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Sample records for plant symbiotic signals

  1. Commonalities in Symbiotic Plant-Microbe Signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmer, R.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Kohlen, W.; Velzen, van R.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plants face the problem that they have to discriminate symbionts from a diverse pool of soil microbes, including pathogens. Studies on different symbiotic systems revealed commonalities in plant-microbe signalling. In this chapter we focus on four intimate symbiotic interactions: two mycorrhizal

  2. Plant Genes Involved in Symbiotic Sinal Perception/Signal Transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, A; Soyano, T; Hayashi, H

    2014-01-01

    to nodule primordia formation, and the infection thread initiation in the root hairs guiding bacteria towards dividing cortical cells. This chapter focuses on the plant genes involved in the recognition of the symbiotic signal produced by rhizobia, and the downstream genes, which are part of a complex......A host genetic programme that is initiated upon recognition of specific rhizobial Nod factors governs the symbiosis of legumes with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. This programme coordinates two major developmental processes that run in parallel in legume roots: de novo cortical cell division leading...... symbiotic signalling pathway that leads to the generation of calcium spiking in the nuclear regions and activation of transcription factors controlling symbiotic genes induction...

  3. Does a common pathway transduce symbiotic signals in plant-microbe interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGenre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of plant mutualistic symbioses such as the rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM. Some of these findings caused the revision of longstanding hypotheses, but one of the most solid theories is that a conserved set of plant proteins rules the transduction of symbiotic signals from beneficial glomeromycetes and rhizobia in a so-called common symbiotic pathway (CSP. Nevertheless, the picture still misses several elements, and a few crucial points remain unclear. How does one common pathway discriminate between - at least - two symbionts? Can we exclude that microbes other than AM fungi and rhizobia also use this pathway to communicate with their host plants? We here discuss the possibility that our current view is biased by a long-lasting focus on legumes, whose ability to develop both AM and RLS is an exception among plants and a recent innovation in their evolution; investigations in non-legumes are starting to place legume symbiotic signaling in a broader perspective. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that CSP proteins act in a wider scenario of symbiotic and non-symbiotic signaling. Overall, evidence is accumulating in favor of distinct activities for CSP proteins in AM and RLS, depending on the molecular and cellular context where they act.

  4. Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2013-04-01

    Plants associate with a wide range of microorganisms, with both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. Central to plant survival is the ability to recognize invading microorganisms and either limit their intrusion, in the case of pathogens, or promote the association, in the case of symbionts. To aid in this recognition process, elaborate communication and counter-communication systems have been established that determine the degree of ingress of the microorganism into the host plant. In this Review, I describe the common signalling processes used by plants during mutualistic interactions with microorganisms as diverse as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria.

  5. Lumichrome and riboflavin are two novel symbiotic signals eliciting developmental changes in both monocot and dicot plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dapare Dakora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations (5 nM include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots. However, higher lumichrome concentration (50 nM depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. Applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells (0.2 OD600 to roots of monocots and dicots for 44 h produced identical effects, which included decreased stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration in Bambara groundnut, soybean and maize, increased stomatal conductance and transpiration in cowpea and lupin, and elevated root respiration in maize (19% by rhizobia and 20% by lumichrome. Extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and IAA was greater in N2-fixing rhizobia than non-fixing bacteria, indicating their role as symbiotic signals. Xylem concentration of lumichrome in cowpea and soybean was greater in plants inoculated with infective rhizobia and treated with lumichrome (61.2 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, followed by uninoculated plants receiving lumichrome (41.12 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, and lowest in uninoculated, lumichrome-free plants (26.8 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap. Overall, soybean showed greater xylem concentration of lumichrome and a correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves relative to cowpea. As a result, soybean exhibited dramatic developmental changes than cowpea. Taken together, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia function as environmental cues for sensing stress. The fact that exogenous application of ABA to plant roots caused the same effect as lumichrome on stomatal functioning suggests molecular cross-talk in plant response to environmental

  6. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  7. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Rodriguez; D. Carl Freeman; E. Durant McArthur; Yong Ok Kim; Regina S. Redman

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at...

  8. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-04

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem.

  9. Signaling in Plant Disease Resistance and Symbiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songzi Zhao; Xiaoquan Qi

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between plants and microbes result in plant disease and symbiosis. The former causes considerable economic damage in modern agriculture, while the latter has produced great beneficial effects to our agriculture system. Comparison of the two interactions has revealed that a common panel of signaling pathways might participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between plant and microbes or its break-up. Plants appear to detect both pathogenic and symbiotic microbes by a similar set of genes. All symbiotic microbes seem to produce effectors to overcome plant basal defenses and it is speculated that symbiotic effectors have functions similar to pathogenic ones. Signaling molecules, salicylic acid (SA),jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), are involved in both plant defense and symbiosis. Switching off signals contributing to deterioration of disease symptom would establish a new equilibrium between plant and pathogenic microbes. This would facilitate the development of strategies for durable disease resistance.

  10. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  11. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus assayed on serradella plants

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    Mieczysława Deryło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus nodule isolates were compared to the standard slow-growing Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strain USDA 3045. Lupine nodules isolates showed typical characteristics for bradyrhizobial strains and nodulated small seed legume, serradella (Ornithopus sativus, in tube test. We observed a permanent physiological segregation of the effective (Fix' and ineffective (Fix- symbiotic phenotype for all tested bradyrhizobial strains during the growth of serradella in plant tube test. The ultrastructural differences between Fix* and Fix serradella nodules were observed. Rapid and visible nodulation as well as easy assay of the reduction of acetylene make serradella a convenient system for studies of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strains in laboratory conditions.

  13. Host plant species determines symbiotic bacterial community mediating suppression of plant defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung Ho; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Geib, Scott M.; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Felton, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    Herbivore associated bacteria are vital mediators of plant and insect interactions. Host plants play an important role in shaping the gut bacterial community of insects. Colorado potato beetles (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) use several Solanum plants as hosts in their natural environment. We previously showed that symbiotic gut bacteria from CPB larvae suppressed jasmonate (JA)-induced defenses in tomato. However, little is known about how changes in the bacterial community may be involved in the manipulation of induced defenses in wild and cultivated Solanum plants of CPB. Here, we examined suppression of JA-mediated defense in wild and cultivated hosts of CPB by chemical elicitors and their symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, we investigated associations between the gut bacterial community and suppression of plant defenses using 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Symbiotic bacteria decreased plant defenses in all Solanum hosts and there were different gut bacterial communities in CPB fed on different host plants. When larvae were reared on different hosts, defense suppression differed among host plants. These results demonstrate that host plants influence herbivore gut bacterial communities and consequently affect the herbivore’s ability to manipulate JA-mediated plant defenses. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria that suppress plant defenses might help CPB adapt to host plants. PMID:28045052

  14. Lipo-chitooligosaccharide Signaling in Endosymbiotic Plant-Microbe Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Clare; Cullimore, Julie Vera; Institut National de Recherche Agronomique UMR 0441 Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes Micro organismes

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and the rhizobia-legume (RL) root endosymbioses are established as a result of signal exchange in which there is mutual recognition of diffusible signals produced by plant and microbial partners. It was discovered 20 years ago that the key symbiotic signals produced by rhizobial bacteria are lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO), called Nod factors. These LCO are perceived via lysin-motif (LysM) receptors and activate a signaling pathway called the common symbiotic ...

  15. Two Direct Targets of Cytokinin Signaling Regulate Symbiotic Nodulation in Medicago truncatula[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Brault-Hernandez, Marianne; Laffont, Carole; Huault, Emeline; Brault, Mathias; Plet, Julie; Moison, Michael; Blanchet, Sandrine; Ichanté, Jean Laurent; Chabaud, Mireille; Carrere, Sébastien; Crespi, Martin; Chan, Raquel L.; Frugier, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinin regulates many aspects of plant development, and in legume crops, this phytohormone is necessary and sufficient for symbiotic nodule organogenesis, allowing them to fix atmospheric nitrogen. To identify direct links between cytokinins and nodule organogenesis, we determined a consensus sequence bound in vitro by a transcription factor (TF) acting in cytokinin signaling, the nodule-enhanced Medicago truncatula Mt RR1 response regulator (RR). Among genes rapidly regulated by cytokinins and containing this so-called RR binding site (RRBS) in their promoters, we found the nodulation-related Type-A RR Mt RR4 and the Nodulation Signaling Pathway 2 (NSP2) TF. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that RRBS cis-elements in the RR4 and NSP2 promoters are essential for expression during nodule development and for cytokinin induction. Furthermore, a microRNA targeting NSP2 (miR171 h) is also rapidly induced by cytokinins and then shows an expression pattern anticorrelated with NSP2. Other primary targets regulated by cytokinins depending on the Cytokinin Response1 (CRE1) receptor were a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX1) and a basic Helix-Loop-Helix TF (bHLH476). RNA interference constructs as well as insertion of a Tnt1 retrotransposon in the bHLH gene led to reduced nodulation. Hence, we identified two TFs, NSP2 and bHLH476, as direct cytokinin targets acting at the convergence of phytohormonal and symbiotic cues. PMID:23023168

  16. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Van Ness

    Full Text Available Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn.

  17. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Lori K; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Maeda, Junko; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors) are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn.

  18. Extracellular nucleotide signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Gary [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Over the life of this funded project, our research group identified and characterized two key receptor proteins in plants; one mediating the innate immunity response to chitin and the other elucidating the key receptor for extracellular ATP. In the case of chitin recognition, we recently described the quaternary structure of this receptor, shedding light on how the receptor functions. Perhaps more importantly, we demonstrated that all plants have the ability to recognize both chitin oligomers and lipochitooligosacchardes, fundamentally changing how the community views the evolution of these systems and strategies that might be used, for example, to extend symbiotic nitrogen fixation to non-legumes. Our discovery of DORN1 opens a new chapter in plant physiology documenting conclusively that eATP is an important extracellular signal in plants, as it is in animals. At this point, we cannot predict just how far reaching this discovery may prove to be but we are convinced that eATP signaling is fundamental to plant growth and development and, hence, we believe that the future will be very exciting for the study of DORN1 and its overall function in plants.

  19. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)–IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK–IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2–NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  20. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant recognition of symbiotic bacteria requires two LysM receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radutoiu, Simona; Madsen, Lene Heegaard; Madsen, Esben Bjørn; Felle, Hubert H; Umehara, Yosuke; Grønlund, Mette; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens

    2003-10-09

    Although most higher plants establish a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobia is a salient feature of legumes. Despite this host range difference, mycorrhizal and rhizobial invasion shares a common plant-specified genetic programme controlling the early host interaction. One feature distinguishing legumes is their ability to perceive rhizobial-specific signal molecules. We describe here two LysM-type serine/threonine receptor kinase genes, NFR1 and NFR5, enabling the model legume Lotus japonicus to recognize its bacterial microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti. The extracellular domains of the two transmembrane kinases resemble LysM domains of peptidoglycan- and chitin-binding proteins, suggesting that they may be involved directly in perception of the rhizobial lipochitin-oligosaccharide signal. We show that NFR1 and NFR5 are required for the earliest physiological and cellular responses to this lipochitin-oligosaccharide signal, and demonstrate their role in the mechanism establishing susceptibility of the legume root for bacterial infection.

  2. Plant-associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette A Angus

    Full Text Available Burkholderia is a diverse and dynamic genus, containing pathogenic species as well as species that form complex interactions with plants. Pathogenic strains, such as B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause serious disease in mammals, while other Burkholderia strains are opportunistic pathogens, infecting humans or animals with a compromised immune system. Although some of the opportunistic Burkholderia pathogens are known to promote plant growth and even fix nitrogen, the risk of infection to infants, the elderly, and people who are immunocompromised has not only resulted in a restriction on their use, but has also limited the application of non-pathogenic, symbiotic species, several of which nodulate legume roots or have positive effects on plant growth. However, recent phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Burkholderia species separate into distinct lineages, suggesting the possibility for safe use of certain symbiotic species in agricultural contexts. A number of environmental strains that promote plant growth or degrade xenobiotics are also included in the symbiotic lineage. Many of these species have the potential to enhance agriculture in areas where fertilizers are not readily available and may serve in the future as inocula for crops growing in soils impacted by climate change. Here we address the pathogenic potential of several of the symbiotic Burkholderia strains using bioinformatics and functional tests. A series of infection experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells, as well as genomic characterization of pathogenic loci, show that the risk of opportunistic infection by symbiotic strains such as B. tuberum is extremely low.

  3. Plant-associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Annette A; Agapakis, Christina M; Fong, Stephanie; Yerrapragada, Shailaja; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Yang, Paul; Song, Nannie; Kano, Stephanie; Caballero-Mellado, Jésus; de Faria, Sergio M; Dakora, Felix D; Weinstock, George; Hirsch, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia is a diverse and dynamic genus, containing pathogenic species as well as species that form complex interactions with plants. Pathogenic strains, such as B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause serious disease in mammals, while other Burkholderia strains are opportunistic pathogens, infecting humans or animals with a compromised immune system. Although some of the opportunistic Burkholderia pathogens are known to promote plant growth and even fix nitrogen, the risk of infection to infants, the elderly, and people who are immunocompromised has not only resulted in a restriction on their use, but has also limited the application of non-pathogenic, symbiotic species, several of which nodulate legume roots or have positive effects on plant growth. However, recent phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Burkholderia species separate into distinct lineages, suggesting the possibility for safe use of certain symbiotic species in agricultural contexts. A number of environmental strains that promote plant growth or degrade xenobiotics are also included in the symbiotic lineage. Many of these species have the potential to enhance agriculture in areas where fertilizers are not readily available and may serve in the future as inocula for crops growing in soils impacted by climate change. Here we address the pathogenic potential of several of the symbiotic Burkholderia strains using bioinformatics and functional tests. A series of infection experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells, as well as genomic characterization of pathogenic loci, show that the risk of opportunistic infection by symbiotic strains such as B. tuberum is extremely low.

  4. Proteomic insights into intra- and intercellular plant-bacteria symbiotic association during root nodule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin eSalavati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, there have been a large number of studies done on the all aspects of legumes and bacteria which participate in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. The analysis of legume-bacteria interaction is not just a matter of numerical complexity in terms of variants of gene products that can arise from a single gene. Bacteria regulate their quorum-sensing genes to enhance their ability to induce conjugation of plasmids and symbiotic islands, and various protein secretion mechanisms; that can stimulate a collection of chain reactions including species-specific combinations of plant-secretion isoflavonoids, complicated calcium signaling pathways and autoregulation of nodulation mechanisms. Quorum-sensing systems are introduced by the intra- and intercellular organization of gene products lead to protein–protein interactions or targeting of proteins to specific cellular structures. In this study, an attempt has been made to review significant contributions related to nodule formation and development and their impacts on cell proteome for better understanding of plant-bacterium interaction mechanism at protein level. This review would not only provide new insights into the plant-bacteria symbiosis response mechanisms but would also highlights the importance of studying changes in protein abundance inside and outside of cells in response to symbiosis. Furthermore, the application to agriculture programe of plant-bacteria interaction will be discussed.

  5. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  6. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  7. Effect of combined nitrogen on symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwaard, F.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing activity of the symbiotic system of Pisum sativum with Rhizobium leguminosarum is adversely affected by combined nitrogen. Both ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate, when added to the roots, lower the nitrogenase activity (acetylene-reduction) of intact pea plants. During a 3-

  8. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling.

  9. Plant defense, herbivory, and the growth of Cordia alliodora trees and their symbiotic Azteca ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

    2012-11-01

    The effects of herbivory on plant fitness are integrated over a plant's lifetime, mediated by ontogenetic changes in plant defense, tolerance, and herbivore pressure. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, plants provide nesting space and food for ants, and ants defend plants against herbivores. The benefit to the plant of sustaining the growth of symbiotic ant colonies depends on whether defense by the growing ant colony outpaces the plant's growth in defendable area and associated herbivore pressure. These relationships were investigated in the symbiotic mutualism between Cordia alliodora trees and Azteca pittieri ants in a Mexican tropical dry forest. As ant colonies grew, worker production remained constant relative to ant-colony size. As trees grew, leaf production increased relative to tree size. Moreover, larger trees hosted lower densities of ants, suggesting that ant-colony growth did not keep pace with tree growth. On leaves with ants experimentally excluded, herbivory per unit leaf area increased exponentially with tree size, indicating that larger trees experienced higher herbivore pressure per leaf area than smaller trees. Even with ant defense, herbivory increased with tree size. Therefore, although larger trees had larger ant colonies, ant density was lower in larger trees, and the ant colonies did not provide sufficient defense to compensate for the higher herbivore pressure in larger trees. These results suggest that in this system the tree can decrease herbivory by promoting ant-colony growth, i.e., sustaining space and food investment in ants, as long as the tree continues to grow.

  10. Legume LysM receptors mediate symbiotic and pathogenic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon; Radutoiu, Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Legume-rhizobia symbiosis is coordinated through the production and perception of signal molecules by both partners with legume LysM receptor kinases performing a central role in this process. Receptor complex formation and signalling outputs derived from these are regulated through ligand binding and further modulated by a diverse variety of interactors. The challenge now is to understand the molecular mechanisms of these reported interactors. Recently attributed roles of LysM receptors in the perception of rhizobial exopolysaccharide, distinguishing between pathogens and symbionts, and assembly of root and rhizosphere communities expand on the importance of these receptors. These studies also highlight challenges, such as identification of cognate ligands, formation of responsive receptor complexes and separation of downstream signal transduction pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  12. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants.

  13. Plant kin recognition enhances abundance of symbiotic microbial partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L File

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of cooperative interactions among different species can be compromised by cheating. In the plant-mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis, a single mycorrhizal network may interact with many plants, providing the opportunity for individual plants to cheat by obtaining nutrients from the fungi without donating carbon. Here we determine whether kin selection may favour plant investment in the mycorrhizal network, reducing the incentive to cheat when relatives interact with a single network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that mycorrhizal network size and root colonization were greater when Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was grown with siblings compared to strangers. Soil fungal abundance was positively correlated with group leaf nitrogen, and increased root colonization was associated with a reduced number of pathogen-induced root lesions, indicating greater benefit to plants grown with siblings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plants can benefit their relatives through investment in mycorrhizal fungi, and kin selection in plants could promote the persistence of the mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  14. Symbiotic leghemoglobins are crucial for nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules but not for general plant growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Thomas; van Dongen, Joost T; Günther, Catrin

    2005-01-01

    fixation (SNF). In legumes, SNF occurs in specialized organs, called nodules, which contain millions of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, called bacteroids. The induction of nodule-specific plant genes, including those encoding symbiotic leghemoglobins (Lb), accompanies nodule development. Leghemoglobins...

  15. Plant genes involved in harbouring symbiotic rhizobia or pathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Hopkins, Julie; Andrio, Emilie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Lecomte, Philippe; Puppo, Alain; Abad, Pierre; Favery, Bruno; Hérouart, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The establishment and development of plant-microorganism interactions involve impressive transcriptomic reprogramming of target plant genes. The symbiont (Sinorhizobium meliloti) and the root knot-nematode pathogen (Meloidogyne incognita) induce the formation of new root organs, the nodule and the gall, respectively. Using laser-assisted microdissection, we specifically monitored, at the cell level, Medicago gene expression in nodule zone II cells, which are preparing to receive rhizobia, and in gall giant and surrounding cells, which play an essential role in nematode feeding and constitute the typical root swollen structure, respectively. We revealed an important reprogramming of hormone pathways and C1 metabolism in both interactions, which may play key roles in nodule and gall neoformation, rhizobia endocytosis and nematode feeding. Common functions targeted by rhizobia and nematodes were mainly down-regulated, whereas the specificity of the interaction appeared to involve up-regulated genes. Our transcriptomic results provide powerful datasets to unravel the mechanisms involved in the accommodation of rhizobia and root-knot nematodes. Moreover, they raise the question of host specificity and the evolution of plant infection mechanisms by a symbiont and a pathogen.

  16. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  17. Different tolerances of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic ant-plant networks to species extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dattilo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that shape biodiversity-stability relationships is essential to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics of interacting species. However, most studies focus only on species loss and ignore the loss of interactions. In this study, I evaluated the topological structure of two different ant-plant networks: symbiotic (ants and myrmecophytes and nonsymbiotic (ants and plants with extrafloral nectaries. Moreover, I also evaluated in both networks the tolerance to plant and ant species extinction using a new approach. For this, I used models based on simulations of cumulative removals of species from the network at random. Both networks were fundamentally different in the interaction and extinction patterns. The symbiotic network was more specialized and less robust to species extinction. On the other hand, the nonsymbiotic network tends to be functionally redundant and more robust to species extinction. The difference for food resource utilization and ant nesting in both ant-plant interactions can explain the observed pattern. In short, I contributed in this manner to our understanding of the biodiversity maintenance and coevolutionary processes in facultative and obligate mutualisms.

  18. Proline auxotrophy in Sinorhizobium meliloti results in a plant-specific symbiotic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Zamani, Maryam; Cowie, Alison; Finan, Turlough M

    2015-12-01

    In order to effectively manipulate rhizobium-legume symbioses for our benefit, it is crucial to first gain a complete understanding of the underlying genetics and metabolism. Studies with rhizobium auxotrophs have provided insight into the requirement for amino acid biosynthesis during the symbiosis; however, a paucity of available L-proline auxotrophs has limited our understanding of the role of L-proline biosynthesis. Here, we examined the symbiotic phenotypes of a recently described Sinorhizobium meliloti L-proline auxotroph. Proline auxotrophy was observed to result in a host-plant-specific phenotype. The S. meliloti auxotroph displayed reduced symbiotic capability with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) due to a decrease in nodule mass formed and therefore a reduction in nitrogen fixed per plant. However, the proline auxotroph formed nodules on white sweet clover (Melilotus alba) that failed to fix nitrogen. The rate of white sweet clover nodulation by the auxotroph was slightly delayed, but the final number of nodules per plant was not impacted. Examination of white sweet clover nodules by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of the S. meliloti proline auxotroph cells within the host legume cells, but few differentiated bacteroids were identified compared with the bacteroid-filled plant cells of WT nodules. Overall, these results indicated that L-proline biosynthesis is a general requirement for a fully effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, likely due to a transient requirement during bacteroid differentiation.

  19. [Analysis of Symbiotic Genes of Leguminous Plants Nodule Bacteria Grown in the Southern Urals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymiev, An Kh; Ivanova, E S; Gumenko, R S; Chubukova, O V; Baymiev, Al Kh

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial strains isolated from the nodules, tissues, and root surface of wild legumes growing in the Southern Urals related to the tribes Galegeae, Hedysareae, Genisteae, Trifolieae, and Loteae were examined for the presence in their genomes of symbiotic (sym) genes. It was found that the sym-genes are present in microorganisms isolated only from the nodules of the analyzed plants (sym+ -strains). Phylogenetic analysis of sym+ -strains on the basis of a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sym+ -strains belong to five families of nodule bacteria: Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Phyllobacterium. A study the phylogeny of the sym-genes showed that the nodule bacteria of leguminous plants of the Southern Urals at the genus level are mainly characterized by a parallel evolution of symbiotic genes and the 16S rRNA gene. Thus, cases of horizontal transfer of sym genes, which sometimes leads to the formation of certain types of atypical rhizobial strains ofleguminous plants, are detected in nodule bacteria populations.

  20. Interrelationship of Bradyrhizobium sp. and plant growth-promoting bacteria in cowpea: survival and symbiotic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Artenisa Cerqueira; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes; da Costa, Antônio Félix; de Paula Oliveira, José; do Vale Barreto Figueiredo, Marcia

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of cowpea during bacterial colonization and evaluate the interrelationship of the Bradyrhizobium sp. and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as a potential method for optimizing symbiotic performance and cowpea development. Two experiments using the model legume cowpea cv. "IPA 206" were conducted. In the first experiment, cowpea seeds were disinfected, germinated and transferred to sterilized Gibson tubes containing a nitrogen-free nutritive solution. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 24 treatments [Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267); 22 PGPB; absolute control (AC)] with three replicates. In the second experiment, seeds were disinfected, inoculated according to their specific treatment and grown in Leonard jars containing washed and autoclaved sand. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 24 treatments [BR 3267; 22 BR 3267 + PGPB; AC] with three replicates. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated satisfactory colonization of the roots of inoculated plants. Additionally, synergism between BR 3267 and PGPB in cowpeas was observed, particularly in the BR 3267 + Paenibacillus graminis (MC 04.21) and BR 3267 + P. durus (C 04.50), which showed greater symbiotic performance and promotion of cowpea development.

  1. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  2. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant–plant mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output. PMID:24807259

  3. Symbiotic Performance of Diverse Frankia Strains on Salt-Stressed Casuarina glauca and Casuarina equisetifolia Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Mariama; Gray, Krystelle; Diagne, Nathalie; Oshone, Rediet; Fardoux, Joel; Gherbi, Hassen; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.; Sy, Mame O.; Champion, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations between Casuarina trees and the actinobacteria Frankia are widely used in agroforestry in particular for salinized land reclamation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salinity on the establishment of the actinorhizal symbiosis between C. glauca and two contrasting Frankia strains (salt sensitive; CcI3 vs. salt tolerant; CeD) and the role of these isolates in the salt tolerance of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia plants. We show that the number of root nodules decreased with increasing salinity levels in both plants inoculated with CcI3 and CeD. Nodule formation did not occur in seedlings inoculated with CcI3 and CeD, at NaCl concentrations above 100 and 200 mM, respectively. Salinity also affected the early deformation of plant root hairs and reduced their number and size. In addition, expression of symbiotic marker Cg12 gene, which codes for a subtilase, was reduced at 50 mM NaCl. These data suggest that the reduction of nodulation in C. glauca under salt stress is in part due to inhibition of early mechanisms of infection. We also show that prior inoculation of C. glauca and C. equisetifolia with Frankia strains CcI3 and CeD significantly improved plant height, dry biomass, chlorophyll and proline contents at all levels of salinity tested, depending on the Casuarina-Frankia association. There was no correlation between in vitro salt tolerance of Frankia strains and efficiency in planta under salt-stressed conditions. Our results strongly indicate that increased N nutrition, photosynthesis potential and proline accumulation are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of nodulated C. glauca and C. equisetifolia. PMID:27630656

  4. Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry,Alison; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, M. Pilar; Ggoltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga; Labarre,Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez,Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth; Niemann, James; Pujic,Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt,Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde,Claudio; Wall, Luis; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2006-02-01

    Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.

  5. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  6. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Strochein, Marcos; Vargas, Luciano K; Bruxel, Manuela; de Sá, Enilson Luiz Saccol; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

  7. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille E Granada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

  8. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.; Rodriguez, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record indicates that fungal symbionts have been associated with plants since the Ordovician period (approximately 400 million years ago), when plants first became established on land (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975; Redecker et al., 2000; Remy et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1993). Transitioning from aquatic to terrestrial habitats likely presented plants with new stresses, including periods of desiccation. Since symbiotic fungi are known to confer drought tolerance to plants (Bacon, 1993; Read and Camp, 1986), it has been suggested that fungal symbiosis was involved with or responsible for the establishment of land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975). Symbiosis was first defined by De Bary in 1879, and since that time, all plants in natural ecosystems have been found to be colonized with fungal and bacterial symbionts. It is clear that individual plants represent symbiotic communities with microorganisms associated in or on tissues below- and aboveground.There are two major classes of fungal symbionts associated with internal plant tissues: fungal endophytes that reside entirely within plants and may be associated with roots, stems leaves, or flowers; and mycorrhizal fungi that reside only in roots but extend out into the rhizosphere. In addition, fungal endophytes may be divided into two classes: (1) a relatively small number of fastidious species that are limited to a few monocot hosts (Clay and Schardl, 2002), and (2) a large number of tractable species with broad host ranges, including both monocots and eudicots (Stone et al., 2000). While significant resources and research have been invested in mycorrhizae and class 1 endophytes, comparatively little is known about class 2 endophytes, which may represent the largest group of fungal symbionts. This is partially because the symbiotic functionalities of class 2 endophytes have only recently been elucidated and shown to be responsible for the adaptation of some plants to high-stress environments (Redman

  9. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  10. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume–rhizobia mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they “lock” the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships. PMID:26041807

  11. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they "lock" the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships.

  12. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  13. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions.

  14. Lipo-chitooligosaccharide signaling in endosymbiotic plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare; Cullimore, Julie

    2011-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and the rhizobia-legume (RL) root endosymbioses are established as a result of signal exchange in which there is mutual recognition of diffusible signals produced by plant and microbial partners. It was discovered 20 years ago that the key symbiotic signals produced by rhizobial bacteria are lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO), called Nod factors. These LCO are perceived via lysin-motif (LysM) receptors and activate a signaling pathway called the common symbiotic pathway (CSP), which controls both the RL and the AM symbioses. Recent work has established that an AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, also produces LCO that activate the CSP, leading to induction of gene expression and root branching in Medicago truncatula. These Myc-LCO also stimulate mycorrhization in diverse plants. In addition, work on the nonlegume Parasponia andersonii has shown that a LysM receptor is required for both successful mycorrhization and nodulation. Together these studies show that structurally related signals and the LysM receptor family are key components of both nodulation and mycorrhization. LysM receptors are also involved in the perception of chitooligosaccharides (CO), which are derived from fungal cell walls and elicit defense responses and resistance to pathogens in diverse plants. The discovery of Myc-LCO and a LysM receptor required for the AM symbiosis, therefore, not only raises questions of how legume plants discriminate fungal and bacterial endosymbionts but also, more generally, of how plants discriminate endosymbionts from pathogenic microorganisms using structurally related LCO and CO signals and of how these perception mechanisms have evolved.

  15. Plant lipid signaling protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Heilmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by membranes consisting of various lipids, including sterols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids. Besides structural functions, membranes also contain lipids with regulatory and signaling roles. Such lipids include polyphosphoinositides, the low-abundant

  16. Symbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium: fungal and bacterial partners and their influence on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Zeng, Songjun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V

    2015-07-01

    The genus Dendrobium is one of the largest genera of the Orchidaceae Juss. family, although some of its members are the most threatened today. The reason why many species face a vulnerable or endangered status is primarily because of anthropogenic interference in natural habitats and commercial overexploitation. The development and application of modern techniques and strategies directed towards in vitro propagation of orchids not only increases their number but also provides a viable means to conserve plants in an artificial environment, both in vitro and ex vitro, thus providing material for reintroduction. Dendrobium seed germination and propagation are challenging processes in vivo and in vitro, especially when the extreme specialization of these plants is considered: (1) their biotic relationships with pollinators and mycorrhizae; (2) adaptation to epiphytic or lithophytic life-styles; (3) fine-scale requirements for an optimal combination of nutrients, light, temperature, and pH. This review also aims to summarize the available data on symbiotic in vitro Dendrobium seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors as well as composition and amounts of different exogenous nutrient substances is examined. With a view to better understanding how to optimize and control in vitro symbiotic associations, a part of the review describes the strong biotic relations of Dendrobium with different associative microorganisms that form microbial communities with adult plants, and also influence symbiotic seed germination. The beneficial role of plant growth-promoting bacteria is also discussed.

  17. Host plant species determines symbiotic bacterial community mediating suppression of plant defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbivore associated bacteria are vital mediators of plant and insect interactions. Host plants play an important role in shaping the gut bacterial community of insects. Colorado potato beetles (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) use several Solanum plants as hosts in their natural environment. We prev...

  18. Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Martina Katharina; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is indispensable for the development of phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) as well as nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis, but the mechanisms that discriminate between the two distinct symbiotic developmental fates have been enigmatic. In this study, we show that upon ectopic expression, the receptor-like kinase genes Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1), NFR5, and SYMRK initiate spontaneous nodule organogenesis and nodulation-related gene expression in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, overexpressed NFR1 or NFR5 associated with endogenous SYMRK in roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Epistasis tests revealed that the dominant active SYMRK allele initiates signalling independently of either the NFR1 or NFR5 gene and upstream of a set of genes required for the generation or decoding of calcium-spiking in both symbioses. Only SYMRK but not NFR overexpression triggered the expression of AM-related genes, indicating that the receptors play a key role in the decision between AM- or root nodule symbiosis-development.

  19. Fining Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeimouZheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types.It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box.The other type may be called TATA-less signal,and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition.While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot,their TATA-less signals are significantly different.A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming.By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature,an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  20. Symbiotic relationships between soil fungi and plants reduce N2O emissions from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S Franz; Plantenga, Faline; Neftel, Albrecht; Jocher, Markus; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Köhl, Luise; Giles, Madeline; Daniell, Tim J; van der Heijden, Marcel Ga

    2014-06-01

    N2O is a potent greenhouse gas involved in the destruction of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere and contributing to global warming. The ecological processes regulating its emissions from soil are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a dominant group of soil fungi, which form symbiotic associations with the majority of land plants and which influence a range of important ecosystem functions, can induce a reduction in N2O emissions from soil. To test for a functional relationship between AMF and N2O emissions, we manipulated the abundance of AMF in two independent greenhouse experiments using two different approaches (sterilized and re-inoculated soil and non-mycorrhizal tomato mutants) and two different soils. N2O emissions were increased by 42 and 33% in microcosms with reduced AMF abundance compared to microcosms with a well-established AMF community, suggesting that AMF regulate N2O emissions. This could partly be explained by increased N immobilization into microbial or plant biomass, reduced concentrations of mineral soil N as a substrate for N2O emission and altered water relations. Moreover, the abundance of key genes responsible for N2O production (nirK) was negatively and for N2O consumption (nosZ) positively correlated to AMF abundance, indicating that the regulation of N2O emissions is transmitted by AMF-induced changes in the soil microbial community. Our results suggest that the disruption of the AMF symbiosis through intensification of agricultural practices may further contribute to increased N2O emissions.

  1. Plants, symbiosis and parasites: a calcium signalling connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jeffrey F; Harmon, Alice

    2005-07-01

    A unique family of protein kinases has evolved with regulatory domains containing sequences that are related to Ca(2+)-binding EF-hands. In this family, the archetypal Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been found in plants and some protists, including the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Recent genetic evidence has revealed isoform-specific functions for a CDPK that is essential for Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis, and for a related chimeric Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is essential to the formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the analysis of 42 isoforms of CDPK and related kinases is expected to delineate Ca(2+) signalling pathways in all aspects of plant biology.

  2. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.; Witty, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different...... with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed....... the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10–8.10 μmol C/μmol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13...

  3. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, molecular genetic studies and the completion of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome have increased knowledge of hormonal regulation in plants. These signal transduction pathways act in concert through gene regulatory and signalling networks whose main components have begun to be elucidated. Our understanding of the resulting cellular processes is hindered by the complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive, dynamics of the networks, which may be interconnected through feedback controls and cross-regulation. Mathematical modelling provides a valuable tool to investigate such dynamics and to perform in silico experiments that may not be easily carried out in a laboratory. In this article, we firstly review general methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more comprehensive modelling studies of hormonal transport and signalling in a multi-scale setting. © EDP Sciences, 2013.

  4. nip, a symbiotic Medicago truncatula mutant that forms root nodules with aberrant infection threads and plant defense-like response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veereshlingam, Harita; Haynes, Janine G; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated and studied a novel symbiotic mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula, designated nip (numerous infections and polyphenolics). When grown on nitrogen-free media in the presence of the compatible bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nip mutant showed nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The mutant failed to form pink nitrogen-fixing nodules that occur in the wild-type symbiosis, but instead developed small bump-like nodules on its roots that were blocked at an early stage of development. Examination of the nip nodules by light microscopy after staining with X-Gal for S. meliloti expressing a constitutive GUS gene, by confocal microscopy following staining with SYTO-13, and by electron microscopy revealed that nip initiated symbiotic interactions and formed nodule primordia and infection threads. The infection threads in nip proliferated abnormally and very rarely deposited rhizobia into plant host cells; rhizobia failed to differentiate further in these cases. nip nodules contained autofluorescent cells and accumulated a brown pigment. Histochemical staining of nip nodules revealed this pigment to be polyphenolic accumulation. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that nip nodules expressed only a subset of genes associated with nodule organogenesis, as well as elevated expression of a host defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene. nip plants were observed to have abnormal lateral roots. nip plant root growth and nodulation responded normally to ethylene inhibitors and precursors. Allelism tests showed that nip complements 14 other M. truncatula nodulation mutants but not latd, a mutant with a more severe nodulation phenotype as well as primary and lateral root defects. Thus, the nip mutant defines a new locus, NIP, required for appropriate infection thread development during invasion of the nascent nodule by rhizobia, normal lateral root elongation, and normal regulation of host defense-like responses

  5. In-situ Monitoring of Plant-microbe Communication to Understand the Influence of Soil Properties on Symbiotic Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T.; Del Valle, I.; Cheng, H. Y.; Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant-microbe signaling is important for many symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. While this signaling often occurs in soils, very little research has evaluated the role that the soil mineral and organic matter matrix plays in plant-microbe communication. One hurdle to these studies is the lack of simple tools for evaluating how soil mineral phases and organic matter influence the availability of plant-produced flavonoids that initiate the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. Because of their range of hydrophobic and electrostatic properties, flavonoids represent an informative class of signaling molecules. In this presentation, we will describe studies examining the bioavailable concentrations of flavonoids in soils using traditional techniques, such as high-pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescent microbial biosensors. Additionally, we will describe our progress developing a Rhizobium leguminosarum reporter that can be deployed into soils to report on flavonoid levels. This new microbial reporter is designed so that Rhizobium only generates a volatile gas signal when it encounters a defined concentration of flavonoids. By monitoring the output of this biosensor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during real time during soil incubations, we are working to establish the impact of soil organic matter, pH, and mineral phases on the reception of these signaling molecules. We expect that the findings from these studies will be useful for recommending soil management strategies that can enhance the communication between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria. This research highlights the importance of studying the role of soil as a mediator of plant-microbe communication.

  6. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field.

  7. Jasmonates and octadecanoids: signals in plant stress responses and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettrina

    2002-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms. Consequently they have to adapt constantly to fluctuations in the environment. Some of these changes involve essential factors such as nutrients, light, and water. Plants have evolved independent systems to sense nutrients such as phosphate and nitrogen. However, many of the environmental factors may reach levels which represent stress for the plant. The fluctuations can range between moderate and unfavorable, and the factors can be of biotic or abiotic origin. Among the biotic factors influencing plant life are pathogens and herbivores. In case of bacteria and fungi, symbiotic interactions such as nitrogen-fixating nodules and mycorrhiza, respectively, may be established. In case of insects, a tritrophic interaction of herbivores, carnivores, and plants may occur mutualistically or parasitically. Among the numerous abiotic factors are low temperature, frost, heat, high light conditions, ultraviolet light, darkness, oxidation stress, hypoxia, wind, touch, nutrient imbalance, salt stress, osmotic adjustment, water deficit, and desiccation. In the last decade jasmonates were recognized as being signals in plant responses to most of these biotic and abiotic factors. Signaling via jasmonates was found to occur intracellularly, intercellularly, and systemically as well as interorganismically. Jasmonates are a group of ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulators originally found as the major constituents in the etheric oil of jasmine, and were first suggested to play a role in senescence due to a strong senescence-promoting effect. Subsequently, numerous developmental processes were described in which jasmonates exhibited hormone-like properties. Recent knowledge is reviewed here on jasmonates and their precursors, the octadecanoids. After discussing occurrence and biosynthesis, emphasis is placed upon the signal transduction pathways in plant stress responses in which jasmonates act as a signal. Finally, examples are described on the

  8. The interactions between plant life form and fungal traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine the symbiotic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Álvaro; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Barea, José M

    2014-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have traditionally been considered generalist symbionts. However, an increasing number of studies are pointing out the selectivity potential of plant hosts. Plant life form, determined by plant life history traits, seems to drive the AM fungal community composition. The AM fungi also exhibit a wide diversity of functional traits known to be responsible for their distribution in natural ecosystems. However, little is known about the role of plant and fungal traits driving the resultant symbiotic assemblages. With the aim of testing the feedback relationship between plant and fungal traits on the resulting AM fungal community, we inoculated three different plant life forms, i.e. annual herbs, perennial herbs and perennial semi-woody plants, with AM fungal communities sampled in different seasons. We hypothesized that the annual climate variation will induce changes in the mean traits of the AM fungal communities present in the soil throughout the year. Furthermore, the association of plants with different life forms with AM fungi with contrasting life history traits will show certain preferences according to reciprocal traits of the plants and fungi. We found changes in the AM fungal community throughout the year, which were differentially disrupted by disturbance and altered by plant growth form and plant biomass. Both plant and fungal traits clearly contributed to the resultant AM fungal communities. The revealed process can have implications for the functioning of ecosystems since changes in dominant plant life forms or climatic variables could influence the traits of AM fungal communities in soil and hence ecosystem processes.

