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Sample records for plant growth substances

  1. A Review of Plant Growth Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Agboola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth substances are compounds, either natural or synthetic that modifies or controls through physiological action, the growth and maturation of plants. If the compound is produced within the plant, it is called a plant hormone or phytohormone. In general, it is accepted that there are five major classes of plant hormones. They are Auxins (IAA, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid. However, there are still many plant growth substances that cannot be grouped under these classes, though they also perform similar functions, inhibiting or promoting plant growth. These substances include Brassinosteroids (Brassins, Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Fusicoccin, Batasins, Strigolactones, Growth stimulants (e.g. Hymexazol and Pyripropanol, Defoliants (e.g. Calcium Cyanamide, Dimethipin. Researchers are still working on the biosynthetic pathways of some of these substances. Plant growth substances are very useful in agriculture in both low and high concentrations. They affect seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves and fruits, leaf formation, stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Some synthetic regulators are also used as herbicides and pesticides. Therefore, attention should be paid to the production and synthesis of these substances so that they affect plants in a way that would favour yield.

  2. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  3. Pattern of growth and 14C-assimilates distributions in relation to photosynthesis in radish plants treated with growth substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of radish plants, with very thin hypocotyl and with a normal storage organ, the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration did not differ. Therefore, the conclusion may be advanced, that translocation to the swollen hypocotyl is not determinated by the photosynthetic productivity, but rather the by storage capacity. To check it this is connected with an unbalanced hormonal content, plants were treated with lanoline paste, with IAA, GA3, zeatin and all three in mixture or with injections of GA3-water solution into the swollen hypocotyl. In young radish plants, with high rate of growth of aerial parts, treatment with the above mentioned substances stimulated 14CO2-assimilation and increased retention of assimilates in 14C-donors, probably owing to retardation of their senescence. It increased the competition for photosynthates between shoot and storage organ. In older plants, in the stage of accumulation of nutrients in the swollen hypocotyl, IAA +GA3+zeatin did not affect 14CO2-assimilation, but in plants treated with growth regulators separately, assimilation decreased; IAA and GA3 stimulated transport and accumulation of labelled substances in the swollen hypocotyl. On the basis of experimental data the conclusion may be advanced that responsiveness of the particular organs and processes to growth regulators depends on the stage of plant development. Phytohormone did not changed quantitatively the pattern of 14C-assimilates distribution. They stimulated processes with preference for particular stages of development.

  4. Growth of bean and tomato plants as affected by root absorbed growth substances and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, F; Halevy, A H; Wittwer, S H

    1967-01-01

    Bean and tomato plants were grown in solution culture root media containing pre-determined concentrations of gibberellin A/sub 3/ (GA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), N/sup 6/-benzyladenine (BA), (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), and at atmospheric levels of 300 and 1000 ppm of CO/sub 2/. Net assimilation rates (NAR), relative growth rates (RGR), leaf area ratios (LAR), root to top dry weight ratios (R/T) and changes in dry weight, size, and form of each organ were recorded. Gibberellin had no effect on RGR of either plant species but increased the NAR of tomatoes at 1000 ppm CO/sub 2/. Total dry weight was only slightly affected by GA but root growth and R/T were markedly depressed. CCC had no effect on NAR, but decreased RGR and LAR. Root growth of beans and R/T in both plants were promoted by CCC. NAR and RGR were strongly inhibited by BA and NAA. Inhibition of stem and leaf growth by CCC and NAA was greater than that for roots; thus, R/T ratios were increased. Root branching was promoted by NAA. High (1000 ppm), compared to the low (300 ppm), atmospheric levels of CO/sub 2/ generally promoted root growth and produced an increase in the R/T, both in the absence and presence of chemical treatment. The multiplicity of effects of the root-absorbed chemical growth substances and CO/sub 2/ on growth and photosynthesis is discussed.

  5. Effect of soil contamination with oil substances on the growth of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sara, V.; Kult, L.; Vavra, J.

    1993-12-01

    The growth of barley, maize, wheat and alfalfa was studied in dependence on the level of soil pollution with crude oil. Attention was also paid to the effect of such contamination on the vanadium and nickel contents of the above-ground parts of the plants. Experiments revealed that, with the exception of alfalfa, the vanadium content of plants which had been grown in the contaminated soil was about one-half with respect to the values observed in plants grown in uncontaminated soil, and the nickel content was also lower than in control plants. Introduced into the soil by injection in concentrations of 180 to 500 ppm, crude oil was found to induce local damage in the plants, resulting in a smaller size of the plants and a delayed or missing earing phase, with repercussions on the grain size and quantity. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  7. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  8. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Humic Substance on the Phytoremediation of Nickel in a Ni-Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Shafigh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants can uptake, bioaccumulate and immobilize different metals in their tissues. Phytoremediation technique has been used to remove hazardous substances including heavy metals from the environment. Assisted phytoremediation is usually the process of applying a chemical additive to heavy metal contaminated soils to enhance the metal uptake by plants. The main objective of present study was to investigate the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGRs and a humic substance (HS on Ni phytoremediation by maize in a Ni-pollutrd calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: The experiment designed as a 5×3 factorial trial arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Three kilograms of soil was placed in plastic pots and pots were watered with distilled water to field capacity and maintained at this moisture level throughout the experiment by watering the pots to a constant weight. The soils were polluted with 250 mg Ni Kg-1 as Ni-nitrate Ni (NO32. Six maize (Zea mays L. seeds were planted 2 cm deep in soil and thinned to three uniform stands 1 week after emergence. Treatments consisted of three levels of soil application of commercially humic substance, HS, (0, 3, and 6 mg kg as Humax 95-WSG containing about 80% humic acid, and about 15% fulvic acid and five levels of PGRs (0 or 10 µM GA3, IAA, BAP and SA. The HS was applied as split doses in three times at 15 day intervals along with irrigation water. The seedlings were exposed to aqueous solutions of HS 16 days after sowing for the first time. Prepared solutions of PGRs were sprayed three times at 15 day intervals from emergence. Seven weeks after planting, shoots were harvested and roots were separated from soil carefully, both parts were rinsed with distilled water and dried at 65°C for 72 h, weighed, ground, and dry meshed at 550°C. Root and shoot dry matter and Ni concentration and uptake and phytoremediation criteria were considered as plant responses

  9. The use of Citrus tissue culture for mutation breeding. Effects of plant growth substances and gamma irradiation on embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1976-01-01

    An embryogenic callus subcultured from unfertilized ovules of the 'Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis) was established and is used for mutation-breeding. The callus is habituated and lines of differing embryogenic potential were established. The effect of growth substances and of gamma-irradiation on embryogenesis were studied. Auxins and cytokinins inhibited embryogenesis while inhibitors of auxin synthesis and a cytokinin antagonist significantly stimulate embryogenesis in an embryogenic line. A non-embryogenic callus line did not respond to these treatments. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when callus but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture and irradiation intensities modify irradiation induced embryogenesis by changing optimal dose range and radiosensitivity of the callus. Addition of IAA to unirradiated medium resulted in increased embryogenesis and greatly stimulated plantlet development in certain combinations of irradiation dose and IAA concentration. (author)

  10. The plant growth promoting substance, lumichrome, mimics starch and ethylene-associated symbiotic responses in lotus and tomato roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel eGouws

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus or Glomus intraradices/Glomus mossea (for tomato. It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato.

