades metacognitivas de su alumnado.

  12. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  13. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  14. A história da praça João Alves e sua contribuição na paisagem da cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Cardoso Maciel

    2007-06-01

    gathering. Therefore, the place met its urban goal of polarization and started being used as a proper square by a number of users. The new landscape changed the place’s history of being a junk deposit. However, it was all but a short tale. The local management desconsidered the square urban dynamics. Today, it’s being destroyed and its landscape reinvented by the population. History, contemporary, square, landscape, management.

  15. Marketingová a komunikační strategie Městských divadel pražských

    OpenAIRE

    Nejmanová, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master's thesis is to describe and evaluate marketing and communication strategy of City Theatres of Prague. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part and includes seven chapters. The theoretical part deals with defining the terms of marketing, theatrical marketing, marketing mix, SWOT analysis and describes the various forms of commercial communications. The practical part deals with the analysis and evaluation of the marketing mix and communication mix of Cit...

  16. "Eu vou pra Maracangalha, eu vou...": JK e a Distopia Brasiliæ na música popular e nas charges da revista Careta (1956-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cabral da Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Análise da relação entre música popular e charges satíricas sobre a fundação de Brasília, publicadas na revista humorística Careta. A iniciativa de construção da nova capital pelo governo de Juscelino Kubitschek foi objeto de acesa polêmica, dividindo a opinião pública, além de ser contestada pela União Democrática Nacional – UDN (principal partido de oposição. Inicialmente, investigam-se os usos sociais e apropriações da música popular para fazer a crítica ao projeto de JK. Depois, examinam-se as afinidades entre a revista de humor e a grande imprensa, compartilhando a oposição ao governo federal, bem como a defesa da cultura política liberal. Em seguida, analisa-se a polêmica musical de Brasília, envolvendo diferentes sujeitos, gêneros e práticas sociais. Por fim, através da avaliação da série iconográfica, estudam-se as disputas pelo imaginário social da nova cidade, reinventada como utopia negativa, a distopia Brasiliæ.

  17. “Vou Ficar de Arquibancada pra Sentir mais Emoção” – uma proposta de pesquisa acerca das sonoridades do futebol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARRA, Pedro Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the communicative interaction among a soccer competition, the reactions of a crowd present at the stadium and the sonority produced on this kind of sporting event. Following the idea of sonority, it shows the relations among sound, rithm and body and aims to establish working hypotheses from experimental observations made on some Clube Atlético Mineiro’s matches, on some regional and nacional tournaments.

  18. O Rio de Janeiro: uma praça desfalcada "dos melhores soldados e oficiais" (séculos XVII-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Figueiredo Pagano de Mello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o século XVIII, a cidade do Rio de Janeiro consolidava sua importância como um dos principais entrepostos do Atlântico sul. Para o Rio de Janeiro confluíam também as rotas que traziam metais preciosos, ouro das Minas e prata proveniente do comércio no rio da Prata. O objetivo desse artigo será demonstrar que, não obstante a progressiva importância estratégico-militar da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as questões relativas a sua defesa vinham a ocupar um papel secundário diante das necessidades político-militares que se impunham tanto ao Sul da Colônia quanto na região das Minas. Verifica-se, entretanto, que tanto a invasão francesa de 1711 quanto a assinatura do Tratado de Paz de Utrecht entre as Coroas Ibéricas vieram a possibilitar uma política que priorizasse a defesa militar da tão estrategicamente situada cidade e porto do Rio de Janeiro. O recorte cronológico do artigo abarca o período compreendido entre o final do século XVII, quando as Capitanias do Sul passaram novamente a ser governadas do Rio de Janeiro, e o início do século XVIII, com o governo de Vahia Monteiro. Como limitação espacial, a América meridional, com especial destaque para o Rio de Janeiro.

  19. A praça é o povo : intenção, projeto e multidão na arquitetura de Fábio Moura Penteado

    OpenAIRE

    Giroto, Ivo Renato

    2014-01-01

    A presente tese analisa a obra do arquiteto paulista Fábio Penteado sob um eixo analítico predefinido, estruturado ao redor do conceito de multidão – ente s ocial que o arquiteto frequentemente evocava ao explicar a razão de sua produção arquitetônica -, de forma a verificar se, e em que termos, seu pensamento projetual se relaciona com a multidão. Fábio Moura Penteado (1929-2011) foi um arquiteto ativamente atuante no cenário arquitetônico brasileiro, tanto pela qualidade de seus projeto...

  20. Casos para Ensino: “Esse Negócio É pra Valer?”: O Caso da Hebron®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kruta de Araújo Bispo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hebron ® is a pharmaceutical company with more than 20 years on the market, located in Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil. The company emerged from the dream of Mr. Josimar Henrique, who is a man from a humble origins. He is a visionary who has built a 100% Brazilian pharmaceutical company whose research produces innovative medicines, with much research carried out in partnership with universities and research institutes. This case recounts the history of the founder, the company, and the difficulties in establishing the company, as well as focuses on dilemmas concerning changes in personnel management towards a focus on competency-based management.

  1. Bioclimatic buildings of 16 houses in Pozuelo de Alarcon (Madrid); Edificio bioclimatico de 16 viviendas de promocion publica pra jovenes en Pozuelo de Alarcon. (Madrid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, G.; Yanez-Lopez del Amo, L.

    2004-07-01

    We present in this article a housing building for young people recently built for the Autonomous Administration of Madrid in Pozuelo de Alarcon in which have been applied some bioclimatic and energy efficiency techniques. In this communication are described the main architectural features and are exposed some of the estimated results of energy saving and reduction of Co2. (Author)

  2. A credibilidade da informação na web: estudo de práticas informacionais em contexto escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Ana Lúcia; Sá, Salvina

    2013-01-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados parcelares de um estudo destinado a promover um melhor conhecimento das estratégias que os jovens em idade escolar (12-18 anos) consideram relevantes para avaliar as fontes de informação disponíveis na Internet. Para o efeito, foi aplicado um inquérito distribuído a uma amostra de 195 alunos de uma escola do 3o ciclo e outra do ensino secundário de um concelho do distrito do Porto. São apresentados e discutidos os resultados acerca da perceção destes alun...

  3. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN PUPUK UREA DAN APLIKASI HERBISIDA PRA-TUMBUH TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg. DAN GULMA DI PEMBIBITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Parto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Research was carried out at green house of Agriculture Faculty of Sriwijaya University from October 2010 to January 2011 using split-split plot design. Main plot were pre-emergence herbicides :  H0 = no preemergence herbicide treatment (control, H1 = preemergence herbicide of methyl metsulfuron, and H2 = preemergence herbicide of ametryn. Subplot were dose of urea fertilizers : U0 = no urea fertilizer treatment (control, U1 = 2 gram of urea fertilizer per plant, and U2 = 4 gram of urea fertilizer per plant. Sub-sub plot were preemergence dosages : D0 = 0 liter formulation per ha, D1 = 1,5 liter formulation per ha, and D2 = 3,0 liter formulation per ha. Parameters measured were diameter of sleep eye stum, time of bud emergence, height of bud, number of leaves, percentage of growth seedling, weed growth, and efficiency of weed control. Results showed that kind of preemergence herbicides, urea fertilizer dosages, and preemergence herbicide dosages were no significant effect to weed dry weight due to weed growing were relative small. This supposed because soil which used as growth media no enough contain weed propagule, so the following research are need conducted.

  4. O papel da confiança na concessão de crédito pra empresas em recuperação.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Silveira Monteiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A incerteza, a complexidade e o risco do ambiente organizacional tornam-se maisintensos em empresas que estejam em situações de crise financeira. As relaçõesentre empresas credoras e devedoras passam a responder a mecanismos, jurídicosou não, que buscam atender às expectativas dos stakehoders envolvidos.Assim, pode-se esperar que as empresas em crise estabeleçam planos de recuperaçãofinanceira que poderão ter apoio dos credores envolvidos. O constructoConfiança é apresentado na literatura como fonte de redução das incertezas, dacomplexidade e dos riscos. O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em compreendera predisposição dos gestores de empresas credoras a confiar em empresas emrecuperação financeira tendo em vista a concessão de créditos financeiros. A pesquisa,qualitativa, teve os dados coletados mediante entrevistas; examinando-ospor meio da análise de domínio. Os resultados identificaram que a predisposiçãoa confiar – tendo em vista a concessão de créditos – é decorrente dos atributosda empresa em recuperação financeira e de seu gestor, os quais são identificadospor meios não convencionais.

  5. Component unavailability versus inservice test (IST) interval: Evaluations of component aging effects with applications to check valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E. [Vesely, (W.E.), Dublin, OH (United States); Poole, A.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Methods are presented for calculating component unavailabilities when inservice test (IST) intervals are changed and when component aging is explicitly included. The methods extend usual approaches for calculating unavailability and risk effects of changing IST intervals which utilize Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods that do not explicitly include component aging. Different IST characteristics are handled including ISTs which are followed by corrective maintenances which completely renew or partially renew the component. ISTs which are not followed by maintenance activities needed to renew the component are also handled. Any downtime associated with IST, including the test downtime and the following maintenance downtime, is included in the unavailability evaluations. A range of component aging behaviors is studied including both linear and nonlinear aging behaviors. Based upon evaluations completed to date, pooled failure data on check valves show relatively small aging (e.g., less than 7% per year). However, data from some plant systems could be evidence for larger aging rates occurring in time periods less than 5 years. The methods are utilized in this report to carry out a range of sensitivity evaluations to evaluate aging effects for different possible applications. Based on the sensitivity evaluations, summary tables are constructed showing how optimal IST interval ranges for check valves can vary relative to different aging behaviors which might exist. The evaluations are also used to identify IST intervals for check valves which are robust to component aging effects. General insights on aging effects are also extracted. These sensitivity studies and extracted results provide useful information which can be supplemented or be updated with plant specific information. The models and results can also be input to PRAs to determine associated risk implications.

  6. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  7. Effects of proteinase A on cultivation and viability characteristics of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae WZ65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bo ZHANG; Hai-feng ZHANG; Qi-he CHEN; Hui RUAN; Ming-liang FU; Guo-qing HE

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase A (PrA), encoded by PEP4 gene, is a key enzyme in the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We characterized the effects of PrA on cell growth and glucose metabolism in the industrial S. cerevisiae WZ65. It was observed that the lag phase of cell growth of partial PEP4 gene deletion mutant (36 h) and PrA-negative mutant (48 h) was significantly ex-tended, compared with the wild type strain (24 h) (P<0.05), but PrA had no effect on glucose metabolism either under shaking or steady state cultivations. The logistic model was chosen to evaluate the effect of PrA on S. cerevisiae cell growth, and PrA was found to promote cell growth against insufficient oxygen condition in steady state cultivation, but had no effect in shaking culti-vation. The effects of glucose starvation on cell growth of partial PEP4 gene deletion strain and PrA-negative mutant were also evaluated. The results show that PrA partial deficiency increased the adaption ofS. cerevisiae to unfavorable nutrient environment, but had no effect on glucose metabolism under the stress of low glucose. During heat shock test, at 60 ℃ the reduced cell viability rate (RCVR) was 10% for the wild type S. cerevisiae and 90% for both mutant strains (P<0.01), suggesting that PrA was a negative factor for S. cerevisiae cells to survive under heat shock. As temperatures rose from 60 ℃ to 70 ℃, the wild type S. cerevisiae had significantly lower relative glucose consumption rate (RGCR) (61.0% and 80.0%) than the partial mutant (78.0% and 98.5%) and the complete mutant (80.0% and 98.0%) (P<0.05), suggesting that, in coping with heat shock, cells of the PrA mutants increased their glucose consumption to survive. The present study may provide meaningful information for brewing industry; however, the role of PrA in industrial S. cerevisiae physiology is complex and needs to be further investigated.

  8. A role for prenylated rab acceptor 1 in vertebrate photoreceptor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickison Virginia M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rd1 mouse retina is a well-studied model of retinal degeneration where rod photoreceptors undergo cell death beginning at postnatal day (P 10 until P21. This period coincides with photoreceptor terminal differentiation in a normal retina. We have used the rd1 retina as a model to investigate early molecular defects in developing rod photoreceptors prior to the onset of degeneration. Results Using a microarray approach, we performed gene profiling comparing rd1 and wild type (wt retinas at four time points starting at P2, prior to any obvious biochemical or morphological differences, and concluding at P8, prior to the initiation of cell death. Of the 143 identified differentially expressed genes, we focused on Rab acceptor 1 (Rabac1, which codes for the protein Prenylated rab acceptor 1 (PRA1 and plays an important role in vesicular trafficking. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed reduced expression of PRA1 in rd1 retina at all time points examined. Immunohistochemical observation showed that PRA1-like immunoreactivity (LIR co-localized with the cis-Golgi marker GM-130 in the photoreceptor as the Golgi translocated from the perikarya to the inner segment during photoreceptor differentiation in wt retinas. Diffuse PRA1-LIR, distinct from the Golgi marker, was seen in the distal inner segment of wt photoreceptors starting at P8. Both plexiform layers contained PRA1 positive punctae independent of GM-130 staining during postnatal development. In the inner retina, PRA1-LIR also colocalized with the Golgi marker in the perinuclear region of most cells. A similar pattern was seen in the rd1 mouse inner retina. However, punctate and significantly reduced PRA1-LIR was present throughout the developing rd1 inner segment, consistent with delayed photoreceptor development and abnormalities in Golgi sorting and vesicular trafficking. Conclusions We have identified genes that are differentially regulated in the rd1 retina at early

  9. The Beneficial Effect of Praeruptorin C on Osteoporotic Bone in Ovariectomized Mice via Suppression of Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqiang; Chin, Jie-Fen; Qu, Xinhua; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Yuan; Yu, Ziqiang; Zhai, Zanjing; Qin, An; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min

    2017-01-01

    Being a highly prevalent disease, osteoporosis causes metabolism defects. Low bone density, compromised bone strength, and an increased danger of fragility fracture are its main characteristics. Natural compounds have been considered as potential alternative therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis. In this study, we demonstrated that a natural compound, praeruptorin C (Pra-C), derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum, has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function via attenuating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, Pra-C was tested in the ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a well-established model of post-menopausal bone loss, and the results indicated Pra-C exerted beneficial effects on inhibiting excessive osteoclast activity and increasing bone mass of OVX mice. Therefore, the protective effects of Pra-C on OVX mice bone are related to its inhibition of osteoclast formation and bone resorption, suggesting that Pra-C is a good potential candidate for osteoporosis treatment.