  9. Nod Factor-Independent Nodulation in Aeschynomene evenia Required the Common Plant-Microbe Symbiotic Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Sandrine; Gully, Djamel; Poitout, Arthur; Patrel, Delphine; Arrighi, Jean-François; Giraud, Eric; Czernic, Pierre; Cartieaux, Fabienne

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen fixation in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a crucial area of research for more sustainable agriculture. Our knowledge of the plant cascade in response to the perception of bacterial Nod factors has increased in recent years. However, the discovery that Nod factors are not involved in the Aeschynomene-Bradyrhizobium spp. interaction suggests that alternative molecular dialogues may exist in the legume family. We evaluated the conservation of the signaling pathway common to other endosymbioses using three candidate genes: Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase (CCaMK), which plays a central role in cross signaling between nodule organogenesis and infection processes; and Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SYMRK) and Histidine Kinase1 (HK1), which act upstream and downstream of CCaMK, respectively. We showed that CCaMK, SYMRK, and HK1 are required for efficient nodulation in Aeschynomene evenia. Our results demonstrate that CCaMK and SYMRK are recruited in Nod factor-independent symbiosis and, hence, may be conserved in all vascular plant endosymbioses described so far.

  10. Deletion of the SACPD-C locus alters the symbiotic relationship between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and soybean, resulting in elicitation of plant defense response and nodulation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen int...

  11. The plant growth promoting substance, lumichrome, mimics starch and ethylene-associated symbiotic responses in lotus and tomato roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel eGouws

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus or Glomus intraradices/Glomus mossea (for tomato. It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato.

  12. Genetic and symbiotic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in the western Amazon by using cowpea as the trap plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2012-09-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon.

  13. Plant Hormones: Metabolism, Signaling and Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jia Qu; Yunde Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Plants synthesize various hormones in response to environmental cues and developmental signals to ensure their proper growth and development.Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which plant hormones control growth and development contributes to our understanding of fundamental plant biology and provides tools to improve crops.Because of their critical roles in plant growth and development, plant hormones have been studied extensively since the early days of plant biology.

  14. The Rhizobium-plant symbiosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Rhijn, P; Vanderleyden, J

    1995-01-01

    .... In these nodules, the rhizobia convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia for the plant. To establish this symbiosis, signals are produced early in the interaction between plant and rhizobia and they elicit discrete responses by the two symbiotic partners...

  15. How membranes shape plant symbioses: Signaling and transport in nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure eBapaume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms that cannot evade adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies to cope with environmental stresses. One of the most successful adaptations is the formation of symbiotic associations with beneficial microbes. In these mutualistic interactions the partners exchange essential nutrients and improve their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and in root nodule symbiosis (RNS, AM fungi and rhizobia, respectively, penetrate roots and accommodate within the cells of the plant host. In these endosymbiotic associations, both partners keep their plasma membranes intact and use them to control the bidirectional exchange of signaling molecules and nutrients. Intracellular accommodation requires the exchange of symbiotic signals and the reprogramming of both interacting partners. This involves fundamental changes at the level of gene expression and of the cytoskeleton, as well as of organelles such as plastids, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and the central vacuole. Symbiotic cells are highly compartmentalized and have a complex membrane system specialized for the diverse functions in molecular communication and nutrient exchange. Here, we discuss the roles of the different cellular membrane systems and their symbiosis-related proteins in AM and RNS, and we review recent progress in the analysis of membrane proteins involved in endosymbiosis.

  16. How membranes shape plant symbioses: signaling and transport in nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapaume, Laure; Reinhardt, Didier

    2012-01-01

    As sessile organisms that cannot evade adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies to cope with environmental stresses. One of the most successful adaptations is the formation of symbiotic associations with beneficial microbes. In these mutualistic interactions the partners exchange essential nutrients and improve their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and in root nodule symbiosis (RNS), AM fungi and rhizobia, respectively, penetrate roots and accommodate within the cells of the plant host. In these endosymbiotic associations, both partners keep their plasma membranes intact and use them to control the bidirectional exchange of signaling molecules and nutrients. Intracellular accommodation requires the exchange of symbiotic signals and the reprogramming of both interacting partners. This involves fundamental changes at the level of gene expression and of the cytoskeleton, as well as of organelles such as plastids, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the central vacuole. Symbiotic cells are highly compartmentalized and have a complex membrane system specialized for the diverse functions in molecular communication and nutrient exchange. Here, we discuss the roles of the different cellular membrane systems and their symbiosis-related proteins in AM and RNS, and we review recent progress in the analysis of membrane proteins involved in endosymbiosis. PMID:23060892

  17. A petunia ABC protein controls strigolactone-dependent symbiotic signalling and branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Kohlen, W.; Sasse, J.; Borghi, L.; Schlegel, M.; Bachelier, J.B.; Reinhardt, D.; Bours, R.M.E.H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Martinoia, E.

    2012-01-01

    Strigolactones were originally identified as stimulators of the germination of root-parasitic weeds1 that pose a serious threat to resource-limited agriculture2. They are mostly exuded from roots and function as signalling compounds in the initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizae3, which are

  18. Symbiotic fungi that are essential for plant nutrient uptake investigated with NMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallon, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: Jan.Pallon@nuclear.lu.se; Wallander, H. [Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Lund, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hammer, E. [Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Lund, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Arteaga Marrero, N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Auzelyte, V. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Elfman, M. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, C. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, P.A. [Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Lund, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Wegden, M. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    The nuclear microprobe (NMP) technique using PIXE for elemental analysis and STIM on/off axis for parallel mass density normalization has proven successful to investigate possible interactions between minerals and ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that form symbiotic associations with forest trees. The ability for the EM to make elements biologically available from minerals and soil were compared in field studies and in laboratory experiments, and molecular analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ectomycorrhizal species from the field samplings. EM rhizomorphs associated with apatite in laboratory systems and in mesh bags incubated in forest ecosystems contained larger amounts of Ca than similar rhizomorphs connected to acid-washed sand. EM mycelium produced in mesh bags had a capacity to mobilize P from apatite-amended sand and a high concentration of K in some rhizomorphs suggests that these fungi are good accumulators of K and may have a significant role in transporting K to trees. Spores formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in laboratory cultures were compared with spores formed in saline soils in Tunisia in Northern Africa. We found lower concentrations of P and higher concentrations of Cl in the spores collected from the field than in the spores collected from laboratory cultures. For the case of laboratory cultures, the distribution of e.g. P and K was found to be clearly correlated.

  19. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  20. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  1. The recent evolution of a symbiotic ion channel in the legume family altered ion conductance and improved functionality in calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Cosme, Ana; Han, Lu; Banba, Mari; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Schleiff, Enrico; Parniske, Martin; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza and the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are two major root endosymbioses that facilitate plant nutrition. In Lotus japonicus, two symbiotic cation channels, CASTOR and POLLUX, are indispensable for the induction of nuclear calcium spiking, one of the earliest plant responses to symbiotic partner recognition. During recent evolution, a single amino acid substitution in DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS1 (DMI1), the POLLUX putative ortholog in the closely related Medicago truncatula, rendered the channel solo sufficient for symbiosis; castor, pollux, and castor pollux double mutants of L. japonicus were rescued by DMI1 alone, while both Lj-CASTOR and Lj-POLLUX were required for rescuing a dmi1 mutant of M. truncatula. Experimental replacement of the critical serine by an alanine in the selectivity filter of Lj-POLLUX conferred a symbiotic performance indistinguishable from DMI1. Electrophysiological characterization of DMI1 and Lj-CASTOR (wild-type and mutants) by planar lipid bilayer experiments combined with calcium imaging in Human Embryonic Kidney-293 cells expressing DMI1 (the wild type and mutants) suggest that the serine-to-alanine substitution conferred reduced conductance with a long open state to DMI1 and improved its efficiency in mediating calcium oscillations. We propose that this single amino acid replacement in the selectivity filter made DMI1 solo sufficient for symbiosis, thus explaining the selective advantage of this allele at the mechanistic level.

  2. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  3. Is there a role for symbiotic bacteria in plant virus transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the process of circulative plant virus transmission by insect vectors, viruses interact with different insect vector tissues prior to transmission to a new host plant. An area of intense debate in the field is whether bacterial symbionts of insect vectors are involved in the virus transmissi...

  4. Analysis of the Peroxidase Activity of Rice (Oryza Sativa) Recombinant Hemoglobin 1: Implications for the In Vivo Function of Hexacoordinate Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobins in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, it has been proposed that hexacoordinate (class 1) non-symbiotic Hbs (nsHb-1) function in vivo as peroxidases. However, little is known about the peroxidase activity of nsHb-1. We evaluated the peroxidase activity of rice recombinant Hb1 (a nsHb-1) by using the guaiacol/H2O2 system at pH ...

  5. Ants are less attracted to the extrafloral nectar of plants with symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godschalx, Adrienne L; Schädler, Martin; Trisel, Julie A; Balkan, Mehmet A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Plants simultaneously maintain mutualistic relationships with different partners that are connected through the same host, but do not interact directly. One or more participating mutualists may alter their host's phenotype, resulting in a shift in the host's ecological interactions with all other mutualists involved. Understanding the functional interplay of mutualists associated with the same host remains an important challenge in biology. Here, we show belowground nitrogen-fixing rhizobia on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) alter their host plant's defensive mutualism with aboveground ants. We induced extrafloral nectar (EFN), an indirect defense acting through ant attraction. We also measured various nutritive and defensive plant traits, biomass, and counted ants on rhizobial and rhizobia-free plants. Rhizobia increased plant protein as well as cyanogenesis, a direct chemical defense against herbivores, but decreased EFN. Ants were significantly more attracted to rhizobia-free plants, and our structural equation model shows a strong link between rhizobia and reduced EFN as well as between EFN and ants: the sole path to ant recruitment. The rhizobia-mediated effects on simultaneously expressed defensive plant traits indicate rhizobia can have significant bottom-up effects on higher trophic levels. Our results show belowground symbionts play a critical and underestimated role in determining aboveground mutualistic interactions.

  6. From signal to form: Nod factor as a morhogenetic signal molecule to induce symbiotic responses in legume root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, research is presented which contributes to a better understanding of nod factor (NF) induced signalling in Iegume root hairs, leading to a successful symbiosis. We mainly use root hairs of the model Iegume Medicago truncatula ('barrel medic') as an experimental system. In the differe

  7. From signal to form: Nod factor as a morhogenetic signal molecule to induce symbiotic responses in legume root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, research is presented which contributes to a better understanding of nod factor (NF) induced signalling in Iegume root hairs, leading to a successful symbiosis. We mainly use root hairs of the model Iegume Medicago truncatula ('barrel medic') as an experimental system. In the

  8. Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christina M; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

  9. Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH

  10. Symbiotic fungi alter plant chemistry that discourages leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Catalina; Wcislo, William T; Van Bael, Sunshine A

    2013-04-01

    Fungal symbionts that live asymptomatically inside plant tissues (endophytes) can influence plant-insect interactions. Recent work has shown that damage by leaf-cutting ants, a major Neotropical defoliator, is reduced to almost half in plants with high densities of endophytes. We investigated changes in the phenotype of leaves that could influence ants' behavior to result in the reduction of foliar damage. We produced cucumber seedlings with high and low densities of one common endophyte species, Colletotrichum tropicale. We used the leaves in bioassays and to compare chemical and physical leaf characteristics important for ants' food selection. Ants cut about one-third more area of cucumber leaves with lower densities of endophytes and removed c. 20% more paper disks impregnated with the extracts of those leaves compared with leaves and disks from plants hosting the fungus. Colletotrichum tropicale colonization did not cause detectable changes in the composition of volatile compounds, cuticular waxes, nutrients or leaf toughness. Our study shows that endophytes changed leaf chemistry and suggests that compounds with relative low volatility released after leaf wounding are a major factor influencing foraging decisions by ants when choosing between plants with low or high endophyte loads. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-01-01

    .... To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31...

  12. Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and male papaya plants: its status, role and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Sharda W; Rodrigues, Bernard F; Sharma, Prabhat K

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status and its role in P-uptake through assay of root phosphatases activities in four varieties of male Carica papaya L. viz. CO-1, CO-2, Honey Dew and Washington during flowering stages. In the present study, mean total root colonization of AM fungi recorded peak increase in flowering stage-II while mean root phosphatase (acid and alkaline) activities recorded peak increase in flowering stage-I. Unlike root colonization and root phosphatase activities, spore density did not exhibit any definite patterns and recorded a narrow range of fluctuation during different flowering stages of male C. papaya. The study brought out the fact that root colonization and spore density of AM fungi along with root phosphatase activities varied significantly within the four varieties of male C. papaya plants during each flowering stage. The study also recorded consistently higher acid root phosphatase activity than alkaline root phosphatase activity under P-deficient, acidic soil conditions during all flowering stages of male C. papaya plants. Studies revealed that the root colonization of AM fungi influenced root phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) positively and significantly during all flowering stages of male C. papaya plants. A total of twelve species of AM fungi belonging to five genera viz. Acaulospora, Dentiscutata, Gigaspora, Glomus, and Racocetra were recovered from the rhizosphere of male C. papaya plants.

  13. [Signaling Systems of Rhizobia (Rhizobiaceae) and Leguminous Plants (Fabaceae) upon the Formation of a Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyan'ko, A K

    2015-01-01

    Data from the literature and our own data on the participation and interrelation of bacterial signaling Nod-factors and components of the calcium, NADPH-oxidase, and NO-synthase signaling systems of a plant at the preinfection and infectious stages of the formation of a legume-rhizobium symbiosis are summarized in this review. The physiological role of Nod-factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium (Ca2+), NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide (NO), and their cross influence on the processes determining the formation of symbiotic structures on the roots of the host plant is discussed.

  14. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Polypetide signaling molecules in plant development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercellular communication mediated by small signaling molecules is a key mechanism for coordinating plant growth and development. In the past few years, polypeptide signals have been shown to play prominent roles in processes as diverse as shoot and root meristem maintenance, vascular differentiat...

  16. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in resea

  17. Flora Robotica – Mixed Societies of Symbiotic Robot-Plant Bio-Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Heiko; Wahby, Mostafa; Schmickl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Besides the life-as-it-could-be driver of artificial life research there is also the concept of extending natural life by creating hybrids or mixed societies that are built from natural and artificial components. In this paper we motivate and present the research program of the project flora...... for new functions of plants and robots. They also create novel design opportunities for an architecture that fuses the design and construction phase. The bio-hybrid is an example of mixed societies between 'hard' artificial and 'wet' natural life, which enables an interaction between natural...... and artificial ecologies. They form an embodied, self-organizing, and distributed cognitive system which is supposed to grow and develop over long periods of time resulting in the creation of meaningful architectural structures. A key idea is to assign equal roles to robots and plants in order to create a highly...

  18. VIGS for dissecting mechanisms involved in the symbiotic interaction of microbes with plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants which are difficult to transform. The pea early browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. Here, a PEBV-VIGS p......-VIGS protocol is described which is suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea for genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium....

  19. Photoproduction of molecular hydrogen by a plant-algal symbiotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.W.

    1976-02-13

    The rapidly growing water fern Azolla, which contains a nitrogen-fixing blue-green algal symbiont, has been studied as a possible system for photoproduction of molecular hydrogen. When this plant is grown on a combined nitrogen supply, photochemically generated hydrogen can be diverted through the algal nitrogenase system, which serves as a source of molecular hydrogen generated from water. This symbiosis has several advantages as a possible biological energy conversion system. (auth)

  20. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

  1. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  2. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Jensen, John B.; Dittmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analyzed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin. PMID:27847500

  3. Avoidance of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus in leaf-cutting ants: Learning can take place entirely at the colony dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Plants initially accepted by foraging leaf-cutting ants are later avoided if they prove unsuitable for their symbiotic fungus. Plant avoidance is mediated by the waste produced in the fungus garden soon after the incorporation of the unsuitable leaves, as foragers can learn plant odors and cues from the damaged fungus that are both present in the recently produced waste particles. We asked whether avoidance learning of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus can take place entirely at the colony dump. In order to investigate whether cues available in the waste chamber induce plant avoidance in naïve subcolonies, we exchanged the waste produced by subcolonies fed either fungicide-treated privet leaves or untreated leaves and measured the acceptance of untreated privet leaves before and after the exchange of waste. Second, we evaluated whether foragers could perceive the avoidance cues directly at the dump by quantifying the visits of labeled foragers to the waste chamber. Finally, we asked whether foragers learn to specifically avoid untreated leaves of a plant after a confinement over 3 hours in the dump of subcolonies that were previously fed fungicide-treated leaves of that species. After the exchange of the waste chambers, workers from subcolonies that had access to waste from fungicide-treated privet leaves learned to avoid that plant. One-third of the labeled foragers visited the dump. Furthermore, naïve foragers learned to avoid a specific, previously unsuitable plant if exposed solely to cues of the dump during confinement. We suggest that cues at the dump enable foragers to predict the unsuitable effects of plants even if they had never been experienced in the fungus garden.

  4. Primary plant performance evaluation and plant signals validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikanov, S. S. [Westinghouse LLC, 4350 Northern Pike, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Stolyetniy, I. V.; Semenovski, Y. P. [Westron, 1, Academic Proskura str., Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses results of the implementation of NPP signal validation and data reconciliation algorithms applied to VVER-1000 reactor as part of the Core Monitoring System (CMS) project at South Ukrainian NPP. The proposed method is compared with the G2TM tool (Gensym) application of neural network algorithms to the same plant data. The proposed algorithms yield practically identical results for situations with a significant amount of erroneous data, even though it runs in on-line mode as oppose to the off-line mode of the G2TM tool. The method described in this paper includes preliminary signal processing, data fusion, and data reconciliation algorithms. All major primary and secondary sides measurements, used for plant thermal power evaluation based on different methods, were undergone the proposed processing algorithm. Some plant life data is presented to illustrate quality of input signals used to obtain calculation results. (authors)

  5. Extracellular calmodulin: A polypeptide signal in plants?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大业; 唐文强; 马力耕

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, calmodulin (CaM) was thought to be a multi-functional receptor for intracellular Ca2+ signals. But in the last ten years, it was found that CaM also exists and acts extracellularly in animal and plant cells to regulate many important physiological functions. Laboratory studies by the authors showed that extracellular CaM in plant cells can stimulate the proliferation of suspension cultured cell and protoplast; regulate pollen germination and pollen tube elongation,and stimulate the light-independent gene expression of Rubisco small subunit (rbcS). Furthermore,we defined the trans-membrane and intracellular signal transduction pathways for extracellular CaM by using a pollen system. The components in this pathway include heterotrimeric G-protein,phospholipase C, IP3, calcium signal and protein phosphorylation etc. Based on our findings, we suggest that extracellular CaM is a polypeptide signal in plants. This idea strongly argues against the traditional concept that there is no intercellular polypeptide signal in plants.

  6. A Versatile Monosaccharide Transporter That Operates in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus sp Is Crucial for the Symbiotic Relationship with Plants[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, Nicole; Wippel, Kathrin; Sauer, Norbert; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Hause, Bettina; Requena, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    For more than 400 million years, plants have maintained a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This evolutionary success can be traced to the role of these fungi in providing plants with mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. In return, photosynthates are given to the fungus, which support its obligate biotrophic lifestyle. Although the mechanisms involved in phosphate transfer have been extensively studied, less is known about the reciprocal transfer of carbon. Here, we present the high-affinity Monosaccharide Transporter2 (MST2) from Glomus sp with a broad substrate spectrum that functions at several symbiotic root locations. Plant cell wall sugars can efficiently outcompete the Glc uptake capacity of MST2, suggesting they can serve as alternative carbon sources. MST2 expression closely correlates with that of the mycorrhiza-specific Phosphate Transporter4 (PT4). Furthermore, reduction of MST2 expression using host-induced gene silencing resulted in impaired mycorrhiza formation, malformed arbuscules, and reduced PT4 expression. These findings highlight the symbiotic role of MST2 and support the hypothesis that the exchange of carbon for phosphate is tightly linked. Unexpectedly, we found that the external mycelium of AM fungi is able to take up sugars in a proton-dependent manner. These results imply that the sugar uptake system operating in this symbiosis is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:21972259

  7. Direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of a class II non-symbiotic plant haemoglobin immobilised on screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Leiva, Nélida; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Gorton, Lo; Bülow, Leif

    2010-10-01

    In this study, direct electron transfer (ET) has been achieved between an immobilised non-symbiotic plant haemoglobin class II from Beta vulgaris (nsBvHb2) and three different screen-printed carbon electrodes based on graphite (SPCE), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-SPCE), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-SPCE) without the aid of any electron mediator. The nsBvHb2 modified electrodes were studied with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and also when placed in a wall-jet flow through cell for their electrocatalytic properties for reduction of H(2)O(2). The immobilised nsBvHb2 displayed a couple of stable and well-defined redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of -33.5 mV (vs. Ag|AgCl|3 M KCl) at pH 7.4. The ET rate constant of nsBvHb2, k(s), was also determined at the surface of the three types of electrodes in phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4, and was found to be 0.50 s(-1) on SPCE, 2.78 s(-1) on MWCNT-SPCE and 4.06 s(-1) on SWCNT-SPCE, respectively. The average surface coverage of electrochemically active nsBvHb2 immobilised on the SPCEs, MWCNT-SPCEs and SWCNT-SPCEs obtained was 2.85 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2), 4.13 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 5.20 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2). During the experiments the immobilised nsBvHb2 was stable and kept its electrochemical and catalytic activities. The nsBvHb2 modified electrodes also displayed an excellent response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with a linear detection range from 1 μM to 1000 μM on the surface of SPCEs, from 0.5 μM to 1000 μM on MWCNT-SPCEs, and from 0.1 μM to 1000 μM on SWCNT-SPCEs. The lower limit of detection was 0.8 μM, 0.4 μM and 0.1 μM at 3σ at the SPCEs, the MWCNT-SPCEs, and the SWCNT-SPCEs, respectively, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, K(M)(app), for the H(2)O(2) sensors was estimated to be 0.32 mM , 0.29 mM and 0.27 mM, respectively.

  8. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  10. Signaling in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Keel, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Signaling studies in the rhizosphere have focused on close interactions between plants and symbiotic microorganisms. However, this focus is likely to expand to other microorganisms because the rhizomicrobiome is important for plant health and is able to influence the structure of the microbial community. We discuss here the shaping of the rhizomicrobiome and define which aspects can be considered signaling. We divide signaling in the rhizosphere into three categories: (i) between microbes, (ii) from plants to microorganisms, and (iii) from microorganisms to plants. Signals act on diverse organisms including the plant. Mycorrhizal and rhizobial interkingdom signaling has revealed its pivotal role in establishing associations, and the recent discovery of signaling with non-symbiotic microorganisms indicates the important role of communication in shaping the rhizomicrobiome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Florigenic and antiflorigenic signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsoukas, Ianis G; Massiah, Andrea J; Thomas, Brian

    2012-11-01

    The evidence that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, and its paralog TWIN SISTER OF FT, act as the long-distance floral stimulus, or at least that they are part of it in diverse plant species, has attracted much attention in recent years. Studies to understand the physiological and molecular apparatuses that integrate spatial and temporal signals to regulate developmental transitions in plants have occupied countless scientists and have resulted in an unmanageably large amount of research data. Analysis of these data has helped to identify multiple systemic florigenic and antiflorigenic regulators. This study gives an overview of the recent research on gene products, phytohormones and other metabolites that have been demonstrated to have florigenic or antiflorigenic functions in plants.

  12. Nod Factor-Independent Nodulation in Aeschynomene evenia Required the Common Plant-Microbe Symbiotic Toolkit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Sandrine; Gully, Djamel; Poitout, Arthur; Patrel, Delphine; Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a crucial area of research for more sustainable agriculture. Our knowledge of the plant cascade in response to the perception of bacterial Nod factors has increased in recent years. However, the discovery that Nod factors are not involved in the Aeschynomene-Bradyrhizobium spp. interaction suggests that alternative molecular dialogues may exist in the legume family. We evaluated the conservation of the signaling pathway common to other endosymbioses using three candidate genes: Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase (CCaMK), which plays a central role in cross signaling between nodule organogenesis and infection processes; and Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SYMRK) and Histidine Kinase1 (HK1), which act upstream and downstream of CCaMK, respectively. We showed that CCaMK, SYMRK, and HK1 are required for efficient nodulation in Aeschynomene evenia. Our results demonstrate that CCaMK and SYMRK are recruited in Nod factor-independent symbiosis and, hence, may be conserved in all vascular plant endosymbioses described so far. PMID:26446590

  13. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs, which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS. The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS, were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  14. Revealing crosstalk of plant and fungi in the symbiotic roots of sewage-cleaning Eichhornia crassipes using direct de novo metatranscriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhong, Jiayong; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation and environmental changes can induce development of novel phenotypes in plants. For example, the root morphology of cultivated purple root Eichhornia crassipes differs remarkably from normal Eichhornia crassipes and also shows an enhanced ability to absorb heavy metal from groundwater. However, the changes in gene expression associated with these processes are unknown because of the lack of information on its large and unsequenced genome and its complex plant-rhizosphere symbiotic system. To investigate these gene expression changes, we applied a new strategy, direct de novo metatranscriptome analysis. Using this approach, we assembled the metatranscriptome of the entire rhizosphere and identified species-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via hyper-accurate algorithms, showing a polarized plant/fungus distribution: the plant genes were responsible for morphological changes to the root system, offering a greater volume and surface area that hosts more fungi; while genes associated with heavy metal response in the fungus Fusarium were upregulated more than 3600-fold. These results suggested a distinct and synergistic functional response by the plant and fungal transcriptomes, indicating significant plant/fungal crosstalk during environmental changes. This study demonstrates that the metatranscriptomic approach adopted here offers a cost-efficient strategy to study symbiosis systems without the need for a priori genomic knowledge.

  15. The role of pre-symbiotic auxin signaling in ectendomycorrhiza formation between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Lubinsky, Olga; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit; Zaady, Eli; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Guy, Ofer; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sitrit, Yaron

    2016-05-01

    The ectendomycorrhizal fungus Terfezia boudieri is known to secrete auxin. While some of the effects of fungal auxin on the plant root system have been described, a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. A dual culture system to study pre mycorrhizal signal exchange revealed previously unrecognized root-fungus interaction mediated by the fungal auxin. The secreted fungal auxin induced negative taproot gravitropism, attenuated taproot growth rate, and inhibited initial host development. Auxin also induced expression of Arabidopsis carriers AUX1 and PIN1, both of which are involved in the gravitropic response. Exogenous application of auxin led to a root phenotype, which fully mimicked that induced by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Co-cultivation of Arabidopsis auxin receptor mutants tir1-1, tir1-1 afb2-3, tir1-1 afb1-3 afb2-3, and tir1-1 afb2-3 afb3-4 with Terfezia confirmed that auxin induces the observed root phenotype. The finding that auxin both induces taproot deviation from the gravity axis and coordinates growth rate is new. We propose a model in which the fungal auxin induces horizontal root development, as well as the coordination of growth rates between partners, along with the known auxin effect on lateral root induction that increases the availability of accessible sites for colonization at the soil plane of fungal spore abundance. Thus, the newly observed responses described here of the root to Terfezia contribute to a successful encounter between symbionts.

  16. Reactive oxygen species generation-scavenging and signaling during plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica interaction under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Nath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also acts as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant–microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation and scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  17. A single hemoglobin gene in Myrica gale retains both symbiotic and non-symbiotic specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne B.; Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Larsen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    Here, a hemoglobin gene from the nitrogen-fixing actinorhizal plant Myrica gale was isolated, cloned and sequenced. The gene (MgHb) was a class I hemoglobin with strong sequence homology to non-symbiotic hemoglobin genes. MgHb is highly expressed in symbiotic root nodules, but transcripts...

  18. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  19. iTRAQ and RNA-Seq Analyses Provide New Insights into Regulation Mechanism of Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale Seeds (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Si Si; Kohler, Annegret; Yan, Bo; Luo, Hong Mei; Chen, Xiao Mei; Guo, Shun Xing

    2017-06-02

    Mycorrhizal fungi colonize orchid seeds and induce germination. This so-called symbiotic germination is a critical developmental process in the lifecycle of all orchid species. However, the molecular changes that occur during orchid seed symbiotic germination remain largely unknown. To better understand the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination, we performed a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the Chinese traditional medicinal orchid Dendrobium officinale to explore the change in protein expression at the different developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination and identify the key proteins that regulate the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Among 2256 identified plant proteins, 308 were differentially expressed across three developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination, and 229 were differentially expressed during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic development. Of these, 32 proteins were coup-regulated at both the proteomic and transcriptomic levels during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic germination. Our results suggest that symbiotic germination of D. officinale seeds shares a common signaling pathway with asymbiotic germination during the early germination stage. However, compared to asymbiotic germination, fungal colonization of orchid seeds appears to induce higher and earlier expression of some key proteins involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and thus improves the efficiency of utilization of stored substances present in the embryo. This study provides new insight into the molecular basis of orchid seed germination.

  20. G protein signaling in plants: minus times minus equals plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stateczny, Dave; Oppenheimer, Jara; Bommert, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are key regulators in the transduction of extracellular signals both in animals and plants. In plants, heterotrimeric G protein signaling plays essential roles in development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, over the last decade it has become clear that plants have unique mechanisms of G protein signaling. Although plants share most of the core components of heterotrimeric G proteins, some of them exhibit unusual properties compared to their animal counterparts. In addition, plants do not share functional GPCRs. Therefore the well-established paradigm of the animal G protein signaling cycle is not applicable in plants. In this review, we summarize recent insights into these unique mechanisms of G protein signaling in plants with special focus on the evident potential of G protein signaling as a target to modify developmental and physiological parameters important for yield increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical signals and their physiological significance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Jörg; Lautner, Silke

    2007-03-01

    Electrical excitability and signalling, frequently associated with rapid responses to environmental stimuli, are well known in some algae and higher plants. The presence of electrical signals, such as action potentials (AP), in both animal and plant cells suggested that plant cells, too, make use of ion channels to transmit information over long distances. In the light of rapid progress in plant biology during the past decade, the assumption that electrical signals do not only trigger rapid leaf movements in 'sensitive' plants such as Mimosa pudica or Dionaea muscipula, but also physiological processes in ordinary plants proved to be correct. Summarizing recent progress in the field of electrical signalling in plants, the present review will focus on the generation and propagation of various electrical signals, their ways of transmission within the plant body and various physiological effects.

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha eSubramoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its T-DNA (Transferred DNA from its Tumour-inducing (Ti plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, cytokinin (CK and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including -amino butyric acid (GABA and salicylic acid (SA to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene (ET to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. Moreover, certain metabolites from corn (Zea mays also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions.

  3. Extracellular calmodulin: A polypeptide signal in plants?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Daye(

    2001-01-01

    Regulation, 1998, 25: 23-28.[34]Cui. S. J.. Wang, H. H., Ma, L. G. et al., The effects of extracellular calmodulin of style and pollen on pollen germination and pollen tube growth, Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 42: 320-326.[35]Ma, L. G.. Xu, X. D., Cui, S. J. et al., Effects of extracellular calmodulin on pollen germination and tube growth, Chin. Sci.Bull. (in Chinese), 1998, 43(2): 143-146.[36]Wanner. L. A., Gruissem, W., Expression dynamics of the tomato rbcS gene family during development, Plant Cell, 1991,3: 1289-1303.[37]Sawbridge, T. I., Knight, M. R., Jenkins, G. I., Ontogenetic regulation and photoregulation of members of the Phaseolus vulgaris L. rbcS gene family, Planta, 1996, 198: 31-38.[38]Zhang, S. Q., Ma, L. G., Sun, D. Y., The effect of extracellular calmodulin on rbcS-3A expression in suspension-cultured tomato cells, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 2000, 42(6): 653-655.[39]Shang, Z. L., Ma, L. G., Wang, X. C. et al., Effect of extracellular calmodulin on the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in lily pollen grains, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 43(1): 12-17.[40]Ma, L. G., Xu, X. D., Cui, S. J. et al., The presence of a heterotrimeric G protein and its role in signal transduction of extracellular calmodulin in pollen germination and tube growth, Plant Cell, 1999, 11: 1351-1363.[41]Guo, Y., Ma, L. G., Zhang, L. et al., The involvement of hetrotrimeric G protein in signal transduction of extracellular calmodulin in regulating rbcS expression, Chin. Sci. Bull., 2000, 45(20): 2195-2200.[42]Ma, L. G., Xu, X. D., Cui, S. J. et al., The involvement of phosphoinositide signaling pathway in the initiatory effects of extracellular calmodulin on pollen germination and tube growth, Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 24:196-200.[43]Wang, X., Cui, S. J., Ma, L. G. et al., The involvement of PLC-IP3 pathway in pollen tube growth by microinjection study,Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 2000

  4. Conjugal transfer of the Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 symbiotic plasmid is governed through the concerted action of one- and two-component signal transduction regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Joaquina; Blanca-Ordóñez, Helena; Olivares, José; Sanjuán, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Conjugal transfer of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmids are repressed by the transcriptional regulator RctA. Here we report on new key players in the signal transduction cascade towards S. meliloti pSym conjugation. We have identified S. meliloti pSymA gene SMa0974 as an orthologue of the R. etli rctB gene which is required to antagonize repression by RctA. In S. meliloti two additional genes, rctR and rctC participate in control of rctB expression. rctR (SMa0955) encodes a protein of the GntR family of transcriptional regulators involved in repression of rctB. A rctR mutant promotes pSymA conjugal transfer and displays increased transcription of tra, virB and rctB genes even in presence of wild-type rctA gene. Among genes repressed by RctR, rctC (SMa0961) encodes a response regulator required to activate rctB transcription and therefore for derepression of plasmid conjugative functions. We conclude that in both R. etli and S. meliloti pSym conjugal transfer is derepressed via rctB, however the regulatory cascades to achieve activation of rctB are probably different. Upstream of rctB, the S. meliloti pSym conjugal transfer is regulated through the concerted action of genes representing one- (rctR) and two-component (rctC) signal transduction systems in response to yet unidentified signals.

  5. Mira Symbiotic Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Lü; Chun-Hua Zhu; Zhan-Wen Han

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of Mira symbiotic stars by means of a population synthesis code. We estimate the number of Mira symbiotic stars in the Galaxy as 1700 - 3100 and the Galactic occurrence rate of Mira symbiotic novae as from ~ 0.9 to 6.0 yr-1,depending on the model assumptions. The distributions of the orbital periods, the masses of the components, mass-loss rates of cool components, mass-accretion rates of hot components and Mira pulsation periods in Mira symbiotic stars are simulated. By a comparison of the number ratio of Mira symbiotic stars to all symbiotic stars, we find the model with the stellar wind model of Winters et al. to be reasonable.

  6. Comparative phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ionic zinc onto the alfalfa plants symbiotically associated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Mukherjee, Arnab; Rico, Cyren M; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are reported as potentially phytotoxic in hydroponic and soil media. However, studies on ZnO NPs toxicity in a plant inoculated with bacterium in soil are limited. In this study, ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl₂ were exposed to the symbiotic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Sinorhizobium meliloti association at concentrations ranging from 0 to 750 mg/kg soil. Plant growth, Zn bioaccumulation, dry biomass, leaf area, total protein, and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in 30 day-old plants. Results showed 50% germination reduction by bulk ZnO at 500 and 750 mg/kg and all ZnCl₂ concentrations. ZnO NPs and ionic Zn reduced root and shoot biomass by 80% and 25%, respectively. Conversely, bulk ZnO at 750 mg/kg increased shoot and root biomass by 225% and 10%, respectively, compared to control. At 500 and 750 mg/kg, ZnCl₂ reduced CAT activity in stems and leaves. Total leaf protein significantly decreased as external ZnCl₂ concentration increased. STEM-EDX imaging revealed the presence of ZnO particles in the root, stem, leaf, and nodule tissues. ZnO NPs showed less toxicity compared to ZnCl₂ and bulk ZnO found to be growth enhancing on measured traits. These findings are significant to reveal the toxicity effects of different Zn species (NPs, bulk, and ionic Zn) into environmentally important plant-bacterial system in soil.

  7. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Campos, Ricardo I

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15)N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15)N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  8. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N Oliveira

    Full Text Available In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry. We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15N, and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area. We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  9. The Effect of Symbiotic Ant Colonies on Plant Growth: A Test Using an Azteca-Cecropia System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Moreira, Marcelo Z.; Campos, Ricardo I.

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ15N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change. PMID:25811369

  10. ROS as key players in plant stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Aaron; Mittler, Ron; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an integral role as signalling molecules in the regulation of numerous biological processes such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and/or abiotic stimuli in plants. To some extent, various functions of ROS signalling are attributed to differences in the regulatory mechanisms of respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs) that are involved in a multitude of different signal transduction pathways activated in assorted tissue and cell types under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent findings revealed that stress responses in plants are mediated by a temporal-spatial coordination between ROS and other signals that rely on production of stress-specific chemicals, compounds, and hormones. In this review we will provide an update of recent findings related to the integration of ROS signals with an array of signalling pathways aimed at regulating different responses in plants. In particular, we will address signals that confer systemic acquired resistance (SAR) or systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) in plants.

  11. Heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Jones, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Investigators studying G protein-coupled signaling--often called the best-understood pathway in the world owing to intense research in medical fields--have adopted plants as a new model to explore the plasticity and evolution of G signaling. Much research on plant G signaling has not disappointed. Although plant cells have most of the core elements found in animal G signaling, differences in network architecture and intrinsic properties of plant G protein elements make G signaling in plant cells distinct from the animal paradigm. In contrast to animal G proteins, plant G proteins are self-activating, and therefore regulation of G activation in plants occurs at the deactivation step. The self-activating property also means that plant G proteins do not need and therefore do not have typical animal G protein-coupled receptors. Targets of activated plant G proteins, also known as effectors, are unlike effectors in animal cells. The simpler repertoire of G signal elements in Arabidopsis makes G signaling easier to manipulate in a multicellular context.

  12. The Effect of Symbiotic Ant Colonies on Plant Growth: A Test Using an Azteca-Cecropia System: e0120351

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Karla N; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Campos, Ricardo I

    2015-01-01

    .... In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry...

  13. Terpenoids in plant signaling, chemical ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest class of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom. Because of their immense structural diversity and the resulting diversity in physiochemical properties, these molecules are particularly important for plant communication with other organisms. In this article, we

  14. Does chemical aposematic (warning) signaling occur between host plants and their potential parasitic plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Aposematism (warning) signaling is a common defensive mechanism toward predatory or herbivorous animals, i.e., interactions between different trophic levels. I propose that it should be considered at least as a working hypothesis that chemical aposematism operates between certain host plants and their plant predators, parasitic plants, and that although they are also plants, they belong to a higher trophic level. Specific host plant genotypes emit known repelling chemical signals toward paras...

  15. Jasmonates - signals in plant-microbe interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Maria J.; Loon, L. C. Van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Within their environment, plants interact with a wide range of microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and cause disease, and others that are beneficial and stimulate plant growth or activate natural defenses. To recognize and respond to this variety of pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms, plants have developed sophisticated strategies to perceive microorganisms and translate that perception into an appropriate adaptive response. This plant innate immune response is surprisingly com...

  16. A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B; Madsen, Lene H; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule.