  11. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  12. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g−1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549

  13. The role of plant growth substances in the regulation of the cell cycle in antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L. I. Effect of gibberellic acid on some, processes in the course of the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Godlewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gibberellic acid (10-4 M on the incorporation of 8-14C adenine, 3H phenylalanine, the dimensions of mitotic cells and the durations of particular stages in the cell cycle were studied in synchronously dividing cells of the antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris L. during succesive periods of growth and differentiation. GA3 strongly stimulates the uptake of both labeled precursors in the course of a whole interphase and in all generations of the antheridial filaments; approximatively in proportion to the intensity of the process in the control. The gibberellin causes a slight increment in cell dimensions and strongly reduces the cell cycle durations: the S, G2, and M to a similar degree. The earlier is the generation of the antheridial filament, the more pronounced is the influence of the plant growth substance. Since the gibberellin stimulated the course of all examined processes, the present study did not reveal any stage of interphase to be especially sensitive to GA3. The results suggest to interpret the effect of GA3 as an unspecific stimulator of metabolism in cells of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L.

  14. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  15. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  16. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  17. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms are able to promote plant growth through various mechanisms, such as production of plant hormones and antimicrobial substances, as well as to provide the soil with nutrients, for instance, inorganic phosphate. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from ...

  18. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  19. Phytotoxic property of the invasive plant Tithonia diversifolia and a phytotoxic substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Arihiro; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2017-06-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hermsl.) A. Gray is a perennial invasive plant and spreads quickly in the invasive areas. The extracts of T. diversifolia were found to be toxic to several crop plant species such as rice, maize, sorghum, lettuce and cowpea, and several putative allelopathic substances were identified. However, there is limited information available for the effects of T. diversifolia on wild plants including weed plant species. We investigated the allelopathic potential of T. diversifolia extracts on weed plants, and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity. An aqueous methanol extract of T. diversifolia leaves inhibited the growth of weed plants, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Phleum pretense L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. The extract was then purified by several chromatographic runs and a phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral analysis as tagitinin C. The substance inhibited the growth of Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense and Echinochloa crus-galli at concentrations greater than 0.1 - 0.3 mM. The present results suggest that T. diversifolia may possess allelopathic potential on weed plants and tagitinin C may be responsible for the allelopathic effects of T. diversifolia. The allelopathic potential of T. diversifolia may contribute to its invasive characteristics.

  20. THE EFFECT OF FORMULATION HUMIC SUBSTANCE AND Trichoderma sp TO INCREASE PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF CORN (Zea Mays,L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Eko Kusuma Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research to determine of formulation humic subtance and Trichoderma sp to increase the production and growth of corn (zea mays,L. This research was conducted by extracting humic substance with fractionation organic matter method from cattle manure organic material. Trichoderma sp grow on corn medium and harvested after reaching a density of 1015 cfu. Created this compound formulation with mixing humic substance and Trichoderma sp. Indicator plant with F1 sweet corn Jago varieties. Aplication used humic substance in range 8%, 16%, and 32% on the recommended use NPK fertilizer for corn, as well as control without humic substance. The result showed application use 8% humic substance most good for plant growth and harvest. Additionally, nutrient uptake NPK fertilizer efficiency is increased and more effective than control and use of the formulation 16% and 32% humic substance.

  1. Metabolomics and bioactive substances in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod

    Metabolomic analysis of plants broadens understanding of how plants may benefit humans, animals and the environment, provide sustainable food and energy, and improve current agricultural, pharmacological and medicinal practices in order to bring about healthier and longer life. The quality...... and amount of the extractible biological information is largely determined by data acquisition, data processing and analysis methodologies of the plant metabolomics studies. This PhD study focused mainly on the development and implementation of new metabolomics methodologies for improved data acquisition...... and data processing. The study mainly concerned the three most commonly applied analytical techniques in plant metabolomics, GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR. In addition, advanced chemometrics methods e.g. PARAFAC2 and ASCA have been extensively used for development of complex metabolomics data processing...

  2. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  3. Herbivore-plant interactions: mixed-function oxidases and secondary plant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F; Eisner, T

    1977-06-17

    The mixed-function oxidases of a polyphagous insect larva (the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania) were found to be induced by a diversity of secondary plant substances. The induction proceeds rapidly and in response to a small quantity of secondary substance. Following induction, the larva is less susceptible to dietary poisoning. It is argued that mixed-function oxidases play a major role in protecting herbivores against chemical stress from secondary plant substances.

  4. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level

  5. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  6. (Plant growth with limited water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  7. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS, humic (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves were established for the number of lateral roots growing from the main plant axis of tomato seedlings. The bioactivity of HA was greatest (highest response in lateral roots at lowest concentration while FA did not intensify root growth. Both HS and HA stimulated root hair formation. At low concentrations, HS and HA induced root hair formation near the root cap, a typical hormonal imbalance effect in plants. Transgenic tomato with reporter gene DR5::GUS allowed the observation that the auxin-related signalling pathway was involved in root growth promotion by HA.

  8. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  9. Growth of fluoride treated Kalanchoe pinnata plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H N; Applegate, H G

    1962-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata plants can absorb fluoride through roots. The absorption is related to the amount of fluoride applied to the soil. There appeared to be a relationship between the amount of fluoride adsorbed and the subsequent growth of the plants. Plants which adsorbed the largest amounts of fluoride had the greatest increase in growth.

  10. Effect of plant-biostimulant on cassava initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emílio de Souza Magalhães

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biostimulants are complex substances that promote hormonal balance in plants, favor the genetic potential expression, and enhance growth of shoots and root system. The use of these plant growth promoters in crops can increase quantitatively and qualitatively crop production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial biostimulant on the initial growth of cassava. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, corresponding to two cassava cultivars (Cacau-UFV and Coimbra and five biostimulant concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mL L-1. At 90 days after planting, the characteristics leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, total dry matter and dry matter of roots, stems and leaves were evaluated. The biostimulant promoted linear increases in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, total dry matter, dry matter of stems, leaves and roots. The cultivar Cacau-UFV had a higher growth rate than the cultivar Coimbra. The growth promoter stimulated the early growth of the cassava crop.

  11. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  12. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical....

  13. Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradford D.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

  14. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  15. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  16. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2), designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes [e.g. space farming in CE Life-Support-Systems]. We concentrate on the visible ({lambda} between 400 and 700 nm) and far red (FR; {lambda} > 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  17. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  18. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter.  The effect differs depending on whether the acquisition is horizontal or vertical.  We also find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters, and only if the takeover is vertical, not horizontal....

  19. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  20. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  1. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  2. GENETIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT GROWTH, SHOOT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    2Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA. ABSTRACT. Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining ...

  3. Conditions for Growth of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandercock, P.; Hooke, J.; Barberá, M.; Navarro-Cano, J.A.; Querejeta, J.I.; Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Meerkerk, A.; van Wesemael, B.; De Baets, S.; Poesen, J.; Hooke, J.; Sandercock, P.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter sets out the approach and research methods used to assess the plant types and species that grow in different parts of the targeted Mediterranean landscape and that could potentially be used in restoration strategies and mitigation of desertified and degraded land. Species occurring in

  4. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1999-07-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  5. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  6. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  7. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  8. Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) Augments IFN-gamma Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Vandana

    2004-01-01

    Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a member of the TGFB family regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in many cell types In the male embryo, MIS causes regression of the Mullerian duct...

  9. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  10. Atmospheric pollution and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasdale, J K.A.

    1952-03-01

    Although sulfur dioxide is the most common and usually the most abundant polluting agent, experiments with this gas have shown that, under the conditions employed, there is no effect on yield unless the concentration is high enough to cause leaf injury. S23 ryegrass was grown in beds in greenhouses. Treatment with purified air gave, with one exception, a dry weight considerably higher than treatment with polluted air. No sign of leaf damage could be detected in the greenhouse with polluted air. This fact would seem to indicate that pollution decreases the growth rate, even in the absence of visible injury.