  10. Study on the biochemical characterization of herbicide detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Young; Kong, Kwang-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    To gain further insight into herbicide detoxification, we studied the herbicide activity and specificity toward glutathione S-transferases from human and rice. In this study, the genes of the plant specific phi and tau class GST enzymes from Oryza sativa (OsGST) and human pi class GST enzyme (hGSTP1-1) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with the pET and pKK vector systems, respectively. The gene products were purified to homogeneity by GSH Sepharose affinity column chromatography. The herbicide specificity of the enzymes was investigated by enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of GSH with chloroacetanilide, diphenylether and chloro-s-triazine herbicides. The hGSTP1-1 showed very high specific activity toward atrazine. On the other hand, the phi class OsGST enzymes showed high specific activity toward chloroacetanilide herbicides, acetochlor, alachlor and metolachlor. The tau class GST enzymes displayed remarkable activity toward the diphenylether herbicide, fluorodifen. From these results, we conclude that the phi and the tau class GST enzymes show herbicide specificities and also they play an important role in the detoxification reaction of plant toward herbicides.

  11. Monitoring the effect of motivation on mastering knowledge and skills in distance learning systems / Влияние мотивации на процессы овладения знаниями, умениями и навыками в системе дистанционного образовани / Praćenje uticaja motivacije na procese apsolviranja znanja i veština u sistemu učenja na daljinu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boža D. Miljković

    2016-10-01

    ыявления основан на наблюдении роста знаний по сравнению с предварительными, так называемыми предзнаниями: 1. профессиональные предзнания и 2. общеобразовательные предзнания, проверенные вступительными тестами и на подготовительных курсах. В результате решения задач по данным вопросам проведен анализ влияния профессиональных предзнаний, общеобразовательных знаний и заинтересованности учащихся на восприятие, понимание и решение задач и достижение результатов. Результаты проведенного анализа показали, что в успешном понимании и решении профессионально-технических задач общеобразовательные предзнания и заинтересованность учащихся играют ключевую роль. / U radu je opisano kako procesi motivacije utiču na slušaoce kursa sa stanovišta apsolviranja znanja, te prenosa i korišćenja znanja i veština u sistemu učenja na daljinu. Istraživanja, u socijalno-kognitivnom okviru, ilustruje prilagodljivost sistema i adekvatno prilagođavanje motivacionih obrazaca. Model motivacionih procesa predstavljen je u funkciji ciljeva učenja slušalaca kursa. Praćenjem uticaja motivacionog faktora na izvršavanje kognitivnih zadatka, te kako se oblikuju reakcije slušalaca kursa, tj. kako motivacioni faktor utiče na uspeh ili neuspeh i kvalitet kognitivnog učinka u procesu učenja, menjan je i prilagođavan metodičko-didaktički pristup nastavi. U ovom radu istraživan je uticaj znanja iz uže stručne oblasti, ali i interesovanja slu

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment of disassembly procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, D.A.; Bement, T.R.; Letellier, B.C.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the use of Probabilistic Risk (Safety) Assessment (PRA or PSA) at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. PRA is a methodology for (i) identifying combinations of events that, if they occur, lead to accidents (ii) estimating the frequency of occurrence of each combination of events and (iii) estimating the consequences of each accident. Specifically the study focused on evaluating the risks associated with dissembling a hazardous assembly. The PRA for the operation included a detailed evaluation only for those potential accident sequences which could lead to significant off-site consequences and affect public health. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of establishing a risk-consequence goal for DOE operations.

  13. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Schlatter, J

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. As yet, there is no human screening test and no effective treatment. This disease is invariably fatal. General preventive measures are therefore essential. The objective of this study is to analyze and address on a prioritized basis the risks relating to the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during surgical operations by means of a preliminary risk analysis (PRA). The PRA produces 63 scenarios with maximum risk relating to operational and legal dangers. The study recommends a number of courses of action, such as training and internal controls, in order to reduce the risks identified. A procedure has been drawn up and assessed for each action. This PRA makes it possible to target and significantly reduce the potential dangers for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease through the use of medical instruments.

  14. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Keiko Saito

    Full Text Available Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA. The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.. The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7% patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3% patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1% were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4% were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5% were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  15. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Aparecida, Erica Pereira; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Verissimo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO) combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA). The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.). The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7%) patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3%) patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1%) were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4%) were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5%) were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  16. Adaptive down-regulation of the serotonin transporter in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat model of preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease and after chronic pramipexole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, K; Wardas, J; Kosmowska, B; Domin, H; Śmiałowska, M; Głowacka, U; Ossowska, K

    2016-02-09

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion induced by bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections into the ventrolateral region of the caudate-putamen (CP) in rats, modeling preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease, induces a "depressive-like" behavior which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole (PRA). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the above lesion and chronic PRA treatment on binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT) in different brain regions. As before, 6-OHDA (15 μg/2.5 μl) was administered bilaterally into the CP. PRA (1mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously twice a day for 2 weeks. Serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons of the dorsal raphe (DR) were immunostained for tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively, and were counted stereologically. Binding of [(3)H]GBR 12,935 to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and [(3)H]citalopram to SERT was analyzed autoradiographically. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA injections decreased the number of dopaminergic, but not serotonergic neurons in the DR. 6-OHDA reduced the DAT binding in the CP, and SERT binding in the nigrostriatal system (CP, substantia nigra (SN)), limbic system (ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAC), amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFCX), habenula, hippocampus) and DR. A significant positive correlation was found between DAT and SERT binding in the CP. Chronic PRA did not influence DAT binding but reduced SERT binding in the above structures, and deepened the lesion-induced losses in the core region of the NAC, SN, VTA and PFCX. The present study indicates that both the lesion of dopaminergic neurons and chronic PRA administration induce adaptive down-regulation of SERT binding. Moreover, although involvement of stimulation of dopaminergic transmission by chronic PRA in its "antidepressant" effect seems to be prevalent, additional contribution of SERT inhibition cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier

  17. Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment - How They Play Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Stutts, Richard G.; Zhaofeng, Huang

    2015-01-01

    PRA methodology is one of the probabilistic analysis methods that NASA brought from the nuclear industry to assess the risk of LOM, LOV and LOC for launch vehicles. PRA is a system scenario based risk assessment that uses a combination of fault trees, event trees, event sequence diagrams, and probability and statistical data to analyze the risk of a system, a process, or an activity. It is a process designed to answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? What is the severity of the degradation? Since 1986, NASA, along with industry partners, has conducted a number of PRA studies to predict the overall launch vehicles risks. Planning Research Corporation conducted the first of these studies in 1988. In 1995, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted a comprehensive PRA study. In July 1996, NASA conducted a two-year study (October 1996 - September 1998) to develop a model that provided the overall Space Shuttle risk and estimates of risk changes due to proposed Space Shuttle upgrades. After the Columbia accident, NASA conducted a PRA on the Shuttle External Tank (ET) foam. This study was the most focused and extensive risk assessment that NASA has conducted in recent years. It used a dynamic, physics-based, integrated system analysis approach to understand the integrated system risk due to ET foam loss in flight. Most recently, a PRA for Ares I launch vehicle has been performed in support of the Constellation program. Reliability, on the other hand, addresses the loss of functions. In a broader sense, reliability engineering is a discipline that involves the application of engineering principles to the design and processing of products, both hardware and software, for meeting product reliability requirements or goals. It is a very broad design-support discipline. It has important interfaces with many other engineering disciplines. Reliability as a figure of merit (i.e. the metric) is the probability that an item will

  18. Renin-angiotensin system activity in vitamin D deficient, obese individuals with hypertension: An urban Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS activity is an important mechanism in the development of hypertension. Both obesity and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] deficiency have been associated with hypertension and augmented renin-angiotensin system (RAS activity. We tried to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with increased RAS activity in Indian patients with hypertension. Materials and Methods: Fifty newly detected hypertensive patients were screened. Patients with secondary hypertension, chronic kidney disease, or coronary artery disease were excluded. Patients underwent measurement of vitamin D and plasma renin and plasma aldosterone concentrations. They were divided into three groups according to their baseline body mass index (BMI; normal <25 kg/m 2 , overweight 25-29.9 kg/m 2 and obese ≥30 kg/m 2 and 25(OHD levels (deficient <20 ng/ml, insufficient 20-29 ng/ml and optimal ≥30 ng/ml. Results: A total of 50 (male:female = 32:18 patients were included, with a mean age of 49.5 ± 7.8 years, mean BMI of 28.3 ± 3.4 kg/m 2 and a mean 25(OHD concentration of 18.5 ± 6.4 ng/ml. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 162.4 ± 20.2 mm Hg and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP was 100.2 ± 11.2 mm Hg. All the three blood pressure parameters [SBP, DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP] were significantly higher among individuals with lower 25(OHD levels. The P values for trends in SBP, DBP and MAP were 0.009, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively. Though all the three blood pressure parameters (SBP, DBP and MAP were higher among individuals with higher BMIs, they were not achieving statistical significance. Increasing trends in PRA and PAC were noticed with lower 25(OHD and higher BMI levels. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with stimulation of RAAS activity. Vitamin D supplementation along with weight loss may be studied as a therapeutic strategy to reduce tissue RAS

  19. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; Phypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Effects of Low-Protein Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acid on Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Wei, Hongkui; Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Guo, Qiuping; Yin, Yulong

    2017-04-05

    This study evaluated the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in low-protein diets on lipid metabolism in dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA), and perirenal adipose (PRA) tissues. A total of 24 piglets were allotted to four treatments, and each group was fed the adequate protein (AP) diet, low-protein (LP) diet, LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B), or LP diet supplemented with twice BCAA (LP + 2B). Serum concentrations of leptin in the BCAA-supplemented treatments were higher (P effect was likely modulated by the expression of lipid metabolic regulators in DSA, ASA, and PRA in a depot-specific manner.

  1. Study on the relativity between A/C and activity of renin-angiotensin system on patients with diabetes%2型糖尿病患者尿白蛋白/肌酐与肾素-血管紧张素系统活性相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究2型糖尿病患者尿白蛋白/肌酐(A/C)与肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)活性的相关性。方法选择160例2型糖尿病患者行A/C检测,将其分为A/C正常组96例(A/C≤30 mg/g)及A/C异常组64例(A/C>30 mg/g),选择健康志愿者作为对照组(60例),检测三组研究对象静脉血RAS指标并比较各组的差异性,采用Logistic回归分析患者A/C与RAS各指标的相关性。结果 A/C异常组及A/C正常组患者静脉血肾素(PRA)、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)及醛固酮水平均高于对照组,A/C异常组患者静脉血PRA、AngⅡ及醛固酮水平均高于A/C正常组,差异均具有显著性(P<0.05)。Logistic回归分析显示,A/C与静脉血PRA无明显相关性(P>0.05),A/C与AngⅡ、醛固酮水平呈正相关(r=0.495,0.316;P=0.000,0.002)。结论2型糖尿病患者A/C与RAS活性具有相关性,RAS激活可能与2型糖尿病患者肾及血管损伤有关,A/C检测能够反映患者体内RAS激活程度,为2型糖尿病患者微循环损伤的早期发现提供新的指标。%Objective To study relativity between ratio of urinary protein to creatinine (A/C) and activity of renin-angiotensinsystem on patients with type 2 diabetes melitus. Method 160 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes melitus were selected and divided into A/C normal group (96 cases) and A/C abnormal group (64 cases) according to weather with normal A/C, and 60 health volunteers were selected as control group, and all patients and voluntary were detected and contrasted with index of RAS between the three groups, then relativity between A/C and index of RAS were analysied with Logistic regression analysis. Result A/C abnormal group and A/C normal group patients with venous renin (PRA), angiotensinⅡ(AngⅡ) and aldosterone levels were higher than control group, A/C abnormal group vein blood of patients with PRA, AngⅡand aldosterone levels were higher than A

  2. Land use evolution of growth tourism-town from 1986 to 2010: A case study of Sanpo town in Yesanpo tourism attraction in Hebei province%1986-2010年成长型旅游小镇用地演变格局——河北省野三坡旅游区三坡镇的案例实证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席建超; 赵美风; 王凯; 陈鹏

    2013-01-01

    Tourism town is a hot issue in the process of tourism industrial development as well as one of the main directions of rural urbanization in recent years. By combining methods of PRA (Participatory Rural Assessment), GIS and high-definition remote sensing images, this study examines the evolution of land use pattern in Sanpo town in recent 25 years. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, centrifugal diffusion and centripetal agglomeration alternate in the spatial layouts of land use patterns. Meanwhile, land-use intensive degree increases constantly. Secondly, the expansion of construction land has gone through three periods: slow growth stage (1986-1995), rapid expansion stage (1995-2005) and stable development stage (2005-2010). Thirdly, from the function shift aspect, the function of construction land changes from the single function of traditional town to the multiple tourism function of tourism-town. Furthermore, centralization in the expansion of tourism land-use, such as tourist accommodation, catering, shopping and entertainment, spatial agglomeration of tourism enterprises has become the main development type of tourism-town. Finally, from the driving mechanism aspect, based on the natural geographical features, demand of external tourism market, rational choice of the market subjects, government intervention and regulation have become the main driving force in the evolution of land use in tourism town.%旅游小镇是近年旅游业发展的重要热点和乡村城镇化的主要方向之一.研究采取参与式农村评估(PRA)、GIS和高清遥感图像相结合的方法,反演了1986-2010年旅游城镇三坡镇土地利用的演变过程.结果显示:其土地利用在空间上表现为离心扩散和向心集聚交替,集约程度不断提高;扩张速度经过了缓慢增长(1986-1995年),快速扩展(1995-2005年),稳定发展(2005-2010年)3个阶段;在功能变化上,由传统城镇的单一功能向多元旅游功能转变.以旅游住

  3. A frameshift mutation in golden retriever dogs with progressive retinal atrophy endorses SLC4A3 as a candidate gene for human retinal degenerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Downs

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA in dogs, the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa (RP in humans, is characterised by vision loss due to degeneration of the photoreceptor cells in the retina, eventually leading to complete blindness. It affects more than 100 dog breeds, and is caused by numerous mutations. RP affects 1 in 4000 people in the Western world and 70% of causal mutations remain unknown. Canine diseases are natural models for the study of human diseases and are becoming increasingly useful for the development of therapies in humans. One variant, prcd-PRA, only accounts for a small proportion of PRA cases in the Golden Retriever (GR breed. Using genome-wide association with 27 cases and 19 controls we identified a novel PRA locus on CFA37 (p(raw = 1.94×10(-10, p(genome = 1.0×10(-5, where a 644 kb region was homozygous within cases. A frameshift mutation was identified in a solute carrier anion exchanger gene (SLC4A3 located within this region. This variant was present in 56% of PRA cases and 87% of obligate carriers, and displayed a recessive mode of inheritance with full penetrance within those lineages in which it segregated. Allele frequencies are approximately 4% in the UK, 6% in Sweden and 2% in France, but the variant has not been found in GRs from the US. A large proportion of cases (approximately 44% remain unexplained, indicating that PRA in this breed is genetically heterogeneous and caused by at least three mutations. SLC4A3 is important for retinal function and has not previously been associated with spontaneously occurring retinal degenerations in any other species, including humans.