  17. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  18. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Atsatt

    Full Text Available Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that

  19. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsatt, Peter R; Whiteside, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust

  20. Proteomics insights into plant signaling and development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Smaczniak, C.D.; Vries, de S.C.; Angenent, G.C.; Karlova, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is used to gain insight into the abundance and subcellular localization of cellular signaling components, the composition of molecular complexes and the regulation of signaling pathways. Multicellular organisms have evolved signaling networks and fast responses to

  1. Evolutionarilv Conserved DELLA-mediated Gibberellin Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hua Gao; Xian-Zhong Huang; Sen-Lin Xiao; Xiang-Dong Fu

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in many essential plant growth and development processes. A family of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins is the key component in GA signaling. GA perception is mediated by GID1, and the key event of GA signaling is the degradation of DELLA proteins via the 26S proteasome pathway. DELLA proteins integrating other plant hormones signaling and environmental cue modulating plant growth and development have been revealed. GA turning on the de-DELLA-repressing system is conserved, and independently establishes step-by-step recruitment of GAstimulated GID1-DELLA interaction and DELLA growth-repression functions during land plant evolution. These discoveries open new prospects for the understanding of GA action and DELLA-mediated signaling in plants.

  2. The Language of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are astonishingly versatile molecular species and radicals that are poised at the core of a sophisticated network of signaling pathways of plants and act as core regulator of cell physiology and cellular responses to environment. ROS are continuously generated in plants as an inevitable consequence of redox cascades of aerobic metabolism. In one hand, plants are surfeited with the mechanism to combat reactive oxygen species, in other circumstances, plants appear ...

  3. Jasmonates - signals in plant-microbe interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozo, Maria J.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Within their environment, plants interact with a wide range of microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and cause disease, and others that are beneficial and stimulate plant growth or activate natural defenses. To recognize and respond to this variety of pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms,

  4. Shifts in symbiotic associations in plants capable of forming multiple root symbioses across a long-term soil chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Felipe E; Lambers, Hans; Turner, Benjamin L; Teste, François P; Laliberté, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil nutrient availability during long-term ecosystem development influence the relative abundances of plant species with different nutrient-acquisition strategies. These changes in strategies are observed at the community level, but whether they also occur within individual species remains unknown. Plant species forming multiple root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, and nitrogen-(N) fixing microorganisms provide valuable model systems to examine edaphic controls on symbioses related to nutrient acquisition, while simultaneously controlling for plant host identity. We grew two co-occurring species, Acacia rostellifera (N2-fixing and dual AM and ECM symbioses) and Melaleuca systena (AM and ECM dual symbioses), in three soils of contrasting ages (c. 0.1, 1, and 120 ka) collected along a long-term dune chronosequence in southwestern Australia. The soils differ in the type and strength of nutrient limitation, with primary productivity being limited by N (0.1 ka), co-limited by N and phosphorus (P) (1 ka), and by P (120 ka). We hypothesized that (i) within-species root colonization shifts from AM to ECM with increasing soil age, and that (ii) nodulation declines with increasing soil age, reflecting the shift from N to P limitation along the chronosequence. In both species, we observed a shift from AM to ECM root colonization with increasing soil age. In addition, nodulation in A. rostellifera declined with increasing soil age, consistent with a shift from N to P limitation. Shifts from AM to ECM root colonization reflect strengthening P limitation and an increasing proportion of total soil P in organic forms in older soils. This might occur because ECM fungi can access organic P via extracellular phosphatases, while AM fungi do not use organic P. Our results show that plants can shift their resource allocation to different root symbionts depending on nutrient availability during ecosystem development.

  5. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; López-Bucio, José

    2009-08-01

    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals.

  6. Does chemical aposematic (warning) signaling occur between host plants and their potential parasitic plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-07-01

    Aposematism (warning) signaling is a common defensive mechanism toward predatory or herbivorous animals, i.e., interactions between different trophic levels. I propose that it should be considered at least as a working hypothesis that chemical aposematism operates between certain host plants and their plant predators, parasitic plants, and that although they are also plants, they belong to a higher trophic level. Specific host plant genotypes emit known repelling chemical signals toward parasitic plants, which reduce the level of, slow the directional parasite growth (attack) toward the signaling hosts, or even cause parasitic plants to grow away from them in response to these chemicals. Chemical host aposematism toward parasitic plants may be a common but overlooked defense from parasitic plants.

  7. Research progress on electrical signals in higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Yan; Zhongyi Wang; Lan Huang; Cheng Wang; Ruifeng Hou; Zhilong Xu; Xiaojun Qiao

    2009-01-01

    This review introduces the characteristics of electrical signals in higher plants and their corresponding physiological significance,and describes in detail the impact of environmental factors (e.g.light and temperature) on the electrical potential of the plants.Also,we evaluate the measurement techniques used for electrical signals in plants,including intracellular measurement,extracellular measurement,measurement of the ion channel based on the patch-clamp technique and on the non-invasive microelectrode vibrating probe technique.We also give a brief review of the applications of these methods for investigating electrical signals in plants.The ionic mechanism of electrical activity in plants is then discussed in terms of environmental response in higher plants,and this is used to provide a theoretical basis for quantitative description of the electrical signals in plants.A model for interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in higher plants is discussed,but further experiments are required for the verification of this model.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  9. The absence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone autoinducer synthase genes tral and ngrl increases the copy number of the symbiotic plasmid in sinorhizobium fredii NGR234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-released flavonoids induce the transcription of symbiotic genes in rhizobia and one of the first bacterial responses is the synthesis of so called Nod factors. They are responsible for the initial root hair curling during onset of root nodule development. This signal exchange is believed to be...

  10. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides: genetic control and symbiotic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Andrzej

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specific complex interactions between soil bacteria belonging to Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Phylorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium commonly known as rhizobia, and their host leguminous plants result in development of root nodules. Nodules are new organs that consist mainly of plant cells infected with bacteroids that provide the host plant with fixed nitrogen. Proper nodule development requires the synthesis and perception of signal molecules such as lipochitooligosaccharides, called Nod factors that are important for induction of nodule development. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are also crucial for establishment of successful symbiosis with legumes. Sugar polymers of rhizobia are composed of a number of different polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, capsular polysaccharides (CPS or K-antigens, neutral β-1, 2-glucans and acidic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS. Despite extensive research, the molecular function of the surface polysaccharides in symbiosis remains unclear. This review focuses on exopolysaccharides that are especially important for the invasion that leads to formation of indetermined (with persistent meristem type of nodules on legumes such as clover, vetch, peas or alfalfa. The significance of EPS synthesis in symbiotic interactions of Rhizobium leguminosarum with clover is especially noticed. Accumulating data suggest that exopolysaccharides may be involved in invasion and nodule development, bacterial release from infection threads, bacteroid development, suppression of plant defense response and protection against plant antimicrobial compounds. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides are species-specific heteropolysaccharide polymers composed of common sugars that are substituted with non-carbohydrate residues. Synthesis of repeating units of exopolysaccharide, their modification, polymerization and export to the cell surface is controlled by clusters of genes, named exo/exs, exp or

  11. The Language of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are astonishingly versatile molecular species and radicals that are poised at the core of a sophisticated network of signaling pathways of plants and act as core regulator of cell physiology and cellular responses to environment. ROS are continuously generated in plants as an inevitable consequence of redox cascades of aerobic metabolism. In one hand, plants are surfeited with the mechanism to combat reactive oxygen species, in other circumstances, plants appear to purposefully generate (oxidative burst and exploit ROS or ROS-induced secondary breakdown products for the regulation of almost every aspect of plant biology, from perception of environmental cues to gene expression. The molecular language associated with ROS-mediated signal transduction, leading to modulation in gene expression to be one of the specific early stress response in the acclamatory performance of the plant. They may even act as “second messenger” modulating the activities of specific proteins or expression of genes by changing redox balance of the cell. The network of redox signals orchestrates metabolism for regulating energy production to utilization, interfering with primary signaling agents (hormones to respond to changing environmental cues at every stage of plant development. The oxidative lipid peroxidation products and the resulting generated products thereof (associated with stress and senescence also represent “biological signals,” which do not require preceding activation of genes. Unlike ROS-induced expression of genes, these lipid peroxidation products produce nonspecific response to a large variety of environmental stresses. The present review explores the specific and nonspecific signaling language of reactive oxygen species in plant acclamatory defense processes, controlled cell death, and development. Special emphasis is given to ROS and redox-regulated gene expression and the role of redox-sensitive proteins in signal

  12. Signalling crosstalk in light stress and immune reactions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Andrea; Rahikainen, Moona; Konert, Grzegorz; Finazzi, Giovanni; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2014-04-19

    The evolutionary history of plants is tightly connected with the evolution of microbial pathogens and herbivores, which use photosynthetic end products as a source of life. In these interactions, plants, as the stationary party, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense, signal and respond to the presence of external stress agents. Chloroplasts are metabolically versatile organelles that carry out fundamental functions in determining appropriate immune reactions in plants. Besides photosynthesis, chloroplasts host key steps in the biosynthesis of amino acids, stress hormones and secondary metabolites, which have a great impact on resistance against pathogens and insect herbivores. Changes in chloroplast redox signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species metabolism also mediate local and systemic signals, which modulate plant resistance to light stress and disease. Moreover, interplay among chloroplastic signalling networks and plasma membrane receptor kinases is emerging as a key mechanism that modulates stress responses in plants. This review highlights the central role of chloroplasts in the signalling crosstalk that essentially determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions in plants.

  13. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security.

  14. Phosphatidic acid: a multifunctional stress-signalling lipid in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Testerink; T. Munnik

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in both plants and animals. Nonetheless, it already promises to rival the importance of the classic second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP. In plants, its formation is triggered in response to various biotic and a

  15. Un nouveau signalement de plante du Liban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Tohmé

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tohmé, G. and Tohmé, H. 2016. A new plant species in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 240-241. In this note, the authors give a description of an Iris from Lebanon cited previously from Syria by Mouterde. They have named it, in 2014, I. persica tauri.

  16. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Schardl

    Full Text Available The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne, and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species, a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae, and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take, and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories

  17. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Hesse, Uljana; Amyotte, Stefan G; Andreeva, Kalina; Calie, Patrick J; Fleetwood, Damien J; Haws, David C; Moore, Neil; Oeser, Birgitt; Panaccione, Daniel G; Schweri, Kathryn K; Voisey, Christine R; Farman, Mark L; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W; Roe, Bruce A; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Scott, Barry; Tudzynski, Paul; An, Zhiqiang; Arnaoudova, Elissaveta G; Bullock, Charles T; Charlton, Nikki D; Chen, Li; Cox, Murray; Dinkins, Randy D; Florea, Simona; Glenn, Anthony E; Gordon, Anna; Güldener, Ulrich; Harris, Daniel R; Hollin, Walter; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Johnson, Richard D; Khan, Anar K; Leistner, Eckhard; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Li, Chunjie; Liu, JinGe; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Miao; Mace, Wade; Machado, Caroline; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Pan, Juan; Schmid, Jan; Sugawara, Koya; Steiner, Ulrike; Takach, Johanna E; Tanaka, Eiji; Webb, Jennifer S; Wilson, Ella V; Wiseman, Jennifer L; Yoshida, Ruriko; Zeng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the

  18. Induced systemic resistance and symbiotic performance of peanut plants challenged with fungal pathogens and co-inoculated with the biocontrol agent Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, María Soledad; Tonelli, María Laura; Ibáñez, Fernando; Morla, Federico; Cerioni, Guillermo; Del Carmen Tordable, María; Fabra, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    Synergism between beneficial rhizobacteria and fungal pathogens is poorly understood. Therefore, evaluation of co-inoculation of bacteria that promote plant growth by different mechanisms in pathogen challenged plants would contribute to increase the knowledge about how plants manage interactions with different microorganisms. The goals of this work were a) to elucidate, in greenhouse experiments, the effect of co-inoculation of peanut with Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 and the biocontrol agent Bacillus sp. CHEP5 on growth and symbiotic performance of Sclerotium rolfsii challenged plants, and b) to evaluate field performance of these bacteria in co-inoculated peanut plants. The capacity of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to induce systemic resistance against S. rolfsii was not affected by the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144. This microsymbiont, protected peanut plants from the S. rolfsii detrimental effect, reducing the stem wilt incidence. However, disease incidence in plants inoculated with the isogenic mutant Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 V2 (unable to produce Nod factors) was as high as in pathogen challenged plants. Therefore, Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 Nod factors play a role in the systemic resistance against S. rolfsii. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 enhanced Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 root surface colonization and improved its symbiotic behavior, even in S. rolfsii challenged plants. Results of field trials confirmed the Bacillus sp. CHEP5 ability to protect against fungal pathogens and to improve the yield of extra-large peanut seeds from 2.15% (in Río Cuarto) to 16.69% (in Las Vertientes), indicating that co-inoculation of beneficial rhizobacteria could be a useful strategy for the peanut production under sustainable agriculture system.

  19. Visualization of symbiotic tissue in intact root nodules of Vicia tetrasperma using GFP-marked Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chovanec, P; Hovorka, O; Novák, K

    2008-01-01

    In rhizobial symbiosis with legume plant hosts, the symbiotic tissue in the root nodules of indeterminate type is localized to the basal part of the nodule where the symbiotic zones contain infected cells (IC...

  20. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which lea

  1. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which

  2. Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) transfers herbivory-induced signals among plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Huifu; Sun, Huanhuan; Xu, Yuxing; Qi, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jingxiong; Lei, Yunting; Qin, Yan; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-08-08

    Cuscuta spp. (i.e., dodders) are stem parasites that naturally graft to their host plants to extract water and nutrients; multiple adjacent hosts are often parasitized by one or more Cuscuta plants simultaneously, forming connected plant clusters. Metabolites, proteins, and mRNAs are known to be transferred from hosts to Cuscuta, and Cuscuta bridges even facilitate host-to-host virus movement. Whether Cuscuta bridges transmit ecologically meaningful signals remains unknown. Here we show that, when host plants are connected by Cuscuta bridges, systemic herbivory signals are transmitted from attacked plants to unattacked plants, as revealed by the large transcriptomic changes in the attacked local leaves, undamaged systemic leaves of the attacked plants, and leaves of unattacked but connected hosts. The interplant signaling is largely dependent on the jasmonic acid pathway of the damaged local plants, and can be found among conspecific or heterospecific hosts of different families. Importantly, herbivore attack of one host plant elevates defensive metabolites in the other systemic Cuscuta bridge-connected hosts, resulting in enhanced resistance against insects even in several consecutively Cuscuta-connected host plants over long distances (> 100 cm). By facilitating plant-to-plant signaling, Cuscuta provides an information-based means of countering the resource-based fitness costs to their hosts.

  3. Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) transfers herbivory-induced signals among plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Huifu; Sun, Huanhuan; Xu, Yuxing; Qi, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jingxiong; Lei, Yunting; Qin, Yan; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2017-01-01

    Cuscuta spp. (i.e., dodders) are stem parasites that naturally graft to their host plants to extract water and nutrients; multiple adjacent hosts are often parasitized by one or more Cuscuta plants simultaneously, forming connected plant clusters. Metabolites, proteins, and mRNAs are known to be transferred from hosts to Cuscuta, and Cuscuta bridges even facilitate host-to-host virus movement. Whether Cuscuta bridges transmit ecologically meaningful signals remains unknown. Here we show that, when host plants are connected by Cuscuta bridges, systemic herbivory signals are transmitted from attacked plants to unattacked plants, as revealed by the large transcriptomic changes in the attacked local leaves, undamaged systemic leaves of the attacked plants, and leaves of unattacked but connected hosts. The interplant signaling is largely dependent on the jasmonic acid pathway of the damaged local plants, and can be found among conspecific or heterospecific hosts of different families. Importantly, herbivore attack of one host plant elevates defensive metabolites in the other systemic Cuscuta bridge-connected hosts, resulting in enhanced resistance against insects even in several consecutively Cuscuta-connected host plants over long distances (> 100 cm). By facilitating plant-to-plant signaling, Cuscuta provides an information-based means of countering the resource-based fitness costs to their hosts. PMID:28739895

  4. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system.

  5. Systemic Acquired Resistance and Signal Transduction in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu-qing; GUO Jian-bo

    2003-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), known as the broad-spectrum, inducible plant immunity,is a defense response triggered by pathogen infection. The response starts from the recognition of plant resist-ance (R) with the corresponding avirulence (avr) gene from the pathogen. There are some genes for conver-gence of signals downstream of different R/avr interacting partners into a single signaling pathway. Salicylicacid (SA) is required for the induction of SAR and involved in transducing the signal in target tissues. The SAsignal is transduced through NPR1, a nuclear-localized protein that interacts with transcription factors thatare involved in regulating SA-mediated gene expression. Some chemicals that mimic natural signaling com-pounds can also activate SAR. The application of biochemical activators to agriculture for plant protection is anovel idea for developing green chemical pesticide.

  6. Air pollution impedes plant-to-plant communication, but what is the signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2011-07-01

    Since the first reports that undamaged plants gain defensive benefits following exposure to damaged neighbors, the idea that plants may signal to each other has attracted much interest. There has also been substantial debate concerning the ecological significance of the process and the evolutionary drivers. Part of this debate has centered on the distance over which signaling between plants occurs in nature. In a recent study we showed that an ozone concentration of 80 ppb, commonly encountered in nature, significantly reduces the distance over which plant-plant signaling occurs in lima bean. We went on to show that degradation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles by ozone is the likely mechanism for this. The key question remaining from our work was that if ozone is degrading the signal in transit between plants, which chemicals are responsible for transmitting the signal in purer air? Here we present the results of a small scale experiment testing the role of the two most significant herbivore-induced terpenes and discuss our results in terms of other reported functions for these chemicals in plant-plant signaling.

  7. Explaining evolution of plant communication by airborne signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Karban, Richard

    2010-03-01

    In spite of initial doubts about the reality of 'talking trees', plant resistance expression mediated by volatile compounds that come from neighboring plants is now well described. Airborne signals usually improve the resistance of the receiver, but without obvious benefits for the emitter, thus making the evolutionary explanation of this phenomenon problematic. Here, we discuss four possible non-exclusive explanations involving the role of volatiles: in direct defense, as within-plant signals, as traits that synergistically interact with other defenses, and as cues among kin. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge on the fitness consequences of plant communication for both emitter and receiver. This information is crucial to understanding the ecology and evolution of plant communication via airborne cues.

  8. Cell wall integrity signaling and innate immunity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nühse, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    All plant pathogens and parasites have had to develop strategies to overcome cell walls in order to access the host's cytoplasm. As a mechanically strong, multi-layered composite exoskeleton, the cell wall not only enables plants to grow tall but also protects them from such attacks. Many plant pathogens employ an arsenal of cell wall degrading enzymes, and it has long been thought that the detection of breaches in wall integrity contributes to the induction of defense. Cell wall fragments are danger-associated molecular patterns or DAMPs that can trigger defense signaling pathways comparable to microbial signals, but the picture is likely to be more complicated. A wide range of defects in cell wall biosynthesis leads to enhanced pathogen resistance. We are beginning to understand the essential role of cell wall integrity surveillance for plant growth, and the connection of processes like cell expansion, plasma membrane-cell wall contact and secondary wall biosynthesis with plant immunity is emerging.

  9. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  10. [Regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lingzhu; Cheng, Jianhui; Li, Lin; Wu, Jiang

    2012-02-01

    Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits that could affect both crop yield and quality. Among all the hormones, gibberellins are crucial to regulate plant height. Cloning and molecular mechanism research of the plant height genes associated gibberellins have extremely important value for the regulation of crop growth and agricultural production, and have been widely used in rice, wheat and other grain crops breeding. In order to promote utilization of gibberellins in fruit trees, flowers and other horticultural crops breeding, we reviewed the regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction at the molecular level in this paper.

  11. Lipo-chitooligosaccharidic symbiotic signals are recognized by LysM receptor-like kinase LYR3 in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegmann, Judith; Canova, Sophie; Lachaud, Christophe; Uhlenbroich, Sandra; Gasciolli, Virginie; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Rosenberg, Charles; Cumener, Marie; Pitorre, Delphine; Lefebvre, Benoit; Gough, Clare; Samain, Eric; Fort, Sébastien; Driguez, Hugues; Vauzeilles, Boris; Beau, Jean-Marie; Nurisso, Alessandra; Imberty, Anne; Cullimore, Julie; Bono, Jean-Jacques

    2013-09-20

    While chitooligosaccharides (COs) derived from fungal chitin are potent elicitors of defense reactions, structurally related signals produced by certain bacteria and fungi, called lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), play important roles in the establishment of symbioses with plants. Understanding how plants distinguish between friend and foe through the perception of these signals is a major challenge. We report the synthesis of a range of COs and LCOs, including photoactivatable probes, to characterize a membrane protein from the legume Medicago truncatula. By coupling photoaffinity labeling experiments with proteomics and transcriptomics, we identified the likely LCO-binding protein as LYR3, a lysin motif receptor-like kinase (LysM-RLK). LYR3, expressed heterologously, exhibits high-affinity binding to LCOs but not COs. Homology modeling, based on the Arabidopsis CO-binding LysM-RLK AtCERK1, suggests that LYR3 could accommodate the LCO in a conserved binding site. The identification of LYR3 opens up ways for the molecular characterization of LCO/CO discrimination.

  12. Karrikin and Cyanohydrin Smoke Signals Provide Clues to New Endogenous Plant Signaling Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gavin R. Flematti; Mark T. Waters; Adrian Scaffidi; David J. Merritt; Emilio L. Ghisalberti; Kingsley W. Dixon; Steven M. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Two new types of signaling compounds have been discovered in wildfire smoke due to their ability to stimulate seed germination.The first discovered were karrikins,which share some structural similarity with the strigolactone class of plant hormones,and both signal through a common F-box protein.However,karrikins and strigolactones operate through otherwise distinct signaling pathways,each distinguished by a specific α/β hydrolase protein.Genetic analysis suggests that plants contain endogenous compounds that signal specifically through the karrikin pathway.The other active compounds discovered in smoke are cyanohydrins that release germination-stimulating cyanide upon hydrolysis.Cyanohydrins occur widely in plants and have a role in defense against other organisms,but an additional role in endogenous cyanide signaling should also now be considered.

  13. Strigolactones, a Novel Carotenoid-Derived Plant Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Babili, S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availa

  14. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-07

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.

  15. Transport, signaling, and homeostasis of potassium and sodium in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eri Adams; Ryoung Shin

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (Kþ) is an essential macronutrient in plants and a lack of Kþ significantly reduces the potential for plant growth and development. By contrast, sodium (Naþ), while beneficial to some extent, at high concentrations it disturbs and inhibits various physiological processes and plant growth. Due to their chemical similarities, some functions of Kþ can be undertaken by Naþ but Kþ homeostasis is severely affected by salt stress, on the other hand. Recent advances have highlighted the fascinating regulatory mechanisms of Kþ and Naþ transport and signaling in plants. This review summarizes three major topics:(i) the transport mechanisms of Kþ and Naþ from the soil to the shoot and to the cellular compartments; (i ) the mechanisms through which plants sense and respond to Kþ and Naþ availability; and (i i) the components involved in maintenance of Kþ/Naþ homeostasis in plants under salt stress.

  16. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  17. Calcium signaling during reproduction and biotrophic fungal interactions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Gutjahr, Caroline; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Many recent studies have indicated that cellular communications during plant reproduction, fungal invasion, and defense involve identical or similar molecular players and mechanisms. Indeed, pollen tube invasion and sperm release shares many common features with infection of plant tissue by fungi and oomycetes, as a tip-growing intruder needs to communicate with the receptive cells to gain access into a cell and tissue. Depending on the compatibility between cells, interactions may result in defense, invasion, growth support, or cell death. Plant cells stimulated by both pollen tubes and fungal hyphae secrete, for example, small cysteine-rich proteins and receptor-like kinases are activated leading to intracellular signaling events such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the generation of calcium (Ca(2+)) transients. The ubiquitous and versatile second messenger Ca(2+) thereafter plays a central and crucial role in modulating numerous downstream signaling processes. In stimulated cells, it elicits both fast and slow cellular responses depending on the shape, frequency, amplitude, and duration of the Ca(2+) transients. The various Ca(2+) signatures are transduced into cellular information via a battery of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In this review, we focus on Ca(2+) signaling and discuss its occurrence during plant reproduction and interactions of plant cells with biotrophic filamentous microbes. The participation of Ca(2+) in ROS signaling pathways is also discussed.

  18. Nitric Oxide: A Multitasked Signaling Gas in Plants

    KAUST Repository

    Domingos, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has evolved as a signaling hormone in many physiological processes in animals. In plants it has been demonstrated to be a crucial regulator of development, acting as a signaling molecule present at each step of the plant life cycle. NO has also been implicated as a signal in biotic and abiotic responses of plants to the environment. Remarkably, despite this plethora of effects and functional relationships, the fundamental knowledge of NO production, sensing, and transduction in plants remains largely unknown or inadequately characterized. In this review we cover the current understanding of NO production, perception, and action in different physiological scenarios. We especially address the issues of enzymatic and chemical generation of NO in plants, NO sensing and downstream signaling, namely the putative cGMP and Ca2+ pathways, ion-channel activity modulation, gene expression regulation, and the interface with other ROS, which can have a profound effect on both NO accumulation and function. We also focus on the importance of NO in cell–cell communication during developmental processes and sexual reproduction, namely in pollen tube guidance and embryo sac fertilization, pathogen defense, and responses to abiotic stress.

  19. Plant Cell and Signaling Biology Blooms in the Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Eighth International Conference on Plant Biology Fron-tiers, organized by Zhenbiao Yang, Chentao Lin, and Xing-wang Deng, was convened in the Wuyi Mountain Yeohwa Resort in Fujian, China, 23-27 September 2010.The meeting's main theme was Cells and Signals, featuring four keynote speeches, 45 plenary talks, and over 40 poster presentations that covered a wide range of topics, from dynamic cellular structures to how developmental and environmental signals control various plant processes at the juncture of cells.

  20. Vacuolar ion channels: Roles in plant nutrition and signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayenkov, Stanislav; Isner, Jean Charles; Maathuis, Frans J M

    2010-05-17

    Vacuoles play various roles in many physiologically relevant processes in plants. Some of the more prominent are turgor provision, the storage of minerals and nutrients, and cellular signalling. To fulfil these functions a complement of membrane transporters is present at the tonoplast. Prolific patch clamp studies have shown that amongst these, both selective and non-selective ion channels participate in turgor regulation, nutrient storage and signalling. This article reviews the physiological roles, expression patterns and structure function properties of plant vacuolar anion and cation channels that are gated by voltage and ligands.

  1. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  2. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W; Williamson, Valerie M; Schroeder, Frank C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-07-23

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture.

  3. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  4. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  5. ROS-mediated redox signaling during cell differentiation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged in recent years as important regulators of cell division and differentiation. The cellular redox state has a major impact on cell fate and multicellular organism development. However, the exact molecular mechanisms through which ROS manifest their regulation over cellular development are only starting to be understood in plants. ROS levels are constantly monitored and any change in the redox pool is rapidly sensed and responded upon. Different types of ROS cause specific oxidative modifications, providing the basic characteristics of a signaling molecule. Here we provide an overview of ROS sensors and signaling cascades that regulate transcriptional responses in plants to guide cellular differentiation and organ development. Although several redox sensors and cascades have been identified, they represent only a first glimpse on the impact that redox signaling has on plant development and growth. We provide an initial evaluation of ROS signaling cascades involved in cell differentiation in plants and identify potential avenues for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nod factor signal transduction in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, E.H.M.; Bisseling, T.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium bacteria and most legume plants is initiated by the perception of bacterial signal molecules, the nodulation (Nod) factors, at the root hairs of the plant. This induces responses both in the root hairs, leading to infection by the bacteria, as well as at a

  7. Molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate sensing, signaling, and adaptation in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoliang Zhang; Hong Liao; William J. Lucas

    2014-01-01

    As an essential plant macronutrient, the low availability of phosphorus (P) in most soils imposes serious limitation on crop production. Plants have evolved complex responsive and adaptive mechanisms for acquisition, remobiliza-tion and recycling of phosphate (Pi) to maintain P homeostasis. Spatio-temporal molecular, physiological, and biochemical Pi deficiency responses developed by plants are the consequence of local and systemic sensing and signaling pathways. Pi deficiency is sensed local y by the root system where hormones serve as important signaling components in terms of develop-mental reprogramming, leading to changes in root system architecture. Root-to-shoot and shoot-to-root signals, delivered through the xylem and phloem, respectively, involving Pi itself, hormones, miRNAs, mRNAs, and sucrose, serve to coordinate Pi deficiency responses at the whole-plant level. A combination of chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and posttranslational events contribute to global y regulating a wide range of Pi deficiency responses. In this review, recent advances are evaluated in terms of progress toward developing a comprehen-sive understanding of the molecular events underlying control over P homeostasis. Application of this knowledge, in terms of developing crop plants having enhanced attributes for P use efficiency, is discussed from the perspective of agricultural sustainability in the face of diminishing global P supplies.

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate sensing, signaling, and adaptation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Liao, Hong; Lucas, William J

    2014-03-01

    As an essential plant macronutrient, the low availability of phosphorus (P) in most soils imposes serious limitation on crop production. Plants have evolved complex responsive and adaptive mechanisms for acquisition, remobilization and recycling of phosphate (Pi) to maintain P homeostasis. Spatio-temporal molecular, physiological, and biochemical Pi deficiency responses developed by plants are the consequence of local and systemic sensing and signaling pathways. Pi deficiency is sensed locally by the root system where hormones serve as important signaling components in terms of developmental reprogramming, leading to changes in root system architecture. Root-to-shoot and shoot-to-root signals, delivered through the xylem and phloem, respectively, involving Pi itself, hormones, miRNAs, mRNAs, and sucrose, serve to coordinate Pi deficiency responses at the whole-plant level. A combination of chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and posttranslational events contribute to globally regulating a wide range of Pi deficiency responses. In this review, recent advances are evaluated in terms of progress toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events underlying control over P homeostasis. Application of this knowledge, in terms of developing crop plants having enhanced attributes for P use efficiency, is discussed from the perspective of agricultural sustainability in the face of diminishing global P supplies.

  9. Strigolactones, signals for parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garrido, J M; Lendzemo, V; Castellanos-Morales, V; Steinkellner, S; Vierheilig, Horst

    2009-09-01

    Although strigolactones play a critical role as rhizospheric signaling molecules for the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and for seed germination of parasitic weeds, scarce data are available about interactions between AM fungi and strigolactones. In the present work, we present background data on strigolactones from studies on their seed germination activity on the parasitic weeds Orobanche and Striga, the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus for this seed germination activity, and what this could mean for AM fungi. We also present results on the susceptibility of plants to AM fungi and the possible involvement of strigolactones in this AM susceptibility and discuss the role of strigolactones for the formation and the regulation of the AM symbiosis as well as the possible implication of these compounds as plant signals in other soil-borne plant-microbe interactions.

  10. The Medicago truncatula CRE1 cytokinin receptor regulates lateral root development and early symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Crespi, Martin; Frugier, Florian

    2006-10-01

    Legumes develop different types of lateral organs from their primary root, lateral roots and nodules, the latter depending on a symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Phytohormones have been shown to function in the control of these organogeneses. However, related signaling pathways have not been identified in legumes. We cloned and characterized the expression of Medicago truncatula genes encoding members of cytokinin signaling pathways. RNA interference of the cytokinin receptor homolog Cytokinin Response1 (Mt CRE1) led to cytokinin-insensitive roots, which showed an increased number of lateral roots and a strong reduction in nodulation. Both the progression of S. meliloti infection and nodule primordia formation were affected. We also identified two cytokinin signaling response regulator genes, Mt RR1 and Mt RR4, which are induced early during the symbiotic interaction. Induction of these genes by S. meliloti infection is altered in mutants affected in the Nod factor signaling pathway; conversely, cytokinin regulation of the early nodulin Nodule Inception1 (Mt NIN) depends on Mt CRE1. Hence, cytokinin signaling mediated by a single receptor, Mt CRE1, leads to an opposite control of symbiotic nodule and lateral root organogenesis. Mt NIN, Mt RR1, and Mt RR4 define a common pathway activated during early S. meliloti interaction, allowing crosstalk between plant cytokinins and bacterial Nod factors signals.

  11. Dynamics of Long-distance Signaling via Plant Vascular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka eNotaguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant-microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level.

  12. Plant Electrical Signal Classification Based on Waveform Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Plant electrical signals are important physiological traits which reflect plant physiological state. As a kind of phenotypic data, plant action potential (AP evoked by external stimuli—e.g., electrical stimulation, environmental stress—may be associated with inhibition of gene expression related to stress tolerance. However, plant AP is a response to environment changes and full of variability. It is an aperiodic signal with refractory period, discontinuity, noise, and artifacts. In consequence, there are still challenges to automatically recognize and classify plant AP; (2 Methods: Therefore, we proposed an AP recognition algorithm based on dynamic difference threshold to extract all waveforms similar to AP. Next, an incremental template matching algorithm was used to classify the AP and non-AP waveforms; (3 Results: Experiment results indicated that the template matching algorithm achieved a classification rate of 96.0%, and it was superior to backpropagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANNs, supported vector machine (SVM and deep learning method; (4 Conclusion: These findings imply that the proposed methods are likely to expand possibilities for rapidly recognizing and classifying plant action potentials in the database in the future.

  13. Auxin Signaling in Regulation of Plant Translation Reinitiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Schepetilnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA translation machinery directs protein production, and thus cell growth, according to prevailing cellular and environmental conditions. The target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway—a major growth-related pathway—plays a pivotal role in optimizing protein synthesis in mammals, while its deregulation triggers uncontrolled cell proliferation and the development of severe diseases. In plants, several signaling pathways sensitive to environmental changes, hormones, and pathogens have been implicated in post-transcriptional control, and thus far phytohormones have attracted most attention as TOR upstream regulators in plants. Recent data have suggested that the coordinated actions of the phytohormone auxin, Rho-like small GTPases (ROPs from plants, and TOR signaling contribute to translation regulation of mRNAs that harbor upstream open reading frames (uORFs within their 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs. This review will summarize recent advances in translational regulation of a specific set of uORF-containing mRNAs that encode regulatory proteins—transcription factors, protein kinases and other cellular controllers—and how their control can impact plant growth and development.

  14. Dynamics of long-distance signaling via plant vascular tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaguchi, Michitaka; Okamoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant–microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well-fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well-evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level. PMID:25852714

  15. Proteome changes in Oncidium sphacelatum (Orchidaceae) at different trophic stages of symbiotic germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, R B S; Perotto, S; Santos, E C; Lambais, M R

    2014-07-01

    Mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi are a widespread phenomenon in nature. Particularly in orchids, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development. During the initial stages of symbiotic germination, before the onset of photosynthesis, orchid protocorms are fully mycoheterotrophic. The molecular mechanisms involved in orchid symbiotic germination and development are largely unknown, but it is likely that changes in plant energy metabolism and defense-related responses play a central role in these processes. We have used 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled to isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification to identify proteins with differential accumulation in Oncidium sphacelatum at different stages of mycorrhizal protocorm development (achlorophyllous and green protocorms) after seed inoculation with a Ceratobasidium sp. isolate. We identified and quantified 88 proteins, including proteins putatively involved in energy metabolism, cell rescue and defense, molecular signaling, and secondary metabolism. Quantitative analysis showed that the expected changes in carbon metabolism in green protocorms were accompanied by enhanced accumulation of proteins involved in the modulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, defense-related responses, and phytoalexins and carotenoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest profound metabolic changes in orchid protocorms during the switch from the fully mycoheterotrophic to the photosynthetic stage. Part of these changes may be also related to the obligatory nature of the interaction with the endomycorrhizal fungus.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and signaling in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The increases of H2O2 concentrations in plant cells often occur under biotic and abiotic stress conditions (e.g. light, environmental stresses and plant hormone abscisic acid).Atmospheric H2O2 as an ancient signal molecule not only plays the key role in inducing evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, but also modulates many physiological events, such as stomatal movement, hypersensitive responses, programmed cell death and gene expressions. H2O2 levels in cells must sustain a fine equilibrium between production and scavenging. H2O2 enters cells from the apoplast or generated sources, and in turn is distributed in sub-cellular compartments.H2O2 can modulate the activities of many components in signaling, such as protein phosphatases,protein kinases, transcription factors (TFs), and calcium channels. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations will initiate further downstream responses, via the action of calcium-binding proteins. On the other hand, the research of H2O2 as a signal molecule is still in a comparatively juvenile stage, for example, little is known about how the cells sense H2O2, what the rate-limiting steps and most important cellular events are in cell signaling and what kind of genes is specific or necessary to H2O2 signaling. The answers to all the questions depend on the functional genomic and molecular genetics analysis.

  17. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2017-09-25

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  18. Molecular biology of gibberellins signaling in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs), a large family of tetracyclic, diterpenoid plant hormones, play an important role in regulating diverse processes throughout plant development. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the isolation of GA signaling components and GA-responsive genes. All available data have indicated that DELLA proteins are an essential negative regulator in the GA signaling pathway and GA derepresses DELLA-mediated growth suppression by inducing degradation of DELLA proteins through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome proteolytic pathway. Identification of GID1, a gene encoding an unknown protein with similarity to hormone-sensitive lipases, has revealed that GID1 acts as a functional GA receptor with a reasonable binding affinity to biologically active GAs. Furthermore, the GID1 receptor interacts with DELLA proteins in a GA-dependent manner. These results suggest that formation of a GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex targets DELLA protein into the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway for degradation.

  19. Molecular methods for the study of signal transduction in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2013-09-03

    Novel and improved analytical methods have led to a rapid increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying plant signal transduction. Progress has been made both at the level of single-component analysis and in vivo imaging as well as at the systems level where transcriptomics and particularly phosphoproteomics afford a window into complex biological responses. Here we review the role of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP in plant signal transduction as well as the discovery and biochemical and biological characterization of an increasing number of complex multi-domain nucleotide cyclases that catalyze the synthesis of cAMP and cGMP from ATP and GTP, respectively. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  20. Heterotrimeric G protein signalling in the plant kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Chen, Jin-Gui; Botella, José Ramón; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    In animals, heterotrimeric G proteins, comprising α-, β-and γ-subunits, perceive extracellular stimuli through cell surface receptors, and transmit signals to ion channels, enzymes and other effector proteins to affect numerous cellular behaviours. In plants, G proteins have structural similarities to the corresponding molecules in animals but transmit signals by atypical mechanisms and effector proteins to control growth, cell proliferation, defence, stomate movements, channel regulation, sugar sensing and some hormonal responses. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular regulation of plant G proteins, their effectors and the physiological functions studied mainly in two model organisms: Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We also look at recent progress on structural analyses, systems biology and evolutionary studies. PMID:23536550

  1. Heterotrimeric G protein signalling in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Chen, Jin-Gui; Botella, José Ramón; Jones, Alan M

    2013-03-27

    In animals, heterotrimeric G proteins, comprising α-, β-and γ-subunits, perceive extracellular stimuli through cell surface receptors, and transmit signals to ion channels, enzymes and other effector proteins to affect numerous cellular behaviours. In plants, G proteins have structural similarities to the corresponding molecules in animals but transmit signals by atypical mechanisms and effector proteins to control growth, cell proliferation, defence, stomate movements, channel regulation, sugar sensing and some hormonal responses. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular regulation of plant G proteins, their effectors and the physiological functions studied mainly in two model organisms: Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We also look at recent progress on structural analyses, systems biology and evolutionary studies.

  2. Signaling Components Involved in Plant Responses to Phosphate Starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yuan; Dong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is one of the macronutrients essential for plant growth and development. Many soils around the world are deficient in phosphate (Pi) which is the form of phosphorus that plants can absorb and utilize. To cope with the stress of Pi starvation, plants have evolved many elaborate strategies to enhance the acquisition and utilization of Pi from the environment. These strategies include morphological, biochemical and physiological responses which ultimately enable plants to better survive under low Pi conditions. Though these adaptive responses have been well described because of their ecological and agricultural importance, our studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are still in their infancy. In the last decade, significant progresses have been made towards the identification of the molecular components which are involved in the control of plant responses to Pi starvation. In this article, we first provide an overview of some major responses of plants to Pi starvation, then summarize what we have known so tar about the signaling components involved in these responses, as well as the roles of sugar and phytohormones.