  11. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...... of by sending it back to the head of a wastewater treatment plant. The system has proven to reduce the mass of nitrogen, COD, and water in the reject water, and can possibly reduce phosphorus and other substances. The overall effect is a reduction in the substance recycle within a wastewater treatment plant...

  12. Effect of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria inoculation on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in a wet season (Kharif) to study the effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) inoculation on agronomic traits and productivity of Basmati rice (cv. 'Pusa Basmati 1401') in a randomized block with twelve treatments. We evaluated one bacterial (Providencia sp. PW5) and one ...

  13. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Diamant. The tuber segments were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  14. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  15. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  16. Paradigm shift in plant growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2015-06-01

    For plants to grow they need resources and appropriate conditions that these resources are converted into biomass. While acknowledging the importance of co-drivers, the classical view is still that carbon, that is, photosynthetic CO2 uptake, ranks above any other drivers of plant growth. Hence, theory and modelling of growth traditionally is carbon centric. Here, I suggest that this view is not reflecting reality, but emerged from the availability of methods and process understanding at leaf level. In most cases, poorly understood processes of tissue formation and cell growth are governing carbon demand, and thus, CO2 uptake. Carbon can only be converted into biomass to the extent chemical elements other than carbon, temperature or cell turgor permit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anna-Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting

  18. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  19. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yeon-Sik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L. A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900 through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting

  20. The vascular plants: open system of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Alice; Fambrini, Marco; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom. One of the foundations of their success relies on the plant-pollinator relationship, essentially unique to angiosperms that pushed large speciation in both plants and insects and on the presence of the carpel, the structure devoted to seed enclosure. A seed represents the main organ preserving the genetic information of a plant; during embryogenesis, the primary axis of development is established by two groups of pluripotent cells: the shoot apical meristem (SAM), responsible for gene rating all aboveground organs, and the root apical meristem (RAM), responsible for producing all underground organs. During postembryonic shoot development, axillary meristem (AM) initiation and outgrowth are responsible for producing all secondary axes of growth including inflorescence branches or flowers. The production of AMs is tightly linked to the production of leaves and their separation from SAM. As leaf primordia are formed on the flanks of the SAM, a region between the apex and the developing organ is established and referred to as boundary zone. Interaction between hormones and the gene network in the boundary zone is fundamental for AM initiation. AMs only develop at the adaxial base of the leaf; thus, AM initiation is also strictly associated with leaf polarity. AMs

  1. Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth by producing phytohormone which enhances the growth and physiological activities of the host plant. Recently, legume bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) have been considered as a PGPR for legume as well as non-legumes and have the potential for growth ...

  2. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED, for example; the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. This OLED can also show a greater than 90% resemblance as an additional deeper red emitter is added. For a typical LED, the resemblance can be improved to 91% if two additional blue and red LEDs are incorporated. The approach may facilitate either an ideal use of the energy applied for plant growth and/or the design of better light sources for growing different plants.

  3. Use of cluster rhenium substances with alkyl ligands for inhibition of the Guerin carcinoma Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Voronkova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantity and quality of erythrocytes, blood haemoglobin concentration, glucose levels in the erythrocytes and plasma, content of TBA-active products in blood plasma of rats were studied during development of the Guerin carcinoma, introduction of cis-platinum and cluster rhenium substances with organic ligands. It was shown that rhenium substances had essential antioxidant effects and changed the dynamic of tumour growth. The conclusion on perspectiveness of further investigations of rhenium substances with cluster fragment and organic ligands in experiments in vivo with changed redox-status of an organism was drawn.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  5. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  6. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated

  7. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated.

  8. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the plant growth by a variety of ways like ... preparing textile dye in the Far East, Central and. Northern Asia and ... The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design.

  9. HELICOBACTER PYLORI GROWTH INHIBITION BY SUBSTANCE PRODUCED PSEUDOMONAS BY AEROGINOSA: IN VTRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FAZELI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of H.pylori against metronidazole is increasingly appeared in reports of investigators of gastric infections. So that, seeking to find more effective anti-helicobacter drugs is a necessity. In this study, inhibitory effect of the P. aeroginosa-produced substance on H. pylori growth was determined using two methods, Cross-streak and Well-diffusion Only two out of 37 P. aeroginosa isalates were able to inhibit H. pylori growth which one of them was chosen for further investigation. Its antibacterial activity was tested on 31 isolates of H. pylori consisting 27 metrondazole-sensitive and 4 metronidazole-resistant isolates. The inhibitory substance was enable to kill both metrondazole-sensitive and resistant isolates of H. pylori. The substance could also inhibit the of several other bacteria including E.coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp., S. aureus and a gram positive bacilli. While the inhibitory effect of the substance had no change at 40c for 30 days, its effect substantially reduced by treating at 600c for 15 minutes. Treatment of substance at 600c (30 min. 80?c and 100?c (15 & 30min, and freezing (-20?c and melting (37?c inactivated its inhibitory effect completely. Treatment with trips in also could inactivate it. Thus P. aeroginosa-produced substance, probably is a protein and may be classified in bacteriocin group.

  10. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  11. Influence of plant-originated gastroproteciive and antiulcer substances on gastric mucosal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Brzozowski, T; Gzhegotsky, M R

    2004-01-01

    Fundamental basis of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in mucosal injury and repair in gastrointestinal tract helps to develop new therapeutic approaches to various gut mucosal injury- related diseases. The study was aimed to assess the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulceric activities and to deteminate if these effects are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically. The following plant-originated substances were considered: Solon, capsaicin, grapefruit-seed extract and amaranth. The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study, 100% ethanol was applied ig to induced gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment-with L-NNA. Plant-originated substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of NOS I, NO release and an increase in gastric microcirculation.

  12. Response of pine hypocotyl sections to growth regulators and related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zakrzewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth response of Pinus silvestris hypocotyl sections to some synthetic growth regulators and related substances was studied. Elongation of hypocotyl sections was stimulated by naphtaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, in-dole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleaoetic amide, indoleacetic nitrile and coumarin. Indole-3-acetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid extended period of growth up to 16 and 24 hours, respectively. Growth was inhibited by kinetin, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid. No effect of gibberellic acid, tryptophan and biotin was observed.

  13. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  14. Influence of humic substances on plant-microbes interactions in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Pascazio, Silvia; Spaccini, Riccardo; Crecchio, Carmine; Trevisan, Marco; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances are known to play a wide range of effects on the physiology of plant and microbes. This is of particular relevance in the rhizosphere of terrestrial environments, where the reciprocal interactions between plants roots, soil constituents and microorganisms strongly influence the plants acquisition of nutrients. Chemical advances are constantly improving our knowledge on humic substances: their supra-molecular architecture, as well as the moltitude of their chemical constituents, many of which are biologically active. An approach for linking the structure of humic substances with their biological activity in the rhizosphere is the use of rhizoboxes, which allow applying a treatment (e.g., an amendment with humic substances) in an upper soil-plant compartment and take measurements in a lower isolated rhizosphere compartment that can be sampled at desired distances from the rhizoplane. This approach can be adopted to assess the effects of several humic substances, as well as composted materials, on maize plants rhizodeposition of carbon, and in turn on the structure and activity of rhizosphere microbial communities. In order to gain a complete understanding of processes occurring in the complex soil-plant-microorganisms tripartite system, rhizobox experiments can be coupled with bacterial biosensors for the detection and quantification of bioavailable nutrients, chemical analyses of main rhizodeposits constituents, advanced chemical characterizations of humic substances, DNA-fingerprinting of microbial communities, and multivariate statistical approaches to manage the dataset produced and to infer general conclusions. By such an approach it was found that humic substances are significantly affecting the amount of carbon deposited by plant roots. This induction effect is more evident for substances with more hydrophobic and complex structure, thus supporting the scientific hypothesis of the "microbial loop model", which assumes that plants feed

  15. The effect of humic substances on germination and early growth of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Novák, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2011), s. 470-476 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Chenopodium album * growth stimulation * humic substance * lignite * seed germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  16. Clonal growth and plant species abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-08-01

    Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf-height-seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area - height - seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially underlying clonal growth effects on abundance. Garden

  17. Elicitation of Pharmacologically Active Substances in Intact Medical Plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  18. Influence of dust on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, M F

    1959-01-01

    Further experiments were made at Kuibyshev with seedlings of Caragana aurantiaca and Prunus maackii. Some the plants were treated with a mixture of fine dust and soot at 2-2.5 g/sq m of leaf surface, and this treatment was repeated as necessary, at intervals during the growing season. Height growth of C. aurantiaca was 26.6%, and that of P. maackii 15.9% less than that of clean controls. Leaf surface area, measured shortly before fall, was 35.3% less than the controls in C. aurantiaca, and 20% less in P. maackii.