  4. Isolation, cDNA sequence analysis and tissue expression profile of a novel swine gene differentially expressed in the Longissimus dorsi muscle tissues from Large White × Meishan cross combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yonggang; LEI Minggang; XIONG Yuanzhu; DENG Changyan

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of heterosis in pigs, the mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression in the Longissimus dorsi muscle tissues from Large White × Meishan cross combination.One novel gene differentially expressed between the hybrids and the purebreds was isolated and subsequently identified using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and its complete cDNA sequence was obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence prediction revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 188 amino acids that contains the putative conserved domain of the PRA1 family protein and this protein has high homology with the PRA1 family protein 3 of three species-rat (88 % ), human(88 % ), and mouse (87 % ), -so that it can be defined as swine PRA1 family protein 3. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine PRA1 family protein 3 has a closer genetic relationship with the human PRA1 family protein 3 than with those of mouse and rat.The tissue expression analysis indicated that swine PRA1family protein 3 gene is highly-expressed in muscle and fat, moderately in spleen,weakly in heart, kidney, ovary, lung, and almost not expressed in small intestine and liver. The function of this gene and the relationship between this gene and heterosis are also discussed.

  5. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358, in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Maria Velinova,3 Stuart Hossack,4 Mieke Hoppenbrouwers,5 Patrick Martin,21Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Zuidlaren, the Netherlands; 4Covance, Leeds, UK; 5Shire-Movetis NV, Turnhout, BelgiumBackground: About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358 is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment.Methods: In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored.Results: In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years, 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞ was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL, and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least

  6. Revisiting the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock Studies of an Aging Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; Malik, S.N.M.; Simonen, F.A.

    1999-08-01

    The Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) studies were a series of studies performed in the early-mid 1980s as part of an NRC-organized comprehensive research project to confirm the technical bases for the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) rule, and to aid in the development of guidance for licensee plant-specific analyses. The research project consisted of PTS pilot analyses for three PWRs: Oconee Unit 1, designed by Babcock and Wilcox; Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, designed by Combustion Engineering; and H.B. Robinson Unit 2, designed by Westinghouse. The primary objectives of the IPTS studies were (1) to provide for each of the three plants an estimate of the probability of a crack propagating through the wall of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) due to PTS; (2) to determine the dominant overcooling sequences, plant features, and operator actions and the uncertainty in the plant risk due to PTS; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective actions. The NRC is currently evaluating the possibility of revising current PTS regulatory guidance. Technical bases must be developed to support any revisions. In the years since the results of IPTS studies were published, the fracture mechanics model, the embrittlement database, embrittlement correlation, inputs for flaw distributions, and the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) computer code have been refined. An ongoing effort is underway to determine the impact of these fracture-technology refinements on the conditional probabilities of vessel failure calculated in the IPTS Studies. This paper discusses the results of these analyses performed for one of these plants.

  7. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity a

  8. The educational desires of Danish and South Korean environmental NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Greve

    This study investigates why it appears to be so hard to live up to some of the educational desires expected by environmental and sustainability educators. Via an ‘accelerating analysis’ the study examines how educational principles to intended outcomes are variously encoded in their fields of pra...

  9. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity

  10. Herdsmen's Perception of Grassland Degradation in the Source Region of the Yellow River: A Case Study in Dalag County%黄河源地区牧民对草地退化的感知——以达日县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴琴; 摆万奇; 张镱锂; 刘林山

    2011-01-01

    The source region of the Yellow River, located in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is a typical ecological fragile area. Grassland rangeland degradation results primarily from climate change and human-induced activities. Moreover, the later would have a greater influence in some cases. Herdsmen are the main economic agent and basic unit of decision-making in this region, whose perception and adaptive strategy of grassland degradation are vital to sustainable development of grassland resources and pastoral areas. The authors chose Dalag County as a representative ecological fragile area in the source region of the Yellow River. Using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the authors made an attempt to analyze herdsmen' s perception on climate change and grassland degradation so as to understand their attitudes and adaptive strategies to corresponding consequences. PRA aims to incorporate local knowledge and opinions by informal interviewing local people. During the PRA, the investigator and the respondent fully participate in processes including information collection, question identification and analysis, and decision-making. In this study, 143 households among seven towns were investigated in Dalag County. Quantitative methods were used to analyze inception, response, and adaptation of herdsmen to climate change and grassland degradation. Major findings are given as 1) herdsmen are sensitive to climate change, especially to extreme weather. Seasonal differences and abnormal climate change may bring a larger adverse influence to them. 2) Herdsmen are sensitive to grassland degradation. About 76.22% of herdsmen are aware of grassland degradation.However, they do not seem to understand the underlying mechanisms of grassland degradation. 3) Herdsmen have different perception to different control measures of grassland degradation. They tend to be in favor of measures increasing their benefits, such as pasture land construction and supplementary

  11. Current trend of induction and maintenance treatment in positive panel-reactive antibody patients: a report on OPTN/UNOS kidney transplant registry data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junchao Cai; Paul I. Terasaki

    2011-01-01

    Background The status of sensitization in kidney transplant recipients in the last 10 years and the trend of induction and maintenance therapy in patients of different panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of pre-transplant sensitization and its association with graft outcome.Methods A total of 155 570 kidney transplants reported to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) during 2000-2009 were included in this study. We investigated the current status of pre-transplant sensitization and its association with graft outcome, and also compared the usage trend of 16 induction agents and 7 maintenance immunosuppressants in patients at different PRA levels. The difference of distributions of categorical variables between groups was investigated using the chi-square test. Unpaired t test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for numerical variables. The survival rates of transplant recipients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods and significance was determined by Log-rank test. Two-side P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10 with all available updates as of March 2010 (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas 77845, USA).Results Despite the fact of the decreased percentages of kidney transplant recipients with presensitization history, the mean PRA levels of all kidney recipients has been increasing in the last 7 years, which was possibly due to the introduction of more sensitive antibody testing techniques. The percentage of patients with treated rejection episodes within one year post-transplant were significantly higher in sensitized patients (PRA=50%-100%:14.3% and PRA=1%-49%:13.9%) than in non-sensitized patients (12.4%). Both 1- and 5-year graft survival rates improved in the last 10 years; this was more significant in high PRA patients. Thymoglobulin was the most commonly used induction agent in

  12. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  13. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  14. Determination of the Aldosterone/Plasma Renin Activity Ratio for the Screening of Primary Hyperaldosteronism in Essential Hypertension: a Multicentric Study Determinación del valor de corte de la relación aldosterona/actividad de renina plasmática para la detección de hiperaldosteronismo primario en hipertensión arterial esencial: estudio multicéntrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pardes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA or Conn's disease was classically suspected in the presence of hypertension (H and hypokalemia. It was previously considered as a rare cause of H, being reported in only 1% of hypertensive patients. It can be caused by an adrenal adenoma (the former usual presentation or by adrenal hyperplasia. But since the use of the aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio (AAR as the screening method in the last years, it is currently considered as almost the most frequent cause of secondary H., accounting for 5-10% of essential H. Plasma rennin activity (PRA determination is a laborious procedure with low reproducibility and it directly affects the AAR; thus each laboratory must assess its own cut-off value. Therefore, in the Adrenal Department of the Argentine Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SAEM, we performed this multicentric prospective study of a population of Argentina with the aim of assessing our own AAR cut-off level in normotensive controls in order to apply it for PHA screening in essential hypertensive patients. We studied 353 adult subjects: 104 controls, aged 45,18 ± 13,78 years-old ( X±SD, with no history of arterial hypertension in their first-degree relatives and with two separate day-registry of blood pressure≤ 139/85 mmHg and 249 hypertensive patients, aged 51± 13,6 years-old ( X ± SD, with arterial blood pressure≥ 140/90 mmHg in the sitting position. Subjects with cardiac, renal, hepatic and neurological diseases were excluded as well as those with Cushing´s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, untreated hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and patients under glucocorticoids, oral contraceptive pills or estrogen therapy. A normal sodium diet was indicated and potassium was supplemented when needed. Blood was withdrawn between 8 and 10:00 a.m. with the subjects in the upright position. Aldosterone (A was determined by DPC radioimmunoassay (RIA and PRA, by DIA-Sorin RIA. The A normal levels are 4-30 ng

  15. Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.

    2000-01-01

    In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to

  16. The Emotional Use of Popular Music by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan; Hakanen, Ernest A.

    1991-01-01

    Follows up on some recent calls for study of music as a mass medium. Finds that music serves as a powerful communication medium, speaking directly to the emotions (excitement, happiness, love) of high school students. Finds that women were somewhat more likely to associate emotions with music and to use music for mood management. (PRA)

  17. Use of rofecoxib in family practice in the North of Netherlands, 2000-2004: Background and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, W.J.; Van Der Werf, G.Th

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To gain insight into the trends in the prescription of rofecoxib, the medication and disease histories of rofecoxib users, and the occurrence of cardiac complications during the follow-up. Design. Longitudinal comparative study in family practice. Method. Based on the data from family pra

  18. The effects of news frames and political speech sources on political attitudes: the moderating role of values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, M.; Schuck, A.; Neijens, P.; de Vreese, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which values play a role in affecting citizens’ political attitudes when exposed to different media news frames and political speech sources. To test this, we designed a survey experiment which used news coverage of a political speech concerning the cultural pra

  19. Analysis of enset (Ensete ventricosum) indigenous production methods and farm-based biodiversity in major enset-growing regions of southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Enset (Ensete ventricosum) production is declining, and it faces genetic erosion due to drought, diseases and population pressure. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and additional formal survey studies on 315 households were conducted over three consecutive years (1998–2000) in the Sidama, Wolaita

  20. 78 FR 23597 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... survey began in 1997. The primary objective of the survey is to study the transition from full-time..., training, work experience, fertility, income, and program participation. Research based on the NLSY97... school-to-work transitions. This information collection is subject to the PRA. A Federal agency generally...

  1. Laparoscopic anterior versus endoscopic posterior approach for adrenalectomy : a shift to a new golden standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, O M; Wevers, K P; Kist, J W; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Hemmer, P. H. J.; Vriens, M. R.; de Vries, J; Kruijff, S.

    PURPOSE: There has been an increased utilization of the posterior retroperitoneal approach (PRA) for adrenalectomy alongside the "classic" laparoscopic transabdominal technique (LTA). The aim of this study was to compare both procedures based on outcome variables at various ranges of tumor size.

  2. Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.

    2000-01-01

    In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to en

  3. The Emotional Use of Popular Music by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan; Hakanen, Ernest A.

    1991-01-01

    Follows up on some recent calls for study of music as a mass medium. Finds that music serves as a powerful communication medium, speaking directly to the emotions (excitement, happiness, love) of high school students. Finds that women were somewhat more likely to associate emotions with music and to use music for mood management. (PRA)

  4. Gilligan's "Crisis of Connections": Contemporary Caribbean Women Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Renee Hausmann

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that contemporary women novelists from the Caribbean are writing a new chapter in the literature of adolescence--a study of connections. Discusses the works of Carol Gilligan, and the idea of measuring women's development against a different truth than the male standard. Presents a 10-item annotated reading list. (PRA)

  5. Gender Differences in Online Reading Engagement, Metacognitive Strategies, Navigation Skills and Reading Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J-Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how knowledge of metacognitive strategies and navigation skills mediate the relationship between online reading activities and printed reading assessment (PRA) and electronic reading assessment (ERA) across 19 countries using the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 database. Participants were 34?104…

  6. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis (IA) in the general practice and compare this to a group of control patients without IA. Methods: In this nested-case-control study, data were used from the Netherlands Information Network of eneral Pra

  7. [Use of root-end filling materials in a surgical apical endodontic treatment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, M.A.; Berge, S.J.; Damme, P.A. van; Borstlap, W.A.; Merkx, M.A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The material to be used for closing the root canal when carrying out a retrograde surgical apical endodontic treatment continues to be a subject of discussion. The aim of the present study was to inventory which materials are being used for this purpose at this moment by Dutch O&MF surgeons. All pra

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    for poor Farmers in Uganda”, a baseline study using both Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) and a questionnaire survey was carried out ... improved technological capacity of agricultural equipment. In this context ..... shoulders), while women carry produce, water and firewood ... down if they are not properly maintained.

  9. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pra

  10. Foundation and Mathematical Uses of Higher Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses `1),' to which S. Feferman has contributed so profoundly. We study mathematical strong, but nevertheless PRA-reducible, systems in all finite types, emphasizing the need of third order variables already for a faithful formalization of continuous functions between Polish spaces...

  11. Estudio morfológico y anatómico de E uphorbia peplus linneo ( Euphorbiaceae Morphological and Anatomical Study of Euphorbia peplusLinneo (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Catalina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras de ejemplares de Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae de los predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá (Bello 262. Se realizaron cortes con micrótomo siguiendo procedimientos de histotecnia y cortes a mano alza-da para estudiar y establecer la anatomía de esta planta. Se observaron ejemplares frescos al estereoscopio para estudiar y determinar la morfología. Se establecieron características morfológicas como la arquitectura propia de E. peplus L. y la organización de su inflorescencia en ciatio, su sistema radical alorricico, las diversas formas de sus hojas, y particularidades del fruto, la semilla, y características anatómicas como el crecimiento secundario limitado en tallo y raíz entre otros.Samples of Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae specimens were taken from the ground at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Bello 262. Microtome slices and freehand slices were made following histological techniques, to study and determine the plant anatomy; fresh samples were observed to study and determine the plant morphology. Morphological features were established, as the plant specific architecture, the ciatium, the radical system, the leaves diverse shapes and the characteristics of the fruit and seed. Anatomical features as the limited secondary growth on stemand root were also determined.