  3. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P.; Kiss, John Z.; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms). The plant response to gravity (gravitropism) and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism) have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight research done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e., the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, also are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle. PMID:25389428

  4. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Vandenbrink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms. The plant response to gravity (gravitropism and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight experiments done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e. the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the unknown mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle.

  5. Stress as a Normal Cue in the Symbiotic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Julia A; Ruby, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    All multicellular hosts form associations with groups of microorganisms. These microbial communities can be taxonomically diverse and dynamic, and their persistence is due to robust, and sometimes coevolved, host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Chemical and physical sources of stress are prominently situated in this molecular exchange, as cues for cellular responses in symbiotic microbes. Stress in the symbiotic environment may arise from three sources: host tissues, microbe-induced immune responses, or other microbes in the host environment. The responses of microbes to these stresses can be general or highly specialized, and collectively may contribute to the stability of the symbiotic system. In this review, we highlight recent work that emphasizes the role of stress as a cue in the symbiotic environment of plants and animals.

  6. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis.

  7. Calcium efflux systems in stress signalling and adaptation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar eBose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.

  8. Oxidative burst in alfalfa-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R; Hérouart, D; Sigaud, S; Touati, D; Puppo, A

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as an early event in plant defense response against avirulent pathogens. We show here that alfalfa responds to infection with Sinorhizobium meliloti by production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This similarity in the early response to infection by pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria addresses the question of which mechanism rhizobia use to counteract the plant defense response.

  9. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, C; Hause, B

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed.

  10. FASEB summer research conference on signal transduction in plants. Final report, June 16, 1996--June 21, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, T.L.; Quatrano, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This is the program from the second FASEB conference on Signal Transduction in Plants. Topic areas included the following: environmental signaling; perception and transduction of light signals; signaling in plant microbe interactions; signaling in plant pathogen interactions; cell, cell communication; cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cellwall continuum; signaling molecules in plant growth and development I and II. A list of participants is included.

  11. FASEB summer research conference on signal transduction in plants. Final report, June 16, 1996--June 21, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, T.L.; Quatrano, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This is the program from the second FASEB conference on Signal Transduction in Plants. Topic areas included the following: environmental signaling; perception and transduction of light signals; signaling in plant microbe interactions; signaling in plant pathogen interactions; cell, cell communication; cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cellwall continuum; signaling molecules in plant growth and development I and II. A list of participants is included.

  12. Plants, endosymbionts and parasites: Abscisic acid and calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Xiong, Liming; Chini, Eduardo; Sibley, L David

    2008-01-01

    It was recently discovered that the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii produces and uses the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), for communication. Following intracellular replication, ABA production influences the timing of parasite egress from the host cell. This density-dependent signal may serve to coordinate exit from the host cell in a synchronous manner by triggering calcium-dependent activation of motility. In the absence of ABA production, parasites undergo differentiation to the semidormant, tissue cyst. The pathway for ABA production in T. gondii may be derived from a relict endosymbiont, acquired by ingestion of a red algal cell. Although the parasite has lost the capacity for photosynthesis, the plant-like nature of this signaling pathway may be exploited to develop new drugs. In support of this idea, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis protected mice against lethal infection with T. gondii. Here, we compare the role of ABA in parasites to its activities in plants, where it is know to control development and stress responses.

  13. Connecting proline metabolism and signaling pathways in plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid proline has a unique biological role in stress adaptation. Proline metabolism is manipulated under stress by multiple and complex regulatory pathways and can profoundly influence cell death and survival in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Though the effects of proline are mediated by diverse signaling pathways, a common theme appears to be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to proline oxidation being coupled to the respiratory electron transport chain. Considerable research has been devoted to understand how plants exploit proline metabolism in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here, we review potential mechanisms by which proline metabolism influences plant senescence, namely in the petal and leaf. Recent studies of petal senescence suggest proline content is manipulated to meet energy demands of senescing cells. In the flower and leaf, proline metabolism may influence ROS signaling pathways that delay senescence progression. Future studies focusing on the mechanisms by which proline metabolic shifts occur during senescence may lead to novel methods to rescue crops under stress and to preserve post-harvest agricultural products.

  14. Calcium signaling in plant cells in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    2003-10-01

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca 2+ signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in 80 th, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2+ changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumebly specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2+ ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravisensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane surface

  15. Epigenetic Signals on Plant Adaptation: A Biotic Stress Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Ribamar Costa Ferreira; da Silva, Manassés Daniel; Pandolfi, Valesca; Crovella, Sérgio; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2016-07-24

    For sessile organisms such as plants, regulatory mechanisms of gene expression are vital, since they remain exposed to climatic and biological threats. Thus, they have to face hazards with instantaneous reorganization of their internal environment. For this purpose, besides the use of transcription factors, the participation of chromatin as an active factor in the regulation of transcription is crucial. Chemical changes in chromatin structure affect the accessibility of the transcriptional machinery and acting in signaling, engaging/inhibiting factors that participate in the transcription processes. Mechanisms in which gene expression undergoes changes without the occurrence of DNA gene mutations in the monomers that make up DNA, are understood as epigenetic phenomena. These include (1) post-translational modifications of histones, which results in stimulation or repression of gene activity and (2) cytosine methylation in the promoter region of individual genes, both preventing access of transcriptional activators as well as signaling the recruitment of repressors. There is evidence that such modifications can pass on to subsequent generations of daughter cells and even generations of individuals. However, reports indicate that they persist only in the presence of a stressor factor (or an inductor of the above-mentioned modifications). In its absence, these modifications weaken or lose heritability, being eliminated in the next few generations. In this review, it is argued how epigenetic signals influence gene regulation, the mechanisms involved and their participation in processes of resistance to biotic stresses, controlling processes of the plant immune system.

  16. ROPs in the spotlight of plant signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, A

    2006-11-01

    Small guanine nucleotide binding proteins of the Rho family called ROP play a crucial role as regulators of signal transduction in plants. They participate in pathways that influence growth and development, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental situations. As members of the Ras superfamily, ROPs function as molecular switches cycling between a GDP-bound 'off' and a GTP-bound 'on' state in a strictly regulated manner. Latest research provided fascinating new insights into ROP regulation by novel guanine nucleotide exchange factors, unconventional GTPase activating proteins, and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors, which apparently organize localized ROP activation. Important progress has also been made concerning signaling components upstream and downstream of the ROP cycle involving receptor-like serine/threonine kinases and effectors that can manipulate cytoskeletal dynamics, intracellular calcium levels, H2O2 production and further cellular targets. This review outlines the fast developing knowledge on ROP GTPases highlighting their specific features, regulation and roles in a cellular signaling context.

  17. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N; van Baren, Marijke J; Price, Dana C; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-11-04

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  18. Dancing in the dark: darkness as a signal in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluzicki, Adam; Burko, Yogev; Chory, Joanne

    2017-01-03

    Daily cycles of light and dark provide an organizing principle and temporal constraints under which life on Earth evolved. While light is often the focus of plant studies, it is only half the story. Plants continuously adjust to their surroundings, taking both dawn and dusk as cues to organize their growth, development and metabolism to appropriate times of day. In this review, we examine the effects of darkness on plant physiology and growth. We describe the similarities and differences between seedlings grown in the dark versus those grown in light-dark cycles, and the evolution of etiolated growth. We discuss the integration of the circadian clock into other processes, looking carefully at the points of contact between clock genes and growth-promoting gene-regulatory networks in temporal gating of growth. We also examine daily starch accumulation and degradation, and the possible contribution of dark-specific metabolic controls in regulating energy and growth. Examining these studies together reveals a complex and continuous balancing act, with many signals, dark included, contributing information and guiding the plant through its life cycle. The extraordinary interconnection between light and dark is manifest during cycles of day and night and during seedling emergence above versus below the soil surface.

  19. ROS production during symbiotic infection suppresses pathogenesis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Leguminous plants have exclusive ability to form symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. Symbiosis is a complex process that involves multiple molecular signaling activities, such as calcium fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and synthesis of nodulation genes. We analyzed the role of ROS in defense gene expression in Medicago truncatula during symbiosis and pathogenesis. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is regulated by NPR1 protein, which resides in the cytoplasm as an oligomer. After oxidative burst and return of reducing conditions, the NPR1 undergoes monomerization and becomes translocated to the nucleus, where it functions in PR genes induction. We show that ROS production is both stronger and longer during symbiotic interactions than during interactions with pathogenic, nonhost or common nonpathogenic soil bacteria. Moreover, root cells inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti accumulated ROS in the cytosol but not in vacuoles, as opposed to Pseudomonas putida inoculation or salt stress treatment. Furthermore, increased ROS accumulation by addition of H₂O₂ reduced the PR gene expression, while catalase had an opposite effect, establishing that the PR gene expression is opposite to the level of cytoplasmic ROS. In addition, we show that salicylic acid pretreatment significantly reduced ROS production in root cells during symbiotic interaction.

  20. Role of acetylcholine on plant root-shoot signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) on plant root- shoot communication was investigated using the root-split system of Vicia faba L. In the experiments, slight osmotic stress caused the decrease of ACh content in root tips and the xylem sap transported up per time unit from root tip to the shoot when the water potential of the shoot was kept unchanged. It also caused the decrease of ACh content in the abaxial epidermis. The decrease was highly correlative to the changes of transpiration rate, suggesting that the decrease of ACh content probably functions as a signal to regulate stomatal behavior. The effect of osmotic stress might be mainly through the inhibition of the ACh synthesis in root tip; thus further influences the ACh content in root tip, xylem sap and abaxial epidermis and resulting in the changes of stomatal behavior. These results provide new evidence that plants transduce positive and negative signals among roots and shoots to coordinate stomatal behavior and adapt to variable environments.

  1. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, Jindřiška; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is the fundamental structural component of eukaryotic cells. It has a role in numerous elementary cellular processes such as reproduction, development and also in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Remarkably, the role of actin cytoskeleton in plant response to pathogens is getting to be under magnifying glass. Based on microscopic studies, most of the data showed, that actin plays an important role in formation of physiological barrier in the site of infection. Actin dynamics is involved in the transport of antimicrobial compounds and cell wall fortifying components (e.g. callose) to the site of infection. Also the role in PTI (pathogen triggered immunity) and ETI (effector triggered immunity) was recently indicated. On the other hand much less is known about the transcriptome reprogramming upon changes in actin dynamics. Our recently published results showed that drugs inhibiting actin polymerization (latrunculin B, cytochalasin E) cause the induction of genes which are involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In this addendum we would like to highlight in more details current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of actin dynamics in plant defense signaling.

  2. Plant perception and response to the signal in gravity resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Zhang, Yan; Otomi, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Iida, Hidetoshi

    2012-07-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, distinct from gravitropism. Plants increase the rigidity of their cell walls in the final step of gravity resistance. We studied cellular events leading to or related to the cell wall changes under hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation and under microgravity conditions in space. The involvement of mechanosensitive ion channels (mechanoreceptors) in signal perception in gravity resistance has been suggested by experiments with inhibitors. As a candidate for the mechanoreceptor, we identified MCA1 and MCA2 in Arabidopsis. mca-null and MCA-overexpressing seedlings were normal in growth in the dark at 1 g. However, suppression by hypergravity of elongation growth was reduced in hypocotyls of mca-null seedlings. On the contrary, MCA-overexpressing seedlings were hypersensitive to hypergravity. These results suggest that MCAs act as the mechanoreceptor in signal perception of gravity resistance. Cortical microtubules play an essential role in maintenance of normal growth phenotype under hypergravity conditions. In Space Seed experiment in the Kibo Module (PI: S. Kamisaka), we examined the effects of microgravity on growth phenotypes of Arabidopsis tubulin mutant, tua6. Inflorescences of the mutant emerged earlier and elongated rapidly under microgravity conditions than under on-orbit or ground 1 g conditions. Also, the inflorescences grown under microgravity conditions showed higher cell wall extensibilities than the controls. The tubulin mutant thus grew and developed more or less normally under microgravity conditions, supporting the principal role of microtubules also in plant resistance to 1 g gravity. On the other hand, the cellular osmotic properties, as well as the cell wall properties, are important factors determining the rigidity of plant body. Azuki bean epicotyls were capable of maintaining osmoregulation even under hypergravity

  3. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  4. Strigolactones: Internal and external signals in plant symbioses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; Yoneyama, Kaori; Hugill, Cassandra; Quittenden, Laura J; Reid, James B

    2013-03-01

    As the newest plant hormone, strigolactone research is undergoing an exciting expansion. In less than five years, roles for strigolactones have been defined in shoot branching, secondary growth, root growth and nodulation, to add to the growing understanding of their role in arbuscular mycorrhizae and parasitic weed interactions. Strigolactones are particularly fascinating as signaling molecules as they can act both inside the plant as an endogenous hormone and in the soil as a rhizosphere signal. Our recent research has highlighted such a dual role for strigolactones, potentially acting as both an endogenous and exogenous signal for arbuscular mycorrhizal development. There is also significant interest in examining strigolactones as putative regulators of responses to environmental stimuli, especially the response to nutrient availability, given the strong regulation of strigolactone production by nitrate and phosphate observed in many species. In particular, the potential for strigolactones to mediate the ecologically important response of mycorrhizal colonization to phosphate has been widely discussed. However, using a mutant approach we found that strigolactones are not essential for phosphate regulation of mycorrhizal colonization or nodulation. This is consistent with the relatively mild impairment of phosphate control of seedling root growth observed in Arabidopsis strigolactone mutants. This contrasts with the major role for strigolactones in phosphate control of shoot branching of rice and Arabidopsis and indicates that the integration of strigolactones into our understanding of nutrient response will be complex. New data presented here, along with the recent discovery of phosphate specific CLE peptides, indicates a potential role for PsNARK, a component of the autoregulation of nodulation pathway, in phosphate control of nodulation.

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume – Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process. PMID:27092165

  6. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide control early steps of the legume – Rhizobium symbiotic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eDamiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and infection threads formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process.

  7. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  8. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature), studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g., calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones, and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide.

  9. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature), studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g., calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones, and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide. PMID:26941757

  10. Electrical signals as mechanism of photosynthesis regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    This review summarizes current works concerning the effects of electrical signals (ESs) on photosynthesis, the mechanisms of the effects, and its physiological role in plants. Local irritations of plants induce various photosynthetic responses in intact leaves, including fast and long-term inactivation of photosynthesis, and its activation. Irritation-induced ESs, including action potential, variation potential, and system potential, probably causes the photosynthetic responses in intact leaves. Probable mechanisms of induction of fast inactivation of photosynthesis are associated with Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes during ESs generation; long-term inactivation of photosynthesis might be caused by Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes, production of abscisic and jasmonic acids, and inactivation of phloem H(+)-sucrose symporters. It is probable that subsequent development of inactivation of photosynthesis is mainly associated with decreased CO2 influx and inactivation of the photosynthetic dark reactions, which induces decreased photochemical quantum yields of photosystems I and II and increased non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II fluorescence and cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. However, other pathways of the ESs influence on the photosynthetic light reactions are also possible. One of them might be associated with ES-connected acidification of chloroplast stroma inducing ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase accumulation at the thylakoids in Tic62 and TROL complexes. Mechanisms of ES-induced activation of photosynthesis require further investigation. The probable ultimate effect of ES-induced photosynthetic responses in plant life is the increased photosynthetic machinery resistance to stressors, including high and low temperatures, and enhanced whole-plant resistance to environmental factors at least during 1 h after irritation.

  11. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  12. Symbiotic systems: observations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    Although there is wide concensus about the binary nature of symbiotic stars, the nature of their central engine, the structure of the accretion flow and the accretion rate are poorly known. Modern observatories are now providing, for the first time, direct information about the central source of power and how it is fueled. The detection of hard (E > 20 keV) X-ray emission from a handful of symbiotics indicates that some symbiotics accrete at a low enough rate for a ˜10^{8} K accretion-disk boundary layer to remain optically thin and generate hard X-rays. Such high temperature is possible if the white dwarf is massive; symbiotics could thus be SNIa progenitors, the pilars of the current cosmological paradigm.

  13. Understanding plant cell-wall remodelling during the symbiotic interaction between Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana using a carbohydrate microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillo, Fabiano; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Henrissat, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION: A combined approach, using a carbohydrate microarray as a support for genomic data, has revealed subtle plant cell-wall remodelling during Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana interaction. Cell walls are involved, to a great extent, in mediating plant-microbe interactions. An ...

  14. Differentiation of symbiotic cells and endosymbionts in Medicago truncatula nodulation are coupled to two transcriptome-switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maunoury

    Full Text Available The legume plant Medicago truncatula establishes a symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti which takes place in root nodules. The formation of nodules employs a complex developmental program involving organogenesis, specific cellular differentiation of the host cells and the endosymbiotic bacteria, called bacteroids, as well as the specific activation of a large number of plant genes. By using a collection of plant and bacterial mutants inducing non-functional, Fix(- nodules, we studied the differentiation processes of the symbiotic partners together with the nodule transcriptome, with the aim of unravelling links between cell differentiation and transcriptome activation. Two waves of transcriptional reprogramming involving the repression and the massive induction of hundreds of genes were observed during wild-type nodule formation. The dominant features of this "nodule-specific transcriptome" were the repression of plant defense-related genes, the transient activation of cell cycle and protein synthesis genes at the early stage of nodule development and the activation of the secretory pathway along with a large number of transmembrane and secretory proteins or peptides throughout organogenesis. The fifteen plant and bacterial mutants that were analyzed fell into four major categories. Members of the first category of mutants formed non-functional nodules although they had differentiated nodule cells and bacteroids. This group passed the two transcriptome switch-points similarly to the wild type. The second category, which formed nodules in which the plant cells were differentiated and infected but the bacteroids did not differentiate, passed the first transcriptome switch but not the second one. Nodules in the third category contained infection threads but were devoid of differentiated symbiotic cells and displayed a root-like transcriptome. Nodules in the fourth category were free of bacteria, devoid of

  15. One-step Agrobacterium mediated transformation of eight genes essential for rhizobium symbiotic signaling using the novel binary vector system pHUGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Untergasser

    Full Text Available Advancement in plant research is becoming impaired by the fact that the transfer of multiple genes is difficult to achieve. Here we present a new binary vector for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation, pHUGE-Red, in concert with a cloning strategy suited for the transfer of up to nine genes at once. This vector enables modular cloning of large DNA fragments by employing Gateway technology and contains DsRED1 as visual selection marker. Furthermore, an R/Rs inducible recombination system was included allowing subsequent removal of the selection markers in the newly generated transgenic plants. We show the successful use of pHUGE-Red by transferring eight genes essential for Medicago truncatula to establish a symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria as one 74 kb T-DNA into four non-leguminous species; strawberry, poplar, tomato and tobacco. We provide evidence that all transgenes are expressed in the root tissue of the non-legumes. Visual control during the transformation process and subsequent marker gene removal makes the pHUGE-Red vector an excellent tool for the efficient transfer of multiple genes.

  16. Integrated signaling networks in plant responses to sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Weaver, David B; Lawrence, Kathy S; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant endoparasitic nematodes can cause detrimental yield losses in crop plants making the study of detailed cellular, molecular, and whole plant responses to them a subject of importance. In response to invading nematodes and nematode-secreted effectors, plant susceptibility/resistance is mainly determined by the coordination of different signaling pathways including specific plant resistance genes or proteins, plant hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, as well as reactive oxygen signals that are generated in response to nematode attack. Crosstalk between various nematode resistance-related elements can be seen as an integrated signaling network regulated by transcription factors and small RNAs at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and/or translational levels. Ultimately, the outcome of this highly controlled signaling network determines the host plant susceptibility/resistance to nematodes.

  17. Phylogeny of Symbiotic Genes and the Symbiotic Properties of Rhizobia Specific to Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda; Oleńska, Ewa; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Kalita, Michał; Łotocka, Barbara; Wójcik, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeny of symbiotic genes of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. (liquorice milkvetch) nodule isolates was studied by comparative sequence analysis of nodA, nodC, nodH and nifH loci. In all these genes phylograms, liquorice milkvetch rhizobia (closely related to bacteria of three species, i.e. Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium ciceri) formed one clearly separate cluster suggesting the horizontal transfer of symbiotic genes from a single ancestor to the bacteria being studied. The high sequence similarity of the symbiotic genes of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia (99-100% in the case of nodAC and nifH genes, and 98-99% in the case of nodH one) points to the relatively recent (in evolutionary scale) lateral transfer of these genes. In the nodACH and nifH phylograms, A. glycyphyllos nodule isolates were grouped together with the genus Mesorhizobium species in one monophyletic clade, close to M. ciceri, Mesorhizobium opportunistum and Mesorhizobium australicum symbiovar biserrulae bacteria, which correlates with the close relationship of these rhizobia host plants. Plant tests revealed the narrow host range of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia. They formed effective symbiotic interactions with their native host (A. glycyphyllos) and Amorpha fruticosa but not with 11 other fabacean species. The nodules induced on A. glycyphyllos roots were indeterminate with apical, persistent meristem, an age gradient of nodule tissues and cortical vascular bundles. To reflect the symbiosis-adaptive phenotype of rhizobia, specific for A. glycyphyllos, we propose for these bacteria the new symbiovar "glycyphyllae", based on nodA and nodC genes sequences.

  18. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  19. Ectomycorrhizal ecology is imprinted in the genome of the dominant symbiotic fungus Cenococcum geophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Martina; Kohler, Annegret; Ohm, Robin A.; Kuo, Alan; Krützmann, Jennifer; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arend, Matthias; Barry, Kerrie W.; Binder, Manfred; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Grisel, Nadine; Haridas, Sajeet; Kipfer, Tabea; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Maire, Renaud; Meier, Barbara; Mihaltcheva, Sirma; Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Quandt, C. Alisha; Sperisen, Christoph; Tritt, Andrew; Tisserant, Emilie; Crous, Pedro W.; Henrissat, Bernard; Nehls, Uwe; Egli, Simon; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal

  20. Morphological and genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria from cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Sundaramoorthy, Mariappan; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Akbarsha, Mohamed Abdulkadar; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The morphological and genetic diversity of cyanobacteria associated with cycads was examined using PCR amplification techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Eighteen symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from different cycad species. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously reported to form symbioses with Cycadaceae family, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the repetitive sequences. Based on fingerprint patterns and phenograms, it was revealed that cyanobacterial symbionts exhibit important genetic diversity among host plants, both within and between cycad populations. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most of the symbiotic cyanobacterial isolates fell into well-separated clades.

  1. Distinct changes in soybean xylem sap proteome in response to pathogenic and symbiotic microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Un-Haing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant systemic signaling characterized by the long distance transport of molecules across plant organs involves the xylem and phloem conduits. Root-microbe interactions generate systemic signals that are transported to aerial organs via the xylem sap. We analyzed the xylem sap proteome of soybean seedlings in response to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions to identify systemic signaling proteins and other differentially expressed proteins. Results We observed the increase of a serine protease and peroxidase in the xylem sap in response to Phytophthora sojae elicitor treatment. The high molecular weight fraction of soybean xylem sap was found to promote the growth of Neurospora crassa in vitro at lower concentrations and inhibit growth at higher concentrations. Sap from soybean plants treated with a P. sojae elicitor had a significantly higher inhibitory effect than sap from control soybean plants. When soybean seedlings were inoculated with the symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the abundance of a xyloglucan transendoglycosyl transferase protein increased in the xylem sap. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of the corresponding gene did not significantly affect nodulation in soybean hairy root composite plants. Conclusion Our study identified a number of sap proteins from soybean that are differentially induced in response to B. japonicum and P. sojae elicitor treatments and a majority of them were secreted proteins.

  2. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  3. Plasmodesmata-mediated intercellular signaling during plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shri R; Yan, Dawei; Sevilem, Iris; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are cytoplasmic channels that connect neighboring cells for cell-to-cell communication. PD structure and function vary temporally and spatially to allow formation of symplastic domains during different stages of plant development. Reversible deposition of callose at PD plays an important role in controlling molecular trafficking through PD by regulating their size exclusion limit. Previously, we reported several semi-dominant mutants for CALLOSE SYNTHASE 3 (CALS3) gene, which overproduce callose at PD in Arabidopsis. By combining two of these mutations in a LexA-VP16-ER (XVE)-based estradiol inducible vector system, a tool known as the "icals3m system" was developed to temporally obstruct the symplastic connections in a specified spatial domain. The system has been successfully tested and used, in combination with other methods, to investigate the route for mobile signals such as the SHR protein, microRNA165/6, and cytokinins in Arabidopsis roots, and also to understand the role of symplastic domain formation during lateral root development. We envision that this tool may also be useful for identifying tissue-specific symplastic regulatory networks and to analyze symplastic movement of metabolites.

  4. Cysteine-based redox regulation and signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jérémy; Chibani, Kamel; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Living organisms are subjected to oxidative stress conditions which are characterized by the production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species. In plants as in other organisms, many of these compounds have a dual function as they damage different types of macromolecules but they also likely fulfil an important role as secondary messengers. Owing to the reactivity of their thiol groups, some protein cysteine residues are particularly prone to oxidation by these molecules. In the past years, besides their recognized catalytic and regulatory functions, the modification of cysteine thiol group was increasingly viewed as either protective or redox signaling mechanisms. The most physiologically relevant reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) are disulfide bonds, sulfenic acids, S-glutathione adducts, S-nitrosothiols and to a lesser extent S-sulfenyl-amides, thiosulfinates and S-persulfides. These redox PTMs are mostly controlled by two oxidoreductase families, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. This review focuses on recent advances highlighting the variety and physiological roles of these PTMs and the proteomic strategies used for their detection.

  5. Cysteine-based redox regulation and signalling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eCouturier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are subjected to oxidative stress conditions which are characterized by the production of reactive oxygen (ROS, nitrogen (RNS and sulfur (RSS species. In plants as in other organisms, many of these compounds have a dual function as they damage different types of macromolecules but they also likely fulfil an important role as secondary messengers. Owing to the reactivity of their thiol groups, some protein cysteine residues are particularly prone to oxidation by these molecules. In the past years, besides their recognized catalytic and regulatory functions, the modification of cysteine thiol group was increasingly viewed as either protective or redox signalling mechanisms. The most physiologically relevant reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs are disulfide bonds, sulfenic acids, S-glutathionylated adducts, S-nitrosothiols and to a lesser extent S-sulfenylamides, thiosulfinates and S-persulfides. These redox PTMs are mostly controlled by two oxidoreductase families, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. This review focuses on recent advances highlighting the variety and physiological roles of these PTMs and the proteomic strategies used for their detection.

  6. Ubiquitin chain topology and its impact on plant cell signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Kirsten Walsh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is a peptide modifier able to form polymers of varying length and linkage as part of a powerful signalling system. Perhaps the best-known aspect of this protein’s function is as the driver of targeted protein degradation through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS. Through the formation of lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains, it is able to direct the degradation of tagged proteins by the 26S proteasome, indirectly controlling many processes within the cell. However, recent research has indicated that ubiquitin performs a multitude of other roles within the cell beyond protein degradation. It is able to form 6 other ‘atypical’ linkages though lysine residues at positions 6, 11, 27, 29, 33 and 63. These atypical chains perform a range of diverse functions, including the regulation of iron uptake in response to perceived deficiency, repair of double stranded breaks in the DNA, and regulation of the auxin response through the non-proteasomal degradation of auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1. This review explores the role ubiquitin chain topology plays in plant cellular function. We aim to highlight the importance of these varying functions and the future challenges to be encountered within this field.

  7. Plant volatiles in polluted atmospheres: stress responses and signal degradation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BLANDE, JAMES D; HOLOPAINEN, JARMO K; NIINEMETS, ÜLO

    2014-01-01

    .... Volatiles induced by herbivore feeding are among the best studied plant responses to stress and may constitute an informative message to the surrounding community and further function in plant defence processes...

  8. Calcium signaling in plant endosymbiotic organelles: mechanism and role in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hironari; Shiina, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that chloroplasts and mitochondria evoke specific Ca(2+) signals in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in a stress-dependent manner. The identification of Ca(2+) transporters and Ca(2+) signaling molecules in chloroplasts and mitochondria implies that they play roles in controlling not only intra-organellar functions, but also extra-organellar processes such as plant immunity and stress responses. It appears that organellar Ca(2+) signaling might be more important to plant cell functions than previously thought. This review briefly summarizes what is known about the molecular basis of Ca(2+) signaling in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts.

  9. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Manosalva, P; Manohar, M; von Reuss, S.; Chen, S.; Koch, A; Kaplan, F; Choe, A.; Micikas, R.; X. Wang; Kogel, K.; Sternberg, P.; Williamson, V; Schroeder, D; Klessig, F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentratio...

  10. An Update on Abscisic Acid Signaling in Plants and More...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Wasilewska; Florina Vlad; Caroline Sirichandra; Yulia Redko; Fabien Jammes; Christiane Valon; Nicolas Frei dit Frey; Jeffrey Leung

    2008-01-01

    The mode of abscisic acid (ABA) action,and its relations to drought adaptive responses in particular,has been a captivating area of plant hormone research for much over a decade.The hormone triggers stomatal closure to limit water loss through transpiration,as well as mobilizes a battery of genes that presumably serve to protect the cells from the ensuing oxidative damage in prolonged stress.The signaling network orchestrating these various responses is,however,highly complex.This review summarizes several significant advances made within the last few years.The biosynthetic pathway of the hormone is now almost completely elucidated,with the latest identification of the ABA4 gene encoding a neoxanthin synthase,which seems essential for de novo ABA biosynthesis during water stress.This leads to the interesting question on how ABA is then delivered to perception sites.In this respect,regulated transport has attracted renewed focus by the unexpected finding of a shoot-to-root translocation of ABA during drought response,and at the cellular level,by the identification of a β-galactosidase that releases biologically active ABA from inactive ABA-glucose ester.Surprising candidate ABA receptors were also identified in the form of the Flowering Time Control Protein A (FCA)and the Chloroplastic Magnesium Protoporphyrin-IX Chelatase H subunit (CHLH) in chloroplast-nucleus communication,both of which have been shown to bind ABA in vitro.On the other hand,the protein(s) corresponding to the physiologically detectable cell-surface ABA receptor(s) is (are) still not known with certainty.Genetic and physiological studies based on the guard cell have reinforced the central importance of reversible phosphorylation in modulating rapid ABA responses.Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinases (SnRK),Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPK),Protein Phosphatases (PP) of the 2C and 2A classes figure as prominent regulators in this single-cell model.Identifying their direct in vivo targets of

  11. Reiterative and interruptive signaling in induced plant resistance to chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwon; Quaghebeur, Hélène; Felton, Gary W

    2011-09-01

    Our understanding of induced resistance against herbivores has grown immeasurably during the last several decades. Based upon the emerging literature, we argue that induced resistance represents a continuum of phenotypes that is determined by the plant's ability to integrate multiple suites of signals of plant and herbivore origin. We present a model that illustrates the range of signals arising from early detection through herbivore feeding, and then through subsequent plant generations.

  12. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic compounds in rhizosphere of the symbiotic legumes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... compounds in the rhizosphere of a few studied symbiotic legumes and other plants.

  13. [Signal exchange between plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae fungi during the early stage of symbiosis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Xianzhi

    2015-07-04

    Much is known about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM), an important component of the ecosystem, whereas little is known about the signal exchange that allows mutual recognition and reprograming for the anticipated physical interaction. This review addresses the latest advances of signal exchange between plants and AM, including signal substances and their function, related genes and regulation function in the early stage of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  14. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Qiao; LiuMin Fan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in diverse physiological processes In plants. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in plant cells. This review is focused on NO synthesis and the functions of NO in plant responses to abiotic environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses mostly induce NO production in plants. NO alleviates the harmfulness of reactive oxygen species, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions.

  15. Symbiotic Plant Peptides Eliminate Candida albicans Both In Vitro and in an Epithelial Infection Model and Inhibit the Proliferation of Immortalized Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Ördögh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbes now emerging necessitates the identification of novel antimicrobial agents. Plants produce a great variety of antimicrobial peptides including hundreds of small, nodule-specific cysteine-rich NCR peptides that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, govern the differentiation of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and, in vitro, can display potent antibacterial activities. In this study, the potential candidacidal activity of 19 NCR peptides was investigated. Cationic NCR peptides having an isoelectric point above 9 were efficient in killing Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. None of the tested NCR peptides were toxic for immortalized human epithelial cells at concentrations that effectively killed the fungus; however, at higher concentrations, some of them inhibited the division of the cells. Furthermore, the cationic peptides successfully inhibited C. albicans induced human epithelial cell death in an in vitro coculture model. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cationic NCR peptides in the treatment of candidiasis.

  16. Development of a portable multi-channel system for plant physiological signal recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical signals can reflect physiological state of organs or tissues in plants and have a significant potential value in research of plant stress tolerance. In order to study the relationship between environment factors and electrical signals in plant, a portable multi-channel physiological signal acquisition system which relevant in plant physiology research was developed. Environment parameters and electrical signals can be measured in different channels by the acquisition system simultaneously and the measurement data will be displayed in an embedded integrated touch screen which is the system processing core. The system was validated to be stable and reliable after the calibration and repeated experiments of recording electrical signals in Helianthus annuus L.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation of subs...... the Arabidopsis thaliana MAPKs MPK3, 4, and 6 and MAP2Ks MKK1, 2, 4, and 5. Future work needs to focus on identifying substrates of MAPKs, and on understanding how specificity is achieved among MAPK signaling pathways....

  18. Role of symbiotic auxotrophy in the Rhizobium-legume symbioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Prell

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae mutants unable to transport branched-chain amino acids via the two main amino acid ABC transport complexes AapJQMP and BraDEFGC produce a nitrogen starvation phenotype when inoculated on pea (Pisum sativum plants [1], [2]. Bacteroids in indeterminate pea nodules have reduced abundance and a lower chromosome number. They reduce transcription of pathways for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and become dependent on their provision by the host. This has been called "symbiotic auxotrophy".A region important in solute specificity was identified in AapQ and changing P144D in this region reduced branched-chain amino acid transport to a very low rate. Strains carrying P144D were still fully effective for N(2 fixation on peas demonstrating that a low rate of branched amino acid transport in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae supports wild-type rates of nitrogen fixation. The importance of branched-chain amino acid transport was then examined in other legume-Rhizobium symbioses. An aap bra mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli also showed nitrogen starvation symptoms when inoculated on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a plant producing determinate nodules. The phenotype is different from that observed on pea and is accompanied by reduced nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation per nodule. However, an aap bra double mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 showed no phenotype on alfalfa (Medicago sativa.Symbiotic auxotrophy occurs in both determinate pea and indeterminate bean nodules demonstrating its importance for bacteroid formation and nodule function in legumes with different developmental programmes. However, only small quantities of branched chain amino acids are needed and symbiotic auxotrophy did not occur in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis under the conditions measured. The contrasting symbiotic phenotypes of aap bra mutants inoculated on different legumes probably reflects altered timing of amino acid

  19. Herbivore-induced blueberry volatiles and intra-plant signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2011-12-18

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar, and lima beans. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used in my study to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are collected and

  20. Estimation of Symbiotically Fixed Nitrogen in Soybean Depending on Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of investigations were to determine optimal nitrogen rates for the highest soybean seed yield, compare reaction of nodulating and nonodulating soybean varieties to nitrogen fertilization and estimate the amounts of symbiotically fixed nitrogen depending on nitrogen rates. Estimation of the amounts of symbiotically fixed nitrogen was done using the nitrogen contents in soil before and after the vegetation and nitrogen contents in whole plants of nodulating and nonodulating varieties...

  1. Tuning plant signaling and growth to survive salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Testerink, C.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors threatening food security worldwide. Recently, our understanding of early processes underlying salinity tolerance has expanded. In this review, early signaling events, such as phospholipid signaling, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) responses, and reactive oxygen spe

  2. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens(1-3). In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects(3-5). Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers(6-8), allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  3. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori N Miyawaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound active state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during PC morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  4. Extracellular signals and receptor-like kinases regulating ROP GTPases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Kaori N; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Rho-like GTPase from plants (ROPs) function as signaling switches that control a wide variety of cellular functions and behaviors including cell morphogenesis, cell division and cell differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 ROPs that form a distinct single subfamily contrarily to animal or fungal counterparts where multiple subfamilies of Rho GTPases exist. Since Rho proteins bind to their downstream effector proteins only in their GTP-bound "active" state, the activation of ROPs by upstream factor(s) is a critical step in the regulation of ROP signaling. Therefore, it is critical to examine the input signals that lead to the activation of ROPs. Recent findings showed that the plant hormone auxin is an important signal for the activation of ROPs during pavement cell morphogenesis as well as for other developmental processes. In contrast to auxin, another plant hormone, abscisic acid, negatively regulates ROP signaling. Calcium is another emerging signal in the regulation of ROP signaling. Several lines of evidence indicate that plasma membrane localized-receptor like kinases play a critical role in the transmission of the extracellular signals to intracellular ROP signaling pathways. This review focuses on how these signals impinge upon various direct regulators of ROPs to modulate various plant processes.

  5. Mapping the genetic basis of symbiotic variation in legume-rhizobium interactions in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Amanda J; Heath, Katy D; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Baranger, Alain; Stinchcombe, John R

    2012-11-01

    Mutualisms are known to be genetically variable, where the genotypes differ in the fitness benefits they gain from the interaction. To date, little is known about the loci that underlie such genetic variation in fitness or whether the loci influencing fitness are partner specific, and depend on the genotype of the interaction partner. In the legume-rhizobium mutualism, one set of potential candidate genes that may influence the fitness benefits of the symbiosis are the plant genes involved in the initiation of the signaling pathway between the two partners. Here we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in Medicago truncatula in two different rhizobium strain treatments to locate regions of the genome influencing plant traits, assess whether such regions are dependent on the genotype of the rhizobial mutualist (QTL × rhizobium strain), and evaluate the contribution of sequence variation at known symbiosis signaling genes. Two of the symbiotic signaling genes, NFP and DMI3, colocalized with two QTL affecting average fruit weight and leaf number, suggesting that natural variation in nodulation genes may potentially influence plant fitness. In both rhizobium strain treatments, there were QTL that influenced multiple traits, indicative of either tight linkage between loci or pleiotropy, including one QTL with opposing effects on growth and reproduction. There was no evidence for QTL × rhizobium strain or genotype × genotype interactions, suggesting either that such interactions are due to small-effect loci or that more genotype-genotype combinations need to be tested in future mapping studies.

  6. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W; Williamson, Valerie M; Schroeder, Frank C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    .... Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated...

  7. [Disease resistance signal transfer between roots of different tomato plants through common arbuscular mycorrhiza networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Jun; Song, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Ren-Sen; Wang, Rui-Long; Wei, Xiao-Chen; Ye, Mao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) are the underground conduits of nutrient exchange between plants. However, whether the CMNs can serve as the underground conduits of chemical communication to transfer the disease resistance signals between plants are unknown. By inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae to establish CMNs between 'donor' and 'receiver' tomato plants, and by inoculating Alternaria solani, the causal agent of tomato early blight disease, to the 'donor' plants, this paper studied whether the potential disease resistance signals can be transferred between the 'donor' and 'receiver' plants roots. The real time RT-PCR analysis showed that after inoculation with A. solani, the AMF-inoculated 'donor' plants had strong expression of three test defense-related genes in roots, with the transcript levels of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX) and chitinase (PR3) being significantly higher than those in the roots of the 'donor' plants only inoculated with A. solani, not inoculated with both A. solani and AMF, and only inoculated with AMF. More importantly, in the presence of CMNs, the expression levels of the three genes in the roots of the 'receiver' plants were significantly higher than those of the 'receiver' plants without CMNs connection, with the connection blocking, and with the connection but the 'donor' plants not A. solani-inoculated. Compared with the control (without CMNs connection), the transcript level of the PAL, LOX and PR3 in the roots of the 'receiver' plants having CMNs connection with the 'donor' plants was 4.2-, 4.5- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. In addition, the 'donor' plants activated their defensive responses more quickly than the 'receiver' plants (18 and 65 h vs. 100 and 140 h). These findings suggested that the disease resistance signals produced by the pathogen-induced 'donor' tomato plant roots could be transferred to the 'receiver' plant roots through CMNs.

  8. Signaling in plant resistance responses: divergence and cross-talk of defense pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Schaller, A.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Conrath, U.