  19. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant

  20. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  1. Latent growth trajectories of substance use among pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Gwendolyn V; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African American), aged 13-18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at 4 time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and previous substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use before pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use after childbirth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  3. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  4. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and ...

  5. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... an ebb and flow system on the growth and flowering of kalanchoe cultivar 'Gold Strike' was examined. Plants potted in 10 cm .... photoperiod during the first six weeks after pinching. .... stage and adverse influences on overall growth of the plants. ..... retardants on the growth and flowering in poinsettia. RDA.

  6. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eFridlender

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early 19th century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  7. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  8. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  9. Martian Soil Plant Growth Experiment: The Effects of Adding Nitrogen, Bacteria, and Fungi to Enhance Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, D. M.; Cooper, J. B.; Anderson, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Plant growth is enhanced by the presence of symbiotic soil microbes. In order to better understand how plants might prosper on Mars, we set up an experiment to test whether symbiotic microbes function to enhance plant growth in a Martian soil simulant.

  10. [The significance of vaginal fluid substances as growth media in genital mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Gartzke, J; Böhme, H; Spitzbart, H

    1984-01-01

    By means of thin layer chromatography amino acids, lipids and phospholipids were detected in the vaginal fluids of pregnant and nonpregnant women with and without vaginal yeast colonization. Though pregnancy and/or yeast colonization do not seem to alter qualitatively the spectrum of amino acids and lipids of the vaginal fluid, an influence is supposed of these substances - like that of glucose - on growth and metabolism of the yeasts and on the clinical manifestation of vaginal candidosis.

  11. EFFECT OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES AND PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Parkányi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4  The aim of this work was determined effect of supplemental humic substances and probiotics on growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.  The growth performances were observed on two hundred and twelve growing rabbits assigned randomly by weight to two treatments. The treatments included: 1 Control group: in this group were rabbits fed with basal diet during all experiment (35th – 77th day, 2 experimental group: the animals were fed with basal diet+3kg/t humic substances – Humac Nature during whole experiment.  In this group was during fattening period (35th – 49th and 63rd – 70th days of age added to feed the probiotic preparation – Propoul (Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 1x108 CFU 2 g per ten pieces. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly in order to determine the average daily gain, average daily feed intake and gain/feed. The characteristics of meat quality were determined on twelve rabbit males at the age of 77 days, when the rabbits achieved average slaughter weight 2500g. Results of the whole experimental period showed that addition humic substances and probiotic preparation to the diet had positive effect (not significantly on intensity of growth live weight in the last phase of fattening period. The results of this study suggest that humic substances with probiotics might be utilized as a feed additive in the rabbit diet. It could not significantly improve growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.doi:10.5219/192 

  12. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  13. Laboratory study on influence of plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth response and tolerance of Zea ... inoculating maize seeds with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains in a crude oil impacted medium. ..... Botany and Environmental Health.

  14. Plant growth promoters and methods of using them

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    New plant growth regulators, including compounds and compositions, and methods of use including for promoting root growth. The compounds are carotenoid oxidation products, and a preferred example is 3-OH--β-apo-13-Carotenone. A method comprising

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  16. Engineered nanomaterials for plant growth and development: A perspective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Ashok Kumar; Patel, Manoj Kumar; Shah, Ashish; Kumar, Vinay; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-07-15

    With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding. Herein, we are presenting a comprehensive and critical account of different types of ENMs, their applications and their positive, negative and null impacts on physiological and molecular aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Recent reports revealed mixed effects on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield, epi/genetic alterations, and phytotoxicity, resulting from the ENMs' exposure. Creditable research in recent years has revealed that the effects of ENMs on plants are species specific and are variable among plant species. ENM exposures are reported to trigger free radical formation, responsive scavenging, and antioxidant armories in the exposed plants. The ENMs are also reported to induce aberrant expressions of microRNAs, the key post-transcriptional regulators of plant growth, development and stress-responses of plants. However, these modulations, if judiciously done, may lead to improved plant growth and yield. A better understanding of the interactions between ENMs and plant responses, including their uptake transport, internalization, and activity, could revolutionize crop production through increased disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and crop yield. Therefore, in this review, we are presenting a critical account of the different selected ENMs, their uptake by the plants, their positive/negative impacts on plant growth and development, along with the resultant ENM-responsive post

  17. Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cotton cultivation requires high plant densities and compact plants. Here we study planting density and growth regulator effects on plant structure and production of cotton when the cotton is grown in a relay intercrop with wheat, a cultivation system that is widespread in China. Field

  18. Gamma radiation (Co60) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Agnol, L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co 60 ). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  19. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  20. Substances inertes et plantes à effet insecticide utilisées dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les insecticides naturels tels que les plantes à effet insecticide et les substances inertes (sable, cendre, terres à diatomées,…) méritent d'être valorisées afin de réduire l'utilisation des insecticides chimiques et protéger l'environnement. Ce travail basé sur une revue documentaire fouillée et actualisée vise à faire la genèse ...

  1. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same.

  2. Sugar signals and the control of plant growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Jeroen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357520076; Hanson, Johannes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822299; Smeekens, Sjef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072489995

    2014-01-01

    Sugars have a central regulatory function in steering plant growth. This review focuses on information presented in the past 2 years on key players in sugar-mediated plant growth regulation, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, target of rapamycin kinase, and Snf1-related kinase 1 regulatory

  3. Nutrient leaching when soil is part of plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P) within plant growth media, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties, as part of plant growth media, for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sa...

  4. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  5. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Proerties of Rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the plant growth promoting characteristics and diversity of major tef rhizosphere isolates from central Ethiopia. A total of 162 bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and characterized. While screening using some plant growth ...

  6. Prospecting cyanobacterial formulations as plant-growth-promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacteria represent environment-friendly inputs that can lead to savings of nitrogenous fertilisers, in addition to improving plant growth and soil fertility. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the potential of cyanobacteria inoculants as nutrient-management and plant-growth-promoting options for maize hybrids, ...

  7. The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the best explants and media for spinach tissue culture, the effects of two different plant growth regulators, two explants and cultivars on adventitious shoot regeneration were tested. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that the effects of plant growth regulators on spinach tissue culture were significant; ...

  8. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Rodriguez; D. Carl Freeman; E. Durant McArthur; Yong Ok Kim; Regina S. Redman

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at...

  9. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Bernard R

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise.