  12. Are plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels useful as a screening test to differentiate between unilateral and bilateral renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Carol; Inserra, Felipe; Forcada, Pedro; Cavanagh, Elena; Obregon, Sebastián; Navari, Carlos; Castellaro, Carlos; Sánchez, Ramiro

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the serum aldosterone (Ald)/plasmatic renin activity (PRA) ratio as a surrogate marker of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system status in unilateral (Uni)- and bilateral (Bi)-renal artery stenosis (RAS). Seven hundred and eight hypertensive patients (HTP) were studied. Intermediate and high pretest risk of RAS was detected in 66 HTP who subsequently underwent renal gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance and arteriography. After application of exclusion criteria 51 HTP remained: 16 with Uni-RAS, 16 with Bi-RAS and 19 essential hypertensives with normal arteries. Nineteen normotensive individuals were also studied. Ald and PRA were determined before and after stenosis resolution by balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Ald/PRA (ng/dl per (ng/ml per h(-1))) was markedly high in Bi-RAS (5.92 +/- 2.30, P HTP with Uni-RAS or Bi-RAS. Studies with a higher number of patients will allow exploration of the usefulness of pharmacologic aldosterone blockade in Bi-RAS, and to assess the relevance of Ald/PRA to differentiate Uni-RAS from Bi-RAS.

  13. Outcomes in the highest panel reactive antibody recipients of deceased donor kidneys under the new kidney allocation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Redfield, Robert R; Astor, Brad C; Djamali, Arjang; Kaufman, Dixon B; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2017-03-01

    Since the institution of the new kidney allocation system in December 2014, kidney transplant candidates with the highest calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) of 99-100 have been transplanted at much higher rates. However, concerns have been raised that outcomes in these patients might be impaired due to higher immunological risk and longer cold ischemia times resulting from long-distance sharing of kidneys. Here, we compare outcomes at the University of Wisconsin between study patients with cPRA 99-100 and all other recipients of deceased donor kidneys transplanted between 12/04/2014 and 12/31/2015. All patients had at least 6 months post-transplant follow-up. The mean follow-up was 13.9±3 months in cPRA ≥99% and 12.3±3.5 months in cPRA ≤98%. There was a total of 152 transplants, 25 study patients, and 127 controls. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in delayed graft function, rejection, kidney function, graft and patient survival, or infections. We conclude that transplanting the most highly sensitized patients with kidneys shared outside their local donation service areas is associated with excellent short-term outcomes that are comparable to controls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genome-wide analysis and evolutionary study of sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) gene family members in Arabidopsis and Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayita; Chatterjee, Chitrita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2014-04-01

    The over-expression of plant specific SnRK2 gene family members by hyperosmotic stress and some by abscisic acid is well established. In this report, we have analyzed the evolution of SnRK2 gene family in different plant lineages including green algae, moss, lycophyte, dicot and monocot. Our results provide some evidences to indicate that the natural selection pressure had considerable influence on cis-regulatory promoter region and coding region of SnRK2 members in Arabidopsis and Oryza independently through time. Observed degree of sequence/motif conservation amongst SnRK2 homolog in all the analyzed plant lineages strongly supported their inclusion as members of this family. The chromosomal distributions of duplicated SnRK2 members have also been analyzed in Arabidopsis and Oryza. Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) database derived expression data and the presence of abiotic stress related promoter elements within the 1 kb upstream promoter region of these SnRK2 family members further strengthen the observations of previous workers. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of SnRK2 have been studied in all plant lineages along with their respective exon-intron structural patterns. Our results indicate that the ancestral SnRK2 gene of land plants gradually evolved by duplication and diversification and modified itself through exon-intron loss events to survive under environmental stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How to address data gaps in life cycle inventories: a case study on estimating CO2 emissions from coal-fired electricity plants on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Venkatesh, Aranya; Hauck, Mara; Schipper, Aafke M; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Laurenzi, Ian J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-05-06

    One of the major challenges in life cycle assessment (LCA) is the availability and quality of data used to develop models and to make appropriate recommendations. Approximations and assumptions are often made if appropriate data are not readily available. However, these proxies may introduce uncertainty into the results. A regression model framework may be employed to assess missing data in LCAs of products and processes. In this study, we develop such a regression-based framework to estimate CO2 emission factors associated with coal power plants in the absence of reported data. Our framework hypothesizes that emissions from coal power plants can be explained by plant-specific factors (predictors) that include steam pressure, total capacity, plant age, fuel type, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the resident nations of those plants. Using reported emission data for 444 plants worldwide, plant level CO2 emission factors were fitted to the selected predictors by a multiple linear regression model and a local linear regression model. The validated models were then applied to 764 coal power plants worldwide, for which no reported data were available. Cumulatively, available reported data and our predictions together account for 74% of the total world's coal-fired power generation capacity.

  16. Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Muraro Wildner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-perform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2% to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

  17. Overexpression of progesterone receptor A isoform in mice leads to endometrial hyperproliferation, hyperplasia and atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, M C; Chou, Y C; Cardiff, Robert D; Asaithambi, A; Shyamala, G

    2009-04-01

    A delicate balance in estrogen and progesterone signaling through their cognate receptors is characteristic for the physiologic state of the endometrium, and a shift in receptor isotype expression can be frequently found in human endometrial pathology. In this study, using a transgenic mouse model, we examined the mechanisms whereby alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) isotype expression leads to endometrial pathology. For an experimental model, we used transgenic mice (PR-A transgenics) carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of the two PR isoforms A and B (PR-A and PR-B) through the expression of additional A form and examined their uterine phenotype under different hormonal regimens, using various criteria. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation was augmented in PR-A transgenics and was abolished by PR antagonists. In particular, proliferative response to progesterone, independent of signaling through estrogen, was enhanced. Upon continuous exposure to estradiol and progesterone, the uteri in PR-A transgenics displayed gross enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia including atypical lesions, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Imbalanced expression of the two isoforms of PR in a transgenic model reveals multiple derangements in the regulation of uterine physiology, resulting in various pathologies including hyperplasias.

  18. Anti-HLA antibody profile of Turkish patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, G E; Seyhun, Y; Oguz, F; Kekik, C; Onal, E; Caliskan, Y; Bakkaloglu, H; Yazici, H; Turkmen, A; Aydin, A E; Sever, M S; Eldegez, U; Carin, M N

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) via blood transfusions, pregnancies, and previous transplantations can result in anti-HLA antibody production. The presence of anti-HLA antibodies in recipient sera before transplantation is an important risk factor. To demonstrate the anti-HLA antibody status of Turkish end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, 674 patients (mean age, 40.35 +/- 13.15 years; female/male, 328/346) were enrolled into the study. Anti-HLA antibody screening and identification tests were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The panel-reactive antibody (PRA)-negative group consisted of 564 (83.6%) and the PRA-positive group consisted of 110 (17.3%) patients. Of the 110 (17.3%) PRA-positive patients, 43 (6.4%) were class I (+) and class II (-); 19 (2.8%) were class I (-) and class II (+); 48 (7.1%) were both class I and II (+). The most frequent antibodies were directed against the A2 crossreactive group (CREG) and the A10 CREG with less frequent reactions against the B7 CREG, indicating antibodies to both frequent (members of A2 CREG) and relatively rare (members of A10 CREG and B7 CREG antigens). These data also suggested that some antibodies occur at greater than expected frequency because of shared epitopes. Our findings confirmed the significant correlation between female gender, pregnancy, failed graft history, long dialysis duration, and blood transfusions with PRA positivity (P < .05).

  19. Dietary soy isoflavones differentially regulate expression of the lipid-metabolic genes in different white adipose tissues of the female Bama mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoli; Li, Lili; Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Oso, A O; Xiao, Chaowu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-22

    Soy isoflavones have been shown to affect lipid metabolism, however the underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not yet been fully understood. The present study, using female Bama mini-pig as a model, examined the effects of soy isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression in different white adipose tissues. Female Bama Xiang mini-pigs of 35 days old were fed a basal diet (control, Con), or basal diet supplemented with increasing amounts of soy isoflavones (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg diet) for 120 days. The results showed that soy isoflavones did not affect the body weight, but decreased the dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSA) mass and increased the mass of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASA) and perirenal adipose tissue (PRA). Besides, soy isoflavones decreased the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes in DSA, while the opposite effects were observed in ASA and PRA. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase was down regulated in DSA while up regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) was up regulated in DSA, and down regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Our results suggest that soy isoflavones affected the lipid metabolism in white adipose tissues of Bama mini-pigs in a site-specific manner, which might be mediated through PPARs and ERs regulated gene expression.

  20. INVENTÁRIO DE ARBORIZAÇÃO DE 12 PRAÇAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO, Renato de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to make the trees inventory quantifying and qualifying 12 squares in Ituverava. Inthe present study, it was utilized a map of the municipality of Ituverava, for characterization and identification of theareas in study, and the method used was census. Other informations, considered important, were cataloged: location,diversity of species and total number of copies “arbóreos”. The individual total was 435. On 3 squares, 52% were ofthe kind Michelia champaca, 2 squares have 100% of young Thuja orientalis, 2 squares have 29% of Roystoneaoleraceae, 1 square is 100% of Syagrus romanzoffiana; at 3 squares, 23.5% of the trees were with diastic pruningfrom 35 species found, 16 had a less frequency than 1%, 18 species are exotic and 17 native. It was concluded thatthe main problem found was the pruning made without technical criterion and that there are squares with 1 singlespecies.Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer o inventário arbóreo, quantificando e qualificando 12 praças nacidade de Ituverava. No presente estudo, utilizou-se o mapa do município de Ituverava, para a caracterização eidentificação das áreas de estudo, sendo usado o método censo. Outras informações, consideradas importantes, foramcatalogadas: localização, diversidade de espécies e número total de exemplares arbóreos. O total de indivíduos foi de435. Em 3 praças, 52% foram da espécie Michelia champaca; 2 praças têm 100% de Thuja orientalis jovens; 2praças têm 29% de Roystonea oleraceae; 1 praça tem 100% de Syagrus romanzoffiana ; em 3 praças, 23,5% dasárvores estavam com podas drásticas. Das 35 espécies encontradas, 16 apresentaram uma freqüência menor que 1%,e 18 espécies são exóticas e 17 nativas. Concluiu-se que o maior problema encontrado foram as podas feitas semcritério técnico, e que existem praças com 1 única espécie.

  1. A study on the regulatory approach of KNGR multiple failure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Y. C.; Kang, H. J.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Moon, J. J.; Lee, M. K. [Sumoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 3 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : through comparison and analysis of domestic/international requirements related to SBO, additional items, which are considered in SSRs, are identified. According to investigation, procedure and training should be included in SSRs, and plant-specific capability analysis requirement contains initial condition, acceptance and addition analysis on the leak rake through RCP seal, etc. In addition, state of the art on the major items related to SBO requirement are described. Several safety analysis requirements are suggested that are needed to be used in the analyses which are aiming to show the ability of the SDVS to cope with TLOFW event. The suggested requirements include suggestions in BE method, reactor thermal power and decay heat, time to reactor trip, time to RCP trip, operator response time, pressurizer and steam generator, and thermal-hydraulic models related to TLOFW event. It is recommended that Moody model mentioned in 10CFR50 appendix K should be excluded in calculation of discharge flow through bleed valves in case of a TLOFW event. Some requirements on initial and boundary conditions are suggested to be used in the analyses of NPPs during MSGTR events. The suggestion includes requirements on analysis method, number of reptured tubes, repture location, operator response time, primary coolant leak flow, and acceptance criteria. As there has been no occurrence of MSGTR event and little literatures reporting analysis results of the event, some items need more study. In addition, some analyses are needed in order to fine the rupture location which gives the most conservative consequence.

  2. ANALISA BATAS DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI DARI DATA ASTER GDEM TERHADAP DATA BPDAS (STUDI KASUS : SUB DAS BUNGBUNTU DAS TAROKAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogyrema Setyanto Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pemetaan batas daerah aliran sungai (DAS merupakan salah satu parameter utama yang digunakan sebagai batasan penentuan kondisi tutupan lahan dan geomorfologi pada DAS. Ketersediaan data Digital Elevation Model (DEM, dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pengelolaan DAS dalam bentuk pemetaan batas DAS serta mendapatkan kondisi geomorfologi DAS. Sayangnya keberagaman produk data DEM sering menimbulkan pertanyaan bagi pengguna tentang produk data DEM manakah yang sebaiknya digunakan dalam penelitiannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hasil perbandingan dari batas DAS yang diolah yaitu menggunakan data ASTERGlobal Digital Elevation Model (GDEM terhadap data Badan Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (BPDAS. Metode yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini mencakup pra pengolahan, pengolahan, dan kartografis. Pada pra pengolahan citra proses yang dilakukan antara lain pemotongan citra DEM, koreksi geometrik, ekstraksi garis kontur Peta RBI ke DEM, pengkoreksian jaringan sungai BPDAS terhadap Peta RBI. Pada tahap pengolahan dilakukan analisa hidrologi permukaan pada data DEM untuk mendapat batas DAS. Pada tahap akhir dilakukan kartografi untuk pembuatan peta batas dimana data batas ditampalkan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, secara kuantitatif nilai morfometri hasil pengolahan ASTER GDEM menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda dengan data BPDAS, tetapi masih dalam rentang kelas benuk DAS yang sama.

  3. Landscape transformations at the dawn of agriculture in southern Syria (10.7-9.9 ka cal. BP): Plant-specific responses to the impact of human activities and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Araus, José Luis; Portillo, Marta; Balbo, Andrea; Iriarte, Eneko; Gourichon, Lionel; Braemer, Frank; Zapata, Lydia; Ibáñez, Juan José

    2017-02-01

    In southwest Asia, the accelerated impact of human activities on the landscape has often been linked to the development of fully agricultural societies during the middle and late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period (around 10.2-7.9 ka cal. BP). This work contributes to the debate on the environmental impact of the so-called Neolitisation process by identifying the climatic and anthropogenic factors that contributed to change local and regional vegetation at the time when domesticated plants appeared and developed in southern Syria (around 10.7-9.9 ka cal. BP). In this work a multidisciplinary analysis of plant microremains (pollen and phytoliths) and macroremains (wood charcoal) is carried out along with stable carbon isotope discrimination of wood charcoals in an early PPNB site (Tell Qarassa North, west of the Jabal al-Arab area). Prior to 10.5 ka cal. BP, the results indicate a dynamic equilibrium in the local and regional vegetation, which comprised woodland-steppe, Mediterranean evergreen oak-woodlands, wetland vegetation and coniferous forests. Around 10.5-9.9 ka cal. BP, the elements that regulated the vegetation system changed, resulting in reduced proportions of arboreal cover and the spread of cold-tolerant and wetlands species. Our data show that reinforcing interaction between the elements of the anthropogenic (e.g. herding, fire-related activities) and climatic systems (e.g. temperature, rainfall) contributed to the transformation of early Holocene vegetation during the emergence of fully agricultural societies in southern Syria.