    2006-01-01

    Plants possess inducible defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. The endogenous signalling molecules salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid, and the peptide messenger systemin play important roles in the regulation of these induced

  9. Drift Removal in Plant Electrical Signals via IIR Filtering Using Wavelet Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi; Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Ghosh, Sanmitra; Maharatna, Koushik; Dasmahapatra, Srinandan; Vitaletti, Andrea; Masi, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Plant electrical signals often contains low frequency drifts with or without the application of external stimuli. Quantification of the randomness in plant signals in a stimulus-specific way is hindered because the knowledge of vital frequency information in the actual biological response is not known yet. Here we design an optimum Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter which removes the low frequency drifts and preserves the frequency spectrum corresponding to the random component of the unstimulated plant signals by bringing the bias due to unknown artifacts and drifts to a minimum. We use energy criteria of wavelet packet transform (WPT) for optimization based tuning of the IIR filter parameters. Such an optimum filter enforces that the energy distribution of the pre-stimulus parts in different experiments are almost overlapped but under different stimuli the distributions of the energy get changed. The reported research may popularize plant signal processing, as a separate field, besides other conventiona...

  10. Plant autophagy puts the brakes on cell death by controlling salicylic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kohki

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that autophagy in plants is important for nutrient recycling and plays a critical role in the ability of plants to adapt to environmental extremes such as nutrient deprivation. Recent reverse genetic studies, however, hint at other roles for autophagy, showing that autophagy defects in higher plants result in early senescence and excessive immunity-related programmed cell death (PCD), irrespective of nutrient conditions. Until now, the mechanisms by which cells die in the absence of autophagy were unclear. In our study, using biochemical, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we reveal that excessive salicylic acid (SA) signaling is a major factor in autophagy-defective plant-dependent cell death and that the SA signal can induce autophagy. These findings suggest a novel physiological function for plant autophagy that operates via a negative feedback loop to modulate proper SA signaling.

  11. Magnesium Fertilizer-Induced Increase of Symbiotic Microorganisms Improves Forage Growth and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihui; Li, Yanpeng; Wen, Shilin; Rosanoff, Andrea; Yang, Gaowen; Sun, Xiao

    2017-04-26

    Magnesium (Mg) plays important roles in photosynthesis and protein synthesis; however, latent Mg deficiencies are common phenomena that can influence food quality. Nevertheless, the effects of Mg fertilizer additions on plant carbon (C):nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) stoichiometry, an important index of food quality, are unclear and the underlying mechanisms unexplored. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using low-Mg in situ soil without and with a gradient of Mg additions to investigate the effect of Mg fertilizer on growth and stoichiometry of maize and soybean and also measure these plants' main symbiotic microorganisms: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobium, respectively. Our results showed that Mg addition significantly improved both plant species' growth and also increased N and P concentrations in soybean and maize, respectively, resulting in low C:N ratio and high N:P ratio in soybean and low C:P and N:P ratios in maize. These results presumably stemmed from the increase of nutrients supplied by activation-enhanced plant symbiotic microorganisms, an explanation supported by statistically significant positive correlations between plant stoichiometry and plants' symbiotic microorganisms' increased growth with Mg addition. We conclude that Mg supply can improve plant growth and alter plant stoichiometry via enhanced activity of plant symbiotic microorganisms. Possible mechanisms underlying this positive plant-soil feedback include an enhanced photosynthetic product flow to roots caused by adequate Mg supply.

  12. Long-distance signaling of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Planta, we established two points regarding the long-distance signal of iron status in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). One is that the long-distance signal generated in iron deficient tissues is a major factor in positively regulating the expressions of iron uptake genes in tobacco. The expression of a ferric chelate reductase gene (NtFRO1) and an iron-regulated transporter gene (NtIRT1) in roots decreased by cutting off the leaves grown under the iron-deficient condi...

  13. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  14. Epigenetic control of defense signaling and priming in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR. These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements (TEs as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens.

  15. A New Insight of Salt Stress Signaling in Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-06-30

    Many studies have been conducted to understand plant stress responses to salinity because irrigation-dependent salt accumulation compromises crop productivity and also to understand the mechanism through which some plants thrive under saline conditions. As mechanistic understanding has increased during the last decades, discovery-oriented approaches have begun to identify genetic determinants of salt tolerance. In addition to osmolytes, osmoprotectants, radical detoxification, ion transport systems, and changes in hormone levels and hormone-guided communications, the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway has emerged to be a major defense mechanism. However, the mechanism by which the components of the SOS pathway are integrated to ultimately orchestrate plant-wide tolerance to salinity stress remains unclear. A higher-level control mechanism has recently emerged as a result of recognizing the involvement of GIGANTEA (GI), a protein involved in maintaining the plant circadian clock and control switch in flowering. The loss of GI function confers high tolerance to salt stress via its interaction with the components of the SOS pathway. The mechanism underlying this observation indicates the association between GI and the SOS pathway and thus, given the key influence of the circadian clock and the pathway on photoperiodic flowering, the association between GI and SOS can regulate growth and stress tolerance. In this review, we will analyze the components of the SOS pathways, with emphasis on the integration of components recognized as hallmarks of a halophytic lifestyle.

  16. Protease signaling in animal and plant-regulated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Guy S; Hempel, Anne; Coll, Nuria S

    2016-07-01

    This review aims to highlight the proteases required for regulated cell death mechanisms in animals and plants. The aim is to be incisive, and not inclusive of all the animal proteases that have been implicated in various publications. The review also aims to focus on instances when several publications from disparate groups have demonstrated the involvement of an animal protease, and also when there is substantial biochemical, mechanistic and genetic evidence. In doing so, the literature can be culled to a handful of proteases, covering most of the known regulated cell death mechanisms: apoptosis, regulated necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and NETosis in animals. In plants, the literature is younger and not as extensive as for mammals, although the molecular drivers of vacuolar death, necrosis and the hypersensitive response in plants are becoming clearer. Each of these death mechanisms has at least one proteolytic component that plays a major role in controlling the pathway, and sometimes they combine in networks to regulate cell death/survival decision nodes. Some similarities are found among animal and plant cell death proteases but, overall, the pathways that they govern are kingdom-specific with very little overlap. © 2015 FEBS.

  17. Conserved nematode signaling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematodes, which are ubiquitous in soil and are estimated to cause $100 B of agricultural damage annually, produce novel, highly conserved small sugar-based molecules call ascarosides. Ascarosides play critical roles in nematode development and behavior. We report here that plants recognize these un...

  18. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Lu, Jing; Erb, Matthias; Stout, Michael Joseph; Franken, Philipp; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Plant-microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water weevil (RWW; Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), and how plant jasmonic acid (JA) and GA regulate this tripartite interaction. Glasshouse experiments with wild-type rice and coi1-18 and Eui1-OX mutants combined with nutrient, jasmonate and gene expression analyses were used to test: whether RWW adult herbivory above ground influences subsequent damage caused by larval herbivory below ground; whether P. indica protects plants against RWW; and whether GA and JA signaling mediate these interactions. The endophyte induced plant tolerance to root herbivory. RWW adults and larvae acted synergistically via JA signaling to reduce root growth, while endophyte-elicited GA biosynthesis suppressed the herbivore-induced JA in roots and recovered plant growth. Our study shows for the first time the impact of a root endophyte on plant defense against below-ground herbivores, adds to growing evidence that induced tolerance may be an important root defense, and implicates GA as a signal component of inducible plant tolerance against biotic stress.

  19. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  20. Fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios eBitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  1. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  2. Eicosanoid signaling in insects: from discovery to plant protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostaglandins (PGs) and related eicosanoids are signal moieties derived from arachidonic acid and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They were discovered in the 1930s in the context of mammalian reproductive physiology; PGs were associated with the prostate gland, hence their name, and they...

  3. How plants sense wounds: damaged-self recognition is based on plant-derived elicitors and induces octadecanoid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal-derived elicitors can be used by plants to detect herbivory but they function only in specific insect-plant interactions. How can plants generally perceive damage caused by herbivores? Damaged-self recognition occurs when plants perceive molecular signals of damage: degraded plant molecules or molecules localized outside their original compartment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flame wounding or applying leaf extract or solutions of sucrose or ATP to slightly wounded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus leaves induced the secretion of extrafloral nectar, an indirect defense mechanism. Chemically related molecules that would not be released in high concentrations from damaged plant cells (glucose, fructose, salt, and sorbitol did not elicit a detectable response, excluding osmotic shock as an alternative explanation. Treatments inducing extrafloral nectar secretion also enhanced endogenous concentrations of the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA. Endogenous JA was also induced by mechanically damaging leaves of lima bean, Arabidopsis, maize, strawberry, sesame and tomato. In lima bean, tomato and sesame, the application of leaf extract further increased endogenous JA content, indicating that damaged-self recognition is taxonomically widely distributed. Transcriptomic patterns obtained with untargeted 454 pyrosequencing of lima bean in response to flame wounding or the application of leaf extract or JA were highly similar to each other, but differed from the response to mere mechanical damage. We conclude that the amount or concentration of damaged-self signals can quantitatively determine the intensity of the wound response and that the full damaged-self response requires the disruption of many cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous compounds function as JA-inducing elicitors in different plant species. Most of them are, contain, or release, plant-derived molecular motifs. Damaged-self recognition represents a taxonomically

  4. Novel roles for phospholipase C in plant stress signalling and development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Q

    2017-01-01

    For many years, efforts have been made to explore PLC signaling in plants. Compared to the classical PLC signaling pathway, a different picture is emerging for plants. Several roles for PLC in plant development and stress responses have been claimed but genetic evidence for this is mostly missing. In this thesis, we functionally characterized the role of PLC3, PLC5 and PLC7 in Arabidopsis. PLC3 (Chapter 2) was mainly expressed in vasculature. Loss-of-function mutants showed delayed seed germi...

  5. Phototropins and chloroplast activity in plant blue light signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chang-Hyo

    2009-01-01

    In plants, phototropins 1 (phot1) and 2 (phot2) mediate chloroplast movement to blue light (BL). A recent report showed that phototropins (phot) are required for the expression of chloroplast genes in rice. The light-induced responses of phot1a rice mutants result in H2O2-mediated damage to chloroplast photosystems, indicating that phot-regulated responses might be associated with the other photoreceptor, such as cryptochrome (cry) BL receptor. This suggests diversification and specialization...

  6. Plasmodesmata: channels for intercellular signaling during plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilem, Iris; Yadav, Shri Ram; Helariutta, Ykä

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved strategies for short- and long-distance communication to coordinate plant development and to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular nanochannels that provide an effective pathway for both selective and nonselective movement of various molecules that function in diverse biological processes. Numerous non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAP) and small RNAs have been identified that have crucial roles in cell fate determination and organ patterning during development. Both the density and aperture size of PD are developmentally regulated, allowing formation of spatial symplastic domains for establishment of tissue-specific developmental programs. The PD size exclusion limit (SEL) is controlled by reversible deposition of callose, as well as by some PD-associated proteins. Although a large number of PD-associated proteins have been identified, many of their functions remain unknown. Despite the fact that PD are primarily membranous structures, surprisingly very little is known about their lipid composition. Thus, future studies in PD biology will provide deeper insights into the high-resolution structure and tightly regulated functions of PD and the evolution of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  7. ROP GTPase Signaling in The Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenbiao

    2013-05-24

    I secured funding from the DOE to investigate the effect of auxin signaling on ROP9. This was based on our preliminary data showing that ROP9 is activated by auxin. However, we were unable to show that rop9 knockout mutants have altered sensitivity to auxin. Instead, we found that auxin activates both ROP2 and ROP6, and relevant mutants exhibit reduced sensitivity to auxin. Therefore we used the fund to strengthen our research on ROP2 and ROP6. My laboratory made major advancements in the recent years in the understanding of the effect of auxin signaling on ROP2 and ROP6. This is clearly exemplified by the numerous publications acknowledging fund DE-FG0204ER15555 as the source of funding.

  8. Long distance root-shoot signalling in plant-insect community interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roxina; Erb, Matthias; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-03-01

    Plants mediate interactions between insects, including leaf- and root-feeders; yet the underlying mechanisms and connection with ecological theory remain unresolved. In this review, based on novel insights into long-distance (i.e., leaf-leaf, root-shoot) defence signalling, we explore the role of phytohormones in driving broad-scale patterns of aboveground-belowground interactions that can be extrapolated to general plant-insect relationships. We propose that the outcome of intra-feeding guild interactions is generally negative due to induction of similar phytohormonal pathways, whereas between-guild interactions are often positive due to negative signal crosstalk. However, not all outcomes could be explained by feeding guild; we argue that future studies should target ecologically representative plant-insect systems, distinguish subguilds, and include plant growth hormones to improve our understanding of plant-mediated interactions.

  9. Signaling Networks Involving Reactive Oxygen Species and Ca2+ in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although plants never evolved central information processing organs such as brains, plants have evolved distributed information processing systems and are able to sense various environmental changes and reorganize their body plan coordinately without moving. Recent molecular biological studies revealed molecular bases for elementary processes of signal transduction in plants. Though reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly toxic substances produced through aerobic respiration and photosynthesis, plants possess ROS-producing enzymes whose activity is highly regulated by binding of Ca2+. In turn, Ca2+- permeable channel proteins activated by ROS are shown to be localized to the cell membrane. These two components are proposed to constitute a positive feedback loop to amplify cellular signals. Such molecular physiological studies should be important steps to understand information processing systems in plants and future application for technology related to environmental, energy and food sciences.

  10. Bacterial Molecular Signals in the Sinorhizobium fredii-Soybean Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. López-Baena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinorhizobium (Ensifer fredii (S. fredii is a rhizobial species exhibiting a remarkably broad nodulation host-range. Thus, S. fredii is able to effectively nodulate dozens of different legumes, including plants forming determinate nodules, such as the important crops soybean and cowpea, and plants forming indeterminate nodules, such as Glycyrrhiza uralensis and pigeon-pea. This capacity of adaptation to different symbioses makes the study of the molecular signals produced by S. fredii strains of increasing interest since it allows the analysis of their symbiotic role in different types of nodule. In this review, we analyze in depth different S. fredii molecules that act as signals in symbiosis, including nodulation factors, different surface polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, cyclic glucans, and K-antigen capsular polysaccharides, and effectors delivered to the interior of the host cells through a symbiotic type 3 secretion system.

  11. Magnetic propeller in symbiotic stars

    OpenAIRE

    Panferov, Alexander; Mikolajewski, Maciej

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly spinning magnetic white dwarfs in symbiotic stars may pass through the propeller stage. It is believed that a magnetic propeller acts in two such stars CH Cyg and MWC 560. We review a diversity of manifestations of the propeller there. In these systems in a quiescent state the accretion onto a white dwarf from the strong enough wind of a companion star is suppressed by the magnetic field, and the hot component luminosity is low. Since the gas stored in the envelope eventually settles ...

  12. (Homo)glutathione depletion modulates host gene expression during the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciariello, Chiara; Innocenti, Gilles; Van de Velde, Willem; Lambert, Annie; Hopkins, Julie; Clément, Mathilde; Ponchet, Michel; Pauly, Nicolas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Holsters, Marcelle; Puppo, Alain; Frendo, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, legumes interact with symbiotic rhizobia to produce nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We have previously shown that glutathione and homoglutathione [(h)GSH] deficiencies impaired Medicago truncatula symbiosis efficiency, showing the importance of the low M(r) thiols during the nodulation process in the model legume M. truncatula. In this study, the plant transcriptomic response to Sinorhizobium meliloti infection under (h)GSH depletion was investigated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Among 6,149 expression tags monitored, 181 genes displayed significant differential expression between inoculated control and inoculated (h)GSH depleted roots. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the changes in mRNA levels. This transcriptomic analysis shows a down-regulation of genes involved in meristem formation and a modulation of the expression of stress-related genes in (h)GSH-depleted plants. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase histochemical analysis showed that the putative MtPIP2 aquaporin might be up-regulated during nodule meristem formation and that this up-regulation is inhibited under (h)GSH depletion. (h)GSH depletion enhances the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-regulated genes after S. meliloti infection and the expression of SA-regulated genes after exogenous SA treatment. Modification of water transport and SA signaling pathway observed under (h)GSH deficiency contribute to explain how (h)GSH depletion alters the proper development of the symbiotic interaction.

  13. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery.

  14. Synthetic strategies for plant signalling studies: molecular toolbox and orthogonal platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Braguy, Justine

    2016-05-26

    Plants deploy a wide array of signalling networks integrating environmental cues with growth, defence and developmental responses. The high level of complexity, redundancy and connection between several pathways hampers a comprehensive understanding of involved functional and regulatory mechanisms. The implementation of synthetic biology approaches is revolutionizing experimental biology in prokaryotes, yeasts and animal systems and can likewise contribute to a new era in plant biology. This review gives an overview on synthetic biology approaches for the development and implementation of synthetic molecular tools and techniques to interrogate, understand and control signalling events in plants, ranging from strategies for the targeted manipulation of plant genomes up to the spatiotemporally resolved control of gene expression using optogenetic approaches. We also describe strategies based on the partial reconstruction of signalling pathways in orthogonal platforms, like yeast, animal and in vitro systems. This allows a targeted analysis of individual signalling hubs devoid of inter-connectivity with endogenous interacting components. Implementation of the interdisciplinary synthetic biology tools and strategies is not exempt of challenges and hardships but simultaneously most rewarding in terms of the advances in basic and applied research. As witnessed in other areas, these original theoretical-experimental avenues will lead to a breakthrough in the ability to study and comprehend plant signalling networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Plant Immunity—At the Crossroad of Life and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla J. Kørner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and complex immune responses are induced in plants upon pathogen recognition. One form of plant defense response is a programmed burst in transcription and translation of pathogenesis-related proteins, of which many rely on ER processing. Interestingly, several ER stress marker genes are up-regulated during early stages of immune responses, suggesting that enhanced ER capacity is needed for immunity. Eukaryotic cells respond to ER stress through conserved signaling networks initiated by specific ER stress sensors tethered to the ER membrane. Depending on the nature of ER stress the cell prioritizes either survival or initiates programmed cell death (PCD. At present two plant ER stress sensors, bZIP28 and IRE1, have been described. Both sensor proteins are involved in ER stress-induced signaling, but only IRE1 has been additionally linked to immunity. A second branch of immune responses relies on PCD. In mammals, ER stress sensors are involved in activation of PCD, but it is unclear if plant ER stress sensors play a role in PCD. Nevertheless, some ER resident proteins have been linked to pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of plant ER stress signaling and its cross-talk with immune signaling.

  16. Extracellular ATP acts as a damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP signal in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu eTanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have evolved effective mechanisms to protect themselves from environmental stresses. Damaged (i.e., wounded plants recognize a variety of endogenous molecules as danger signals, referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. ATP is among the molecules that are released by cell damage, and recent evidence suggests that ATP can serve as a DAMP. Although little studied in plants, extracellular ATP is well known for its signaling role in animals, including acting as a DAMP during the inflammatory response and wound healing. If ATP acts outside the cell, then it is reasonable to expect that it is recognized by a plasma membrane-localized receptor. Recently, DORN1, a lectin receptor kinase, was shown to recognize extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis. DORN1 is the founding member of a new purinoceptor subfamily, P2K (P2 receptor Kinase, which is plant-specific. P2K1 (DORN1 is required for ATP-induced cellular responses (e.g., cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression. Genetic analysis of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines showed that P2K1 participates in the plant wound response, consistent with the role of ATP as a DAMP. In this review, we summarize past research on the roles and mechanisms of extracellular ATP signaling in plants, and discuss the direction of the future research of extracellular ATP as a DAMP signal.

  17. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment.

  18. Controlling hormone signaling is a plant and pathogen challenge for growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel Angel; Bannenberg, Gerard; Castresana, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    Plants and pathogens have continuously confronted each other during evolution in a battle for growth and survival. New advances in the field have provided fascinating insights into the mechanisms that have co-evolved to gain a competitive advantage in this battle. When plants encounter an invading pathogen, not only responses signaled by defense hormones are activated to restrict pathogen invasion, but also the modulation of additional hormone pathways is required to serve other purposes, which are equally important for plant survival, such as re-allocation of resources, control of cell death, regulation of water stress, and modification of plant architecture. Notably, pathogens can counteract both types of responses as a strategy to enhance virulence. Pathogens regulate production and signaling responses of plant hormones during infection, and also produce phytohormones themselves to modulate plant responses. These results indicate that hormone signaling is a relevant component in plant-pathogen interactions, and that the ability to dictate hormonal directionality is critical to the outcome of an interaction.

  19. Development and testing of an integrated signal validation system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kerlin, T.W.; Gaudio, P.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    Since the incident at Three Mile Island unit 2, computerized plant status display, implementation of human factors in control room design, and plant monitoring based on expert system technology have seen a tremendous growth. One such proposed operator assist device is a plant signal validation system. This system is used to check the consistency of redundant measurements (sensors) of selected process variables, estimate their expect values from plant-wide data, and detect, isolate and characterize the type of anomaly in the instrument channel outputs. In large process control systems signals from several hundred instrument channels are routed via data highways to control systems, protection (safety) systems and plant monitoring systems. The need of automated signal validation is necessary because of the large amount of information available, and as a result the operator's inability to validate information from many diverse sources. This is also useful for improved plant control (minimize challenges on control systems), minimizing plant downtime, and for predictive maintenance advising. 107 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Chasing the structures of small molecules in arbuscular mycorrhizal signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Marcel; Wegmüller, Sarah; Drissner, David

    2009-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a symbiosis between most terrestrial plants and fungi of the ancient phylum Glomeromycota. AM improves the uptake of water and mineral nutrients, such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), of the host plant in exchange for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Successful colonization and a functional interaction between host plant and mycobiont are based upon exchange of signaling molecules at different stages of symbiosis development. Strigolactones, a novel class of plant hormones, are secreted by plant roots stimulating presymbiotic growth of AM fungi. Fungi release soluble signaling molecules, the enigmatic 'Myc factors', that activate early symbiotic root responses. Lysophosphatidylcholine is a lipophilic intraradical mycorrhizal signal triggering plant phosphate transporter gene expression late in AM development through a P-controlled transcriptional mechanism. This enables uptake of orthophosphate released from the AM fungus.

  1. Roles of ABA Signal Transduction during Higher Plant Seed Development and Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Hongbo; Liang Zongsuo; Shao Mingan

    2003-01-01

    ABA is one of the 5 phytohormones in higher plants, which is also the most important hormone that regulates higher plants in response to environmental stress, by ABA signal transduction. Understanding ABA signal transduction at the molecular level is crucial to biology and ecology, and rational breeding complied with corresponding eco-environmental changes.Great advancements have taken place over the past 10 years by application of the 4rabidopsis experimental system. Many components involved in ABA signal transduction have been isolated and identified and a clear overall picture of gene expression and control for this transduction has become an Accepted fact. On the basis of the work in our laboratory, in conjunction with the data available at the moment, the authors have attempted to integrate ABA signal transduction pathways into a common one and give some insights into the relationship between ABA signal transduction and other hormone signal transduction pathways, with an emphasis upon the ABA signal transduction during higher plant seed development. A future challenge in this field is that different experimental systems are applied and various receptors and genes need to be characterized through the utilization of microarray chips.

  2. Bacterial LuxR solos have evolved to respond to different molecules including signals from plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra K. Patel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A future challenge will be understanding the extensive communication that most likely takes place in bacterial interspecies and interkingdom signaling between plants and bacteria. A major bacterial inter-cellular signaling system in Gram-negative bacteria is LuxI/R quorum sensing (QS based on the production (via the LuxI-family proteins and detection (via the LuxR-family proteins of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs signaling molecules. LuxR proteins which have the same modular structure of QS LuxRs but are devoid of a cognate LuxI AHL synthase are called solos. LuxR solos have been shown to be responsible to respond to exogenous AHLs produced by neighboring cells as well endogenously produced AHLs. It is now also evident that some LuxR proteins have evolved from the ability to binding AHLs and respond to other molecules/signals. For example, recent research has shown that a sub-family of LuxR solos responds to small molecules produced by plants. This indicates the presence of a uni-directional interkingdom signaling system occurring from plants to bacteria. In addition LuxR solos have now been also implicated to respond to endogenously produced signals which are not AHLs. In this Mini Review article we will discuss current trends and implications of the role of LuxR solos in bacterial responses to other signals using proteins related to AHL quorum sensing systems.

  3. Phosphoinositide-signaling is one component of a robust plant defense response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imara Yasmin Perera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide pathway and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3 have been implicated in plant responses to many abiotic stresses; however, their role in response to biotic stress is not well characterized. In the current study, we show that both basal defense and systemic acquired resistance responses are affected in transgenic plants constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase which have greatly reduced InsP3 levels. Flagellin induced Ca2+-release as well as the expressions of some flg22 responsive genes were attenuated in the InsP 5-ptase plants. Furthermore, the InsP 5-ptase plants were more susceptible to virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (PstDC3000. The InsP 5-ptase plants had lower basal salicylic acid (SA levels and the induction of SAR in systemic leaves was reduced and delayed. Reciprocal exudate experiments showed that although the InsP 5-ptase plants produced equally effective molecules that could trigger PR-1 gene expression in wild type plants, exudates collected from either wild type or InsP 5-ptase plants triggered less PR-1 gene expression in InsP 5-ptase plants. Additionally, expression profiles indicated that several defense genes including PR-1, PR-2, PR-5 and AIG1 were basally down regulated in the InsP 5-ptase plants compared with wild type. Upon pathogen attack, expression of these genes was either not induced or showed delayed induction in systemic leaves. Our study shows that phosphoinositide signaling is one component of the plant defense network and is involved in both basal and systemic responses. The dampening of InsP3-mediated signaling affects Ca2+ release, modulates defense gene expression and compromises plant defense responses.

  4. Changes in Nitrogen Status of Soybean Under Influence of Symbiotically Fixed and Bound Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    GADIMOV, A.G.; SAFARALIEV, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of different nitrogen sources (nitrate 15 N-NO 3 and symbiotic N-N 2 ) to the nitrogen status of soybean in ontogenesis was studied. Nitrate was assimilated effectively during the vegetative growth, whereas later on the nitrogen-fixation by root nodules became the basic source of nitrogen. The applying of a low dose of nitrate (22.2 mg N/plant) increased the total nitrogen content in the plant and did not depress the nitrogen fixation. Distribution of the symbiotic and nitrat...

  5. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  6. Understanding nitrate uptake, signaling and remobilisation for improving plant nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya

    2017-08-28

    The majority of terrestrial plants use nitrate as their main source of nitrogen. Nitrate also acts as an important signalling molecule in vital physiological processes required for optimum plant growth and development. Improving nitrate uptake and transport, through activation by nitrate sensing, signalling and regulatory processes, would enhance plant growth, resulting in improved crop yields. The increased remobilisation of nitrate, and assimilated nitrogenous compounds, from source to sink tissues further ensures higher yields and quality. An updated knowledge of various transporters, genes, activators, and microRNAs, involved in nitrate uptake, transport, remobilisation, and nitrate-mediated root growth, is presented. An enhanced understanding of these components will allow for their orchestrated fine tuning in efforts to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Six plant extracts delay yeast chronological aging through different signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchman, Vicky; Dakik, Pamela; McAuley, Mélissa; Cortes, Berly; Ferraye, George; Gontmacher, Leonid; Graziano, David; Moukhariq, Fatima-Zohra; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study has revealed six plant extracts that slow yeast chronological aging more efficiently than any chemical compound yet described. The rate of aging in yeast is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved network of integrated signaling pathways and protein kinases. Here, we assessed how single-gene-deletion mutations eliminating each of these pathways and kinases affect the aging-delaying efficiencies of the six plant extracts. Our findings imply that these extracts slow aging in the following ways: 1) plant extract 4 decreases the efficiency with which the pro-aging TORC1 pathway inhibits the anti-aging SNF1 pathway; 2) plant extract 5 mitigates two different branches of the pro-aging PKA pathway; 3) plant extract 6 coordinates processes that are not assimilated into the network of presently known signaling pathways/protein kinases; 4) plant extract 8 diminishes the inhibitory action of PKA on SNF1; 5) plant extract 12 intensifies the anti-aging protein kinase Rim15; and 6) plant extract 21 inhibits a form of the pro-aging protein kinase Sch9 that is activated by the pro-aging PKH1/2 pathway. PMID:27447556

  8. New aspects of phloem-mediated long-distance lipid signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Florian Benning

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions. As a consequence, they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment, communicate these to different organs, and adjust development accordingly. These adaptations include two long-distance transport systems which are essential in plants: the xylem and the phloem. The phloem serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates, viruses, RNA, plant hormones, metabolites, and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling. The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues. Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress. In our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates, we had identified several lipid-binding proteins as well as fatty acids and lipids. The latter are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of sieve elements. Hence, lipid transport in the phloem has been given little attention until now. Long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in an aqueous system is not without precedence in biological systems: a variety of lipids is found in human blood and are often bound to proteins. Some lipid-protein complexes are transported to other tissues for storage, use, modification, or degradation, others serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity. By simple analogy it raises the possibility that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in stress and developmental signaling. Here, we introduce the lipid-binding proteins and the lipids we found in the phloem and discuss the possibility that they may play an important role in developmental and stress signaling.

  9. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Methylglyoxal: An Emerging Signaling Molecule in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses and Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Tahsina S.; Hossain, Mohammad A.; Mostofa, Mohammad G.; Burritt, David J.; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    The oxygenated short aldehyde methylglyoxal (MG) is produced in plants as a by-product of a number of metabolic reactions, including elimination of phosphate groups from glycolysis intermediates dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. MG is mostly detoxified by the combined actions of the enzymes glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II that together with glutathione make up the glyoxalase system. Under normal growth conditions, basal levels of MG remain low in plants; however, when plants are exposed to abiotic stress, MG can accumulate to much higher levels. Stress-induced MG functions as a toxic molecule, inhibiting different developmental processes, including seed germination, photosynthesis and root growth, whereas MG, at low levels, acts as an important signaling molecule, involved in regulating diverse events, such as cell proliferation and survival, control of the redox status of cells, and many other aspects of general metabolism and cellular homeostases. MG can modulate plant stress responses by regulating stomatal opening and closure, the production of reactive oxygen species, cytosolic calcium ion concentrations, the activation of inward rectifying potassium channels and the expression of many stress-responsive genes. MG appears to play important roles in signal transduction by transmitting and amplifying cellular signals and functions that promote adaptation of plants growing under adverse environmental conditions. Thus, MG is now considered as a potential biochemical marker for plant abiotic stress tolerance, and is receiving considerable attention by the scientific community. In this review, we will summarize recent findings regarding MG metabolism in plants under abiotic stress, and evaluate the concept of MG signaling. In addition, we will demonstrate the importance of giving consideration to MG metabolism and the glyoxalase system, when investigating plant adaptation and responses to various environmental stresses. PMID:27679640

  11. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate metabolism under abiotic stresses in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Gupta; Narinder Kaur

    2005-12-01

    Sucrose is required for plant growth and development. The sugar status of plant cells is sensed by sensor proteins. The signal generated by signal transduction cascades, which could involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ca2+ and calmodulins, results in appropriate gene expression. A variety of genes are either induced or repressed depending upon the status of soluble sugars. Abiotic stresses to plants result in major alterations in sugar status and hence affect the expression of various genes by down- and up-regulating their expression. Hexokinase-dependent and hexokinase-independent pathways are involved in sugar sensing. Sucrose also acts as a signal molecule as it affects the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter. The sucrose transporter acts as a sucrose sensor and is involved in phloem loading. Fructokinase may represent an additional sensor that bypasses hexokinase phosphorylation especially when sucrose synthase is dominant. Mutants isolated on the basis of response of germination and seedling growth to sugars and reporter-based screening protocols are being used to study the response of altered sugar status on gene expression. Common cis-acting elements in sugar signalling pathways have been identified. Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time of adverse environmental conditions instead of being constitutively synthesized.

  12. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Cellulolytic activity and structure of symbiotic bacteria in locust guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L-J; Liu, H; Li, Y; Zhang, H-F; Chen, M; Gao, X-H; Wang, F-Q; Song, A-D

    2014-09-29

    Locusts are able to digest the cellulose of Gramineae plants, resulting in their being considered as major crop pests. To illustrate the mechanism involved in cellulose digestion, the cellulolytic activity and zymography in the gut contents of 16 locust species were determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The diversity of gut symbiotic bacteria was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that high CMC activity was present in Acrididae gut fluid (mean 356.4 U/g proteins). Of the 5 locust species, Oxya chinensis had the highest diversity of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, characterized by the DGGE profile containing more than 20 bands of 16S rRNA. Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the gut of Locusta migratoria manilensis, was identified as the most abundant symbiotic bacterium by DNA sequencing, with a relative abundance of 19.74%. In comparison, Methylobacterium sp was the most dominant species in the Atractomorpha sinensis gut, with a relative abundance of 29.04%. The results indicated that the cellulolytic enzymes and gut microbial communities probably reflected their phylogenetic relationship with different locust species and associated feeding strategies.

  14. Plant resistance to cold stress: Mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening and dehardening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erwin H Beck; Richard Heim; Jens Hansen

    2004-12-01

    This introductory overview shows that cold, in particular frost, stresses a plant in manifold ways and that the plant’s response, being injurious or adaptive, must be considered a syndrome rather than a single reaction. In the course of the year perennial plants of the temperate climate zones undergo frost hardening in autumn and dehardening in spring. Using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model plant the environmental signals inducing frost hardening and dehardening, respectively, were investigated. Over 2 years the changes in frost resistance of Scots pine needles were recorded together with the annual courses of day-length and ambient temperature. Both act as environmental signals for frost hardening and dehardening. Climate chamber experiments showed that short day-length as a signal triggering frost hardening could be replaced by irradiation with far red light, while red light inhibited hardening. The involvement of phytochrome as a signal receptor could be corroborated by respective night-break experiments. More rapid frost hardening than by short day or far red treatment was achieved by applying a short period (6 h) of mild frost which did not exceed the plant’s cold resistance. Both types of signals were independently effective but the rates of frost hardening were not additive. The maximal rate of hardening was – 0.93°C per day and frost tolerance of < – 72°C was achieved. For dehardening, temperature was an even more effective signal than day-length.

  15. The remarkable properties of the symbiotic star AE Circinus

    CERN Document Server

    Mennickent, R E; Arenas, J; Tovmassian, T; Mason, E; Tappert, C; Papadaki, C

    2007-01-01

    We present new optical spectroscopy and photometry, 2MASS infrared observations and 24 years of combined AAVSO and AFOEV photometry of the symbiotic star candidate \\ae. The long-term light curve is characterized by outbursts lasting several years and having a slow decline of $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-4}$ mag/day. The whole range of variability of the star in the $V$ band is about 4 magnitudes. The periodogram of the photometric data reveals strong signals at $\\sim$ 342 and 171 days. The presence of the emission feature at $\\lambda$ 6830 \\AA at minimum and the detection of absorption lines of a $\\sim$ K5 type star confirm the symbiotic classification and suggest that AE Cir is a new member of the small group of s-type yellow symbiotic stars. We estimate a distance of 9.4 kpc. Our spectrum taken at the high state shows a much flatter spectral energy distribution, the disappearance of the $\\lambda$ 6830 \\AA emission feature and the weakness of the He II 4686 emission relative to the Balmer emission lines. Our observat...

  16. Ancient signals: comparative genomics of plant MAPK and MAPKK gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Sritubtim, Somrudee;

    2006-01-01

    MAPK signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants, and their components are encoded by highly conserved genes. The recent availability of genome sequences for rice and poplar now makes it possible to examine how well the previously described...... Arabidopsis MAPK and MAPKK gene family structures represent the broader evolutionary situation in plants, and analysis of gene expression data for MPK and MKK genes in all three species allows further refinement of those families, based on functionality. The Arabidopsis MAPK nomenclature appears sufficiently...... robust to allow it to be usefully extended to other well-characterized plant systems....

  17. Plant ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and its role in gibberellin signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in plants,like in other eukaryotes,targets numerous intracellular regulators and thus modulates almost every aspect of growth and development.The well-known and best-characterized outcome of ubiquitination is mediating target protein degradation via the 26S proteasome,which represents the major selective protein degradation pathway conserved among eukaryotes.In this review,we will discuss the molecular composition,regulation and function of plant UPS,with a major focus on how DELLA protein degradation acts as a key in gibberellin signal transduction and its implication in the regulation of plant growth.

  18. Diverse roles of the GlcP glucose permease in free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Ekman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria can form symbiotic associations with plants, where the symbiont supplies the plant partner with nitrogen and in return obtains sugars. We recently showed that in the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, a glucose specific permease, GlcP, is necessary for the symbiosis to be formed. Results presented here from growth yield measurements of mutant strains with inactivated or overexpressing sugar transporters suggest that GlcP could be induced by a symbiosis specific substance. We also discuss that the transporter may have a role other than nutritional once the symbiosis is established, i.e., during infection, and more specifically in the chemotaxis of the symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the distribution of GlcP among cyanobacteria is likely influenced by horizontal gene transfer, but also that it is not correlated with symbiotic competence. Instead, regulatory patterns of the transporter in Nostoc punctiforme likely constitute symbiosis specific adaptations.

  19. Do symbiotic bacteria subvert host immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lora V

    2009-05-01

    The mammalian intestine is home to dense and complex indigenous bacterial communities. Most of these bacteria establish beneficial symbiotic relationships with their hosts, making important contributions to host metabolism and digestive efficiency. The vast numbers of intestinal bacteria and their proximity to host tissues raise the question of how symbiotic host-bacterial relationships are established without eliciting potentially harmful immune responses. In light of the varied ways in which pathogenic bacteria manipulate host immunity, this Opinion article explores the role of immune suppression, subversion and evasion in the establishment of symbiotic host-bacterial associations.

  20. Successful joint ventures of plants: arbuscular mycorrhiza and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolin, Flavia; Reinhardt, Didier

    2011-07-01

    Among the oldest symbiotic associations of plants are arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. Although many of the symbiotic signaling components have been identified on the side of the plant, AM fungi have long evaded genetic analysis owing to their strict biotrophy and their exceptional genetics. Recently, the identification of the fungal symbiosis signal (Myc factor) and of a corresponding Myc factor receptor, and new insights into AM fungal genetics, have opened new avenues to address early communication and functional aspects of AM symbiosis. These advances will pave the way for breeding programs towards adapted AM fungi for crop production, and will shed light on the ecology and evolution of this remarkably successful symbiosis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mother of plant root endosymbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniske, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), a symbiosis between plants and members of an ancient phylum of fungi, the Glomeromycota, improves the supply of water and nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrogen, to the host plant. In return, up to 20% of plant-fixed carbon is transferred to the fungus. Nutrient transport occurs through symbiotic structures inside plant root cells known as arbuscules. AM development is accompanied by an exchange of signalling molecules between the symbionts. A novel class of plant hormones known as strigolactones are exuded by the plant roots. On the one hand, strigolactones stimulate fungal metabolism and branching. On the other hand, they also trigger seed germination of parasitic plants. Fungi release signalling molecules, in the form of 'Myc factors' that trigger symbiotic root responses. Plant genes required for AM development have been characterized. During evolution, the genetic programme for AM has been recruited for other plant root symbioses: functional adaptation of a plant receptor kinase that is essential for AM symbiosis paved the way for nitrogen-fixing bacteria to form intracellular symbioses with plant cells.

  2. Cytosolic calcium and pH signaling in plants under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Md Abdul; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2010-03-01

    Calcium is one of the essential nutrients for growth and development of plants. It is an important component of various structures in cell wall and membranes. Besides some fundamental roles under normal condition, calcium functions as a major secondary-messenger molecule in plants under different developmental cues and various stress conditions including salinity stress. Also changes in cytosolic pH, pH(cyt), either individually, or in coordination with changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](cyt), evoke a wide range of cellular functions in plants including signal transduction in plant-defense responses against stresses. It is believed that salinity stress, like other stresses, is perceived at cell membrane, either extra cellular or intracellular, which then triggers an intracellular-signaling cascade including the generation of secondary messenger molecules like Ca(2+) and protons. The variety and complexity of Ca(2+) and pH signaling result from the nature of the stresses as well as the tolerance level of the plant species against that specific stress. The nature of changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt) concentration, in terms of amplitude, frequency and duration, is likely very important for decoding the specific downstream responses for salinity stress tolerance in planta. It has been observed that the signatures of [Ca(2+)](cyt) and pH differ in various studies reported so far depending on the techniques used to measure them, and also depending on the plant organs where they are measured, such as root, shoot tissues or cells. This review describes the recent advances about the changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt) and pH(cyt) at both cellular and whole-plant levels under salinity stress condition, and in various salinity-tolerant and -sensitive plant species.