  11. Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dweipayan Goswami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increase in food requirement is the global problem. It is inevitable to introduce new practices that help to increase agricultural productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR has shown potentials to be a promising technique in the practice of sustainable agriculture. A group of natural soil microbial flora acquire dwelling in the rhizosphere and on the surface of the plant roots which impose beneficial effect on the overall well-being of the plant are categorized as PGPR. Researchers are actively involved in understanding plant growth promoting mechanics employed by PGPR. Broadly, these are divided into direct and indirect mechanics. Any mechanism that directly enhances plant growth either by providing nutrients or by producing growth regulators are portrayed as direct mechanics. Whereas, any mechanisms that protects plant from acquiring infections (biotic stress or helps plant to grow healthily under environmental stresses (abiotic stress are considered indirect mechanics. This review is focused to describe cogent mechanics employed by PGPR that assists plant to sustain healthy growth. Also, we emphasized on the PGPR-based products which have been commercially developed exploiting these mechanics of PGPR.

  12. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  14. Plant growth promoting bacteria as an alternative strategy for salt tolerance in plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Muhammad; Bashir, Samina; Khan, Yasmin; Mumtaz, Roqayya; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 5.2 billion hectare agriculture land are affected by erosion, salinity and soil degradation. Salinity stress has significantly affecting the fertile lands, and therefore possesses a huge impact on the agriculture and economy of a country. Salt stress has severe effects on the growth and development of plants as well as reducing its yield. Plants are inherently equipped with stress tolerance ability to responds the specific type of stress. Plants retained specific mechanisms for salt stress mitigation, such as hormonal stimulation, ion exchange, antioxidant enzymes and activation of signaling cascades on their metabolic and genetic frontiers that sooth the stressed condition. Additional to the plant inherent mechanisms, certain plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) also have specialized mechanism that play key role for salt stress tolerance and plant growth promotion. These bacteria triggers plants to produce different plant growth hormones like auxin, cytokinine and gibberellin as well as volatile organic compounds. These bacteria also produces growth regulators like siderophore, which fix nitrogen, solubilize organic and inorganic phosphate. Considering the importance of PGPB in compensation of salt tolerance in plants, the present study has reviewed the different aspect and mechanism of bacteria that play key role in promoting plants growth and yield. It can be concluded that PGPB can be used as a cost effective and economical tool for salinity tolerance and growth promotion in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maila P; Bastos, Matheus S; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2017-09-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  17. Potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymes and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 10/sup 6/ cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha/sup -1/ and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha/sup -1/), half (Urea 30 Kg ha/sup -1/ and DAP 15 Kg ha/sup -1/) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha/sup -1/) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health. (author)

  18. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  19. 32P assessed phosphate uptake by tomato plants Hebros in relation to soil nutrient substance supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Rankov, V.; Dimitrov, G.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of phosphates by tomato plants, cv.Hebros, was assessed by 32 P in a vegetation pot experiment. Leached meadow-cinnamon soil was used, taken from a stationary field experiment to which, for a period of eight years, various rates of NPK were applied. As a result of that significant changes occurred in the soil nutrient substance supplies (concerning total and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and salts concentration). It was established that the coefficient of phasphate utilization by tomato plants was the highest (19.15%) on soil receiving a N 210 P 210 K 210 fertilizer application. Long-term fertilization with higher rates at a 1:1:1 NPK ratio increased the content of nutrient substances in the soil, but the coefficient of utilization of available phosphate diminished and was lowest (11.40%) in the case when a N 960 P 960 K 720 mineral fertilizer rate was applied. Following prolonged mineral fertilization with growing N rates (from 240 up to 720 kg/ha) at a background of P 720 K 210 , the coefficient of phosphate utilization by tomato plants also diminished from 16.16 to 12.26%. (author)

  20. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Z.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 2 (2014), s. 377-388 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal plants * frequency * plant communities of Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  1. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  2. Ocean acidification and the loss of phenolic substances in marine plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arnold

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO(2 often triggers the production of plant phenolics, including many that serve as herbivore deterrents, digestion reducers, antimicrobials, or ultraviolet sunscreens. Such responses are predicted by popular models of plant defense, especially resource availability models which link carbon availability to phenolic biosynthesis. CO(2 availability is also increasing in the oceans, where anthropogenic emissions cause ocean acidification, decreasing seawater pH and shifting the carbonate system towards further CO(2 enrichment. Such conditions tend to increase seagrass productivity but may also increase rates of grazing on these marine plants. Here we show that high CO(2 / low pH conditions of OA decrease, rather than increase, concentrations of phenolic protective substances in seagrasses and eurysaline marine plants. We observed a loss of simple and polymeric phenolics in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa near a volcanic CO(2 vent on the Island of Vulcano, Italy, where pH values decreased from 8.1 to 7.3 and pCO(2 concentrations increased ten-fold. We observed similar responses in two estuarine species, Ruppia maritima and Potamogeton perfoliatus, in in situ Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment experiments conducted in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These responses are strikingly different than those exhibited by terrestrial plants. The loss of phenolic substances may explain the higher-than-usual rates of grazing observed near undersea CO(2 vents and suggests that ocean acidification may alter coastal carbon fluxes by affecting rates of decomposition, grazing, and disease. Our observations temper recent predictions that seagrasses would necessarily be "winners" in a high CO(2 world.

  3. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  4. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Molina-Romero

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02 strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  5. Effect of plant growth regulators, explants type and efficient plantlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Plant Pathology, Tissue Culture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany,. University of ... variability in response to growth regulators. In vitro rooting ..... an adult tree Wrightia tomentosa through enhanced axillary.

  6. Quantification of growth benefit of carnivorous plants from prey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0190-9215 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mineral cost and benefit * stimulation of roots * growth stimulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  7. Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ( Zea Mays ) and Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum ) ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  8. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Photoperiod on In

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahin

    using the combination of two plant growth regulators and same photoperiod. Key words: Tissue culture, ... they can be stored and transplanted directly into the field without an acclimatization ..... SAS user's guide. cary, NC: Statistical Analysis ...

  9. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators increased the total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... the exogenous application of flavonoids reports plant growth regulation ... method used for extraction and quantification of endogenous gibberellins was ... 365 nm) while separation was done on a C18 reverse-phase HPLC.

  10. Isolation of phytohormones producing plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), trans-zeatin riboside (t-zr) and abscisic acid ... soil of Pakistan and their growth promoting effects have .... adapt themselves to salty environment of Khewra salt.

  11. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  12. An isolate of Haemophilus haemolyticus produces a bacteriocin-like substance that inhibits the growth of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Roger D; Gell, David A; Fairbairn, Rory L; Lyons, A Bruce; Shukla, Shakti D; Cho, Kum Yin; Jones, David A; Harkness, Nick M; Tristram, Stephen G

    2017-04-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) frequently colonises the upper respiratory tract and is an important cause of respiratory infections. Resistance to antibiotics is an emerging trend in NTHi and alternative prevention or treatment strategies are required. Haemophilus haemolyticus is a common commensal occupying the same niche as NTHi and, if able to produce substances that inhibit NTHi growth, may have a role as a probiotic. In this study, ammonium sulphate extracts from broth culture of 100 H. haemolyticus isolates were tested for the presence of substances inhibitory to NTHi using a well diffusion assay. One isolate produced a substance that consistently inhibited the growth of NTHi. The substance was inactivated by protease enzymes and had a molecular size of ca. 30 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. When the substance was tested against bacteria from eight Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera, only Haemophilus spp. were inhibited. Quantitative PCR testing showed the substance to be different to 'haemocin', the previously described bacteriocin of H. influenzae type b. These molecular characteristics, together with narrow-spectrum activity, suggest the substance may be a novel bacteriocin, and there is potential for this H. haemolyticus isolate to function as a probiotic for reduction of colonisation and subsequent infection with NTHi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  14. PLANT-MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE – STRATEGIES FOR PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are a group of bacteria that can actively colonize plant rootsand enhance plant growth using different mechanisms: production of plant growth regulators like indoleacetic acid,gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene(Zahir et al., 2003, providing the host plant with fixed nitrogen, solubilizationof soil phosphorus, enhance Fe uptake, biocontrol, reducing the concentration of heavy metals. PGPR are perfectcandidates to be used as biofertilizers – eco-friendly alternative to common applied chemical fertilizer in today’sagriculture. The most important benefit of PGPR usage is related to the reduction of environmental pollution in conditionof increasing crop yield. This review presents the main mechanisms involved in PGPR promotion of plant growth.