  4. Analytical solutions of linked fault tree probabilistic risk assessments using binary decision diagrams with emphasis on nuclear safety applications[Dissertation 17286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusbaumer, O. P. M

    2007-07-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) using linked Fault Tree (FT) models. Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) complements traditional deterministic analysis; it is widely recognized as a comprehensive and structured approach to identify accident scenarios and to derive numerical estimates of the associated risk levels. PRA models as found in the nuclear industry have evolved rapidly. Increasingly, they have been broadly applied to support numerous applications on various operational and regulatory matters. Regulatory bodies in many countries require that a PRA be performed for licensing purposes. PRA has reached the point where it can considerably influence the design and operation of nuclear power plants. However, most of the tools available for quantifying large PRA models are unable to produce analytically correct results. The algorithms of such quantifiers are designed to neglect sequences when their likelihood decreases below a predefined cutoff limit. In addition, the rare event approximation (e.g. Moivre's equation) is typically implemented for the first order, ignoring the success paths and the possibility that two or more events can occur simultaneously. This is only justified in assessments where the probabilities of the basic events are low. When the events in question are failures, the first order rare event approximation is always conservative, resulting in wrong interpretation of risk importance measures. Advanced NPP PRA models typically include human errors, common cause failure groups, seismic and phenomenological basic events, where the failure probabilities may approach unity, leading to questionable results. It is accepted that current quantification tools have reached their limits, and that new quantification techniques should be investigated. A novel approach using the mathematical concept of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is proposed to overcome these

  5. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  6. Impact of human leukocyte antigen matching and recipients' panel reactive antibodies on two-year outcome in presensitized renal allograft recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hui-lin; JIN Xun-bo; LI Xiang-tie; WANG Hong-wei; L(U) Jia-ju

    2009-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation in sensitized candidates remains a highly significant challenge worldwide. The production of panel reactive antibody (PRA) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a major risk factor in presensitized recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of HLA matching and recipients' PRA on two-year outcome in presensitized renal allograft recipients.Methods We determined the percentage of panel reactivity and specificity of anti-HLA immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies in 73 presensitized renal allograft recipients compared with 81 unsensitized recipients (control group). HLA genotyping of both recipients and corresponding donors was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). We analyzed the factors influencing the early graft outcome (two-year rejection rates and survival rates of the grafts), including HLA mismatching, class and degree of panel reactivity, and target antigen of donors.Results Presensitized recipients had a worse two-year outcome than unsensitized recipients (P=0.019 for rejection rate, P=0.01 for survival rate). The difference in number of HLA-mismatched alleles with either 6-antigen matching (Ag M) standard or amino acid residue matching (Res M) standard was not significant between the rejection and non-rejection groups of presensitized recipients or between the graft survival group and graft loss group. Compared with the control group, recipients with both PRA-Ⅰ and PRA-Ⅱ antibodies had a significantly worse two-year outcome (P=0.001 for rejection rate, P=0.002 for survival rate). The two-year outcomes of the peak PRA ≥50% group and its subgroup, at-transplant PRA ≥50% group, were significantly worse compared with the control group (P=0.025 and P=0.001 for rejection rate, P=0.043 and P=0.024 for survival rate). The rejection rates of the at-transplant target antigen positive group and its subgroup, HLA-Ⅰ target antigen positive group, were significantly higher than the control

  7. Ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage and ultraviolet-B tolerance mechanisms in species with different functional groups coexisting in subalpine moorlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Kamiyama, Chiho; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-08-01

    High doses of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation can have detrimental effects on plants, and especially damage their DNA. Plants have DNA repair and protection mechanisms to prevent UV-B damage. However, it remains unclear how DNA damage and tolerance mechanisms vary among field species. We studied DNA damage and tolerance mechanisms in 26 species with different functional groups coexisting in two moorlands at two elevations. We collected current-year leaves in July and August, and determined accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) as UV-B damage and photorepair activity (PRA) and concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds (UACs) and carotenoids (CARs) as UV-B tolerance mechanisms. DNA damage was greater in dicot than in monocot species, and higher in herbaceous than in woody species. Evergreen species accumulated more CPDs than deciduous species. PRA was higher in Poaceae than in species of other families. UACs were significantly higher in woody than in herbaceous species. The CPD level was not explained by the mechanisms across species, but was significantly related to PRA and UACs when we ignored species with low CPD, PRA and UACs, implying the presence of another effective tolerance mechanism. UACs were correlated negatively with PRA and positively with CARs. Our results revealed that UV-induced DNA damage significantly varies among native species, and this variation is related to functional groups. DNA repair, rather than UV-B protection, dominates in UV-B tolerance in the field. Our findings also suggest that UV-B tolerance mechanisms vary among species under evolutionary trade-off and synergism.

  8. 24 CFR 401.311 - Standards of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... performance of any PRA and during the term of such PRA, a PAE or other restricted person (as defined in § 401... any person who is seeking official action from HUD or the PAE in connection with the PRA or...

  9. Generic risk insights for Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.; Taylor, J.; Fresco, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Chung, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A methodology has been developed to extract generic risk-based information from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering (CE) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and apply the insights gained to Westinghouse and Ce plants have not been subjected to a PRA. The available PRAs (five Westinghouse plants and one CE plant) were examined to identify the most probable, i.e., dominant accident sequences at each plant. The goal was to include all sequences which represented at least 80% of core damage frequency. If the same plant specific dominant accident sequence appeared within this boundary in at least two plant PRAs, the sequence was considered to be a representative sequence. Eleven sequences met this definition. From these sequences, the most important component failures and human errors that contributed to each sequence have been prioritized. Guidance is provided to prioritize the representative sequences and modify selected basic events that have been shown to be sensitive to the plant specific design or operating variations of the contributing PRAs. This risk-based guidance can be used for utility and NRC activities including operator training maintenance, design review, and inspections.

  10. Saphire models and software for ASP evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the three years has created 75 plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models using the SAPHIRE suite of PRA codes. Along with the new models, the INEL has also developed a new module for SAPHIRE which is tailored specifically to the unique needs of ASP evaluations. These models and software will be the next generation of risk tools for the evaluation of accident precursors by both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). This paper presents an overview of the models and software. Key characteristics include: (1) classification of the plant models according to plant response with a unique set of event trees for each plant class, (2) plant-specific fault trees using supercomponents, (3) generation and retention of all system and sequence cutsets, (4) full flexibility in modifying logic, regenerating cutsets, and requantifying results, and (5) user interface for streamlined evaluation of ASP events. Future plans for the ASP models is also presented.

  11. Biofeasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioremediation as a method for disposing of contaminants by exploiting natural biodegradation processes. The process of conducting a biofeasibility study and a case study are reviewed. (LZ)

  12. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area Other Fact Sheets What are genes? Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions ...

  13. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  14. SURFACE FLOODS IN COIMBRA: simple and dual-drainage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Simões, N. E.; Pina, R.; Marques, A. Sá; Maksimović, Č.; Gonçalves, Gil

    2009-09-01

    Surface water flooding occurs due to extreme rainfall and the inability of the sewer system to drain all runoff. As a consequence, a considerable volume of water is carried out over the surface through preferential flow paths and can eventually accumulate in natural (or man-made) ponds. This can cause minor material losses but also major incidents with obvious consequences in economic activities and the normal people's life. Unfortunately, due to predicted climate changes and increase of urbanisation levels, the urban flooding phenomenon has been reported more often. The Portuguese city of Coimbra is a medium size city that has suffered several river floods in the past. However, after the construction of hydraulic control structures, the number of fluvial flood events was greatly reduced. In the 1990s two new problems started. On one hand, houses started to be built on flood plain areas; on the other hand, some areas experienced a boom in the degree of urbanisation. This created flood problems of a different type dislocating the flood areas from the traditional flood areas along the river to new areas that did not reported flood in history. The catchment studied has a total area of approximately 1.5 km2 and discharges in the Coselhas brook The catchment can be divided in three regions with different characteristics: (i) the "Lower City" which is a low-lying area with 0.4 km2 and with a combined sewer system; (ii) the "Upper City" which is a considerably hilly area, highly urbanized and with an area of approximately 0.2 km2; and (iii) the remaining area which is also highly urbanized, with an area of 0.9 km2, where the main flood problems are generated. The sewer system is 34.8 km long; 29 km are of the combined type, and only 1.2 km is exclusive for storm water. The time of concentration of the catchment is estimated to be 45 min. On the 9 June 2006, an extreme rainfall event caused severe flooding in the city. After the rainfall had stopped, water continued to

  15. Dejvické divadlo - Proměny inscenační poetiky pražské komorní činoherní scény (1992-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Ježková, Adéla

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with fifteen seasons of Dejvice Theatre within the years 1992-2007 with special focus on two ensembles for which the Dejvice Theatre became the home scene. The first ensemble was formed by ALD DAMU students under the direction of Jan Borna. After its leave the ensemble has been replaced by yet another ALD DAMU students' ensemble this time under the direction of both pedagogue and director Miroslav Krobot. The goal of the thesis is to point out the transformations of producti...

  16. A Thirty-Seven-Year Follow-Up of Peutz–Jeghers Syndrome across Three Generations / Tridesetsedmogodišnje praćenje Pojc-Jegersovog sindroma kroz tri generacije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojsilović Marijola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pojc-Jegersov (Peutz-Jeghers sindrom (PJS je redak genetski poremećaj sa autozomno-dominantnim plejotropnim nasleđivanjem, promenljivom penetrantnošću i karakterističnim znacima bolesti, koji predisponira obolele na povećani rizik od dobijanja karcinoma, naročito organa gastrointestinalnog trakta i dojke. Kod postojanja familijarnog PJS-a je zbog genetske prirode bolesti utvrđena multiplikacija simptoma kod članova porodice iz različitih generacija.

  17. Energy, why you want? The human side of rural electrification in a Amazonian community; Energia, pra que te quero? O lado humano da eletrificacao rural em uma comunidade amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Cecilia Geraldes; Almeida, Arthur C.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Universidade Federal do Para (ENERBIO/DEEC/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao. Grupo de Pesquisa Energia e Meio Ambiente], Emails: cecibasi@ufpa.br, arthur@ufpa.br, jhumberto01@yahoo.com.br, brigida@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in an isolated community in the Amazon to gauge the demand for electricity. It was prepared a detailed survey of the social customs, habits of work, leisure, their economy, livelihoods and their relationship with the environment. The search result points to the use of electricity in the community as a factor in improving the income, it is possible to buy equipment to grind and crush cassava, to enable production of fruit pulp, to produce ice for conservation of fish and introduction to fish farming for employment generation.

  18. EVALUASI NILAI GIZI TEPUNG PRA-MASAK PISANG TANDUK DAN PISANG RAJA NANGKA [Nutritional Evaluation of Pre-cooked “Tanduk” and “Raja Nangka” Plantain flour

    OpenAIRE

    Rosida; Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida

    2011-01-01

    This research dealt with the nutritional evaluation of pre-cooked plantain flour in experimental Wistar rats to evaluate physical and chemical properties of the digesta of rats as well as glucose and cholesterol content of their blood. Pre-cooked plantain flour was made of 2 types of plantain, Tanduk plantain (Musa corniculata) and Raja Nangka plantain (Musa paradisiacalLinn) which have been heated and cooled under 3 conditions (boiling-cooling, steaming-cooling, and baking-cooling, prior to ...

  19. “Tá com dó? Leva pra casa!” Análise dos discursos favoráveis à redução da maioridade penal em rede social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Petry

    Full Text Available Resumo Pretende este artigo analisar as proposições favoráveis à redução da maioridade penal expressas em publicações de uma página virtual da rede social Facebook. Constata-se que a volúpia punitiva se expressa de maneira seletiva e hierárquica sobre determinados adolescentes, de modo que o recrudescimento da punição é concebido como estratégia de resolução a problemas sociais supostamente gerados por uma sociedade protetiva e permissiva. O estudo é orientado pelo método de análise hermenêutico-dialético que visa compreender e, ao mesmo tempo, confrontar a problemática frente às suas contradições e conflitos. A partir do diálogo entre campos de saber interdisciplinares, problematiza-se a implicação destes pressupostos acerca da redução da maioridade penal no que tange à constituição do sujeito autor de ato infracional e dos sujeitos produtores destes discursos, assim como o impacto destas afirmativas em sociedades marcadas por relações excludentes.

  20. EVALUASI NILAI GIZI TEPUNG PRA-MASAK PISANG TANDUK DAN PISANG RAJA NANGKA [Nutritional Evaluation of Pre-cooked “Tanduk” and “Raja Nangka” Plantain flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosida*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research dealt with the nutritional evaluation of pre-cooked plantain flour in experimental Wistar rats to evaluate physical and chemical properties of the digesta of rats as well as glucose and cholesterol content of their blood. Pre-cooked plantain flour was made of 2 types of plantain, Tanduk plantain (Musa corniculata and Raja Nangka plantain (Musa paradisiacalLinn which have been heated and cooled under 3 conditions (boiling-cooling, steaming-cooling, and baking-cooling, prior to drying and milling. It was found that both pre-cooked plantain flours have high resistant starch content (6.38-11.40%. Nutritional evaluation of rats for 20 days treatment revealed that pre-cooked plantain flour diets have no effect on the volume, weight, water content, and pH of the digesta and glucose content of the blood serum. But these diets increase the concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid of the digesta and decrease cholesterol content of the blood serum, especially Tanduk plantain pre-cooked flour made from Tanduk plantain after boiling and cooling, hence it has good effects on the colonic microbiota.