  3. Herbivore-specific, density-dependent induction of plant volatiles: honest or "cry wolf" signals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Shiojiri

    Full Text Available Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae larvae and attract more (naive parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata as a "cry wolf" signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike.

  4. Obtaining hemocytes from the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and observing their adherence to symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew J; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2010-02-11

    Studies concerning the role of the immune system in mediating molecular signaling between beneficial bacteria and their hosts have, in recent years, made significant contributions to our understanding of the co-evolution of eukaryotes with their microbiota. The symbiotic association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes and the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been utilized as a model system for understanding the effects of beneficial bacteria on animal development. Recent studies have shown that macrophage-like hemocytes, the sole cellular component of the squid host's innate immune system, likely play an important role in mediating the establishment and maintenance of this association. This protocol will demonstrate how to obtain hemocytes from E. scolopes and then use these cells in bacterial binding assays. Adult squid are first anesthetized before hemolymph is collected by syringe from the main cephalic blood vessel. The host hemocytes, contained in the extracted hemolymph, are adhered to chambered glass coverslips and then exposed to green fluorescent protein-labeled symbiotic Vibrio fischeri and non-symbiotic Vibrio harveyi. The hemocytes are counterstained with a fluorescent dye (Cell Tracker Orange, Invitrogen) and then visualized using fluorescent microscopy.

  5. Brassinosteroids, gibberellins and light-mediated signalling are the three-way controls of plant sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillais, Yvon; Vert, Grégory

    2012-08-01

    The steroid hormones found in plants, the brassinosteroids, were originally genetically identified about 15 years ago as critical regulators of seedling photomorphogenesis. Two studies now shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind this observation. Brassinosteroids control seedling morphogenesis through direct interaction with master transcriptional regulators downstream of growth-promoting hormones and light signalling.

  6. Long distance root-shoot signalling in plant-insect community interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Erb, M.; Kaplan, I.

    2013-01-01

    Plants mediate interactions between insects, including leaf- and root-feeders; yet the underlying mechanisms and connection with ecological theory remain unresolved. In this review, based on novel insights into long-distance (i.e., leaf-leaf, root-shoot) defence signalling, we explore the role of ph

  7. Evolution from the prokaryotic to the higher plant chloroplast signal recognition particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Träger, Chantal; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Ziehe, Dominik;

    2012-01-01

    The protein targeting signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway in chloroplasts of higher plants has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes. It disposed of its RNA, which is an essential SRP component in bacteria, and uses a unique chloroplast-specific protein cpSRP43. Nevertheless, homologs of ...

  8. Receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals: distinct molecular systems with mechanistic similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, J Mark; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent; Gaude, Thierry

    2002-04-01

    Plant genomes encode large numbers of receptor kinases that are structurally related to the tyrosine and serine/threonine families of receptor kinase found in animals. Here, we describe recent advances in the characterisation of several of these plant receptor kinases at the molecular level, including the identification of receptor complexes, small polypeptide ligands and cytosolic proteins involved in signal transduction and receptor downregulation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that plant receptor kinases have evolved independently of the receptor kinase families found in animals. This hypothesis is supported by functional studies that have revealed differences between receptor kinase signalling in plants and animals, particularly concerning their interactions with cytosolic proteins. Despite these dissimilarities, however, plant and animal receptor kinases share many common features, such as their single membrane-pass structure, their inclusion in membrane-associated complexes, the involvement of dimerisation and trans autophosphorylation in receptor activation, and the existence of inhibitors and phosphatases that downregulate receptor activity. These points of convergence may represent features that are essential for a functional receptor-kinase signalling system.

  9. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  10. Global changes in gene expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 under microoxic and symbiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anke; Bergès, Hélène; Krol, Elizaveta; Bruand, Claude; Rüberg, Silvia; Capela, Delphine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Meilhoc, Eliane; Ampe, Frédéric; de Bruijn, Frans J; Fourment, Joëlle; Francez-Charlot, Anne; Kahn, Daniel; Küster, Helge; Liebe, Carine; Pühler, Alfred; Weidner, Stefan; Batut, Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is an alpha-proteobacterium that alternates between a free-living phase in bulk soil or in the rhizosphere of plants and a symbiotic phase within the host plant cells, where the bacteria ultimately differentiate into nitrogen-fixing organelle-like cells, called bacteroids. As a step toward understanding the physiology of S. meliloti in its free-living and symbiotic forms and the transition between the two, gene expression profiles were determined under two sets of biological conditions: growth under oxic versus microoxic conditions, and in free-living versus symbiotic state. Data acquisition was based on both macro- and microarrays. Transcriptome profiles highlighted a profound modification of gene expression during bacteroid differentiation, with 16% of genes being altered. The data are consistent with an overall slow down of bacteroid metabolism during adaptation to symbiotic life and acquisition of nitrogen fixation capability. A large number of genes of unknown function, including potential regulators, that may play a role in symbiosis were identified. Transcriptome profiling in response to oxygen limitation indicated that up to 5% of the genes were oxygen regulated. However, the microoxic and bacteroid transcriptomes only partially overlap, implying that oxygen contributes to a limited extent to the control of symbiotic gene expression.

  11. Nitrogen signalling in plant interactions with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, T L G; Balsemão-Pires, E; Saraiva, R M; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

    2014-10-01

    Some beneficial plant-interacting bacteria can biologically fix N2 to plant-available ammonium. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important source of nitrogen (N) input in agriculture and represents a promising substitute for chemical N fertilizers. Diazotrophic bacteria have the ability to develop different types of root associations with different plant species. Among the highest rates of BNF are those measured in legumes nodulated by endosymbionts, an already very well documented model of plant-diazotrophic bacterial association. However, it has also been shown that economically important crops, especially monocots, can obtain a substantial part of their N needs from BNF by interacting with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, that either live near the root surface or endophytically colonize intercellular spaces and vascular tissues of host plants. One of the best reported outcomes of this association is the promotion of plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Besides fixing N, these bacteria can also produce plant growth hormones, and some species are reported to improve nutrient uptake and increase plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, this particular type of plant-bacteria association consists of a natural beneficial system to be explored; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved are still not clear. Plant N status might act as a key signal, regulating and integrating various metabolic processes that occur during association with diazotrophic bacteria. This review will focus on the recent progress in understanding plant association with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, particularly on the knowledge of the N networks involved in BNF and in the promotion of plant growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Rhizobium meliloti genes required for C4-dicarboxylate transport and symbiotic nitrogen fixation are located on a megaplasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, R J; Chan, Y K; Wheatcroft, R; Yang, A. F.; Han, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A mutant of Rhizobium meliloti unable to transport C4 dicarboxylates (dct) was isolated after Tn5 mutagenesis. The mutant, 4F6, could not grow on aspartate or the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate, or malate. It produced symbiotically ineffective nodules on Medicago sativa in which bacteroids appeared normal, but the symbiotic zone was reduced and the plant cells contained numerous starch granules at their peripheries. Cosmids containing the dct region were obtained b...

  13. A review of redox signaling and the control of MAP kinase pathway in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are evolutionarily conserved modules among eukaryotic species that range from yeast, plants, flies to mammals. In eukaryotic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS has both physiological and toxic effects. Both MAPK cascades and ROS signaling are involved in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. It has been observed that not only can ROS induce MAPK activation, but also that disturbing MAPK cascades can modulate ROS production and responses. This review will discuss the potential mechanisms by which ROS may activate and/or regulate MAPK cascades in plants. The role of MAPK cascades and ROS signaling in regulating gene expression, stomatal function, and programmed cell death (PCD is also discussed. In addition, the relationship between Rboh-dependent ROS production and MAPK activation in PAMP-triggered immunity will be reviewed.

  14. The evolutionary events necessary for the emergence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes may involve a loss of nitrate responsiveness of the NIN transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Konishi, Mineko; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a key regulator of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation pathway in legumes including Lotus japonicus. NIN-like proteins (NLPs), which are presumably present in all land plants, were recently identified as key transcription factors in nitrate signaling and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-leguminous plant. Here we show that both NIN and NLP1 of L. japonicus (LjNLP1) can bind to the nitrate-responsive cis-element (NRE) and promote transcription from an NRE-containing promoter as did the NLPs of A. thaliana (AtNLPs). However, differing from LjNLP1 and the AtNLPs that are activated by nitrate signaling through their N-terminal regions, the N-terminal region of NIN did not respond to nitrate. Thus, in the course of the evolution of NIN into a transcription factor that functions in nodulation in legumes, some mutations might arise that converted it to a nitrate-insensitive transcription factor. Because nodule formation is induced under nitrogen-deficient conditions, we speculate that the loss of the nitrate-responsiveness of NIN may be one of the evolutionary events necessary for the emergence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes.

  15. Intracellular signaling by diffusion: can waves of hydrogen peroxide transmit intracellular information in plant cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude- and frequency-modulated waves of Ca(2+) ions transmit information inside cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), specifically hydrogen peroxide, have been proposed to have a similar role in plant cells. We consider the feasibility of such an intracellular communication system in view...... of the physical and biochemical conditions in plant cells. As model system, we use a H(2)O(2) signal originating at the plasma membrane (PM) and spreading through the cytosol. We consider two maximally simple types of signals, isolated pulses and harmonic oscillations. First we consider the basic limits...... which diffusion-mediated signaling is possible. We show that purely diffusive transmission of intracellular information by H(2)O(2) over a distance of 1 μm (typical distance between organelles, which may function as relay stations) is possible at frequencies well above 1 Hz, which is the highest...

  16. Intracellular signaling by diffusion: can waves of hydrogen peroxide transmit intracellular information in plant cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Lyngby; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude- and frequency-modulated waves of Ca2+ ions transmit information inside cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), specifically hydrogen peroxide, have been proposed to have a similar role in plant cells. We consider the feasibility of such an intracellular communication system in view...... of the physical and biochemical conditions in plant cells. As model system, we use a H2O2 signal originating at the plasma membrane (PM) and spreading through the cytosol. We consider two maximally simple types of signals, isolated pulses and harmonic oscillations. First we consider the basic limits...... diffusion-mediated signaling is possible. We show that purely diffusive transmission of intracellular information by H2O2 over a distance of 1 μm (typical distance between organelles, which may function as relay stations) is possible at frequencies well above 1 Hz, which is the highest frequency observed...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-09-15

    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated.

  18. Finding a nitrogen niche: a systems integration of local and systemic nitrogen signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Krouk, Gabriel; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Ruffel, Sandrine

    2014-10-01

    The ability of plants to sense their nitrogen (N) microenvironment in the soil and deploy strategic root growth in N-rich patches requires exquisite systems integration. Remarkably, this new paradigm for systems biology research has intrigued plant biologists for more than a century, when a split-root framework was first used to study how plants sense and respond to heterogeneous soil nutrient environments. This systemic N-signalling mechanism, allowing plants to sense and forage for mineral nutrients in resource-rich patches, has important implications for agriculture. In this review, we will focus on how advances in the post-genomic era have uncovered the gene regulatory networks underlying systemic N-signalling. After defining how local and systemic N-signalling can be experimentally distinguished for molecular study using a split-root system, the genetic factors that have been shown to mediate local and/or systemic N-signalling are reviewed. Second, the genetic mechanism of this regulatory system is broadened to the whole genome level. To do this, publicly available N-related transcriptomic datasets are compared with genes that have previously been identified as local and systemic N responders in a split-root transcriptome dataset. Specifically, (i) it was found that transcriptional reprogramming triggered by homogeneous N-treatments is composed of both local and systemic responses, (ii) the spatio-temporal signature of local versus systemic responsive genes is defined, and (iii) the conservation of systemic N-signalling between Arabidopsis and Medicago is assessed. Finally, the potential mediators, i.e. metabolites and phytohormones, of the N-related long-distance signals, are discussed.

  19. Plastid thioredoxins: a “one-for-all” redox-signaling system in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio J.; Fernández-Trijueque, Juan; Barajas-López, Juan-de-Dios; Chueca, Ana; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing, and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation). This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs), proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers. PMID:24319449

  20. Plastid thioredoxins: a "one-for-all" redox-signaling system in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Serrato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation. This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs, proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers.

  1. Plastid thioredoxins: a "one-for-all" redox-signaling system in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio J; Fernández-Trijueque, Juan; Barajas-López, Juan-de-Dios; Chueca, Ana; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2013-11-21

    The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing, and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation). This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs), proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers.

  2. The Bright Symbiotic Mira EF Aquilae

    CERN Document Server

    Margon, Bruce; Tejos, Nicolas; Monroe, TalaWanda

    2016-01-01

    An incidental spectrum of the poorly studied long period variable EF Aquilae shows [O III] emission indicative of a symbiotic star. Strong GALEX detections in the UV reinforce this classification, providing overt evidence for the presence of the hot subluminous companion. Recent compilations of the photometric behavior strongly suggest that the cool component is a Mira variable. Thus EF Aql appears to be a member of the rare symbiotic Mira subgroup.

  3. A Confocal Technique Applicable to Studies of Cellular pH-related Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Bing Li; Zhi-Hui Gao; Xiao-Yan Zhou; Hui-Bo Ren; Min Xie; Yi-Juan Fan; Jian-Fang Hu; Wen-Suo Jia

    2008-01-01

    pH may act as a crucial signal In both animal and plant cells. It Is very difficult to monitor pH signals and this has largely hindered progress in the investigation of pH signaling, particularly systematic pH signaling. Here, we report the development of a confocal technique to monitor leaf apoplastic pH in intact plants, which Is particularly suitable for the studies on root to shoot signaling. A variety of different pH indicators and plant species were tested. It was found that different pH indicators, for example, 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluoresce (BCECF), SNARF-4F 5-(and-6). carboxylic acid (SNARF) and DM-NERF (NERF), were of different properties, and to successfully monitor pH at a sub-cellular level, the comparability between the pH indicator and plant species must be involved according to their suitable pH range and loading characteristics. The loading characteristics of different pH indicators differ with different plant species, cell types and their developing stages. No matter what methods were adopted, BCECF and SNARF could not be loaded specifically in the leaf apoplast in sunflower, tomato, and Comelina communis L. In contrast, regardless of the methods adopted, NERF could be loaded efficiently and specifically in the leaf apoplast in C. communis, but not in other plants. In Co comrnunis, the determination coefficient for In vitro and in situ calibration of NERF was very high, which was respectively 0.9951 and 0.991 6, and therefore, the adoption of NERF together with C. communis could construct an ideal experimental system that Is suitable for the investigation of pH systematic signaling. Ratio image analysis demonstrated that the leaf apoplastic pH was about 5.5 in non-stressed conditions, and water deficit could trigger an increase in pH by about half a pH unit, which is the first evidence to directly indicate that pH Is able to act as a systematic signal under water deficit conditions.

  4. Symbiotic bacteria enable insect to use a nutritionally inadequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Gündüz, E; Douglas, A E

    2009-03-07

    Animals generally require a dietary supply of various nutrients (vitamins, essential amino acids, etc.) because their biosynthetic capabilities are limited. The capacity of aphids to use plant phloem sap, with low essential amino acid content, has been attributed to their symbiotic bacteria, Buchnera aphidicola, which can synthesize these nutrients; but this has not been demonstrated empirically. We demonstrate here that phloem sap obtained from the severed stylets of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on Vicia faba plants generally provided inadequate amounts of at least one essential amino acid to support aphid growth. Complementary analyses using aphids reared on chemically defined diets with each amino acid individually omitted revealed that the capacity of the symbiotic bacterium B. aphidicola to synthesize essential amino acids exceeded the dietary deficit of all phloem amino acids except methionine. It is proposed that this shortfall of methionine was met by aphid usage of the non-protein amino acid 5-methylmethionine in the phloem sap. This study provides the first quantitative demonstration that bacterial symbiosis can meet the nutritional demand of plant-reared aphids. It shows how symbiosis with micro-organisms has enabled this group of animals to escape from the constraint of requiring a balanced dietary supply of amino acids.

  5. Characterization of a carbohydrate transporter from symbiotic glomeromycotan fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, Arthur; Martin, Holger; Cohen, David; Fitz, Michael; Wipf, Daniel

    2006-12-14

    The symbiotic relationships between mycorrhizal fungi and plants have an enormous impact on terrestrial ecosystems. Most common are the arbuscular mycorrhizas, formed by fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the uptake of soil nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for atmospheric plant-fixed CO(2). However, how carbohydrates are transported through the symbiotic interface is still unknown. Here we report the characterization of the first known glomeromycotan monosaccharide transporter, GpMST1, by exploiting the unique symbiosis of a glomeromycotan fungus (Geosiphon pyriformis) with cyanobacteria. The GpMST1 gene has a very low GC content and contains six introns with unusual boundaries. GpMST1 possesses twelve predicted transmembrane domains and functions as a proton co-transporter with highest affinity for glucose, then mannose, galactose and fructose. It belongs to an as yet uncharacterized phylogenetic monosaccharide transporter clade. This initial characterization of a new transporter family involved in fungal symbiosis will lead to a better understanding of carbon flows in terrestrial environments.

  6. Nitro-fatty acids in plant signaling: New key mediators of nitric oxide metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capilla Mata-Pérez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs. They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO, which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. Importantly, new findings have displayed the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development. Furthermore, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant-defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing the chaperone network and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Thus, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions, highlighting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the plant-protection mechanism. Finally, the potential of NO2-Ln as a NO donor has recently been described both in vitro and in vivo. Jointly, this ability gives NO2-Ln the potential to act as a signaling molecule by the direct release of NO, due to its capacity to induce different changes mediated by NO or NO-related molecules such as nitration and S-nitrosylation, or by the electrophilic capacity of these molecules through a nitroalkylation mechanism. Here, we describe the current state of the art regarding the advances performed in the field of NO2-FAs in plants and their

  7. Does plant immunity have a central role in the legume rhizobium symbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eToth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to many different microbes in their habitat. These microbes may be benign or pathogenic, but in some cases they are beneficial. The rhizosphere provides an especially rich palette for colonization by beneficial (associative and symbiotic microorganisms, which raises the question as to how roots can distinguish such ‘friends’ from possible ‘foes’ (i.e., pathogens. Plants possess an innate immunity system that can recognize pathogens, through an arsenal of protein receptors. These receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLK and receptor-like proteins (RLP located at the plasma membrane, as well as intracellular receptors (so called NBS-LRR proteins or R proteins that recognize molecules released by microbes into the plant cell. The key rhizobial, symbiotic signaling molecule (called Nod factor is perceived by the host legume plant using LysM-domain containing RLKs. Perception of the symbiotic Nod factor triggers signaling cascades leading to bacterial infection and accommodation of the symbiont in a newly formed root organ, the nodule, resulting in a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis (RNS. The net result of this symbiosis is the intracellular colonization of the plant with thousands of bacteria; a process that seems to occur in spite of the immune ability of plants to prevent pathogen infection. In this review, we discuss the potential of the invading rhizobial symbiont to actively avoid this innate immunity response, as well as specific examples of where the plant immune response may modulate rhizobial infection and host range.

  8. Interactions between nitrate and ammonium in their uptake, allocation, assimilation, and signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-12-21

    Nitrogen (N) availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire inorganic N from the soil, mainly in the form of nitrate and ammonium. To date, researchers have focused on these N sources, and demonstrated that plants exhibit elaborate responses at both physiological and morphological levels. Mixtures of nitrate and ammonium are beneficial in terms of plant growth, as compared to nitrate or ammonium alone, and therefore synergistic responses to both N sources are predicted at different steps ranging from acquisition to assimilation. In this review, we summarize interactions between nitrate and ammonium with respect to uptake, allocation, assimilation, and signaling. Given that cultivated land often contains both nitrate and ammonium, a better understanding of the synergism between these N sources should help to identify targets with the potential to improve crop productivity.

  9. Time to pump iron: iron-deficiency-signaling mechanisms of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elsbeth L; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-10-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for plants, yet it often limits plant growth. On the contrary, overaccumulation of iron within plant cells leads to oxidative stress. As a consequence, iron-uptake systems are carefully regulated to ensure that iron homeostasis is maintained. In response to iron limitation, plants induce expression of sets of activities that function at the root-soil interface to solubilize iron and subsequently transfer it across the plasma membrane of root cells. Recent advances have revealed key players in the signaling pathways that function to induce these iron-uptake responses. Transcription factors belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix, ABI3/VP1(B3), and NAC families appear to function either directly or indirectly in the upregulation of iron deficiency responses.

  10. The Medicago truncatula E3 Ubiquitin Ligase PUB1 Interacts with the LYK3 Symbiotic Receptor and Negatively Regulates Infection and Nodulation[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Malick; Camut, Sylvie; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Deslandes, Laurent; Froidure, Solène; Klaus-Heisen, Dörte; Moreau, Sandra; Rivas, Susana; Timmers, Ton; Hervé, Christine; Cullimore, Julie; Lefebvre, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    LYK3 is a lysin motif receptor-like kinase of Medicago truncatula, which is essential for the establishment of the nitrogen-fixing, root nodule symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti. LYK3 is a putative receptor of S. meliloti Nod factor signals, but little is known of how it is regulated and how it transduces these symbiotic signals. In a screen for LYK3-interacting proteins, we identified M. truncatula Plant U-box protein 1 (PUB1) as an interactor of the kinase domain. In planta, both proteins are localized and interact in the plasma membrane. In M. truncatula, PUB1 is expressed specifically in symbiotic conditions, is induced by Nod factors, and shows an overlapping expression pattern with LYK3 during nodulation. Biochemical studies show that PUB1 has a U-box–dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is phosphorylated by the LYK3 kinase domain. Overexpression and RNA interference studies in M. truncatula show that PUB1 is a negative regulator of the LYK3 signaling pathway leading to infection and nodulation and is important for the discrimination of rhizobia strains producing variant Nod factors. The potential role of PUB E3 ubiquitin ligases in controlling plant–microbe interactions and development through interacting with receptor-like kinases is discussed. PMID:20971894

  11. Two Species of Symbiotic Bacteria Present in the Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids, which feed solely on plant phloem sap, have developed symbiotic associations with bacteria that provide them with the amino acids that are lacking in phloem. Three soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Mat samura) populations were screened for the presence of Buchnera aphidicola and three common spe...

  12. Nitrogen cycling in summer active perennial grass systems in South Australia: Non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, V.V.S.R.; Kroker, S.J.; Hicks, M.; Davoren, W.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Llewellyn, R.

    2014-01-01

    Non-symbiotic nitrogen (N2) fixation by diazotrophic bacteria is a potential source for biological N inputs in non-leguminous crops and pastures. Perennial grasses generally add larger quantities of above- and belowground plant residues to soil, and so can support higher levels of soil biological

  13. Ectomycorrhizal ecology is imprinted in the genome of the dominant symbiotic fungus Cenococcum geophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Martina; Kohler, Annegret; Ohm, Robin A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837628; Kuo, Alan; Krützmann, Jennifer; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arend, Matthias; Barry, Kerrie W; Binder, Manfred; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Grisel, Nadine; Haridas, Sajeet; Kipfer, Tabea; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Maire, Renaud; Meier, Barbara; Mihaltcheva, Sirma; Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Quandt, C Alisha; Sperisen, Christoph; Tritt, Andrew; Tisserant, Emilie; Crous, Pedro W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/252069927; Henrissat, Bernard; Nehls, Uwe; Egli, Simon; Spatafora, Joseph W; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal basidi

  14. Plant responses to insect herbivory: interactions between photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species and hormonal signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    Under herbivore attack plants mount a defence response characterized by the accumulation of secondary metabolites and inhibitory proteins. Significant changes are observed in the transcriptional profiles of genes encoding enzymes of primary metabolism. Such changes have often been interpreted in terms of a requirement for an increased investment of resources to 'fuel' the synthesis of secondary metabolites. While enhanced secondary metabolism undoubtedly exerts an influence on primary metabolism, accumulating evidence suggests that rather than stimulating photosynthesis insect herbivory reduces photosynthetic carbon fixation and this response occurs by a re-programming of gene expression. Within this context, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reductant/oxidant (redox) signalling play a central role. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS signalling pathways are closely interwoven with hormone-signalling pathways in plant-insect interactions. Here we consider how insect infestation impacts on the stress signalling network through effects on ROS and cellular redox metabolism with particular emphasis on the roles of ROS in the plant responses to phloem-feeding insects.

  15. Tracking the diurnal signal of plant water uptake through the hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Weiler, Markus; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Plant water uptake during summer is characterized by strong diurnal fluctuations. As a result a diurnal sink term is imposed on catchment storage, affecting the unsaturated zone, sometimes the saturated zone and even streamflow. Detecting this signal and understanding its propagation through the hydrological system may help to better quantify eco-hydrological connectivity. The extent and strength of the propagation of this signal from plant to soil to ground- and stream water was investigated with a unique setup of 46 field sites in Luxemburg and 15 field sites in Germany. These sites cover a range of geologies, soils, topographies and types of vegetation. Vegetation types include grassland, pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 3-5 soil moisture profiles, matrix potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors (as proxy for plant water uptake) as well as standard climate data. At sites with access to a stream, discharge or water level is also recorded. Signal strength (amplitude of diurnal fluctuations) can thus be traced through the system and gives an indication of the physical sphere of influence of plant water uptake i.e. the "eco-hydro-connectivity". Temporal dynamics of signal strength furthermore suggest a shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake with time. The analysis of time lags (or phase shifts) between daily fluctuations in temperature, radiation, sapflow, soil water, groundwater and streamflow gives further insights into the processes driving and propagating these signals and inter-site comparison allows for the investigation of local controls.

  16. Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species, but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signaling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signaling was analyzed using two mutants: disrupted in stress response1 (dsr1), which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signaling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1. Both mutants showed strongly decreased SA-inducible stress promoter responses and low SDH maximum capacity compared to wild type, while dsr1 also showed low succinate affinity, low catalytic efficiency, and increased resistance to SDH competitive inhibitors. The SA-induced promoter responses could be partially rescued in sdhaf2, but not in dsr1, by supplementing the plant growth media with succinate. Kinetic characterization showed that low concentrations of either SA or ubiquinone binding site inhibitors increased SDH activity and induced mitochondrial H2O2 production. Both dsr1 and sdhaf2 showed lower rates of SA-dependent H2O2 production in vitro in line with their low SA-dependent stress signaling responses in vivo. This provides quantitative and kinetic evidence that SA acts at or near the ubiquinone binding site of SDH to stimulate activity and contributes to plant stress signaling by increased rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production, leading to part of the SA-dependent transcriptional response in plant cells. PMID:28209841

  17. Nitric oxide:A potential key point of the signaling network leading to plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The endogenous signaling network of plants plays important roles in mediating the exogenous factor-induced biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in plants recently.Numerous studies demonstrated that the main signaling molecules such as salicylic acid(SA),jasmonic acid (JA),reactive oxygen species(ROS),and NO were not only involved in regulating plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis but also interacted to form a complex signaling network by mutual inhibition and/or synergy.The recent progress in the signal network of plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis has been discussed in this paper.Furthermore,we propose a hypothetical model to show that NO might act as a potential molecular switch in the stgnaling network leading to plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

  18. Rice GTPase OsRacB: Potential Accessory Factor in Plant Salt-stress Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LUO; Su-Hai GU; Shu-Hui ZHAO; Fang ZHANG; Nai-Hu WU

    2006-01-01

    As the sole ubiquitous signal small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein in plants, Rop gene plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the novel rice Rop gene OsRacB and plant salt tolerance. Results show that OsRacB transcription is highly accumulated in roots after treatment with salinity, but only slightly accumulated in stems and leaves under the same treatment. Promoter analysis showed that OsRacB promoter is induced by salinity and exogenous salicylic acid, not abscisic acid. To elucidate its physiological function, we generated OsRacB sense and antisense transgenic tobacco and rice. Under proper salinity treatment, sense transgenic plants grew much better than the control. This suggests that overexpression of OsRacB in tobacco and rice can improve plant salt tolerance. But under the same treatment, no difference could be observed between OsRacB antisense plants and the control. The results indicated that OsRacB is only an accessory factor in plant salt tolerance.

  19. Signaling Network of Environmental Sensing and Adaptation in Plants:. Key Roles of Calcium Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Considering the important issues concerning food, environment, and energy that humans are facing in the 21st century, humans mostly depend on plants. Unlike animals which move from an inappropriate environment, plants do not move, but rapidly sense diverse environmental changes or invasion by other organisms such as pathogens and insects in the place they root, and adapt themselves by changing their own bodies, through which they developed adaptability. Whole genetic information corresponding to the blueprints of many biological systems has recently been analyzed, and comparative genomic studies facilitated tracing strategies of each organism in their evolutional processes. Comparison of factors involved in intracellular signal transduction between animals and plants indicated diversification of different gene sets. Reversible binding of Ca2+ to sensor proteins play key roles as a molecular switch both in animals and plants. Molecular mechanisms for signaling network of environmental sensing and adaptation in plants will be discussed with special reference to Ca2+ as a key element in information processing.

  20. Role of CBFs as Integrators of Chloroplast Redox, Phytochrome and Plant Hormone Signaling during Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman P. A. Hüner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation of winter cereals and other winter hardy species is a prerequisite to increase subsequent freezing tolerance. Low temperatures upregulate the expression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 which in turn induce the expression of COLD-REGULATED (COR genes. We summarize evidence which indicates that the integration of these interactions is responsible for the dwarf phenotype and enhanced photosynthetic performance associated with cold-acclimated and CBF-overexpressing plants. Plants overexpressing CBFs but grown at warm temperatures mimic the cold-tolerant, dwarf, compact phenotype; increased photosynthetic performance; and biomass accumulation typically associated with cold-acclimated plants. In this review, we propose a model whereby the cold acclimation signal is perceived by plants through an integration of low temperature and changes in light intensity, as well as changes in light quality. Such integration leads to the activation of the CBF-regulon and subsequent upregulation of COR gene and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox expression which results in a dwarf phenotype coupled with increased freezing tolerance and enhanced photosynthetic performance. We conclude that, due to their photoautotrophic nature, plants do not rely on a single low temperature sensor, but integrate changes in light intensity, light quality, and membrane viscosity in order to establish the cold-acclimated state. CBFs appear to act as master regulators of these interconnecting sensing/signaling pathways.

  1. Pre-mRNA splicing repression triggers abiotic stress signaling in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2016-09-24

    Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A

  2. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo ePregitzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe, we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC, where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that, plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization.

  3. Simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus to Arabidopsis plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2013-08-01

    Considering global climate change, the incidence of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase in the future and will considerably influence plant-pathogen interactions. Until now, little has been known about plants exposed to simultaneously occurring abiotic and biotic stresses. To shed some light on molecular plant responses to multiple stress factors, a versatile multifactorial test system, allowing simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus stress, was developed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of single, double, and triple stress responses by transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed that gene expression under multifactorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses identified heat as the major stress factor, clearly separating heat-stressed from non-heat-stressed plants. We identified 11 genes differentially regulated in all stress combinations as well as 23 genes specifically regulated under triple stress. Furthermore, we showed that virus-treated plants displayed enhanced expression of defense genes, which was abolished in plants additionally subjected to heat and drought stress. Triple stress also reduced the expression of genes involved in the R-mediated disease response and increased the cytoplasmic protein response, which was not seen under single stress conditions. These observations suggested that abiotic stress factors significantly altered turnip mosaic virus-specific signaling networks, which led to a deactivation of defense responses and a higher susceptibility of plants. Collectively, our transcriptome and metabolome data provide a powerful resource to study plant responses during multifactorial stress and allow identifying metabolic processes and functional networks involved in tripartite interactions of plants with their environment.

  4. Symbiotic adaptations in the fungal cultivar of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Tunlid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Centuries of artificial selection have dramatically improved the yield of human agriculture; however, strong directional selection also occurs in natural symbiotic interactions. Fungus-growing attine ants cultivate basidiomycete fungi for food. One cultivar lineage has evolved inflated hyphal tips (gongylidia) that grow in bundles called staphylae, to specifically feed the ants. Here we show extensive regulation and molecular signals of adaptive evolution in gene trancripts associated with gongylidia biosynthesis, morphogenesis and enzymatic plant cell wall degradation in the leaf-cutting ant cultivar Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Comparative analysis of staphylae growth morphology and transcriptome-wide expressional and nucleotide divergence indicate that gongylidia provide leaf-cutting ants with essential amino acids and plant-degrading enzymes, and that they may have done so for 20-25 million years without much evolutionary change. These molecular traits and signatures of selection imply that staphylae are highly advanced coevolutionary organs that play pivotal roles in the mutualism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungal cultivars.

  5. Plant GSK3 proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF-TDR signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Ito, Tasuku; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Hirakawa, Yuki; Saito, Masato; Tamaki, Takayuki; Shirasu, Ken; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-03-01

    During plant radial growth typically seen in trees, procambial and cambial cells act as meristematic cells in the vascular system to self-proliferate and differentiate into xylem cells. These two processes are regulated by a signalling pathway composed of a peptide ligand and its receptor; tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor (TDIF) and TDIF RECEPTOR (TDR). Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins (GSK3s) are crucial downstream components of the TDIF signalling pathway suppressing xylem differentiation from procambial cells. TDR interacts with GSK3s at the plasma membrane and activates GSK3s in a TDIF-dependent fashion. Consistently, a specific inhibitor of plant GSK3s strongly induces xylem cell differentiation through BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), a well-known target transcription factor of GSK3s. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell fate determination in meristem maintenance.

  6. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Aspects of Long-distance Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urs F.Benning; Banita Tamot; Susanne Hoffmann-Benning

    2012-01-01

    As the world population grows our need for food and fuel increases drastically.Given the additional impact of the global climate change a second "green revolution",however seems unlikely to be achieved by simply adding fertilizer or accessing new land but will need a better understanding of the factors and processes essential for plant growth and development.One of those processes is the adaptation of plants to their environment.Since plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions,they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment,communicate these to different organs,and adjust development accordingly.One of these adaptations,the phloem,serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates,viruses,RNA,plant hormones,metabolites,and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling.The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues.Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress and,as a result could lead to the development of plants with increased adaptation to a changed environment.Our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates revealed several lipid-binding proteins as well as lipids.Lipids are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of SEs.Yet the long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous systems is not without precedence in biological systems:In human blood lipids are often bound to proteins and transported for storage,use,modification,or degradation; alternatively,they serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity and,as a result,development.It is conceivable that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in

  7. Plant hormone homeostasis, signaling and function during adventitious root formation in cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF- and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling via ERFs and early

  8. 'Florigen' enters the molecular age: long-distance signals that cause plants to flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, J; Sundaresan, V

    2000-05-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of plants. Previous physiological studies have deduced that hormone-like substances mediate this important transition but the biochemical nature of the putative signaling molecules has remained elusive. Recent molecular and genetic studies of key flowering-time genes offer new approaches to understanding the mechanisms underlying the initiation of flowering.

  9. Effect of polyamine on growth and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host plant in symbiotic culture condition%多胺对共生条件下丛枝菌根真菌及宿主植物生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽源; 张勇; 熊丙全; 甘炳成

    2009-01-01

    为探讨多胺对共生条件下丛枝菌根真菌及其宿主植物生长发育的影响,本研究以丛枝菌根真菌(Gigaspora margarita)为试验材料,通过施用不同浓度的多胺(Polyamine,PA)及其生物合成抑制剂[Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone),MGBG]处理接种丛枝菌根真菌的葡萄微繁苗,研究共生培养条件下外源多胺及多胺合成抑制剂对丛枝菌根真菌孢子萌发、芽管菌丝及其宿主植物生长发育的影响.试验结果表明,共生培养条件下,一定浓度的外源PA对丛枝菌根真菌及其宿主植物的生长发育具显著促进作用,丛枝菌根真菌孢子数、菌丝长度、侵染率、丛枝丰富度及菌根化葡萄幼苗生长势均显著提高.MGBG则表现较强的抑制作用.且该抑制作用可被外源PA部分解除,证明外源多胺对菌根化葡萄微繁苗生长发育的促进作用是通过活化根系土壤中丛枝菌根真菌,促进微繁苗丛枝菌根共生体的良好发育,最大程度地发挥菌根化效应得以表现的.%The effects of exogenous polyamine on the growth and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plant in the symbiotic culture condition were investigated by micropropagating grape plantlets infected with AMF (Gigaspora mar-garita) and then treated with exogenous polyamine (PA) and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor [methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone), MGBG]. The effects of exogenous PA and MGBG on spore germination, hyphal growth of AMF and development of the host plant in symbiotic culture condition were analyzed. The results indicate that certain doses of exogenous PA have significant effect on symbiotic development, grape plantlets and AMF. AMF arbuscular abundance, hyphal length, spore number and infection rate increase after treatment with exogenous PA. Meanwhile, PA biosynthesis inhibitor (MGBG) has opposite effect which is suppressed by application of exogenous PA. This implies that PA also has significant stimulating

  10. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants.

  11. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  12. Photosynthetic light reactions--an adjustable hub in basic production and plant immunity signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Tikkanen, Mikko; Durian, Guido; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthetic efficiency is a key trait that influences the sustainable utilization of plants for energy and nutrition. By now, extensive research on photosynthetic processes has underscored important structural and functional relationships among photosynthetic thylakoid membrane protein complexes, and their roles in determining the productivity and stress resistance of plants. Photosystem II photoinhibition-repair cycle, for example, has arisen vital in protecting also Photosystem I against light-induced damage. Availability of highly sophisticated genetic, biochemical and biophysical tools has greatly expanded the catalog of components that carry out photoprotective functions in plants. On thylakoid membranes, these components encompass a network of overlapping systems that allow delicate regulation of linear and cyclic electron transfer pathways, balancing of excitation energy distribution between the two photosystems and dissipation of excess light energy in the antenna system as heat. An increasing number of reports indicate that the above mentioned mechanisms also mediate important functions in the regulation of biotic stress responses in plants. Particularly the handling of excitation energy in the light harvesting II antenna complexes appears central to plant immunity signaling. Comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms and regulatory cross-talk, however, still remain elusive. This review highlights the current understanding of components that regulate the function of photosynthetic light reactions and directly or indirectly also modulate disease resistance in higher plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2016-03-05

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  14. Salt stress sensing and early signalling events in plant roots: Current knowledge and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Wu, Honghong; Bose, Jayakumar

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to crop production. While the molecular identity and functional expression of Na(+) transport systems mediating Na(+) exclusion from the cytosol has been studied in detail, far less is known about the mechanisms by which plants sense high Na(+) levels in the soil and the rapid signalling events that optimise plant performance under saline conditions. This review aims to fill this gap. We first discuss the nature of putative salt stress sensors, candidates which include Na(+) transport systems, mechanosensory proteins, proteins with regulatory Na(+) binding sites, sensing mediated by cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, purine receptors, annexin and voltage gating. We suggest that several transport proteins may be clustered together to form a microdomain in a lipid raft, allowing rapid changes in the activity of an individual protein to be translated into stress-induced Ca(2+) and H2O2 signatures. The pathways of stress signalling to downstream targets are discussed, and the kinetics and specificity of salt stress signalling between glycophytes and halophytes is compared. We argue that these sensing mechanisms operate in parallel, providing plants with a robust system for decoding information about the specific nature and severity of the imposed salt stress.

  15. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants.