  15. Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address ...

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on regeneration of the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Calligonum comosum is important and that has achieved to protect the endangered multipurpose medicinally important desert plant in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Nodal segments were used as explants source and the effect of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) ...

  17. The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) tissue culture. Taha Roodbar Shojaei1*, Vahid Salari2, Darioush Ramazan3, Mahdi Ehyaei1, Javad. Gharechahi4 and Roya Motallebi Chaleshtori5. 1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of ...

  18. Influence of integrated phosphorus supply and plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To guarantee a sufficient phosphorus supply for plants, a rapid and permanent mobilization of phosphorus from the labile phosphorus fractions is necessary, because phosphorus concentrations in soil solution are generally low. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have shown potential to enhance ...

  19. The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and fecundity of Zonocerus variegatus (L) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The performance of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) fed on different food plants namely cassava (Manihot esculenta), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and acalypha ...

  20. Laboratory study on influence of plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of rhizobacteria on the growth and tolerance of Zea mays (maize) in a petroleum hydrocarbon (crude oil) impacted medium was investigated. This study evaluated the effect of inoculating maize seeds with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains in a crude oil impacted medium. The rhizobacterial strains ...

  1. deaminase from plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Striga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in pots to determine the growth effect of different rhizobacteria on maize under Striga hermonthica infestation. Three bacteria were selected based on their plant growth promoting effects. Whole bacterial cells of the rhizobacteria were used to amplify 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ...

  2. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  3. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  4. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... toum state and later spread to other part of the country ..... Effect of different concentrations of IBA and MS salt strength on rooting percentage, ... study for tissue culture of potato can get enough callus and plant regeneration efficiency to perform transgenic operation. Moreover, as the potentiality of shoot ...

  5. Auxin-BR Interaction Regulates Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiyu; Lv, Bingsheng; Ding, Tingting; Bai, Mingyi; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Plants develop a high flexibility to alter growth, development, and metabolism to adapt to the ever-changing environments. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in these processes and the molecular pathways to transduce various developmental signals are not linear but are interconnected by a complex network and even feedback mutually to achieve the final outcome. This review will focus on two important plant hormones, auxin and brassinosteroid (BR), based on the most recent progresses about these two hormone regulated plant growth and development in Arabidopsis, and highlight the cross-talks between these two phytohormones. PMID:29403511

  6. Materials and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Matias

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  7. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  8. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Katagiri

    Full Text Available Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W x 1.8 m (D x 2 m (H, providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant

  9. Plant growth control by light spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that have to cope with their environment as it is exposed to them in nature. To do so, they developed systems to sense environmental signals and to integrate these with endogenous developmental programs. As a result, they are well equipped to survive and flourish in

  10. EFFECT OF USING NUTRITION MINERALS AND GROWTH SUBSTANCE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried to investigate the characterization of orange fruits under using applications of nutrition minerals and one application of growth substance on physical properties of orange fruits at private farm in wadi el-netron, ELbehari governorate, Egypt during winter 2011to predict maturity stage of orange fruits . The physical properties including aspect ratio(AR, Area of flat surface(Af, Area of transverse surface (At, Arithmetic diameter (Da, Density (ρ, Geometric diameter (Dg, surface area (Sa, sphericity, Volume (V and weight and the results revealed that, the high increasing percentage of orange fruits were considered as follows 9.24, 17.08, 22.65, 9.70, 27.16, 9.70, 20.45, 6.38, 24.07 and 28.84 %

  11. Plant growth-promoting bacteria for phytostabilization of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandlic, Christopher J; Mendez, Monica O; Chorover, Jon; Machado, Blenda; Maier, Raina M

    2008-03-15

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal contenttailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  12. Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds. Using in gel assays we found that dead pericarps of both dehiscent and indehiscent dry fruits of various plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba release upon hydration multiple active hydrolytic enzymes that can persist in an active form for decades, including nucleases, proteases, and chitinases. Proteomic analysis of indehiscent pericarp of S. alba revealed multiple proteins released upon hydration, among them proteases and chitinases, as well as proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification and cell wall modification. Pericarps appear to function also as a nutritional element-rich storage for nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others. Sinapis alba dehiscent and indehiscent pericarps possess germination inhibitory substances as well as substances that promote microbial growth. Collectively, our study explored previously unknown features of the dead pericarp acting also as a reservoir of biological active proteins, and other substances capable of “engineering” the microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo.

  13. of Effect of different organic materials on plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrnosh eskandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Using organic matter, such as, peat and vermicompost as soil amendment, increases aeration, water infiltration, water holding capacity and nutrients of soil . A greenhouse experiment was performed to study the effect of organic materials on plant growth characteristics, total biomass and grain weight of chickpea with four treatments; 1 Soil + 3% peat (PS, 2 Sterile soil + 3% peat (SPS, 3 Soil + vermicompost (1:6 (VCS, 4 control (C in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that the maximum germination percentage, number of branch and number of pod per plant were observed in SPS treatment due to the avoidance of harmful microbial impacts. Plant height in this treatment reduced, whereas, no significant differences in total dry matter per plant and dry weight of chickpea per plant were observed compared to control. Plant growth consist of plant height, number of branch and number of pod per plant in vermicompost and soil + peat treatment reduced in the early stages probably because of plant - microbes interaction effects. Application of vermicompost increased fresh and dry weight, pod dry weight and single grain weight, probably due to more plant nutrient availability in this treatment when compared with other treatments.

  14. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  16. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M J; Gianello, C [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P I.F.; Carvalho, E B [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1994-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  18. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  19. Biotechnological application and taxonomical distribution of plant growth promoting actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Javad; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria are involved in various interactions known to affect plant fitness and soil quality, thereby increasing the productivity of agriculture and stability of soil. Although the potential of actinobacteria in antibiotic production is well-investigated, their capacity to enhance plant growth is not fully surveyed. Due to the following justifications, PGP actinobacteria (PGPA) can be considered as a more promising taxonomical group of PGP bacteria: (1) high numbers of actinobacteria per gram of soil and their filamentous nature, (2) genome dedicated to the secondary metabolite production (~5 to 10 %) is distinctively more than that of other bacteria and (3) number of plant growth promoter genera reported from actinobacteria is 1.3 times higher than that of other bacteria. Mechanisms by which PGPA contribute to the plant growth by association are: (a) enhancing nutrients availability, (b) regulation of plant metabolism, (c) decreasing environmental stress, (d) control of phytopathogens and (e) improvement of soil texture. Taxonomical and chemical diversity of PGPA and their biotechnological application along with their associated challenges are summarized in this paper.