  1. Assessment of the factors field for fields small of a throttle lineal multienergetic by diodes and radiochromic film; Evaluacion de los factores campo pra campos pequalos de un acelerador lineal multienergetico mediante diodos y pelicul radiocromica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Ros, J.; Garcia-Marcos, R.; Huertas Martinez, M. c.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the field factors obtained for a linear accelerator electron multi energetic with irradiation standard modes and flatter unfiltered. We compared the values obtained with several diodes, two chambers of ionization and film radiochromic We obtain correction factors for diodes and. Finally, we evaluate the Daisy-Chain method, depending on the detector and the field of step. (Author)

  2. The Study of Inlfuence of Type 2 Diabetes with Hyponatremia on Insulin Sensitivity%2型糖尿病合并低钠血症对胰岛素敏感性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜虹; 施康平

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Investigated the influence of type 2 diabetes with hyponatremia on insulin sensitivity of patients. Methods:Selected 48 cases with type 2 dabetes with hyponatremia. In hyponatremia and hyponatremia after correction, the level of Na, ANGⅡ, ALD, PRA, insulin sensitivity were detected,which of result were compared. Results: Patients with hyponatremia were corrected in hyponatremia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,the level of Na, ANGⅡ, ALD, PRA in type 2 diabete patients with hyponatremia were lower than in type 2 diabete patients,the insulin sensitivity of were increased. Conclusion: Combined with hyponatremia could decline the insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetes, and which was bad effects on treatment effective.%目的:研究探讨2型糖尿病合并低钠血症对胰岛素敏感性的影响。方法:48例存在低钠血症的2型糖尿病患者,在低钠血症期和低血症纠正后,对其血Na+、血管紧张素(ANGⅡ)、醛固酮(ALD)、肾素(PRA)和胰岛素敏感度进行测定,将其结果进行比较分析。结果:48例2型糖尿病合并低钠血症患者在低钠血症得到纠正后其血管紧张素(ANGⅡ)、醛固酮(ALD)和肾素(PRA)的测定值明显低于患者在低钠血症未纠正前的测定值,患者对胰岛素的敏感性升高。结论:合并低钠血症能降低2型糖尿病患者对胰岛素的敏感性,从而影响了2型糖尿病患者的治疗效果。

  3. Studying Zooarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Molly; Wolf, Deborah; Butler, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    Children often associate the study of bones with dinosaurs or crime scenes. This unit introduces students to "zooarchaeology," the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Students in grades 3-5 engage in hands-on activities examining bones, shells, and other "hard parts" of animals. They use their observations as a starting point for…

  4. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  5. Floodplain Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a floodplain study is to establish the 100-year floodplain limits within or near a development in order to preserve the natural resources within the...

  6. Actuarial Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from time to time conducts studies on various aspects of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  7. Studying Sideways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    One strand of the qualitative interview literature has been concerned with the normative or otherwise problematic implications of studying down or studying up (i.e., interviewing “disadvantaged” people or elites). This interview literature is part of a tradition of taking up the problem of power ......, we must cultivate interview methods which cause confrontation and disagreement—not to acknowledge asymmetry but to enhance the quality of research....

  8. Correlation of Salt Sensitivity, Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasic Nebojsa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-renin values vary in normotensive and hypertensive populations. Some studies consider renin to be a key factor in the aetiology of hypertension, but other studies note that renin is an important factor in cardiovascular homeostasis and functions more as a growth factor than as a pressor hormone. The aim of this study was to assess the PRA and aldosterone values under different salt intake regimes in patients with essential hypertension. The study group consisted of 50 untreated patients (27 women and 23 men; average age 42±9,2 yrs.; average BMI 27,91±4,6 kg/m2 with essential hypertension. All patients were put on a high-sodium diet (200 mmol NaCl per day for one week after a week on a low-sodium diet (20 mmol NaCl per day. Sodium sensitivity (SS was defined as a 10-mmHg increase in the mean blood pressure at the end of the high- vs. the low-sodium diet. The SS group consisted of 26 patients, and the sodiuminsensitive group consisted of 24 patients. The PRA and aldosterone levels were determined in 12 patients. PRA values in the SS group during rest were significantly lower compared with the salt-resistant group during all regimes of salt intake (F=10,56, p=0,0012. Salt loading in SS patients causes a significant decrease in PRA (in rest and effort values in comparison to values during a low salt intake regime (rest: t=4,49, p<0,001; effort: t=3,45, p<0,01. The PRA values in the salt-resistant group did not vary significantly under the different salt intake regimes. The aldosterone values followed the pattern of the PRA values. It is necessary to distinguish investigations on salt intake effects based on incidence and value of blood pressure and investigations on salt restriction’s effects on of blood pressure levels (i.e., non-pharmacological hypertension therapy.

  9. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes...... and the close-up analysis of different learning situations in different contexts aim to expand empirical knowledge on the actual teaching practices and student´s learning processes and to provide important perspectives on student´s study-strategies and their possible consequences in relation to both `life...... module”. The projects differ in terms of both starting point and main focus of research (an alternative educational model and profession-orientated Game-based learning). However, in the on-going process of research, an empirical ´harmony´ on common recurrent themes related to students `study strategies...

  10. The influence of dietary sodium content on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fimasartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Namyi Gu,1,2 Joo-Youn Cho,3 Kwang-Hee Shin,4 In-Jin Jang,3 Moo-Yong Rhee2,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Clinical Trial Center, Dongguk University College of Medicine and Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, 4Pharmacotherapy & Translational Research Lab., College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 5Cardiovascular Center, Dongguk University College of Medicine and Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea Abstract: A low sodium diet enhances the hemodynamic effect of renin–angiotensin system blockers. It was suggested that the substrates of P-glycoprotein or cytochrome P450 3A4 were reduced on a high sodium diet. This study aimed to investigate the influence of high sodium diet on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fimasartan, which is a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4 but not P-glycoprotein. The study design was a two-diet, two-period, two-sequence, randomized, open-label, and crossover with 1-week washout for diet. Eligible subjects were fed with either low sodium (50 mEq/day diet or high sodium diet (300 mEq/day for 7 days in the first hospitalization period and the other diet in the second period. On the seventh morning of each period, subjects received a single dose of fimasartan 60 mg in a fasted state. The serial plasma concentrations of fimasartan, serum aldosterone concentration (SAC, and plasma renin activity (PRA were measured for pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic analysis. Sixteen subjects completed the study satisfying the compliance test for diets. Although the mean systemic exposure of fimasartan is slightly (≈10% decreased on a high sodium diet, the difference was not statistically or clinically significant (P>0.05. The SAC and PRA after fimasartan administration were highly dependent on their baseline levels. The

  11. Writing Study and Grammar Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to describe,classify and analyze the problems in Chinese college students’ writing of CET-4 through contrastive analysis,statistical analysis and error analysis.The main problems appearing in CET-4 writing are the wrong usage of words,sentence structures and the lack of coherence.Meanwhile it proves grammar study plays an important and basic role in CET-4 writing.

  12. Genome-Wide Study of the Tomato SlMLO Gene Family and Its Functional Characterization in Response to the Powdery Mildew Fungus Oidium neolycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Luigi; Visser, Richard G F; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    The MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family encodes plant-specific proteins containing seven transmembrane domains and likely acting in signal transduction in a calcium and calmodulin dependent manner. Some members of the MLO family are susceptibility factors toward fungi causing the powdery mildew disease. In tomato, for example, the loss-of-function of the MLO gene SlMLO1 leads to a particular form of powdery mildew resistance, called ol-2, which arrests almost completely fungal penetration. This type of penetration resistance is characterized by the apposition of papillae at the sites of plant-pathogen interaction. Other MLO homologs in Arabidopsis regulate root response to mechanical stimuli (AtMLO4 and AtMLO11) and pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte (AtMLO7). However, the role of most MLO genes remains unknown. In this work, we provide a genome-wide study of the tomato SlMLO gene family. Besides SlMLO1, other 15 SlMLO homologs were identified and characterized with respect to their structure, genomic organization, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. In addition, by analysis of transgenic plants, we demonstrated that simultaneous silencing of SlMLO1 and two of its closely related homologs, SlMLO5 and SlMLO8, confer higher level of resistance than the one associated with the ol-2 mutation. The outcome of this study provides evidence for functional redundancy among tomato homolog genes involved in powdery mildew susceptibility. Moreover, we developed a series of transgenic lines silenced for individual SlMLO homologs, which lay the foundation for further investigations aimed at assigning new biological functions to the MLO gene family.

  13. A Step Prior to REDD+ Implementation: A Socioeconomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase 2 of the United Nations’ REDD+ climate change mitigation initiative is underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Meanwhile, activities are being implemented to assess the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. REDD+ projects need to include a social dimension; thus, the aim of this research was to understand how land-use relationships vary across communities in an area where a REDD+ project is planned. Specifically, we aimed to identify the primary income-generating activities, the variation in access to land, the potential for the development of community projects, and the implementation of alternative income-generating activities. In the summer of 2013, we assessed a REDD+ pilot project in and around the Luki Biosphere Reserve, Bas-Congo Province. We used participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods in four communities located both inside and outside the reserve. We found that current subsistence income activities led to the destruction of forest habitat due to population pressure and a lack of alternative income-generating activities. Customary land tenures overlay statutory rights, which can often mean that community rights are threatened. To achieve their targets, REDD+ projects should consider the actual land-use patterns of local communities in order to generate sustainable income from the land.

  14. Studying CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullenger, B.; Verdel, A.; Paap, B.; Thorbecke, J.; Draganov, D.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to ambient-noise measurements allows the retrieval of the seismic response between pairs of receivers. We studied ambient-noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to retrieve time-lapse reflection responses from a reservoir during CO2 geologic sequestration, usin

  15. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention or usual care (control group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24. On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4 and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8 or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8 in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3. Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement

  16. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  17. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-01-01

    (n = 120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation......Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness......, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark...

  18. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis;

    2013-01-01

    in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation...... to interaction with peers.Methods/design: The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n = 120). RESPECT....... Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational...

  19. Invisibility Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance of these de...... this conversation by bringing together scholars across the fields of architectural history and theory, art, film and literature, philosophy, cultural theory and contemporary anthropology as well as featuring work by a collective of artists.......Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance...

  20. Security Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Security Studies has firmly established itself as a leading journal on international security issues. The journal publishes theoretical, historical and policy-oriented articles on the causes and consequences of war, and the sources and conditions of peace. The journal has published articles on balancing vs. bandwagoning, deterrence in enduring rivalries, the Domino theory, nuclear weapons proliferation, civil-military relations, political reforms in China, strategic culture in Asia and the P...

  1. A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Abbasov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of novel surfactants based on corn oil on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in CO2 saturated solution at different temperatures was studied. The investigation involved weight loss, LPR corrosion rate and extrapolation of cathodic and anodic Tafel lines method. Results obtained show that the surfactants studied are efficient corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in CO2 saturated brine. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with an increase in the concentration of the studied surfactant. The inhibition process was attributed to the formation of the adsorbed film on the metal surface that protects the surface against the corrosive agent. The data exhibited that the inhibition efficiency slightly increases with increasing temperature. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactant solutions was determined using surface tension measurements at 25 °C. Adsorption of inhibitors was found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. The standard enthalpy, ΔHads.°, entropy, ΔSads.° and free energy changes of adsorption were evaluated; the calculated values of ΔHads.° and ΔGads° were negative while those for ΔSads.° were positive. Mainly, all the above results are suggestive of chemisorption of the surfactant molecules on the metal surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDRF observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of such an adsorbed film.

  2. Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of Water Resources Management in West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    David, Wahyudi; Ploeger, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    This study was aim to describe the indigenous knowledge of farmers at Nagari Padang laweh Malalo (NPLM) and their adaptability to climate change. Not only the water scarcity is feared, but climate change is also affecting their food security. Local food security can be achieved if biodiversity in their surrounding area is suitable to the local needs. The study was conducted by using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) such as observation and discussion. The combination of in depth interview, ...

  3. 蒿甲醚或吡喹酮早期治疗感染血吸虫尾蚴兔和犬的肝脏显微镜检查%Microscopic observations on livers of rabbits and dogs infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and early treatment with artemether or praziquantel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖树华; 杨元清; 张超威; 尤纪青

    1996-01-01

    To study the histopathological change of the liver of the hosts treated with artemether (Art) or praziquantel (Pra) in early stage after infection with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. METHODS:Dogs infected once with schistosome cercariae were by the repeated dosing once every 1 or 2 wk for 2 -4 times. In rabbits, infected with 48 - 52 schistosome cercariae once every other day for 5 times,infection, followed by the repeated dosing every 1 or 2 wk for 2 - 3 times. RESULTS: After above mentioned dogs or rabbits were treated ig with Art,ArtC or Pra, the female worm reduction rates were 92.1% - 100 %. Histopathological examination showed that the reduction rates of total granuloma in the liver sections of the dogs and rabbits were 70.9 % - 97.3 % and 76.5 % - 97.4 %, respectively. Meantime, the structure of the hepatic lobules was normal with normal arrangement of the liver bundle. CoNCLusIoNS: Early treatment with Art or Pra exhibited a promising effect of protection of the liver of the dogs and rabbits infected with schistosome cercariae.%观察感染血吸虫尾蚴后早期用蒿甲醚(Art)或吡喹酮(Pra)治疗,对宿主肝组织的影响.方法:犬感染198-202条尾蚴后d 7ig Art 10 mg·kg-1,Art胶囊(ArtC)15 mg·kg-1或感染后d 21ig Pra 30-40 mg·kg-1,1-2 wk重复给药1次,共2-4次;兔每隔日感染48-52条尾蚴,共5次,并于第1次感染后d 7或d 21 ig 上述剂量的Art和Pra,停药后4-5 wk剖杀取肝作切片观察.结果:犬与兔经Art或Pra早期治疗后,减♀虫率达92.1%-100%,肝切片中的总虫卵肉芽肿数分别减少70.9%-97.3%和76.5%-97.4%,肝叶结构和肝索排列正常.结论:2种药物早期治疗对宿主肝脏有保护作用.

  4. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire......INTRODUCTION: People with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience recurrent seasonal fluctuations in energy, mood and appetite. Retinal light exposure is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of SAD. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of SAD...

  5. Complementary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-01

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate "complementary" approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field & structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  6. Case study: heavy metals and fluoride contents in the materials of Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of phosphogypsum piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, L; Al-Oudat, M; Shamali, K; Abdul Ghany, B; Kanakri, S

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of heavy metals and fluoride concentrations in the Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of the phosphogypsum (PG) piles. Four sampling campaigns were carried out, in which 86 soil, 139 plant, 30 air particulate, 16 water, 12 PG, 6 phosphate ore (raw and treated) and 3 fertilizer samples were collected. Differential pulse anode stripping voltammetry was used for Pb and Cd determination, atomic absorption spectrometry was used for Zn, Cr and Cu determination, and instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Se, Ni, As and Hg determination. Fluoride concentration was determined via fluoride ion selective electrode. The data revealed that most of the heavy metals were retained in the fertilizer. Fluoride content in PG was 0.47%. The presence of PG piles showed no impact on the run-off and ground and lake waters in the area. However, fluoride concentration was double the permissible airborne threshold in the sites to the east of the PG piles because of the prevailing wind in the region. Similarly, enhanced concentrations of fluoride were recorded for the eastern soil samples. The content of heavy metals in plants was element- and plant-specific and influenced by the element concentration in soil, the soil texture and the pH. The maximal mean of fluoride was found in the plants species of the eastern sites (699 mg kg(-1)), which mainly related to PG erosion and airborne deposition. Thus, the main impact of the PG piles was to increase the concentration of fluoride in the surrounding area. A national action should be taken to regulate PG piles.