  16. The plant non-specific phospholipase C gene family. Novel competitors in lipid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokotylo, Igor; Pejchar, Přemysl; Potocký, Martin; Kocourková, Daniela; Krčková, Zuzana; Ruelland, Eric; Kravets, Volodymyr; Martinec, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific phospholipases C (NPCs) were discovered as a novel type of plant phospholipid-cleaving enzyme homologous to bacterial phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and responsible for lipid conversion during phosphate-limiting conditions. The six-gene family was established in Arabidopsis, and growing evidence suggests the involvement of two articles NPCs in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as phytohormone actions. In addition, the diacylglycerol produced via NPCs is postulated to participate in membrane remodelling, general lipid metabolism and cross-talk with other phospholipid signalling systems in plants. This review summarises information concerning this new plant protein family and focusses on its sequence analysis, biochemical properties, cellular and tissue distribution and physiological functions. Possible modes of action are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Mahlein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400–500 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs with an emission peak at 470 nm.

  18. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  19. Nitric Oxide in Plants:Production and Cross-talk with Ca2+ Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angélique Besson-Bard; Cécile Courtois; Adrien Gauthier; Jennifer Dahan; Grazyna Dobrowolska; Sylvain Jeandroz; Alain Pugin; David Wendehenne

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic gas that performs crucial functions in a wide array of physiological processes in animals.The past several years have revealed much about its roles in plants.It is well established that NO is synthesized from nitrite by nitrate reductase (NR) and via chemical pathways.There is increasing evidence for the occurrence of an alternative pathway in which NO production is catalysed from L-arginine by a so far non-identified enzyme.Contradictory results have been reported regarding the respective involvement of these enzymes in specific physiological conditions.Although much remains to be proved,we assume that these inconsistencies can be accounted for by the limited specificity of the pharmacological agents used to suppress NO synthesis but also by the reduced content of L-arginine as well as the inactivity of nitrate-permeable anion channels in nitrate reductase- and/or nitrate/nitrite-deficient plants.Another unresolved issue concerns the molecular mechanisms underlying NO effects in plants.Here,we provide evidence that the second messenger Ca2+,as well as protein kinases including MAPK and SnRK2,are very plausible mediators of the NO signals.These findings open new perspectives about NO-based signaling in plants.

  20. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Symbiotic N2-fixation by the cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides as influenced by litter mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, J.M.; Østerby, S.; Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The perennial legume Pueraria phaseoloides is widely used as a cover crop in rubber and oil palm plantations. However, very little knowledge exists on the effect of litter mineralization from P. phaseoloides on its symbiotic N-2- fixation. The contribution from symbiotic N-2-fixation (Ndfa......) and litter N (Ndfl) to total plant N in P phaseoloides was determined in a pot experiment using a N-15 cross-labeling technique. For determination of N-2-fixation the non-fixing plant Axonopus compressus was used as a reference. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber during 9 weeks with a sandy...... soil and 4 rates of ground litter (C/N=16, 2.8% N). P. phaseoloides plants supplied with the highest amount of litter produced 26% more dry matter and fixed 23% more N than plants grown in soil with no litter application, but the percentage of Ndfa decreased slightly, but significantly, from 87 to 84...

  2. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Wendy

    2009-04-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill's criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths.

  3. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  4. Plant morphogenesis, auxin, and the signal-trafficking network incompleteness theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J. Niklas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant morphogenesis (the development of form and function requires signal-trafficking and cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic networked systems. Many if not all of these biological features can be rendered as logic circuits supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated metabolic or genome networks. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of larger, more "global" networked systems. This conceptualization is illustrated for morphogenesis in model plants such as maize (Zea mays and Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana from an evolutionary perspective. The phytohormone indole-acetic acid (IAA is used as an example for a well-known signaling chemical and discussed in terms of the logic circuits and signal-activated sub-systems for hormone-mediated wall loosening and cell expansion as well as polar/lateral intercellular IAA transport. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/sub-system diagram highlights missing components, either in the logic circuit or in the sub-system it supervises, that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic phenomena is to be fully understood within a phylogen

  5. Plant gravitropic signal transduction: A network analysis leads to gene discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Although a significant body of research has helped define the events of gravity perception, the role of the plant growth regulator auxin, and the mechanisms resulting in the gravity response, the events of signal transduction, those that link the biophysical action of perception to a biochemical signal that results in auxin redistribution, those that regulate the gravitropic effects on plant growth, remain, for the most part, a “black box.” Using a cold affect, dubbed the gravity persistent signal (GPS) response, we developed a mutant screen to specifically identify components of the signal transduction pathway. Cloning of the GPS genes have identified new proteins involved in gravitropic signaling. We have further exploited the GPS response using a multi-faceted approach including gene expression microarrays, proteomics analysis, and bioinformatics analysis and continued mutant analysis to identified additional genes, physiological and biochemical processes. Gene expression data provided the foundation of a regulatory network for gravitropic signaling. Based on these gene expression data and related data sets/information from the literature/repositories, we constructed a gravitropic signaling network for Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. To generate the network, both a dynamic Bayesian network approach and a time-lagged correlation coefficient approach were used. The dynamic Bayesian network added existing information of protein-protein interaction while the time-lagged correlation coefficient allowed incorporation of temporal regulation and thus could incorporate the time-course metric from the data set. Thus the methods complemented each other and provided us with a more comprehensive evaluation of connections. Each method generated a list of possible interactions associated with a statistical significance value. The two networks were then overlaid to generate a more rigorous, intersected

  6. Ways of signal transmission and physiological role of electrical potentials in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Dziubińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are subject to stimuli from the environment on which they strongly depend and in contrast to animals, they are unable to escape harmful influences. Therefore, being able to receive stimuli they have developed adequate responses to them. Such a reaction can occur in the area of a stimulus action or cover the whole plant or its parts. In the latter case, it is a systemic reaction. The plant reaction is expressed by various intensity, rate and kind of response. It is interesting to know the character of the signal informing about a stimulus, the routes of its propagation and the transmission mechanism. Three conceptions of excitation are distinguished: 1 propagation of chemical agents formed at the site of a stimulus action with the flow of the phloem sap or through the atmosphere (in the case of volatile substances to other plant parts, 2 a very fast transmission by the xylem in the wave of hydraulic pressure formed after a plant damage. From combining the "hydraulic" and "chemical" hypothesis a conception of hydraulic dispersion has been formulated which assumes that chemical substances synthetized after an injury can be transferred very fast with the wave of hydraulic pressure changes in the whole plant, 3 a stimulus evokes the action potential (AP, and its transmission along the whole plant, plant organ or specialized tissue, by local circuits from cell to cell. Strong, damaging stimuli can evoke variation potentials (VPs, the character of which differs from APs. It is postulated that transmission of VP occurs by a hydraulic dispersion and electrical changes seem to be secondary phenomena.

  7. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...

  8. Exploring the symbiotic pangenome of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galardini, Marco [University of Florence; Mengoni, Alessio [University of Florence; Brilli, Matteo [Universite de Lyon, France; Pini, Francesco [University of Florence; Fioravanti, Antonella [University of Florence; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mocali, Stefano [Agrobiol & Pedol Ctr ABP, Agr Res Council, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Bazzicalupo, Marco [University of Florence; Biondi, Emanuele [University of Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model system for the studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An extensive polymorphism at the genetic and phenotypic level is present in natural populations of this species, especially in relation with symbiotic promotion of plant growth. AK83 and BL225C are two nodule-isolated strains with diverse symbiotic phenotypes; BL225C is more efficient in promoting growth of the Medicago sativa plants than strain AK83. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic diversification of S. meliloti strains AK83 and BL225C, we sequenced the complete genomes for these two strains. Results: With sizes of 7.14 Mbp and 6.97 Mbp, respectively, the genomes of AK83 and BL225C are larger than the laboratory strain Rm1021. The core genome of Rm1021, AK83, BL225C strains included 5124 orthologous groups, while the accessory genome was composed by 2700 orthologous groups. While Rm1021 and BL225C have only three replicons (Chromosome, pSymA and pSymB), AK83 has also two plasmids, 260 and 70 Kbp long. We found 65 interesting orthologous groups of genes that were present only in the accessory genome, consequently responsible for phenotypic diversity and putatively involved in plant-bacterium interaction. Notably, the symbiosis inefficient AK83 lacked several genes required for microaerophilic growth inside nodules, while several genes for accessory functions related to competition, plant invasion and bacteroid tropism were identified only in AK83 and BL225C strains. Presence and extent of polymorphism in regulons of transcription factors involved in symbiotic interaction were also analyzed. Our results indicate that regulons are flexible, with a large number of accessory genes, suggesting that regulons polymorphism could also be a key determinant in the variability of symbiotic performances among the analyzed strains.

  9. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and its optimization by Taguchi design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Dariush; Emtiazi, Giti

    2010-09-01

    Production of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in 35 different symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains isolated from soil and plant roots was studied and assayed by chromatography and colorimetric methods. These bacteria included Agrobacterium, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Azotobacter. The best general medium and synergism effects of isolates for IAA production were investigated. Effects of different variables containing physical parameters and key media components and optimization of condition for IAA production were performed using the Design of Experiments. Qualitek-4 (W32b) software for automatic design and analysis of the experiments, both based on Taguchi method was used. The results showed that Rhizobium strains, symbiotic, and Paenibacillus non-symbiotic bacteria yielded the highest concentrations of IAA (in the range of 5.23-0.27 and 4.90-0.19 ppm IAA/mg biomass, respectively) and IAA production was increased by synergism effect of them. Yeast Extract Mannitol medium supplemented with L-tryptophan was the best general medium for IAA production. The analysis of experimental data using Taguchi method indicated that nitrogen source is very prominent variable in affecting the yield and mannitol as carbon source, potassium nitrate (1%), and L-tryptophan (3 g/l) as nitrogen sources after 72-h incubation at 30 degrees C were the optimum conditions for production of IAA. 5.89 ppm IAA/mg biomass was produced under these optimal conditions.

  10. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabourault, Cécile; Ganot, Philippe; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2009-01-01

    .... To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which...

  11. Biosynthetic considerations could assist the structure elucidation of host plant produced rhizosphere signalling compounds (strigolactones) for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rani, K.; Zwanenburg, B.; Sugimoto, Y.; Yoneyama, K.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic plants cause devastating losses to crop yields in several parts of the world. The root parasites, Striga and Orobanche species, use chemical signalling molecules that are exuded by the roots of plants in extremely low concentrations, and that can induce germination of the seeds of these pa

  12. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  13. Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Filipe, Osvaldo; Hoffman, Gena; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Canlas, Patrick; Van Bockhaven, Jonas; De Waele, Evelien; Demeestere, Kristof; Ronald, Pamela; Hofte, Monica

    2017-09-14

    Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice. Transcriptome analysis of rice cells treated with the TOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin revealed that TOR not only dictates transcriptional reprogramming of extensive gene sets involved in central and secondary metabolism, cell cycle and transcription, but also suppresses many defense-related genes. TOR overexpression lines displayed increased susceptibility to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas plants with reduced TOR signaling displayed enhanced resistance. Finally, we found that TOR antagonizes the action of the classic defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results indicate that TOR acts as a molecular switch for the activation of cell proliferation and plant growth at the expense of cellular immunity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Genome-Wide Sensitivity Analysis of the Microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to Symbiotically Important, Defensin-Like Host Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Markus F F; Shabab, Mohammed; Penterman, Jon; Boehme, Kevin L; Griffitts, Joel S; Walker, Graham C

    2017-08-01

    The model legume species Medicago truncatula expresses more than 700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) signaling peptides that mediate the differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. NCR peptides are essential for a successful symbiosis in legume plants of the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) and show similarity to mammalian defensins. In addition to signaling functions, many NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobial activities is likely to be important for symbiosis. However, the mechanisms used by S. meliloti to resist antimicrobial activity of plant peptides are poorly understood. To address this, we applied a global genetic approach using transposon mutagenesis followed by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify S. meliloti genes and pathways that increase or decrease bacterial competitiveness during exposure to the well-studied cationic NCR247 peptide and also to the unrelated model antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We identified 78 genes and several diverse pathways whose interruption alters S. meliloti resistance to NCR247. These genes encode the following: (i) cell envelope polysaccharide biosynthesis and modification proteins, (ii) inner and outer membrane proteins, (iii) peptidoglycan (PG) effector proteins, and (iv) non-membrane-associated factors such as transcriptional regulators and ribosome-associated factors. We describe a previously uncharacterized yet highly conserved peptidase, which protects S. meliloti from NCR247 and increases competitiveness during symbiosis. Additionally, we highlight a considerable number of uncharacterized genes that provide the basis for future studies to investigate the molecular basis of symbiotic development as well as chronic pathogenic interactions.IMPORTANCE Soil rhizobial bacteria enter into an ecologically and economically important symbiotic interaction with legumes, in which they

  15. Constant change: dynamic regulation of membrane transport by calcium signalling networks keeps plants in tune with their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, Thomas J; Luan, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Despite substantial variation and irregularities in their environment, plants must conform to spatiotemporal demands on the molecular composition of their cytosol. Cell membranes are the major interface between organisms and their environment and the basis for controlling the contents and intracellular organization of the cell. Membrane transport proteins (MTPs) govern the flow of molecules across membranes, and their activities are closely monitored and regulated by cell signalling networks. By continuously adjusting MTP activities, plants can mitigate the effects of environmental perturbations, but effective implementation of this strategy is reliant on precise coordination among transport systems that reside in distinct cell types and membranes. Here, we examine the role of calcium signalling in the coordination of membrane transport, with an emphasis on potassium transport. Potassium is an exceptionally abundant and mobile ion in plants, and plant potassium transport has been intensively studied for decades. Classic and recent studies have underscored the importance of calcium in plant environmental responses and membrane transport regulation. In reviewing recent advances in our understanding of the coding and decoding of calcium signals, we highlight established and emerging roles of calcium signalling in coordinating membrane transport among multiple subcellular locations and distinct transport systems in plants, drawing examples from the CBL-CIPK signalling network. By synthesizing classical studies and recent findings, we aim to provide timely insights on the role of calcium signalling networks in the modulation of membrane transport and its importance in plant environmental responses.

  16. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  17. Signalling by the global regulatory molecule ppGpp in bacteria and chloroplasts of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Y; Nomura, Y

    2011-09-01

    The hyperphosphorylated guanine ribonucleotide ppGpp mediates the stringent response in bacteria. Biochemical and genetic studies of this response in Escherichia coli have shown that the biosynthesis of ppGpp is catalysed by two homologous enzymes, RelA and SpoT. RelA is activated in response to amino acid starvation, and SpoT responds to abiotic physical stress beside nutritional stress. All free-living bacteria, including Gram-positive firmicutes, contain RelA-SpoT homologues (RSH). Further, novel ppGpp biosynthetic enzymes, designated small alarmone synthetases (SASs), were recently identified in a subset of bacteria, including the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis, and were shown to consist only of a ppGpp synthetase domain. Studies suggest that these SAS proteins contribute to ppGpp signalling in response to stressful conditions in a manner distinct from that of RelA-SpoT enzymes. SAS proteins currently appear to always occur in addition to RSH enzymes in various combinations but never alone. RSHs have also been identified in chloroplasts, organelles of photosynthetic eukaryotes that originated from endosymbiotic photosynthetic bacteria. These chloroplast RSHs are exclusively encoded in nuclear DNA and targeted into chloroplasts. The findings suggest that ppGpp may regulate chloroplast functions similar to those regulated in bacteria, including transcription and translation. In addition, a novel ppGpp synthetase that is regulated by Ca²⁺ as a result of the presence of two EF-hand motifs at its COOH terminus was recently identified in chloroplasts of land plants. This finding indicates the existence of a direct connection between eukaryotic Ca²⁺ signalling and prokaryotic ppGpp signalling in chloroplasts. The new observations with regard to ppGpp signalling in land plants suggest that such signalling contributes to the regulation of a wider range of cellular functions than previously anticipated.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja; Sikora, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different symbiotic

  19. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Pohajda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodule bacteria (rhizobia in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populationsof rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplifi cation of polymorphic DNA (RAPD and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus–polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different

  20. ER-mediated control for abundance, quality, and signaling of transmembrane immune receptors in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico eTintor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants recognize a wide range of microbes with cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs initiate immune responses upon recognition of cognate ligands characteristic of microbes or aberrant cellular states, designated microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, respectively. Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI provides a first line of defense that restricts the invasion and propagation of both adapted and non-adapted pathogens. Receptor kinases (RKs and receptor-like proteins (RLPs with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR or lysine-motif (LysM domain are extensively used as PRRs. The correct folding of the extracellular domain of these receptors is under quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, which thus provides a critical step in plant immunity. Genetic and structural insight suggests that ERQC regulates not only the abundance and quality of transmembrane receptors but also affects signal sorting between multi-branched pathways downstream of the receptor. However, ERQC dysfunction can also positively stimulate plant immunity, possibly through cell death and DAMP signaling pathways.

  1. Signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. Another graviresponse in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T.; Saito, Y.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.

    Resistance to the gravitational force is a serious problem that plants have had to solve to survive on land. Mechanical resistance to the pull of gravity is thus a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. Nevertheless, only limited information has been obtained for this gravity response. We have examined the mechanism of gravity-induced mechanical resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. As a result, we have clarified the outline of the sequence of events leading to the development of mechanical resistance. The gravity signal may be perceived by mechanoreceptors (mechanosensitive ion channels) on the plasma membrane and it appears that amyloplast sedimentation in statocytes is not involved. Transformation and transduction of the perceived signal may be mediated by the structural or physiological continuum of microtubule-cell membrane-cell wall. As the final step in the development of mechanical resistance, plants construct a tough body by increasing cell wall rigidity. The increase in cell wall rigidity is brought about by modification of the metabolism of certain wall constituents and modification of the cell wall environment, especially pH. We need to clarify the details of each step by future space and ground-based experiments.

  2. Genetic requirements for signaling from an autoactive plant NB-LRR intracellular innate immune receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Roberts

    Full Text Available Plants react to pathogen attack via recognition of, and response to, pathogen-specific molecules at the cell surface and inside the cell. Pathogen effectors (virulence factors are monitored by intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR sensor proteins in plants and mammals. Here, we study the genetic requirements for defense responses of an autoactive mutant of ADR1-L2, an Arabidopsis coiled-coil (CC-NB-LRR protein. ADR1-L2 functions upstream of salicylic acid (SA accumulation in several defense contexts, and it can act in this context as a "helper" to transduce specific microbial activation signals from "sensor" NB-LRRs. This helper activity does not require an intact P-loop. ADR1-L2 and another of two closely related members of this small NB-LRR family are also required for propagation of unregulated runaway cell death (rcd in an lsd1 mutant. We demonstrate here that, in this particular context, ADR1-L2 function is P-loop dependent. We generated an autoactive missense mutation, ADR1-L2D484V, in a small homology motif termed MHD. Expression of ADR1-L2D848V leads to dwarfed plants that exhibit increased disease resistance and constitutively high SA levels. The morphological phenotype also requires an intact P-loop, suggesting that these ADR1-L2D484V phenotypes reflect canonical activation of this NB-LRR protein. We used ADR1-L2D484V to define genetic requirements for signaling. Signaling from ADR1-L2D484V does not require NADPH oxidase and is negatively regulated by EDS1 and AtMC1. Transcriptional regulation of ADR1-L2D484V is correlated with its phenotypic outputs; these outputs are both SA-dependent and -independent. The genetic requirements for ADR1-L2D484V activity resemble those that regulate an SA-gradient-dependent signal amplification of defense and cell death signaling initially observed in the absence of LSD1. Importantly, ADR1-L2D484V autoactivation signaling is controlled by both EDS1 and SA in separable, but linked

  3. Genetic requirements for signaling from an autoactive plant NB-LRR intracellular innate immune receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Melinda; Tang, Saijun; Stallmann, Anna; Dangl, Jeffery L; Bonardi, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Plants react to pathogen attack via recognition of, and response to, pathogen-specific molecules at the cell surface and inside the cell. Pathogen effectors (virulence factors) are monitored by intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) sensor proteins in plants and mammals. Here, we study the genetic requirements for defense responses of an autoactive mutant of ADR1-L2, an Arabidopsis coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR protein. ADR1-L2 functions upstream of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation in several defense contexts, and it can act in this context as a "helper" to transduce specific microbial activation signals from "sensor" NB-LRRs. This helper activity does not require an intact P-loop. ADR1-L2 and another of two closely related members of this small NB-LRR family are also required for propagation of unregulated runaway cell death (rcd) in an lsd1 mutant. We demonstrate here that, in this particular context, ADR1-L2 function is P-loop dependent. We generated an autoactive missense mutation, ADR1-L2D484V, in a small homology motif termed MHD. Expression of ADR1-L2D848V leads to dwarfed plants that exhibit increased disease resistance and constitutively high SA levels. The morphological phenotype also requires an intact P-loop, suggesting that these ADR1-L2D484V phenotypes reflect canonical activation of this NB-LRR protein. We used ADR1-L2D484V to define genetic requirements for signaling. Signaling from ADR1-L2D484V does not require NADPH oxidase and is negatively regulated by EDS1 and AtMC1. Transcriptional regulation of ADR1-L2D484V is correlated with its phenotypic outputs; these outputs are both SA-dependent and -independent. The genetic requirements for ADR1-L2D484V activity resemble those that regulate an SA-gradient-dependent signal amplification of defense and cell death signaling initially observed in the absence of LSD1. Importantly, ADR1-L2D484V autoactivation signaling is controlled by both EDS1 and SA in separable, but linked pathways

  4. Genetic requirements for signaling from an autoactive plant NB-LRR intracellular innate immune receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Roberts

    Full Text Available Plants react to pathogen attack via recognition of, and response to, pathogen-specific molecules at the cell surface and inside the cell. Pathogen effectors (virulence factors are monitored by intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR sensor proteins in plants and mammals. Here, we study the genetic requirements for defense responses of an autoactive mutant of ADR1-L2, an Arabidopsis coiled-coil (CC-NB-LRR protein. ADR1-L2 functions upstream of salicylic acid (SA accumulation in several defense contexts, and it can act in this context as a "helper" to transduce specific microbial activation signals from "sensor" NB-LRRs. This helper activity does not require an intact P-loop. ADR1-L2 and another of two closely related members of this small NB-LRR family are also required for propagation of unregulated runaway cell death (rcd in an lsd1 mutant. We demonstrate here that, in this particular context, ADR1-L2 function is P-loop dependent. We generated an autoactive missense mutation, ADR1-L2D484V, in a small homology motif termed MHD. Expression of ADR1-L2D848V leads to dwarfed plants that exhibit increased disease resistance and constitutively high SA levels. The morphological phenotype also requires an intact P-loop, suggesting that these ADR1-L2D484V phenotypes reflect canonical activation of this NB-LRR protein. We used ADR1-L2D484V to define genetic requirements for signaling. Signaling from ADR1-L2D484V does not require NADPH oxidase and is negatively regulated by EDS1 and AtMC1. Transcriptional regulation of ADR1-L2D484V is correlated with its phenotypic outputs; these outputs are both SA-dependent and -independent. The genetic requirements for ADR1-L2D484V activity resemble those that regulate an SA-gradient-dependent signal amplification of defense and cell death signaling initially observed in the absence of LSD1. Importantly, ADR1-L2D484V autoactivation signaling is controlled by both EDS1 and SA in separable, but linked

  5. Genetic Requirements for Signaling from an Autoactive Plant NB-LRR Intracellular Innate Immune Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Anna; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Bonardi, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Plants react to pathogen attack via recognition of, and response to, pathogen-specific molecules at the cell surface and inside the cell. Pathogen effectors (virulence factors) are monitored by intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) sensor proteins in plants and mammals. Here, we study the genetic requirements for defense responses of an autoactive mutant of ADR1-L2, an Arabidopsis coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR protein. ADR1-L2 functions upstream of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation in several defense contexts, and it can act in this context as a “helper” to transduce specific microbial activation signals from “sensor” NB-LRRs. This helper activity does not require an intact P-loop. ADR1-L2 and another of two closely related members of this small NB-LRR family are also required for propagation of unregulated runaway cell death (rcd) in an lsd1 mutant. We demonstrate here that, in this particular context, ADR1-L2 function is P-loop dependent. We generated an autoactive missense mutation, ADR1-L2D484V, in a small homology motif termed MHD. Expression of ADR1-L2D848V leads to dwarfed plants that exhibit increased disease resistance and constitutively high SA levels. The morphological phenotype also requires an intact P-loop, suggesting that these ADR1-L2D484V phenotypes reflect canonical activation of this NB-LRR protein. We used ADR1-L2D484V to define genetic requirements for signaling. Signaling from ADR1-L2D484V does not require NADPH oxidase and is negatively regulated by EDS1 and AtMC1. Transcriptional regulation of ADR1-L2D484V is correlated with its phenotypic outputs; these outputs are both SA–dependent and –independent. The genetic requirements for ADR1-L2D484V activity resemble those that regulate an SA–gradient-dependent signal amplification of defense and cell death signaling initially observed in the absence of LSD1. Importantly, ADR1-L2D484V autoactivation signaling is controlled by both EDS1 and SA in separable, but linked

  6. A Proteomic View on the Role of Legume Symbiotic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz Larrainzar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change. Proteomics offers numerous tools for the identification of proteins involved in such responses, allowing the study of sub-cellular localization and turnover regulation, as well as the discovery of post-translational modifications (PTMs. The current work reviews the progress made during the last decades in the field of proteomics applied to the study of the legume-Rhizobium and -AM symbioses, and highlights their influence on the plant responses to pathogens and abiotic stresses. We further discuss future perspectives and new experimental approaches that are likely to have a significant impact on the field including peptidomics, mass spectrometric imaging, and quantitative proteomics.

  7. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  8. Imaging long distance propagating calcium signals in intact plant leaves with the BRET-based GFP-Aequorin reporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou Cheu eXiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a second messenger involved in many plant signalling processes. Biotic and abiotic stimuli induce Ca2+ signals within plant cells, which, when decoded, enable these cells to adapt in response to environmental stresses. Multiple examples of Ca2+ signals from plants containing the fluorescent yellow cameleon sensor (YC have contributed to the definition of the Ca2+ signature in some cell types such as root hairs, pollen tubes and guard cells. YC is, however, of limited use in highly autofluorescent plant tissues, in particular mesophyll cells. Alternatively, the bioluminescent reporter aequorin enables Ca2+ imaging in the whole plant, including mesophyll cells, but this requires specific devices capable of detecting the low amounts of emitted light. Another type of Ca2+ sensor, referred to as GFP-aequorin (G5A, has been engineered as a chimeric protein, which combines the two photoactive proteins from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, the green fluorescent protein (GFP and the bioluminescent protein aequorin. The Ca2+-dependent light-emitting property of G5A is based on a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET between aequorin and GFP. G5A has been used for over 10 years for enhanced in vivo detection of Ca2+ signals in animal tissues.Here, we apply G5A in Arabidopsis and show that G5A greatly improves the imaging of Ca2+ dynamics in intact plants. We describe a simple method to image Ca2+ signals in autofluorescent leaves of plants with a cooled charge-coupled device (cooled CCD camera. We present data demonstrating how plants expressing the G5A probe can be powerful tools for imaging of Ca2+ signals. It is shown that Ca2+ signals propagating over long distances can be visualized in intact plant leaves and are visible mainly in the veins.

  9. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Plant-Interacting Fungi: Distinct Messages from Conserved Messengers[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Duplessis, Sébastien; Ellis, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as key signal transduction components in fungi, plants, and mammals. During interaction between phytopathogenic fungi and plants, fungal MAPKs help to promote mechanical and/or enzymatic penetration of host tissues, while plant MAPKs are required for activation of plant immunity. However, new insights suggest that MAPK cascades in both organisms do not operate independently but that they mutually contribute to a highly interconnected molecular dialogue between the plant and the fungus. As a result, some pathogenesis-related processes controlled by fungal MAPKs lead to the activation of plant signaling, including the recruitment of plant MAPK cascades. Conversely, plant MAPKs promote defense mechanisms that threaten the survival of fungal cells, leading to a stress response mediated in part by fungal MAPK cascades. In this review, we make use of the genomic data available following completion of whole-genome sequencing projects to analyze the structure of MAPK protein families in 24 fungal taxa, including both plant pathogens and mycorrhizal symbionts. Based on conserved patterns of sequence diversification, we also propose the adoption of a unified fungal MAPK nomenclature derived from that established for the model species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, we summarize current knowledge of the functions of MAPK cascades in phytopathogenic fungi and highlight the central role played by MAPK signaling during the molecular dialogue between plants and invading fungal pathogens. PMID:22517321

  10. Mechanistic Basis for Plant Responses to Drought Stress : Regulatory Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the rapid adaptation of plants to environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Accumulated ABA in plant cells promotes stomatal closure in guard cells and transcription of stress-tolerant genes. Our understanding of ABA responses dramatically improved by the discovery of both PYR/PYL/RCAR as a soluble ABA receptor and inhibitory complex of a protein phospatase PP2C and a protein kinase SnRK2. Moreover, several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR revealed the mechanistic basis for the regulatory mechanism of ABA signaling, which provides a rational framework for the design of alternative agonists in future.

  11. Nuclei in motion: movement and positioning of plant nuclei in development, signaling, symbiosis and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hare Newman Griffis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While textbook figures imply nuclei as resting spheres at the center of idealized cells, this picture fits few real situations. Plant nuclei come in many shapes and sizes, and can be actively transported within the cell. In several contexts, this nuclear movement is tightly coupled to a developmental program, the response to an abiotic signal, or a cellular reprogramming during either mutualistic or parasitic plant-microbe interactions. While many such phenomena have been observed and carefully described, the underlying molecular mechanism and the functional significance of the nuclear movement are typically unknown. Here, we survey recent as well as older literature to provide a concise starting point for applying contemporary molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches to this fascinating, yet poorly understood phenomenon.

  12. The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping Liu; Miguel A. Piñeros; Leon V. Kochian

    2014-01-01

    As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the triggering and regulation of cellular pathways and processes by Al. In this review of plant Al signaling, we begin by summarizing the understanding of physiological mechanisms of Al resis-tance, which first led researchers to realize that Al stress induces gene expression and modifies protein function during the activation of Al resistance responses. Subsequently, an overview of Al resistance genes and their function provides verification that Al induction of gene expression plays a major role in Al resistance in many plant species. More recent research into the mechanistic basis for Al-induced transcrip-tional activation of resistance genes has led to the identifica-tion of several transcription factors as wel as cis-elements in the promoters of Al resistance genes that play a role in greater Al-induced gene expression as wel as higher constitutive expression of resistance genes in some plant species. Final y, the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of Al resistance proteins is addressed, where recent research has shown that Al can both directly bind to and alter activity of certain organic acid transporters, and also influence Al resistance proteins indirectly, via protein phosphorylation.

  13. Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Peter J; Lima-Melo, Yugo; Tiwari, Arjun; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2017-09-26

    The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light. We found that PSI damage severely inhibits carbon fixation and starch accumulation, and attenuates enzymatic oxylipin synthesis and chloroplast regulation of nuclear gene expression after high light stress. This work shows that modifications to regulation of photosynthetic light reactions, which may be designed to improve yield in crop plants, can negatively impact metabolism and signalling, and thereby threaten plant growth and stress tolerance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. HARDWARE ENVIRONMENT FACTOR FOR CONTROL SIGNAL TRANSFER TO A PLANT IN THE SYNTHESIS PROBLEM OF DISCRETE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Nuyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to revise certain provisions of the existing theory of discrete systems in the organization of hardware environment control signal transmission to a technical plant. It is known that the formation of a digital signal in discrete control problem of continuous plant is carried out by microcontroller or micro-computer and is represented by a parallel code, which dimension is determined by the hardware used. The parallel code for a digital clock cycle of the designed system is transmitted to the terminal device of a technical continuous plant, where the digital-to-analog conversion takes place. This kind of control signal transmission to the technical plant asserts its implementation by means of parallel buses. It is known that the length of a parallel bus is limited to an amount not exceeding half a meter due to the existing interference environment with modern standards of length. Thus, if the placement of the control signal and control plant is such that their connecting bus length exceeds more than half a meter, there is the inevitable transition from the parallel control signal to an allotted serial. The paper deals with the system factors arising in the transition from the parallel control signal to the serial by modern interfaces. Provisions of the paper are illustrated by an example. This paper is intended for system analytics and channel specialists. The resulting algorithm is applicable for control of plants (electric drive, in particular in the large industrial factories.

  15. Modelling the widespread effects of TOC1 signalling on the plant circadian clock and its outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Mas, Paloma; Millar, Andrew J

    2013-03-19

    24-hour biological clocks are intimately connected to the cellular signalling network, which complicates the analysis of clock mechanisms. The transcriptional regulator TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) is a founding component of the gene circuit in the plant circadian clock. Recent results show that TOC1 suppresses transcription of multiple target genes within the clock circuit, far beyond its previously-described regulation of the morning transcription factors LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1). It is unclear how this pervasive effect of TOC1 affects the dynamics of the clock and its outputs. TOC1 also appears to function in a nested feedback loop that includes signalling by the plant hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), which is upregulated by abiotic stresses, such as drought. ABA treatments both alter TOC1 levels and affect the clock's timing behaviour. Conversely, the clock rhythmically modulates physiological processes induced by ABA, such as the closing of stomata in the leaf epidermis. In order to understand the dynamics of the clock and its outputs under changing environmental conditions, the reciprocal interactions between the clock and other signalling pathways must be integrated. We extended the mathematical model of the plant clock gene circuit by incorporating the repression of multiple clock genes by TOC1, observed experimentally. The revised model more accurately matches the data on the clock's molecular profiles and timing behaviour, explaining the clock's responses in TOC1 over-expression and toc1 mutant plants. A simplified representation of ABA signalling allowed us to investigate the interactions of ABA and circadian pathways. Increased ABA levels lengthen the free-running period of the clock, consistent with the experimental data. Adding stomatal closure to the model, as a key ABA- and clock-regulated downstream process allowed to describe TOC1 effects on the rhythmic gating of stomatal closure. The integrated

  16. Water mediated alterations in gravity signal transform phytofilertation capability in hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogranjan; Singh Marabi, Rakesh; Satpute, Gyanesh Kumar; Mishra, Stuti

    2012-07-01

    An exorbitant sum of different synthetic molecules of chemicals including dyes and pigments are discharged into the environment, mainly via industrial effluents every year worldwide. The physical-chemical treatments for remediation viz adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange or filtration have proved to be disadvantageous because of high cost, low efficiency and inapplicability to a wide variety of dyes, or the formation of by-products and thereby creating waste disposal problems. Similarly the limited ability of micro-organisms to degrade xenobiotic especially sulphonoaromatic compounds, limits the efficiency and, therefore, the use of conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this context, the development of alternative biological treatments to eliminate these pollutants from industrial effluents is an important requirement. Plant metabolism, is extremely diverse and can be exploited to treat recalcitrant pollutants, not degradable by bacteria or fungi and can act as an important global sink for environmental pollutants. The presence of putative metabolites, in leaves of hydrophytes has been observed, indicating the transformation of several xenobiotics. A diverse range of the enzymes involved in the early stages of the detoxification process are closely associated with the redox biochemistry of the cell. The activities of enzymes such as glutathione transferases, peroxidases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and its multigenic family have implications with respect to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Besides activating xenobiotics, cytochromes P450 is involved vitally in cell signaling for counteracting buoyant balance. Signal transduction cascades, including the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in responding to gravitational cues, appear to be affected by buoyancy as well. Gravitropism is the orientation of growth in response to gravity and involves the perception of the gravitational force in the columella cells of the root cap where the primary

  17. Pronounced phenotypic changes in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sucrose synthase may reveal a novel sugar signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Anh eNguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy, which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-hour day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM. As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants.

  18. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant-pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Symbiots: Conceptual Interventions Into Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Jenny; Mazé, Ramia; Redströmand, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Symbiots set out to examine values such as ease-of-use, comfort, and rationality assumed within conventions of ‘good design’, in order to expose issues related to energy consumption and current human- (versus eco-) centered design paradigms. Exploring re-interpretations of graphical patterns, arc...

  20. Effect of diseases on symbiotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pankaj Kumar; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Sha, Amar; Venturino, Ezio; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-09-01

    There are many species living in symbiotic communities. In this study, we analyzed models in which populations are in the mutualism symbiotic relations subject to a disease spreading among one of the species. The main goal is the characterization of symbiotic relations of coexisting species through their mutual influences on their respective carrying capacities, taking into account that this influence can be quite strong. The functional dependence of the carrying capacities reflects the fact that the correlations between populations cannot be realized merely through direct interactions, as in the usual predator-prey Lotka-Volterra model, but also through the influence of each species on the carrying capacities of the other one. Equilibria are analyzed for feasibility and stability, substantiated via numerical simulations, and global sensitivity analysis identifies the important parameters having a significant impact on the model dynamics. The infective growth rate and the disease-related mortality rate may alter the stability behavior of the system. Our results show that introducing a symbiotic species is a plausible way to control the disease in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating Tactile Stimulation in Symbiotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orso, Valeria; Mazza, Renato; Gamberini, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The core characteristics of tactile stimuli, i.e., recognition reliability and tolerance to ambient interference, make them an ideal candidate to be integrated into a symbiotic system. The selection of the appropriate stimulation is indeed important in order not to hinder the interaction from the...

  2. Reciprocal crosstalk between jasmonate and salicylate defence-signalling pathways modulates plant volatile emission and herbivore host-selection behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Gols, R.; Menzel, T.R.; Li, N.; Kang, L.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathways, which mediate induced plant defence responses, can express negative crosstalk. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of this crosstalk on host-plant selection behaviour of herbivores. We report on temporal and dosage effects

  3. The MicroRNA390/TAS3 Pathway Mediates Symbiotic Nodulation and Lateral Root Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobecker, Karen Vanesa; Reynoso, Mauricio Alberto; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Crespi, Martín; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, María Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    Legume roots form two types of postembryonic organs, lateral roots and symbiotic nodules. Nodule formation is the result of the interaction of legumes with rhizobia and requires the mitotic activation and differentiation of root cells as well as an independent, but coordinated, program that allows infection by rhizobia. MicroRNA390 (miR390) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA that targets the Trans-Acting Short Interference RNA3 (TAS3) transcript. Cleavage of TAS3 by ARGONAUTE7 results in the production of trans-acting small interference RNAs, which target mRNAs encoding AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2 (ARF2), ARF3, and ARF4. Here, we show that activation of the miR390/TAS3 regulatory module by overexpression of miR390 in Medicago truncatula promotes lateral root growth but prevents nodule organogenesis, rhizobial infection, and the induction of two key nodulation genes, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2 Accordingly, inactivation of the miR390/TAS3 module, either by expression of a miR390 target mimicry construct or mutations in ARGONAUTE7, enhances nodulation and rhizobial infection, alters the spatial distribution of the nodules, and increases the percentage of nodules with multiple meristems. Our results revealed a key role of the miR390/TAS3 pathway in legumes as a modulator of lateral root organs, playing opposite roles in lateral root and nodule development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants -- An in silico approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghati Bhattacharya; Arnab Sen; Subarna Thakur; Louis S Tisa

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin.

  5. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldau Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, salicylic acid (SA-induced protein kinase (SIPK and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK and WIPK (irWIPK benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3 levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels

  6. Taxonomic and symbiotic diversity of bacteria isolated from nodules of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in arid soils of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Lafuente, A; Pajuelo, E; Caviedes, M A; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2012-06-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana nodules from various arid soils in Tunisia was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. The isolates were found to be phenotypically diverse. The majority of the isolates tolerated 3% NaCl and grew at 40 °C. Genetic characterization emphasized that most of the strains (42/50) belong to the genus Ensifer, particularly the species Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer garamanticus, and Ensifer numidicus. Symbiotic properties of isolates showed diversity in their capacity to nodulate their host plant and to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The most effective isolates were closely related to E. garamanticus. Nodulation tests showed that 3 strains belonging to Mesorhizobium genus failed to renodulate their host plant, which is surprising for symbiotic rhizobia. Furthermore, our results support the presence of non-nodulating endophytic bacteria belonging to the Acinetobacter genus in legume nodules.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants.

  8. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  9. Cross talk between H2O2 and interacting signal molecules under plant stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina eSaxena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress condition plants have evolved regulatory mechanism to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of ROS, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the by-product of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 acts as a key regulator of many biological processes because H2O2 has been identified as an important second messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecule during various stress responses.