  20. Effects of six substances on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Huang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Yichao; Liu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as starter cultures for the dairy industry depends largely on the number of viable and active cells. Freeze-drying is the most convenient and successful method to preserve the bacterial cells. However, not all strains survived during freeze-drying. The effects of six substances including NaCl, sorbitol, mannitol, mannose, sodium glutamate, betaine added to the MRS medium on the growth and freeze-drying survival rate and viable counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were studied through a single-factor test and Plackett-Burman design. Subsequently, the optimum freeze-drying conditions of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were determined. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus survival rates were up to the maximum of 42.7%, 45.4%, 23.6%, while the concentrations of NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate were 0.6%, 0.15%, 0.09%, respectively. In the optimum concentration, the viable counts in broth is 6.1, 6.9, 5.13 (×108 CFU/mL), respectively; the viable counts in freeze-drying power are 3.09, 5.2, 2.7 (×1010 CFU/g), respectively. Three antifreeze factors including NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate have a positive effect on the growth and freeze-drying of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The results are beneficial for developing Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

  1. Waste materials derived bio-effectors used as growth promoters for strawberry plants. An agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Brankica; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel concept of bio-effectors has emerged to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance more than fertilizers. In this study, three different agro-industrial residues, i.e. brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as potential bio-effectors. A greenhouse soilless pot experiment was conducted on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival) in order to study the effect of BSG, FPR and LPR water extracts, at different concentrations, on plant growth and fruit quality. Their effect was compared with humic-like substances as a positive/reference control (Ctrl+) and with Hoagland solution as a negative control (Ctrl-). Agronomic parameters and the nutrient uptake were measured on shoots, roots and fruits. Metabolomic profiling tests were carried out on leaves, roots and fruit juices through the NMR technique. Plants treated with the FPR extract showed better vegetative growth, while plants treated with the BSG extract gave higher yield and better fruit size. Metabolomic profiling showed that fruits and roots of plants treated with FPR and LPR extracts had higher concentrations of sucrose, malate and acetate, while BSG treated plants had higher concentrations of citrate and β-glucose. In conclusion, according to the results achieved, the bio-effectors used in this study promote plant growth and fruit quality regardless of their nutritional content. Keywords: bio-effectors, agro-industrial waste, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), strawberry, growth promotion, fruit quality.

  2. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  4. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  5. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Weraduwage, Sarathi; Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; C Anozie, Fransisca; D Sharkey, Thomas; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  7. Graphene quantum dots as enhanced plant growth regulators: effects on coriander and garlic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Disha; Erande, Manisha B; Late, Dattatray J

    2015-10-01

    We report investigations on the use of graphene quantum dots for growth enhancement in coriander (Coriandrum sativam L.) and garlic (Allium sativum) plants. The as-received seeds of coriander and garlic were treated with 0.2 mg mL(-1) of graphene quantum dots for 3 h before planting. Graphene quantum dots enhanced the growth rate in coriander and garlic plants, including leaves, roots, shoots, flowers and fruits, when the seeds were treated with graphene quantum dots. Our investigations open up the opportunity to use graphene quantum dots as plant growth regulators that can be used in a variety of other food plants for high yield. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard R. Glick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise.

  10. Effects of near ultraviolet and green radiations on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R.M.; Edsall, P.C.; Gentile, A.C.

    1965-01-01

    Selective removal of near ultraviolet and green wavelengths from white light permitted enhanced growth of marigold, tomato, corn, and Impatiens plants, Chlamydomonas cells and the mycelium of Sordaria. Additions of near ultraviolet and green radiations caused repressions in the growth of marigold and Sordaria. These wavelengths do not alter the oxidative mechanisms of mitochondria, intact algal cells or marigold leaf tissues. The capacity for chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis by Euglena cells was unaffected by these wavelengths. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  12. Effect of Bioremediation on Growth of Wheat Plant Cultivated In Contaminated Soil with Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azis, O.A.; El-Ghandour, I.A.; Galal, Y.G.M.; El-Sheikh, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of BYFA (bacterial, fungal, yeast, and actinomycetes isolates), and bio fertilizers (mycorrhizas and N 2 fixers) in remedy the heavy metals -polluted soil and its effect on wheat growth. Basal recommended doses of P and N were applied; the treatments were arranged in completely randomized block design. The results showed a positive effect on growth and N uptake by wheat cultivated in polluted soil with (Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Cd). The data cleared that, the lowest content of Pb in the soil was occurred with composite inoculants plus BFYA (274.57μ g/gm) as compared to the other treatments. Reduction in zinc content in soil was recorded with control + BFYA (272.0 μg/g) compared to other one. Similarly, inoculation with (Azo) + (BFYA) induced a reduction in Cu content in soil, Data of 15 N revealed that both the mechanisms of BNF have been occurred. In this respect, it is worthy to mention that, symbiotic bacteria has a considerable role with such cereal crop via BNF or enhancement of plant growth, The inoculation with Rh + AM resulted in the highest percentage of N uptake from fertilizer (29%), followed by AM, then Azo (23.9%, 22.7%, respectively) without BFYA. Another picture was noticed with BFYA whereas the best percentage was recorded with Azospirillum (19.3 %). This treatment is the only one that increased the portion of N derived from fertilizer over those recorded with the control (11.13%). BFYA have the ability to reduce the content of heavy metal in both the contaminated soil and wheat plant. Similar function was detected with bio fertilizers, besides to their effects on enhancement of plant growth via plant growth promotion substances and BNF mechanisms

  13. Trajectories of adolescent substance use development and the influence of healthy leisure: A growth mixture modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Caldwell, Linda L; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward A; Wegner, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Considerable heterogeneity exists in adolescent substance use development. To most effectively prevent use, distinct trajectories of use must be identified as well as differential associations with predictors of use, such as leisure experience. The current study used a person-centered approach to identify distinct substance use trajectories and how leisure is associated with trajectory classes. Data came from a larger efficacy trial of 2.249 South African high school students who reported substance use at any time across 8 waves. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify developmental trajectories of substance use and the influence of healthy leisure. Results identified three increasing and one stable substance use trajectory and subjective healthy leisure served to protect against use. This study is the first of its kind to focus on a sample of South African adolescents and serves to develop a richer understanding of substance use development and the role of healthy leisure. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  15. Interactive effects of above- and belowground herbivory and plant competition on plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Raaijmakers, C.; Kostenko, O.; Kos, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory

  16. APPLICATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH (Gossypium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruni Thamrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The condition of cotton planting in South Sulawesi is always constrained in the fulfillment of water. All plant growth stages are not optimal to increase production, so it is necessary to introduce good water management technology, such as through water supply with drip irrigation system. This study aims to analyze the strategy of irrigation management in cotton plants using drip irrigation system. Model of application by designing drip irrigation system and cotton planting on land prepared as demonstration plot. Observations were made in the germination phase and the vegetative phase of the early plants. Based on the result of drip irrigation design, the emitter droplet rate (EDR was 34.266 mm/hour with an operational time of 4.08 min/day. From the observation of cotton growth, it is known that germination time lasted from 6 to 13 days after planting, the average plant height reached 119.66 cm, with the number of leaves averaging 141.93 pieces and the number of bolls averaging 57.16 boll.

  17. Sphagnum growth in floating cultures: Effect of planting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish rapid and stable Sphagnum growth, capitulum culture of a selected strain of S. palustre was carried out using a floating culture method. Four planting treatments were tested at mountain and urban sites in Kumamoto Prefecture on Kyushu Island, south-west Japan. Capitula were planted in colonies of different sizes on 30 cm square floating rafts, but with strict control of the number (75–77 of capitula per raft. The initial cover of live green Sphagnum ranged from 15 to 20 %. Growth of the colonies was followed throughout the growing season (April to November of 2008. After three months, green coverage rates reached 40–50 % in all planting treatments. At the end of the growing season, the highest Sphagnum cover (almost 90 % at the urban site was recorded in the planting treatment with eleven re-introduced colonies of seven capitula (‘11×7cap’, while the highest capitulum number and biomass (dry weight gain occurred in the ‘4×19cap’ planting treatment. Average stem elongation ranged from 5 cm to 7 cm in the ‘77×1cap’ and ‘4×19cap’planting treatments, respectively, indicating that the larger sized colony grew longer stems. However, contrary to expectation, the ‘4×19cap’planting treatment - which had the largest colony size - did not deliver the highest number of newly formed side shoots.