  7. KECENDERUNGAN KONSUMSI MAKANAN MODERN PADA ANAK PRASEKOLAH DI TAMAN KANAK-KANAK : STUDI KASUS DI TK ISLAM AL-AZHAR DAN TK ISLAM MUTIA, KECAMATAN KEBAYORAN BARU, JAKARTA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Hermina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan di bidang ekonomi terutama di perkotaan menyebabkan perubahan pada gaya hidup, antara lain perubahan dalam pola makan. Perubahan dari pola makan tradisional ke pola makan barat, seperti fast food (makanan modern yang banyak mengandung kalori, lemak dan kolestrol. Ditambah kehidupan yang disertai stress dan berkurangnya aktifitas fisik, terutama di kota besar mulai menunjukkan dampaknya dengan meningkatnya masalah gizi lebih dan penyakit degeneratif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menggali data konsumsi makanan modern pada anak-anak usia pra sekolah (murid TK di TK favorit dan TK bukan favorit di wilayah Jakarta Selatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat bagaimana kecenderungan konsumsi makanan modern pada anak TK. Responden adalah ibu-ibu dari anak TK (59 orang dan guru TK (10 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan makanan modern banyak dikonsumsi oleh anak-anak pra sekolah. Sebagian besar anak (>60% di TK favorit sudah biasa mengkonsumsi fried chicken, burger, pizza, donat modern, roti bakery, ice cream, daging steak dan spaghetti dengan frekuensi konsumsi yang bervariasi. Sedangkan anak-anak di TK bukan favorit, sebagian besar mengkonsumsi makanan modern berupa chiki, agar-agar/jeli, es, permen dan makanan kemasan lain yang menggunakan zat pewarna/zat adiktif lain dengan harga relatif murah yang akan berdampak negatif terhadap kesehatan anak. Untuk itu pendekatan informasi tentang perilaku gizi yang baik dan benar perlu dipasarkan sedemikian rupa berdasarkan Pedoman Umum Gizi Seimbang (PUGS dengan menyandingkan makanan tradisional sebagaimana yang diharapkan dalam pemasyarakatan gerakan Aku Cinta Makanan Indonesia yang telah digalakkan sejak awal Repelita VI ini.

  8. Analytical solutions of linked fault tree probabilistic risk assessments using binary decision diagrams with emphasis on nuclear safety applications[Dissertation 17286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusbaumer, O. P. M

    2007-07-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) using linked Fault Tree (FT) models. Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) complements traditional deterministic analysis; it is widely recognized as a comprehensive and structured approach to identify accident scenarios and to derive numerical estimates of the associated risk levels. PRA models as found in the nuclear industry have evolved rapidly. Increasingly, they have been broadly applied to support numerous applications on various operational and regulatory matters. Regulatory bodies in many countries require that a PRA be performed for licensing purposes. PRA has reached the point where it can considerably influence the design and operation of nuclear power plants. However, most of the tools available for quantifying large PRA models are unable to produce analytically correct results. The algorithms of such quantifiers are designed to neglect sequences when their likelihood decreases below a predefined cutoff limit. In addition, the rare event approximation (e.g. Moivre's equation) is typically implemented for the first order, ignoring the success paths and the possibility that two or more events can occur simultaneously. This is only justified in assessments where the probabilities of the basic events are low. When the events in question are failures, the first order rare event approximation is always conservative, resulting in wrong interpretation of risk importance measures. Advanced NPP PRA models typically include human errors, common cause failure groups, seismic and phenomenological basic events, where the failure probabilities may approach unity, leading to questionable results. It is accepted that current quantification tools have reached their limits, and that new quantification techniques should be investigated. A novel approach using the mathematical concept of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is proposed to overcome these

  9. Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryer, Colin; Miller, Ted R; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed...... were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula......; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large study size, we identified injury...

  10. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.

  11. Conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.

  12. Clinical Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    and repair? Have new materials improved longevity? Are there still clinical and material problems to be solved? And what has the highest impact on longevity of posterior resin restorations – the material, the dentist, the patient or the tooth? These matters will be discussed on the basis of the literature......Within the last 25 years composite resin materials have in many countries successively replaced amalgam as a restorative for posterior teeth. Resin materials and bonding systems are continuously being improved by the manufactures, adhesive procedures are now included in the curriculum of most...... universities and practicing dentists restore millions of teeth throughout the World with composite resin materials. Do we know enough about the clinical performance of these restorations over time? Numerous in vitro studies are being published on resin materials and adhesion, some of them attempting to imitate...

  13. Nutritional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed metabolic studies were conducted of the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 flight crews, and the results are presented in tabular form. Intake and absorption data are also included. Apollo nutrient intakes were found to be characteristically hypocaloric. Estimates of body composition changes from metabolic balance data, from preflight and postflight weights and volumes, and from total body water and potassium provide no evidence for diminished caloric requirements during a flight. As observed during the Gemini Program and during periods of bed rest, measurements of bone density and metabolic balance confirm a tendency toward loss of skeletal tissue in weightlessness. No evidence exists that any inflight metabolic anomaly, including hypokalemia, was induced by marginal or deficient nutrient intakes. In general, the Apollo crewmen were well nourished and exhibited normal gastroenterological functions, although appetite was somewhat diminished and the organoleptic response to food was somewhat modified during flight.

  14. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    PAPER Post-Sociology: Exploration and Reflection Xie Lizhong Abstract: "Post-Sociology" refers to a new perspective which is different from tradi- tional perspectives of social studies. "Post-Social History" and "Pluralistic Discourse Analysis" could be seen as its two specific examples. "Discourse Constructivism" and "Pluralism" are the two core concepts of "Post-Sociology". That encouraging people to realize that all "social reality" including our experiences, thoughts and speech are just a "discoursive reality" constructed by social actors under the guidance and constraints of certain discourse system, is the major significance of "PostSociology". Some critics on "Post-Sociology" are misunderstandings, while others couldn't stand to strict analysis.

  15. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  16. Seismic hazard evaluation for the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.R. (Risk Engineering, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This study investigates the probabilistic hazard of earthquake-induced ground shaking at the HFIR facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These results will be used to calculate plant response and potential effects in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). For this purpose, several guidelines apply to this work. First, both the frequency of exceedance and the uncertainty in frequency of exceedance of various ground motion levels must be represented. These are required by the PRA so that the frequency and uncertainty of various possible plant states can be expressed. Second, there is a deliberate attempt to provide an unbiased distribution of frequencies of exceedance, i.e. to present results that are neither conservative nor unconservative. This is consistent with the goals of a PRA, to provide unbiased estimates of plant effects from which appropriate decisions (for instance about evaluating existing levels of seismic design) can be reached. Recent intensive studies of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) have been completed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). These studies represent major efforts to characterize the seismic hazard for nuclear power plants in the CEUS, and use the most recent, up-to-date understandings of seismicity and ground motion relations for the region. With these studies as a resource, the current effort relies exclusively on the seismicity and ground motion assumptions therein to formulate seismic hazard curves for the HFIR facility. The interpretation of these studies to derive seismic hazard curves in a format suitable for input to a PRA is described in this report. 29 refs., 40 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Genetic study of Andalusia's ovine and caprine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, E; Haba, M R; Rodero, A

    1997-01-12

    Two different breeds of Andalusian sheep, 'Grazalema Merino' and 'Lebrijan Churro', and two different breeds of Andalusian goats, 'Andalusian White' and 'Andalusian Black', chosen by previous studies (Rodero et al. 1992a) as priority breeds for conservation, were studied. The systems used corresponded to ethnozootechnic characteristics, as well as the different biochemical-polymorphism variables. Farms were differentiated within breeds, or between themselves, and different tests were used of genetic and genotypic frequencies: Wright's indices, medium heterozygosities, Whalund's variances, G test of probability of reason, etc. Also Cavalli-Sforza's genetic distance was obtained. In the Andalusian Black and Grazalema Merino breeds, the Whalund's variances obtained were a result of selection, that has divided the breeds into distinct populations differentiated spatially. Medium heterozygosities of each breed do not differ much within themselves, but when each system is considered alone, discrepancies between ethnic groups are relevant. Wright's F indices demonstrated in the Andalusian White and Grazalema Merino breeds, genetic heterozygosities between populations or studied herds can be deduced, but this is not possible in the Andalusian Black. The F(IS) values indicated, despite the small size of the populations, that inbreeding has been avoided, probably because of the entry of foreign sires. In none of the breeds is there a significant excess of heterozygosis. The genetic distances between flocks within breeds do not differ from those found between breeds. RÉSUMÉ: On a travallé avec, differents troupeau des races de montons de l'Andalusie, Grazalema Merino et Lebrija Churro, et avec les races caprines Andalusian White et Andalusian Black, choisie entre les races Andaluciennes comme prioritaires pour la conservation, dans un etudie avant (Rodero et col. 1992a). Les sistémes utilicés dans cette travaille correspondent á charactérés etnozootechniques et

  18. Role of Traditional Knowledge in Forest Resources Conservation in Ethnic Areas: A Case Study on Xiaohuang Village in Congjiang County, Guizhou Province%传统知识在民族地区森林资源保护中的作用——以贵州省从江县小黄村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊; 闵庆文; 徐远涛; 张灿强; 程传周; 石有权; 吴老成

    2011-01-01

    本文选择了贵州省从江县侗族村落小黄村为案例点,在实践调查的基础上,运用社会学研究方法,通过参与式农村评估(Participatory Rural Appraisal,PRA),利用林业部门森林资源调查数据,并结合实地观察数据,绘制了该村60年来不同时期的村落森林分布图,从林地面积、林种构成、林龄结构等三方面追溯了过去60年来该村森林资源的变化.同时,通过查阅文献、实地问卷调查、关键人物访谈、现场调查和加权平均指数分析法对林地变化的驱动因素进行了筛选和排序.研究表明,侗族习惯法、宗教和传统护林习俗等传统知识仅次于政府政策因素,占据第二重要的地位.小黄村对森林资源的有节制利用,曾在历史上有效保证了农林生态系统的稳定性和持久性,而且与森林资料的消长有着密切的相关性.一般情况下,森林资源即得到良好的保护与发展时,传统知识的作用往往得到了充分发挥;但森林资源受到严重破坏时,传统知识的作用则往往受到了限制.因此,有必要对侗族传统生态知识的价值进一步开展相关研究和评估,为解决当前我国贵州生态脆弱地区的发展与环境保护之间的矛盾提供借鉴.%The authors chose Xiaohuang, a Dong people community located in Congjiang County,Guizhou Province, as a sample-village. Based on analysis of data from the forestry sector and survey, three village-level forest maps of different periods over the past 60 years were made by the local public through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Quantitative analysis of these maps unravels changes in forest resources from the forest area, and forest species composition and age structure. Results show that: 1) before the 1950s, the forest coverage rate was 89.1%, occupying most of the land in Xiaohuang village. Fengshui wood, water resource conservation forests, fire woods, and distant primeval forest were four major forest

  19. 农户对农村居民点整合的意愿及其驱动机制——以重庆市沙坪坝区曾家镇白林村为例%Farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration and driving mechanism:A cass study of Bailin village in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓庆; 王成; 王利平; 蒋伟; 熊川铭

    2013-01-01

    Rural settlement integration as the important content of the integration of rural governance.At the time, it should be contact with the rural residential building at last long time,in the space it should must the needs of different farmer's production and life demand, and we must consider the space levels of the village. So the coupling of respect the farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration and give play to the effect of rural residential integration related to the improvement of farmers' production and living conditions, and it has became the focus of rural settlement integration and effectively solve the people's livelihood problem. This study took Bailin Village in Chongqing as an example, adopting the methods of ' PRA+3S', constructed a database integrated the spatial characteristics of 'farmers-land' and development trend of future livelihood dynamic to quantize farmers' livelihood assets, analyzed different types of farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration and dynamic mechanism. The results of this study showed that: Different types of farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration have significant differences, generally the order of 5 types of farmers' rural settlement integration as piration strength is: non-agricultural specialization development type (72.82%)>non-agricultural diversification farmer type(49.66%)>part-time development type(44.44%)>agricultural specialization type(36.84%)>agricultur-al diversification development type (37.33%); Farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration is the driving as ymptotic outcome of the push-pull power from farmers' economy, living environment, social interaction and policy factors, it embodies the result of game between farmers' endogenous power and external environment; The farmers' future livelihood source and income changes, living conditions, neighborhood relations, perception of social status are the important driving mechanism of forming farmers' rural settlement integration aspiration

  20. Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Pourdarbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a machine vision based, online sorting system was developed, the aim being to sort Date fruits (Berhee CV. based at different stages of maturity, namely Khalal, Rotab and Tamar to meet consumers’ demands. The system comprises a conveying unit, illumination and capturing unit, and sorting unit. Physical and mechanical features were extracted from the samples provided, and the detection algorithm was designed accordingly. An index based on color features was defined to detect Date samples. Date fruits were fed on a conveyor belt in a row. When they were at the center of the camera’s field of view, a snapshot was taken, the image was processed immediately and the maturity stage of the Date was determined. When the Date passed the sensor, positioned at the end of the conveyor belt, a signal was sent to the interface circuit and an appropriate actuator, driven by a step motor, was actuated, leading the Date toward an appropriate port. For validation of proposed system performance, entire samples were again sorted by experts visually. Detection rate of the system for Tamar and Khalal was satisfactory. Although the detection rate was insufficient for the Rotab stage, there was no a significant difference between system accuracy and that obtained by the experts. The speed of image processing system was 0.34 s. System capacity was 15.45 kg/h.

  1. Desarrollo de un protector ocular para fototerapia en recién nacidos: una tecnología

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Silva; Fernanda Sotrate da Silva; Mariana Turiani; Carmen Maria Casquel Monti Juliani; Wilza Carla Spiri

    2008-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia results from the predisposition of newborns to produce bilirubin and their ability to excrete it. The treatment applied is phototherapy; however, one of its complications is degeneration of the retina by exposure to light, making it essential to provide proper eye protection. The objective of this study is to describe the development of an invention (utility model patented) for eye protection in newborn phototherapy. This invention aims to replace the current widespread pra...