  10. Signaling molecules and cell death in Melissa officinalis plants exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Trivellini, Alice; Campanella, Alessandra; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina; Vernieri, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    The study focuses on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and hormones that regulate the programmed cell death in plants of Melissa officinalis exposed to ozone. Interaction between hormone and redox signaling pathways has been investigated in ozone-stressed (200 ppb, 5 h) lemon balm to verify if the response resembles the biotic defense reactions. In comparison to controls, plants exhibited foliar injury and the cell death was induced by (1) biphasic production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical; (2) hormonal regulation of ozone-induced lesion formation with a significant production of ethylene, salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acid; (3) ozone degradation to reactive oxygen species and their detoxification by some enzymatic (such as superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems (such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids), that worked in cooperation without providing a defense against free radicals (such as confirmed by the modification of the antioxidant properties of leaf tissue). This integrated view showed that reactive oxygen species interact with hormonal signaling pathway regulating cell death and the sensitivity of lemon balm to ozone.

  11. A method for two-dimensional characterization of animal vibrational signals transmitted along plant stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Gabriel D; Miles, Ronald N; Homentcovschi, Dorel; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2006-12-01

    Conventional approaches to measuring animal vibrational signals on plant stems use a single transducer to measure the amplitude of vibrations. Such an approach, however, will often underestimate the amplitude of bending waves traveling along the stem. This occurs because vibration transducers are maximally sensitive along a single axis, which may not correspond to the major axis of stem motion. Furthermore, stem motion may be more complex than that of a bending wave propagating along a single axis, and such motion cannot be described using a single transducer. Here, we describe a method for characterizing stem motion in two dimensions by processing the signals from two orthogonally positioned transducers. Viewed relative to a cross-sectional plane, a point on the stem surface moves in an ellipse at any one frequency, with the ellipse's major axis corresponding to the maximum amplitude of vibration. The method outlined here measures the ellipse's major and minor axes, and its angle of rotation relative to one of the transducers. We illustrate this method with measurements of stem motion during insect vibrational communication. It is likely the two-dimensional nature of stem motion is relevant to insect vibration perception, making this method a promising avenue for studies of plant-borne transmission.

  12. Ligand Perception, Activation, and Early Signaling of Plant Steroid Receptor Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Jiang; Chi Zhang; Xuelu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) belong to a large group of cell surface proteins involved in many aspects of plant development and environmental responses in both monocots and dicots. Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), a member of the LRR X subfamily, was first identified through several forward genetic screenings for mutants insensitive to brassinosteroids (BRs), which are a class of plant-specific steroid hormones. Since its identification, BRI1 and its homologs had been proved as receptors perceiving BRs and initiating BR signaling. The co-receptor BRI1-associated kinase 1 and its homologs, and other BRI1 interacting proteins such as its inhibitor BRI1 kinase inhibitor 1 (BKI1) were identified by genetic and biochemical approaches. The detailed mechanisms of BR perception by BRI1 and the activation of BRI1 receptor complex have also been elucidated. Moreover, several mechanisms for termination of the activated BRI1 signaling were also discovered. In this review, we will focus on the recent advances on the mechanism of BRI1 phosphorylation and activation, the regulation of its receptor complex, the structure basis of BRI1 ectodomain and BR recognition, its direct substrates, and the termination of the activated BRI1 receptor complex.

  13. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar; Svensson, Birte

    2011-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms.

  14. Rhizobial synthesized cytokinins contribute to but are not essential for the symbiotic interaction between photosynthetic Bradyrhizobia and Aeschynomene legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlešáková, Kateřina; Fardoux, Joel; Patrel, Delphine; Bonaldi, Katia; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Giraud, Eric; Spíchal, Lukáš; Nouwen, Nico

    2013-10-01

    Cytokinins (CK) play an important role in the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. It has been known for years that rhizobia secrete CK in the extracellular medium but whether they play a role in nodule formation is not known. We have examined this question using the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 which is able to nodulate Aeschynomene afraspera and A. indica using a Nod-dependent or Nod-independent symbiotic process, respectively. CK profiling showed that the most abundant CK secreted by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 are the 2MeS (2-methylthiol) derivatives of trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine. In their pure form, these CK can activate legume CK receptors in vitro, and their exogenous addition induced nodule-like structures on host plants. Deletion of the miaA gene showed that transfer RNA degradation is the source of CK production in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285. In nodulation studies performed with A. indica and A. afraspera, the miaA mutant had a 1-day delay in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Moreover, A. indica plants formed considerably smaller but more abundant nodules when inoculated with the miaA mutant. These data show that CK produced by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285 are not the key signal triggering nodule formation during the Nod-independent symbiosis but they contribute positively to nodule development in Aeschynomene plants.

  15. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations trapped from soils under agroforestry systems in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Duque Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important grain-producing legume that can forego nitrogen fertilization by establishing an efficient symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Although inoculating strains have already been selected for this species, little is known about the genotypic and symbiotic diversity of native rhizobia. Recently, Bradyrhizobium has been shown to be the genus most frequently trapped by cowpea in agricultural soils of the Amazon region. We investigated the genetic and symbiotic diversity of 148 bacterial strains with different phenotypic and cultural properties isolated from the nodules of the trap species cowpea, which was inoculated with samples from soils under agroforestry systems from the western Amazon. Sixty non-nodulating strains indicated a high frequency of endophytic strains in the nodules. The 88 authenticated strains had varying symbiotic efficiency. The SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development index (indirect measurement of chlorophyll content was more efficient at evaluating the contribution of symbiotic N2-fixation than shoot dry matter under axenic conditions. Cowpea-nodulating bacteria exhibited a high level of genetic diversity, with 68 genotypes identified by BOX-PCR. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed a predominance of the genus Bradyrhizobium, which accounted for 70 % of all strains sequenced. Other genera identified were Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus, Bosea, Bacillus, Enterobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. These results support the promiscuity of cowpea and demonstrate the high genetic and symbiotic diversity of rhizobia in soils under agroforestry systems, with some strains exhibiting potential for use as inoculants. The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in land uses with different plant communities and soil characteristics reflects the adaptation of this genus to the Amazon region.

  16. Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with host MAPKKK ε to suppress plant immune signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stuart R F; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C; Armstrong, Miles R; Bukharova, Tatyana; Sukarta, Octavina; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R J; Banfield, Mark J

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and promote colonization. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these effectors act in plant cells is limited. Here, we report that the P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with the kinase domain of MAPKKKε, a positive regulator of cell death associated with plant immunity. Expression of PexRD2 or silencing MAPKKKε in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans. We show that PexRD2 perturbs signaling pathways triggered by or dependent on MAPKKKε. By contrast, homologs of PexRD2 from P. infestans had reduced or no interaction with MAPKKKε and did not promote disease susceptibility. Structure-led mutagenesis identified PexRD2 variants that do not interact with MAPKKKε and fail to support enhanced pathogen growth or perturb MAPKKKε signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 has evolved to interact with a specific host MAPKKK to perturb plant immunity-related signaling.

  17. Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector PexRD2 Interacts with Host MAPKKKε to Suppress Plant Immune Signaling[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stuart R.F.; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C.; Armstrong, Miles R.; Bukharova, Tatyana; Sukarta, Octavina; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R.J.; Banfield, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and promote colonization. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these effectors act in plant cells is limited. Here, we report that the P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with the kinase domain of MAPKKKε, a positive regulator of cell death associated with plant immunity. Expression of PexRD2 or silencing MAPKKKε in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans. We show that PexRD2 perturbs signaling pathways triggered by or dependent on MAPKKKε. By contrast, homologs of PexRD2 from P. infestans had reduced or no interaction with MAPKKKε and did not promote disease susceptibility. Structure-led mutagenesis identified PexRD2 variants that do not interact with MAPKKKε and fail to support enhanced pathogen growth or perturb MAPKKKε signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 has evolved to interact with a specific host MAPKKK to perturb plant immunity–related signaling. PMID:24632534

  18. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and the Challenges to Its Extension to Nonlegumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mus, Florence; Crook, Matthew B.; Garcia, Kevin; Garcia Costas, Amaya; Geddes, Barney A.; Kouri, Evangelia D.; Paramasivan, Ponraj; Ryu, Min-Hyung; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Poole, Philip S.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Access to fixed or available forms of nitrogen limits the productivity of crop plants and thus food production. Nitrogenous fertilizer production currently represents a significant expense for the efficient growth of various crops in the developed world. There are significant potential gains to be had from reducing dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture in the developed world and in developing countries, and there is significant interest in research on biological nitrogen fixation and prospects for increasing its importance in an agricultural setting. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric N2 to NH3, a form that can be used by plants. However, the process is restricted to bacteria and archaea and does not occur in eukaryotes. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is part of a mutualistic relationship in which plants provide a niche and fixed carbon to bacteria in exchange for fixed nitrogen. This process is restricted mainly to legumes in agricultural systems, and there is considerable interest in exploring whether similar symbioses can be developed in nonlegumes, which produce the bulk of human food. We are at a juncture at which the fundamental understanding of biological nitrogen fixation has matured to a level that we can think about engineering symbiotic relationships using synthetic biology approaches. This minireview highlights the fundamental advances in our understanding of biological nitrogen fixation in the context of a blueprint for expanding symbiotic nitrogen fixation to a greater diversity of crop plants through synthetic biology. PMID:27084023

  19. Symbiotically modified organisms: nontoxic fungal endophytes in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Pedro E; Pérez, Luis I; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2013-08-01

    We propose that symbiotically modified organisms (SMOs) should be taken into account in sustainable agriculture. In this opinion article, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the literature, with a particular focus on the potential of SMOs in forage and turf grass production, to determine the impact of endophytes in grasses on livestock, the grassland ecosystems, and associated environments. SMOs can be incorporated into breeding programs to improve grass yield, resistance to pests and weeds, and forage quality for livestock by decreasing the level of toxic alkaloids. However, the benefits of these selected grass-endophyte symbiota appear to be highly dependent on grass cultivar, fungal strain, and environmental conditions, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the genetic bases and phenotypic plasticity of the traits of the plant-microbe unit in different environments.

  20. The Role of Ubiquitin and the 26S Proteasome in Plant Abiotic Stress Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone L Sophia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is a small, highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed eukaryotic protein with immensely important and diverse regulatory functions. A well-studied function of ubiquitin is its role in selective proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS. The UPS has emerged as an integral player in plant response and adaptation to environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, cold and nutrient deprivation. The UPS has also been shown to influence the production and signal transduction of stress-related hormones such as abscisic acid. Understanding UPS function has centered mainly on defining the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which are the substrate-recruiting component of the ubiquitination pathway. The recent identification of stress signaling/regulatory proteins that are the subject of ubiquitin-dependent degradation has increased our knowledge of how the UPS facilitate responses to adverse environmental conditions. A brief overview is provided on role of the UPS in modulating protein stability during abiotic stress signaling. E3 ubiquitin ligases for which stress-related substrate proteins have been identified are discussed.

  1. Metatranscriptomic Study of Common and Host-Specific Patterns of Gene Expression between Pines and Their Symbiotic Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in the Genus Suillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF represent one of the major guilds of symbiotic fungi associated with roots of forest trees, where they function to improve plant nutrition and fitness in exchange for plant carbon. Many groups of EMF exhibit preference or specificity for different plant host genera; a good example is the genus Suillus, which grows in association with the conifer family Pinaceae. We investigated genetics of EMF host-specificity by cross-inoculating basidiospores of five species of Suillus onto ten species of Pinus, and screened them for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae. Several Suillus spp. including S. granulatus, S. spraguei, and S. americanus readily formed ectomycorrhizae (compatible reaction with white pine hosts (subgenus Strobus, but were incompatible with other pine hosts (subgenus Pinus. Metatranscriptomic analysis of inoculated roots reveals that plant and fungus each express unique gene sets during incompatible vs. compatible pairings. The Suillus-Pinus metatranscriptomes utilize highly conserved gene regulatory pathways, including fungal G-protein signaling, secretory pathways, leucine-rich repeat and pathogen resistance proteins that are similar to those associated with host-pathogen interactions in other plant-fungal systems. Metatranscriptomic study of the combined Suillus-Pinus transcriptome has provided new insight into mechanisms of adaptation and coevolution of forest trees with their microbial community, and revealed that genetic regulation of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis utilizes universal gene regulatory pathways used by other types of fungal-plant interactions including pathogenic fungal-host interactions.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Symbiotic Efficiency of Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa under Phosphorus Deficiency

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    Lam-Son Phan Tran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P-deficiency is a major abiotic stress that limits legume growth in many types of soils. The relationship between Medicago and Sinorhizobium, is known to be affected by different environmental conditions. Recent reports have shown that, in combination with S. meliloti 2011, Medicago truncatula had a lower symbiotic efficiency than Medicago sativa. However, little is known about how Medicago–Sinorhizobium is affected by P-deficiency at the whole-plant level. The objective of the present study was to compare and characterize the symbiotic efficiency of N2 fixation of M. truncatula and M. sativa grown in sand under P-limitation. Under this condition, M. truncatula exhibited a significantly higher rate of N2 fixation. The specific activity of the nodules was much higher in M. truncatula in comparison to M. sativa, partially as a result of an increase in electron allocation to N2 versus H+. Although the main organic acid, succinate, exhibited a strong tendency to decrease under P-deficiency, the more efficient symbiotic ability observed in M. truncatula coincided with an apparent increase in the content of malate in its nodules. Our results indicate that the higher efficiency of the M. truncatula symbiotic system is related to the ability to increase malate content under limited P-conditions.

  3. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported.

  4. Plant signalling components EDS1 and SGT1 enhance disease caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Oirdi, Mohamed; Bouarab, Kamal

    2007-01-01

    * Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that causes grey mould on a wide range of food plants, especially grapevine, tomato, soft fruits and vegetables. This disease brings about important economic losses in both pre- and postharvest crops. Successful protection of host plants against this pathogen is severely hampered by a lack of resistance genes in the hosts and the considerable phenotypic diversity of the fungus. * The aim of this study was to test whether B. cinerea manipulates the immunity-signalling pathways in plants to restore its disease. * We showed that B. cinerea caused disease in Nicotiana benthamiana through the activation of two plant signalling genes, EDS1 and SGT1, which have been shown to be essential for resistance against biotrophic pathogens; and more interestingly, virus-induced gene silencing of these two plant signalling components enhanced N. benthamiana resistance to B. cinerea. Finally, plants expressing the baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35 were more resistant to this necrotrophic pathogen than wild-type plants. * This work highlights a new strategy used by B. cinerea to establish disease. This information is important for the design of strategies to improve plant pathogen resistance.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. during the pre-symbiotic phase of the ectomycorrhizal association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Coelho, Irene; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    The pre-symbiotic phase that precedes physical contact between symbionts is a crucial phase in determining their compatibility, allowing the formation of the ectomycorrhiza. A subtractive cDNA library representing the differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. in the pre-symbiotic phase was constructed using fungal mycelia obtained through the in vitro mycorrhization technique. The fungus was cultured in the presence of Eucalyptus grandis roots, but with no contact between the hyphae and the root system of the host plant. Genes that code for proteins related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, transcription, and protein synthesis, cellular communication, signal transduction, stress response, transposons, and proteins related to the biogenesis of cell components were identified among the 131 expressed sequence tags. Expression of the genes that code for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, a voltage-dependent protein from the selective ion channel, and hydrophobin was evaluated by the RT-qPCR technique, confirming the activation of these genes in this phase of the association.

  6. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  7. Lipo-chitin oligosaccharides, plant symbiosis signalling molecules that modulate mammalian angiogenesis in vitro.

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    Michael A Djordjevic

    Full Text Available Lipochitin oligosaccharides (LCOs are signaling molecules required by ecologically and agronomically important bacteria and fungi to establish symbioses with diverse land plants. In plants, oligo-chitins and LCOs can differentially interact with different lysin motif (LysM receptors and affect innate immunity responses or symbiosis-related pathways. In animals, oligo-chitins also induce innate immunity and other physiological responses but LCO recognition has not been demonstrated. Here LCO and LCO-like compounds are shown to be biologically active in mammals in a structure dependent way through the modulation of angiogenesis, a tightly-regulated process involving the induction and growth of new blood vessels from existing vessels. The testing of 24 LCO, LCO-like or oligo-chitin compounds resulted in structure-dependent effects on angiogenesis in vitro leading to promotion, or inhibition or nil effects. Like plants, the mammalian LCO biological activity depended upon the presence and type of terminal substitutions. Un-substituted oligo-chitins of similar chain lengths were unable to modulate angiogenesis indicating that mammalian cells, like plant cells, can distinguish between LCOs and un-substituted oligo-chitins. The cellular mode-of-action of the biologically active LCOs in mammals was determined. The stimulation or inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin or fibronectin correlated with their pro- or anti-angiogenic activity. Importantly, novel and more easily synthesised LCO-like disaccharide molecules were also biologically active and de-acetylated chitobiose was shown to be the primary structural basis of recognition. Given this, simpler chitin disaccharides derivatives based on the structure of biologically active LCOs were synthesised and purified and these showed biological activity in mammalian cells. Since important chronic disease states are linked to either insufficient or excessive angiogenesis, LCO and LCO

  8. Exploring the symbiotic pangenome of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

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    Daligault Hajnalka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model system for the studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An extensive polymorphism at the genetic and phenotypic level is present in natural populations of this species, especially in relation with symbiotic promotion of plant growth. AK83 and BL225C are two nodule-isolated strains with diverse symbiotic phenotypes; BL225C is more efficient in promoting growth of the Medicago sativa plants than strain AK83. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic diversification of S. meliloti strains AK83 and BL225C, we sequenced the complete genomes for these two strains. Results With sizes of 7.14 Mbp and 6.97 Mbp, respectively, the genomes of AK83 and BL225C are larger than the laboratory strain Rm1021. The core genome of Rm1021, AK83, BL225C strains included 5124 orthologous groups, while the accessory genome was composed by 2700 orthologous groups. While Rm1021 and BL225C have only three replicons (Chromosome, pSymA and pSymB, AK83 has also two plasmids, 260 and 70 Kbp long. We found 65 interesting orthologous groups of genes that were present only in the accessory genome, consequently responsible for phenotypic diversity and putatively involved in plant-bacterium interaction. Notably, the symbiosis inefficient AK83 lacked several genes required for microaerophilic growth inside nodules, while several genes for accessory functions related to competition, plant invasion and bacteroid tropism were identified only in AK83 and BL225C strains. Presence and extent of polymorphism in regulons of transcription factors involved in symbiotic interaction were also analyzed. Our results indicate that regulons are flexible, with a large number of accessory genes, suggesting that regulons polymorphism could also be a key determinant in the variability of symbiotic performances among the analyzed strains. Conclusions In conclusions, the extended comparative genomics approach revealed a

  9. Global changes in transcription orchestrate metabolic differentiation during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colebatch, Gillian; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Ott, Thomas;

    2004-01-01

    Research on legume nodule metabolism has contributed greatly to our knowledge of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants in general, and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation in particular. However, most previous studies focused on one or a few genes/enzymes involved in selected metabolic...... coupled to mass spectrometry revealed a distinct metabolic phenotype for nodules that reflected the global changes in metabolism inferred from transcriptome analysis. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Aug...

  10. The symbiotic academy: on specialisation and interdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklate, Jenny; Richards, Adair

    2012-01-01

    The authors historicise, contextualise and debate the values and problems of both disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. Their aim is not to posit one as superior to the other nor to suggest that the two are mutually exclusive. Instead, they seek to break down the oppositional dichotomy in which the concepts are often placed, and, further to propose a 'symbiotic academy' in which the two can exist to their mutual benefit.

  11. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  12. Effects of symbiotic bacteria and tree chemistry on the growth and reproduction of bark beetle fungal symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.S. Adams; C.R. Currie; Y. Cardoza; K.D. Klepzig; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse assemblages of microorganisms, many of which affect their interactions with host plants and natural enemies. We tested how bacterial associates of three bark beetles with various types of host relationships affect growth and reproduction of their symbiotic fungi. Fungi were exposed to volatiles...

  13. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

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    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  14. Plant stanols induce intestinal tumor formation by up-regulating Wnt and EGFR signaling in Apc Min mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Maija; Päivärinta, Essi; Storvik, Markus; Huikko, Laura; Luoma-Halkola, Heli; Piironen, Vieno; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Mutanen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    The rate of APC mutations in the intestine increases in middle-age. At the same period of life, plant sterol and stanol enriched functional foods are introduced to diet to lower blood cholesterol. This study examined the effect of plant stanol enriched diet on intestinal adenoma formation in the Apc(Min) mouse. Apc(Min) mice were fed 0.8% plant stanol diet or control diet for nine weeks. Cholesterol, plant sterols and plant stanols were analyzed from the caecum content and the intestinal mucosa. Levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were measured from the intestinal mucosa by Western blotting. Gene expression was determined from the intestinal mucosa using Affymetrix and the data were analyzed for enriched categories and pathways. Plant stanols induced adenoma formation in the small intestine, however, the adenoma size was not affected. We saw increased levels of nuclear β-catenin, phosphorylated β-catenin (Ser675 and Ser552), nuclear cyclin D1, total and phosphorylated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the intestinal mucosa after plant stanol feeding. The Affymetrix data demonstrate that several enzymes of cholesterol synthesis pathway were up-regulated, although the cholesterol level in the intestinal mucosa was not altered. We show that plant stanols induce adenoma formation by activating Wnt and EGFR signaling. EGFR signaling seems to have promoted β-catenin phosphorylation and its translocation into the nucleus, where the expression of cyclin D1 was increased. Up-regulated cholesterol synthesis may partly explain the increased EGFR signaling in the plant stanol-fed mice.

  15. Background correction in near-infrared spectra of plant extracts by orthogonal signal correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Hai-bin; OU Dan-lin; CHENG Yi-yu

    2005-01-01

    In near-infrared (NIR) analysis of plant extracts, excessive background often exists in near-infrared spectra. The detection of active constituents is difficult because of excessive background, and correction of this problem remains difficult. In this work, the orthogonal signal correction (OSC) method was used to correct excessive background. The method was also compared with several classical background correction methods, such as offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC),standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, de-trending (DT), first derivative, second derivative and wavelet methods. A simulated dataset and a real NIR spectral dataset were used to test the efficiency of different background correction methods. The results showed that OSC is the only effective method for correcting excessive background.

  16. Symbiotic fungi produce laccases potentially involved in phenol degradation in fungus combs of fungus-growing termites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.

  17. Modulation of Root Signals in Relation to Stomatal Sensitivity to Root-sourced Abscisic Acid in Drought-affected Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Stomatal sensitivity to root signals induced by soil drying may vary between environments and plant species. This is likely central role in root to shoot signaling. pH and hydraulic signals may interact with ABA signals and thus, jointly regulate stomatal responses to changed soil water status. pH itself can be modified by several factors, among which the chemical compositions In the xylem stream and the live cells surrounding the vessels play crucial roles. In addition to the xylem pH,more attention should be paid to the direct modulation of leaf apoplastic pH, because many chemical compositions might strongly modify the leaf apoplastlc pH while having no significant effect on the xylem pH. The direct modulation of the ABA signal intensity may be more important for the regulation of stomatal responses to soil drying than the ABA signal per se.The ABA signal is also regulated by the ABA catabolism and the supply of precursors to the roots If a sustained root to shoot communication of soil drying operates at the whole plant level. More importantly, ABA catabolism could play crucial roles In the determination of the fate of the ABA signal and thereby control the stomatal behavior of the root-sourced ABA signal.

  18. Spatial and temporal regulation of biosynthesis of the plant immune signal salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Mian; Yoo, Heejin; Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Spivey, Natalie Weaver; Kay, Steve A; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-28

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is essential for local defense and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). When plants, such as Arabidopsis, are challenged by different pathogens, an increase in SA biosynthesis generally occurs through transcriptional induction of the key synthetic enzyme isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1). However, the regulatory mechanism for this induction is poorly understood. Using a yeast one-hybrid screen, we identified two transcription factors (TFs), NTM1-like 9 (NTL9) and CCA1 hiking expedition (CHE), as activators of ICS1 during specific immune responses. NTL9 is essential for inducing ICS1 and two other SA synthesis-related genes, phytoalexin-deficient 4 (PAD4) and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), in guard cells that form stomata. Stomata can quickly close upon challenge to block pathogen entry. This stomatal immunity requires ICS1 and the SA signaling pathway. In the ntl9 mutant, this response is defective and can be rescued by exogenous application of SA, indicating that NTL9-mediated SA synthesis is essential for stomatal immunity. CHE, the second identified TF, is a central circadian clock oscillator and is required not only for the daily oscillation in SA levels but also for the pathogen-induced SA synthesis in systemic tissues during SAR. CHE may also regulate ICS1 through the known transcription activators calmodulin binding protein 60g (CBP60g) and systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) because induction of these TF genes is compromised in the che-2 mutant. Our study shows that SA biosynthesis is regulated by multiple TFs in a spatial and temporal manner and therefore fills a gap in the signal transduction pathway between pathogen recognition and SA production.

  19. Linking ligand perception by PEPR pattern recognition receptors to cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and downstream immune signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Walker, Robin K; Zhao, Yichen; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2012-11-27

    Little is known about molecular steps linking perception of pathogen invasion by cell surface sentry proteins acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to downstream cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, a critical step in plant immune signaling cascades. Some PRRs recognize molecules (such as flagellin) associated with microbial pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), whereas others bind endogenous plant compounds (damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) such as peptides released from cells upon attack. This work focuses on the Arabidopsis DAMPs plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2. Pep application causes in vivo cGMP generation and downstream signaling that is lost when the predicted PEPR receptor guanylyl cyclase (GC) active site is mutated. Pep-induced Ca(2+) elevation is attributable to cGMP activation of a Ca(2+) channel. Some differences were identified between Pep/PEPR signaling and the Ca(2+)-dependent immune signaling initiated by the flagellin peptide flg22 and its cognate receptor Flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2). FLS2 signaling may have a greater requirement for intracellular Ca(2+) stores and inositol phosphate signaling, whereas Pep/PEPR signaling requires extracellular Ca(2+). Maximal FLS2 signaling requires a functional Pep/PEPR system. This dependence was evidenced as a requirement for functional PEPR receptors for maximal flg22-dependent Ca(2+) elevation, H(2)O(2) generation, defense gene [WRKY33 and Plant Defensin 1.2 (PDF1.2)] expression, and flg22/FLS2-dependent impairment of pathogen growth. In a corresponding fashion, FLS2 loss of function impaired Pep signaling. In addition, a role for PAMP and DAMP perception in bolstering effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is reported; loss of function of either FLS2 or PEPR receptors impaired the hypersensitive response (HR) to an avirulent pathogen.

  20. Effects of symbiotic bacteria on chemical sensitivity of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakul, Patcharaporn; Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    The crustacean zooplankton Daphnia magna has been widely used for chemical toxicity tests. Although abiotic factors have been well documented in ecotoxicological test protocols, biotic factors that may affect the sensitivity to chemical compounds remain limited. Recently, we identified symbiotic bacteria that are critical for the growth and reproduction of D. magna. The presence of symbiotic bacteria on Daphnia raised the question as to whether these bacteria have a positive or negative effect on toxicity tests. In order to evaluate the effects of symbiotic bacteria on toxicity tests, bacteria-free Daphnia were prepared, and their chemical sensitivities were compared with that of Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria based on an acute immobilization test. The Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria showed higher chemical resistance to nonylphenol, fenoxycarb, and pentachlorophenol than bacteria-free Daphnia. These results suggested potential roles of symbiotic bacteria in the chemical resistance of its host Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant and animal pathogen recognition receptors signal through non-RD kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dardick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals mediate early steps of the innate immune response through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs. PRRs commonly associate with or contain members of a monophyletic group of kinases called the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK family that include Drosophila Pelle, human IRAKs, rice XA21 and Arabidopsis FLS2. In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP kinase family, distant relatives to the IRAK family. Some IRAK and RIP family kinases fall into a small functional class of kinases termed non-RD, many of which do not autophosphorylate the activation loop. We surveyed the yeast, fly, worm, human, Arabidopsis, and rice kinomes (3,723 kinases and found that despite the small number of non-RD kinases in these genomes (9%-29%, 12 of 15 kinases known or predicted to function in PRR signaling fall into the non-RD class. These data indicate that kinases associated with PRRs can largely be predicted by the lack of a single conserved residue and reveal new potential plant PRR subfamilies.

  2. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberel......The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response...... to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...... molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...

  3. Different gymnosperm outgroups have (mostly) congruent signal regarding the root of flowering plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean W; Iles, William J D

    2009-01-01

    We examined multiple plastid genes from a diversity of gymnosperm lineages to explore the consistency of signal among different outgroups for rooting flowering plant phylogeny. For maximum parsimony (MP), most outgroups attach on a branch of the underlying ingroup tree that leads to Amborella. Maximum likelihood (ML) analyses either root angiosperms on a nearby branch or find split support for these neighboring root placements, depending on the outgroup. The inclusion of two species of Hydatellaceae, recently recognized as an ancient line of angiosperms, does not aid in inference of the root. Cost profiles for placing the root in suboptimal locations are highly correlated across most outgroup comparisons, even comparing MP and ML profiles. Those for Gnetales are the most deviant of all those considered. This divergent outgroup either attaches on a long eudicot branch with moderate bootstrap support in MP analyses or supports no particular root location in ML analysis. Removing the most rapidly evolving sites in rate classifications based on two divergent angiosperm root placements with Gnetales yields strongly conflicting root placements in MP analysis, despite substantial overlap in the estimated sets of conservative sites. However, the generally high consistency in rooting signal among distantly related gymnosperm clades suggests that the long branch connecting angiosperms to their extant relatives may not interfere substantially with inference of the angiosperm root.

  4. Modification of plant Rac/Rop GTPase signalling using bacterial toxin transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj K; Ren, Fugang; Giesemann, Torsten; Dal Bosco, Cristina; Pasternak, Taras P; Blein, Thomas; Ruperti, Benedetto; Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus; Molendijk, Arthur J; Palme, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial protein toxins which modify Rho GTPase are useful for the analysis of Rho signalling in animal cells, but these toxins cannot be taken up by plant cells. We demonstrate in vitro deamidation of Arabidopsis Rop4 by Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) and glucosylation by Clostridium difficile toxin B. Expression of the catalytic domain of CNF1 caused modification and activation of co-expressed Arabidopsis Rop4 GTPase in tobacco leaves, resulting in hypersensitive-like cell death. By contrast, the catalytic domain of toxin B modified and inactivated co-expressed constitutively active Rop4, blocking the hypersensitive response caused by over-expression of active Rops. In transgenic Arabidopsis, both CNF1 and toxin B inhibited Rop-dependent polar morphogenesis of leaf epidermal cells. Toxin B expression also inhibited Rop-dependent morphogenesis of root hairs and trichome branching, and resulted in root meristem enlargement and dwarf growth. Our results show that CNF1 and toxin B transgenes are effective tools in Rop GTPase signalling studies.

  5. Calcium Signalling in Plant Mechanoresponses%植物机械响应中的钙通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益川; 王伯初; 时兰春; 孔静

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signalling system, with calcium signal as the most important component, plays indispensible functions in plant mechanoresponses. Mechano-induced calcium signals have been observed in different plant species. Recent observation of mechanostimulus-specific calcium signatures with Yellow cameleon 3.6 imaging has demonstrated that calcium is an early trigger of the complex mechanotransduction pathways in plant cells. The essential functions of different calcium signalling components in plant mechanoresponses have also been revealed by pharmacological approaches. Although the potential existence of plant specific starch-activated Ca2* channels is an attractive hypothetical mechanism for plant mechanoperception, convinced candidate molecules for these channels have not yet been identified. Similarly, the original discovery of touch-inducible genes suggested the potential involvement of calmodulin or calmodulin-like proteins in Arabidopsis mechanoresponses, but the mechano-related functions of these touch-inducible genes have not been investigated. The present article reviewed the progresses achieved in the investigations of calcium signalling in plant mechanoresponses, summarized the remaining questions and proposed future directions for this research field.%以胞质钙离子浓度变化(钙信号)为核心的钙通信系统在植物机械响应中发挥着不可替代的作用.本文综述了机械刺激诱导的植物细胞钙信号及其生理作用、植物机械敏感钙通道,以及TCH基因编码的钙调蛋白和钙调蛋白类似蛋白等的研究进展,总结了该领域尚待解决的问题,并对未来的研究方向进行了展望.

  6. The intertwined population biology of two Amazonian myrmecophytes and their symbiotic ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2009-06-01

    A major question in ecology is: how do mutualisms between species affect population dynamics? For four years, we monitored populations of two Amazonian myrmecophytes, Cordia nodosa and Duroia hirsuta, and their symbiotic ants. In this system, we investigated how positive feedback between mutualistic plants and ant colonies influenced population processes at two scales: (1) how modular organisms such as plants and ant colonies grew, or eta-demography, and (2) how populations grew, or N-demography. We found evidence of positive feedback between ant colony and plant growth rates. Plants with mutualistic ants (Azteca spp. and Myrmelachista schumanni) grew in a geometric or autocatalytic manner, such that the largest plants grew the most. By contrast, the growth of plants with parasitic ants (Allomerus octoarticulatus) saturated. Ant colonies occupied new domatia as fast as plants produced them, suggesting that mutualistic ant colonies also grew geometrically or autocatalytically to match plant growth. Plants became smaller when they lost ants. While unoccupied, plants continued to become smaller until they had lost all or nearly all their domatia. Hence, the loss of mutualistic ants limited plant growth. C. nodosa and D. hirsuta live longer than their ant symbionts and were sometimes recolonized after losing ants, which again promoted plant growth. Plant growth had fitness consequences for ants and plants; mortality and fecundity depended on plant size. Positive feedback between ants and plants allowed a few plants and ant colonies to become very large; these probably produced the majority of offspring in the next generation.

  7. Reactive oxygen species generation-scavenging and signaling during plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica interaction under stress condition

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Nath; Deepesh Bhatt; Ram Prasad; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Naser A. Anjum; Narendra Tuteja

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also acts as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a...

  8. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  9. From filaments to function:The role of the plant actin cytoskeleton in pathogen perception, signaling and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Porter; Brad Day

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is required for numerous cellular processes, including cell shape, develop-ment and movement, gene expression and signal transduc-tion, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. In recent years, research in both plants and animal systems have described a function for actin as the ideal surveillance platform, linking the function and activity of primary physiological processes to the immune system. In this review, we will highlight recent advances that have defined the regulation and breadth of function of the actin cytoskeleton as a network required for defense signaling following pathogen infection. Coupled with an overview of recent work demonstrating specific targeting of the plant actin cytoskeleton by a diversity of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses, we will highlight the importance of actin as a key signaling hub in plants, one that mediates surveillance of cellular homeostasis and the activa-tion of specific signaling responses following pathogen perception. B4ased on the studies highlighted herein, we propose a working model that posits changes in actin filament organization is in and of itself a highly specific signal, which induces, regulates and physically directs stimulus-specific signaling processes, most importantly, those associated with response to pathogens.

  10. Final Report: Signal Transduction in Plant Development: chemical and Biochemical Approaches to Receptor Identification, May 15, 1991 - May 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, David

    1997-05-14

    Work on the phenolic signals in Striga has provided evidence that the compounds are detected via a chemical reaction, quite distinct from our current models of hormone/growth factor detection by membrane localized binding proteins. Evidence ha been obtained that the recognition mechanism is a redox reaction most likely controlled by plasma membrane localized oxidoreductases. While the existence of these redox systems have been demonstrated in both plants and animals, only recently has convincing evidence connecting e- transport with plant development emerged. These discoveries have profound consequences for both the control of plant cell growth as well as strategies for general growth control.

  11. Elucidation of the Signal Transduction Pathways Activated by the Plant Natriuretic Peptide AtPNP-A

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) comprise a novel class of hormones that share some sequence similarity in the active site with their animal analogues that function as regulators of salt and water balance. A PNP present in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPNP-A) has been assigned a role in abiotic and biotic stress responses, and the recombinant protein has been demonstrated to elicit cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent stomatal guard cell opening, regulate ion movements, and induce osmoticum-dependent water uptake. Although the importance of the hormone in maintaining ion and fluid homeostasis has been established, key components of the AtPNP-A-dependent signal transduction pathway remain unknown. Since identification of the binding partners of AtPNP-A, including its receptor(s), is fundamental to understanding the mode of its action at the molecular level, comprehensive protein-protein interaction studies, involving yeast two-hybrid screening, affinity-based assays, protein cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric (MS) analyses have been performed. Several candidate binding partners of AtPNP-A identified with at least two independent methods were subsequently expressed as recombinant proteins, purified, and the specificity of their interactions with the recombinant AtPNP-A was verified using surface plasmon resonance. Several specific binary interactants of AtPNP-A were subjected to functional assays aimed at unraveling the consequences of the interactions in planta. These experiments have revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are novel secondary messengers involved in the transduction of AtPNP-A signal in suspension-cultured cells of A. thaliana (Col-0). Further insight into the AtPNP-A dependent signalling events occurring in suspension-cultured cells in ROS-dependent or ROS-independent manner have been obtained from the large-scale proteomics study employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labelling followed by MS analysis to

  12. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Lori, M.

    2015-05-22

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologs in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail. Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility.

  13. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  14. Regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) infected with Rhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberger, W

    1977-10-24

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concetrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.

  15. [Construction of high-effective symbiotic bacteria: evolutionary models and genetic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Iurgel', S N; Kurchak, O N; Chizhevskaia, E P; Vorob'ev, N I; Zatovskaia, T V; Simarov, B V

    2014-11-01

    Using the example of N2-fixing legume-rhizobial symbiosis, we demonstrated that the origin and evolution of bacteria symbiotic for plants involve the following: 1) the formation of novel sym gene systems based on reorganizations of the bacterial genomes and on the gene transfer from the distant organisms; 2) the loss of genes encoding for functions that are required for autonomous performance but interfere with symbiotic functions (negative regulators of symbiosis). Therefore, the construction of effective rhizobia strains should involve improvement of sym genes activities (for instance, nif, fix, and dct genes, encoding for nitrogenase synthesis or for the energy supply of N2 fixation), as well as the inactivation of negative regulators of symbiosis identified in our lab (eff genes encoding for the transport of sugars, and the production of polysaccharides, and storage compounds, as well as for oxidative-reductive processes).

  16. Effect of Naturally Occurring nif Reiterations on Symbiotic Effectiveness in Rhizobium phaseoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, David; Singleton, Paul W.; Segovia, Lorenzo; Morett, Enrique; Bohlool, B. Ben; Palacios, Rafael; Dávila, Guillermo

    1988-01-01

    Most naturally occurring strains of Rhizobium phaseoli possess reiteration of the nif genes. Three regions contain nitrogenase structural genes in strain CFN42. Two of these regions (a and b) have copies of nifH, nifD, and nifK, whereas the third region (c) contains only nifH. Strains containing mutations in either nif region a or nif region b had significantly diminished symbiotic effectiveness compared with the wild-type strain on the basis of nodule mass, total nitrogenase activity per plant, nitrogenase specific activity, total nitrogen in the shoot, and percentage of nitrogen. A strain containing mutations in both nif region a and nif region b was totally ineffective. These data indicate that both nif region a and nif region b are needed for full symbiotic effectiveness in R. phaseoli. PMID:16347593

  17. An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerhoff, Mariana; Fosalba, C.; Bruzzone, C.

    2006-01-01

    and the cosmopolitan submerged Ceratophyllum demersum, on horizontal movement by the water flea Daphnia obtusa. We tested for avoidance of plants in the absence and presence of alarm signals from crushed conspecifics and chemical cues from the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, the fish have been subjected to different...

  18. Cross-talk between signaling pathways: the link between plant secondary metabolite production and wounding stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-02-25

    Plants subjected to wounding stress produce secondary metabolites. Several of these metabolites prevent chronic diseases and can be used as colorants, flavors, and as antimicrobials. This wound-induced production of plant secondary metabolites is mediated by signaling-molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA). However, their specific role and interactions that modulate the wound-respond in plants is not fully understood. In the present study, a subtractive cDNA library was generated, to better understand the global response of plants to wounding stress. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as a model system for this study. A total of 335 unique expressed sequence tags (E