  2. Children´s magazines

    OpenAIRE

    BJALKOVOVÁ, Nela

    2014-01-01

    Thesis deals with the study of children's magazines with a focus on students first primary school. The work is focused on the use of language, graphic design, the aim and content of magazines for this age group. Furthermore, there also addresses the issue of online magazines compared to arbitrarily marketable magazines. The theoretical part focuses on the individual child reading a history of the magazine. The thesis is conducted to map the problems of children's magazines with a focus on pra...

  3. Overexpression of progesterone receptor A isoform in mice leads to endometrial hyperproliferation, hyperplasia and atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisch, M.C.; Chou, Y C; Cardiff, Robert D.; Asaithambi, A.; Shyamala, G.

    2009-01-01

    A delicate balance in estrogen and progesterone signaling through their cognate receptors is characteristic for the physiologic state of the endometrium, and a shift in receptor isotype expression can be frequently found in human endometrial pathology. In this study, using a transgenic mouse model, we examined the mechanisms whereby alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) isotype expression leads to endometrial pathology. For an experimental model, we used transgenic mice (PR-A transgenics)...

  4. Innovative and Lexicalized Metaphors in Slovene

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Dolar

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor is a multidisciplinary problem which has been addressed in linguistics as well as in philosophy, psychology, anthropology, etc. In linguistics, the problem of metaphor was dealt with in rhetorics, it occupied a special place in structural linguistics, and it was studied in diverse pragmatic, cognitive and textual analysis. In the present paper, metaphors in Slovene are analyzed from the linguistic point of view: grammatical and syntactic structure (monolexical/polylexical, in pra...

  5. The Use of Instruments by Iranian Endodontics and General Practioners

    OpenAIRE

    Elham, Farokh Gisour; Sedigheh, Zarmehi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The current clinical practice of endodontics involves utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. Technologies available for use in endodontic offices today include battery or electric motors using NiTi rotary file systems, new generation of electronic apex locators (EALs), improved digital radiographic sensors, surgical microscopes, and ultrasonic units. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and use of newer technologies among Iranian dental pra...

  6. Deoxycorticosterone Producing Tumor as a Cause of Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a young woman with longstanding resistant hypertension. Evaluation for renal artery stenosis and primary aldosteronism was unrevealing. In this setting of a suppressed plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC and a suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA, a differential diagnosis of a deoxycorticosterone (DOC producing tumor was entertained. Biochemical and imaging studies confirmed this diagnosis. Rare and novel DOC producing tumors are an important cause of resistant hypertension.

  7. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira de

    2016-09-01

    Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting.

  8. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.

  9. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting. PMID:27598243

  10. A CNGB1 frameshift mutation in Papillon and Phalene dogs with progressive retinal atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija J Ahonen

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10(-8 with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes.

  11. A CNGB1 frameshift mutation in Papillon and Phalène dogs with progressive retinal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Saija J; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD) of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10(-8)) with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes.

  12. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  13. Serum levels of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in patients treated by surgical excision, propranolol and captopril for problematic proliferating infantile haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzberger, L; Baillie, R; Itinteang, T; de Jong, S; Marsh, R; Leadbitter, P; Tan, S T

    2016-03-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the biology of infantile haemangioma (IH) and its accelerated involution induced by β-blockers was first proposed in 2010. This led to the first clinical trial in 2012 using low-dose captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, demonstrating a similar response in these tumours. This study aimed to compare serial serum levels of the components of the RAS in patients before and after surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Patients with problematic proliferating IH underwent measurements of serum levels of plasma renin activity (PRA), ACE and angiotensin II (ATII) before, and 1-2 and 6 months following surgical excision, propranolol or captopril treatment. This study included 27 patients undergoing surgical excision (n = 8), propranolol (n = 11) and captopril (n = 8) treatment. Treatment with either surgical excision or propranolol resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of PRA. Surgical excision or captopril treatment led to significant decline in the mean levels of ATII. All three treatment modalities had no significant effect on the mean levels of ACE. This study demonstrates the effect of surgical excision, propranolol and captopril treatment in lowering the levels of PRA and ATII, but not ACE, supporting a mechanistic role for the RAS in the biology of IH. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Moderate Hypothermia on Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kourosh Arami

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia in nature occurs in hibernating animals. It has applications in medicine in open heart surgery,organ and connective tissue preserving, altitude medicine and geriatrics. Despite the vastness of studies on hypothermia many of its biologic and physiologic effects including endocrine system alterations are still poorly recognized. In this study the effect of hypothermia on renin- angiotensin-aldosterone axis was explored. Ten male wistar albino rats (mean age 5 months were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloralhydrat (0.5 m1/100gr body weight. Then animals were placed in hypothermia apparatus . Their body temperature were reduced to 250 C. AngiotensinI(ANGI and aldosterone (ALD levels of serum were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after hypothermia induction and once every 24 hours for three days. Plasma renin activity (PRA was also measured by using the standard formula of angiotensin determinates at two temperatures of 40C and 370C . The results showed that PRA,ANGI and ALD increased significantly immedietly after hypothermia (p<0.03. Later changes were followed as these factors decreased to basal level, except in the case of aldosterone which maintained its increased level significantly for 24 hours (p<0.05. It seems that moderate hypothermia have stimulatory effect on PRA,ANGI and ALD that results of this study confirm it.

  15. Aliskiren and valsartan combination therapy for the management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Epstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin J EpsteinDepartments of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Medicine, Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA and East Coast Institute for Research, Jacksonville, Florida, USAAbstract: Combination therapy is necessary for most patients with hypertension, and agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS are mainstays in hypertension management, especially for patients at high cardiovascular and renal risk. Single blockade of the RAAS with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB confers some cardiorenal protection; however, these agents do not extinguish the RAAS as evidenced by a reactive increase in plasma renin activity (PRA, a cardiovascular risk marker, and incomplete cardiorenal protection. Dual blockade with an ACE inhibitor and an ARB offers no additional benefit in patients with hypertension and normal renal and left ventricular function. Indeed, PRA increases synergistically with dual blockade. Aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor (DRI to become available has provided an opportunity to study the merit of DRI/ARB combination treatment. By blocking the first and rate-limiting step in the RAAS, aliskiren reduces PRA by at least 70% and buffers the compensatory increase in PRA observed with ACE inhibitors and ARBs. The combination of a DRI and an ARB or an ACE inhibitor is an effective approach for lowering blood pressure; available data indicate that such combinations favorably affect proteinuria, left ventricular mass index, and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with albuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure, respectively. Ongoing outcome studies will clarify the role of aliskiren and aliskiren-based combination RAAS blockade in patients with hypertension and those at high cardiorenal risk.Keywords: aliskiren, valsartan, single-pill combination, hypertension, renin

  16. Effect of Cydonia oblonga Mill. leaf extracts or captopril on blood pressure and related biomarkers in renal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-ting; Abdurahman, Adil; Abdusalam, Elzira; Yiming, Wuliya; Abliz, Parida; Aji, Qimangul; Issak, Mehray; Iskandar, Guldiyar; Moore, Nicholas; Umar, Anwar

    2014-05-14

    Cydonia oblonga Mill. (COM) is used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. In a previous study COM leaf extracts were found to be active in renal hypertensive rats (RHR). The present study tests the dose-dependence of the effect of ethanol leaf extracts on hypertension and on biomarkers associated with blood pressure control, such as angiotensin-II (AII), plasma renin activity (PRA), apelin-12 (A), endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO), compared to captopril. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, model, captopril 25 mg/kg, COM leaf extract 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg (n=10 each). Drugs were administered orally daily for eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before treatment and every 2 weeks. Blood and kidney samples were collected after the last treatment to measure AII, PRA, A, ET and NO. RHR had increased blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, ET and decreased NO. Treatment with captopril reduced blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, and ET, though not quite to normal values. COM leaf extracts significantly and dose-dependently reduced blood pressure, AII, A, RA and ET, whereas NO was increased. The highest dose of COM had the same effects as captopril. The effects of COM extracts on blood pressure and biomarkers were dose-dependent and at the highest dose similar to those of captopril. This suggests an action of COM on the renin-angiotensin system, which could explain its antihypertensive effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The expression of immunohistochemical markers estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her-2-neu, p53 and Ki-67 in epithelial ovarian tumors and its correlation with clinicopathologic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER α, progesterone receptor A (PRA, Her-2-neu, p53, and Ki-67 in epithelial ovarian tumors and their correlation with various clinicopathologic variables. Materials and Methods: This study included 60 consecutive cases of epithelial ovarian tumors. Sections of 4 μm were taken from paraffin embedded tissue blocks for immunohistochemistry (IHC. Statistical analysis was done using Chi square test, ANOVA. Results: ER α had lower expression in benign (29% and PRA higher expression in malignant (63.6% tumors. ERα, PRA had higher expression in serous (72.72%, 57.14%, postmenopausal (81.8%, 71.42%, advanced stage (63.63%, 52.38%, grade 3 (45.45%, 38.09%, and tumors with ascites (90.90%, 85.7%. Her-2-neu, p53 were negative in benign and higher in malignant (21%, 57.6%, serous (71.42%, 57.89%, grade 3 (57.14%, 31.57%, and tumors with ascites (85.7%, 84.21%. Ki-67 had a significant higher expression in malignant (48.6± 26.76, serous (55.43± 27.85, and grade 3 tumors (68 ± 22. CA-125 levels were significantly higher in malignant, serous, advanced stage, grade 3 and ER α, Her-2-neu and p53 positive tumors. Conclusion: ERα, PRA expression in tumors with adverse prognostic factors support the mitogenic role of estrogen and estrogenic regulation of PR. Her-2-neu and p53 expression only in malignant tumors suggest their carcinogenic role and aid in the differentiation of borderline and malignant tumors. Higher Ki-67 in tumors with adverse prognostic factors would help in prognostication and differentiation. Lack of co-expression of markers proves the extreme heterogeneity of ovarian tumors. These markers may aid in differentiation and prognostication of ovarian tumors.

  18. Anti-estrogenic mechanism of unliganded progesterone receptor isoform B in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ze-Yi; Zheng, Si-Min; Bay, Boon-Huat; Aw, Swee-Eng; C-L Lin, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Over half of breast cancer cases are estrogen-dependent and strategies to combat estrogen-dependent breast cancer have been to either block the activation of estrogen receptor (ER) or diminish the supply of estrogens. Our previous work documented that estrogen-independent expression of progesterone receptor (PR) in MCF-7 cells markedly disrupted the effects of estrogen. In this study, we have developed an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to study the specific involvement of PR isoform A (PR-A) and PR-B in the anti-estrogenic effect and its mechanism of action. The results revealed that PR-B, but not PR-A, exhibited distinct anti-estrogenic effect on E2-induced cell growth, gene expression, and ER-ERE interaction in a ligand-independent manner. The anti-estrogenic effect of PR-B was also associated with heightened metabolism and increased cellular uptake of estradiol-17 beta (E2). We have also found that the B-upstream segment of PR-B alone was able to inhibit E2-induced ER-ERE interaction and cellular uptake of E2. Although PR-A alone did not affect E2-induced ER activity, it antagonized the anti-estrogenic effect of PR-B in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings suggest an important mechanism of maintaining a favorable level of ER activity by PR-A and PR-B in estrogen target cells for optimal growth and differentiation. The potential anti-estrogenic mechanism of PR-B may be exploited for breast cancer therapy.

  19. Absence of rapid selection for acyclovir or penciclovir resistance following suboptimal oral prodrug therapy of HSV-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacon Teresa H

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyclovir (ACV resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates can be readily selected in animal infection models receiving suboptimal ACV treatment, however no comparative studies of the emergence of resistance following suboptimal treatment with valacyclovir (VCV or famciclovir (FCV, the prodrugs of acyclovir and penciclovir, respectively, have been reported. Methods Mice (n = 30 were infected with HSV type 1 or 2 in the ear pinnae and administered oral prodrugs at one fifth a dose previously shown to be effective. To select and amplify drug-resistant HSV, a total of seven consecutive in vivo passages with suboptimal treatment were performed for each virus sample and progeny virus from each passage was characterized by the plaque reduction (PRA and plating efficiency assays (PEA. Results No drug-resistant HSV-2 and only a single drug-resistant HSV-1 variant were identified. Virus recovered from the first three sequential passages of this HSV-1 sample was susceptible by PRA, although the proportion of resistant virus recovered gradually increased upon passage. The resistant HSV-1 phenotype was confirmed by PRA after four sequential passages in mice. Unexpectedly, this in vivo-selected drug-resistant HSV-1 failed to yield an infection completely refractory to treatment in subsequent passages. Conclusions Sub-optimal therapy of immunocompetent mice with either VCV or FCV did not readily select for HSV-mutants resistant to either ACV or PCV, suggesting that selection of resistance with either prodrug remains difficult using this system. Futhermore, this study suggests that the PEA may represent a useful adjunct to the PRA for monitoring alterations in the proportion of drug-resistant virus even when no change in IC50 is apparent.

  20. Cortisol-induced inhibition of ovine renin and aldosterone responses to hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.E.; Silbiger, J.

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that in preterm fetal sheep increases in plasma cortisol (F) concentration equal in amplitude to fetal F stress responses suppress plasma renin activity (PRA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that this negative interaction exists in adult sheep. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. Five conscious ewes with chronically prepared carotid arterial loops were infused intravenously with F or vehicle for 5 h. One hour after the end of F or vehicle infusion, renin secretion was stimulated by hypotension produced by infusion of sodium nitroprusside. F infusion increased plasma F; during vehicle infusion plasma F did not change. F infusion decreased hematocrit from 29 +/- 2 to 26 +/- 1%. Basal PRA in vehicle- and F-infused groups were 0.4 +/- 0 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 ng angiotensin I-ml/sup -1/-h/sup -1/ and did not change. In vehicle-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.4 +/- 0 to 4.6 +/- 0.4 and plasma aldosterone from 26.0 +/- 1.0 to 173.1 +/- 21.8 pg/ml, while in F-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.2 +/- 1 to 3.3 +/- 0.4 ng angiotensin I-ml/sup -1/-h/sup -1/ and aldosterone from 25.0 +/- 0 to 48.2 +/- 23.2 pg/ml, significantly smaller responses. These results suggest that repeated stress may modulate the responses of the renin-angiotensin system in this species.