  18. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  19. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  20. Transfer of phloem-mobile substances from the host plants to the holoparasite Cuscuta sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Haupt, Sophie; Hofius, Daniel; Neumann, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    During the development of the haustorium, searching hyphae of the parasite and the host parenchyma cells are connected by plasmodesmata. Using transgenic tobacco plants expressing a GFP-labelled movement protein of the tobacco mosaic virus, it was demonstrated that the interspecific plasmodesmata are open. The transfer of substances in the phloem from host to the parasite is not selective. After simultaneous application of (3)H-sucrose and (14)C-labelled phloem-mobile amino acids, phytohormones, and xenobiotica to the host, corresponding percentages of the translocated compounds are found in the parasite. An open continuity between the host phloem and the Cuscuta phloem via the haustorium was demonstrated in CLSM pictures after application of the phloem-mobile fluorescent probes, carboxyfluorescein (CF) and hydroxypyrene trisulphonic acid (HPTS), to the host. Using a Cuscuta bridge (14)C-sucrose and the virus PVY(N) were transferred from one host plant to the another. The results of translocation experiments with labelled compounds, phloem-mobile dyes and the virus should be considered as unequivocal evidence for a symplastic transfer of phloem solutes between Cuscuta species and their compatible hosts.

  1. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Andrade Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organism’s sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was tested with L. minor for the growth endpoints frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. Results showed acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility (coefficient of variance < 15.0% for all three of the measured endpoints. Statistically significant differences were observed between the EC50 values calculated based on the three endpoints (p < 0.05. Total frond area was the most sensitive one, with average EC50 value of 2742.80 ± 245.7 mg L-1. It was anticipated that NaCl can be a suitable alternative reference substance and that total frond area should be the endpoint of choice for sensitivity toxicity tests using NaCl.

  2. Plant Density Effect in Different Planting Dates on Growth Indices, Yield and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the appropriate plant density in different planting dates for sweet corn cultivar KSC403su, an experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design in split plot lay out with three replications at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj in 2006. Three planting dates (22 May, 5 June and 22 June were assigned as main plots and three plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plants per hectare were considered as sub plots. Effect of planting date on row/ear, 1000 kernels weight, biological yield and harvest index was significant at 1% probability level and it was significant at 5% probability level for kernels/ear row and grain yield. All traits decreased with postponement of planting date to 5 June except for row/ear, kernels/row and grain yield. More delay in planting from 22 May to 22 June caused that grain yield was decreased significantly about 32.5% (from 14.45 to 9.78 ton/ha. Effect of plant density was significant at 1% probability level for all the traits. All of the traits decreased significantly with increasing plant density except for biological yield. The highest grain yield was resulted from 65000 plants per hectare density (14.20 ton/ha. Interaction effect of planting date and plant density was significant at 5% probability level for biological yield and harvest index but it wasn’t significant for the other traits. Growth indices decreased with delay in planting date and increasing plant density. Only leaf area index increased in more plant densities. From the results of this experiment it might be resulted that appropriate planting date to produce the highest grain yield is 22 May to 5 June for sweet corn cultivar KSC403su and also the highest grain yield can obtain from 65000 plants per hectare density.

  3. Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And Productivity Of Component Crops In Cowpea/Cassava Intercropping System. ... Similarly, fresh root yield (t/ha) of cassava was influenced by cropping system and population density in 2005/2006, but not in 2004/2005 cropping season. Cassava tuber yield was ...

  4. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is unanimously admitted that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in modern agriculture create a real environmental and public health problems. One of the promising solutions to substitute these agrochemicals products is the use of bio-resources, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR ...

  5. Influence of plant growth regulators on development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore propagation of the plant material by cell cultures and the extraction of potential pharmaceutical active compounds are of great interest. Calli were established on different media from roots and shoots of seedlings and softness and colour of the tissue were compared. Optimum growth of callus cultures was ...

  6. Genetic relationship between plant growth, shoot and kernel sizes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...

  7. Antifungal activity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains were isolated from the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of wheat from four different sites of Pakistan. These strains were analyzed for production of indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphorous solublization capability and inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani on rye agar medium.

  8. Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Harikesh B

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemicals used to meet the needs of a rapidly growing human population can deteriorate the quality of ecosystems and are not affordable to farmers in low-resource environments. Here, we propose the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as a tool for sustainable food production without compromising ecosystems services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on Biodiesel plants growth performance and tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this research, we studied the growth performance and tolerance of three biodiesel plants namely; Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis to water stress. Research conducted on the three different soils from Kaita, Jibiya and Mai'adua in the semi-desert environments of Katsina State, Nigeria.

  10. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Properties of Rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and hence selected for further study. The sixty ... tolerance to a wide range of pH by most of the isolates. The 66 isolates ... chemicals and change in traditional cultivation practices ...

  11. Australian toon planted in Hawaii: tree quality, growth, and stocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert L. Wick; Robert E. Nelson; Libert K. Landgraf

    1971-01-01

    Tree quality and rates of growth and survival were higher in 5- to 8-year-old Australian toon (Toona australis) plantations on sites with deep soils, good drainage, and as or broken pahoehoe rock than in plantations on sites with poor drainage or unbroken pahoehoe rock. Stocking averaged 236 trees per acre. Spacing in initial plants should be about 6...

  12. Short-Chain Chitin Oligomers: Promoters of Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Winkler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose, and it forms an integral part of insect exoskeletons, crustacean shells, krill and the cell walls of fungal spores, where it is present as a high-molecular-weight molecule. In this study, we showed that a chitin oligosaccharide of lower molecular weight (tetramer induced genes in Arabidopsis that are principally related to vegetative growth, development and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Based on plant responses to this chitin tetramer, a low-molecular-weight chitin mix (CHL enriched to 92% with dimers (2mer, trimers (3mer and tetramers (4mer was produced for potential use in biotechnological processes. Compared with untreated plants, CHL-treated plants had increased in vitro fresh weight (10%, radicle length (25% and total carbon and nitrogen content (6% and 8%, respectively. Our data show that low-molecular-weight forms of chitin might play a role in nature as bio-stimulators of plant growth, and they are also a known direct source of carbon and nitrogen for soil biomass. The biochemical properties of the CHL mix might make it useful as a non-contaminating bio-stimulant of plant growth and a soil restorer for greenhouses and fields.

  13. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  14. Plant growth promoters and methods of using them

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-05

    New plant growth regulators, including compounds and compositions, and methods of use including for promoting root growth. The compounds are carotenoid oxidation products, and a preferred example is 3-OH--β-apo-13-Carotenone. A method comprising promoting the growth of at least one plant with use of an effective amount of at least one composition comprising an effective amount of at least one compound which is represented by A-B-C, wherein B is a bivalent polyene moiety, A is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a six-membered carbon ring, wherein the ring has at least one substituent linked to the ring by an oxygen atom, and C is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a carbonyl group. Synergistic effects can be used with combinations of compounds.

  15. Plant growth and laboratory atmosphere. [Phaseolus multiflorus Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, O

    1903-01-01

    The author observed that Phaseolus seedlings grown under glass bell jars which were closed off by water were two or three times as long as those seedlings which were grown under jars without the water closure. It was suspected that coal gas or other impurities were causing these results. Thus, experiments were performed to determine if indeed coal gas was affecting plant growth. Results indicated that coal gas has an inhibiting effect on the growth and length of the seedlings, but it also promotes the growth in thickness. Shortening and thickening was proportional to the concentration of the coal gas and the time of exposure. Mercury vapors were found to produce similar differences in height and thickness of seedlings as coal gas, but they are at the same time lethal to the plants.

  16. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  17. Characterization of Minnesota lunar simulant for plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, James P.; Lindsay, Willard L.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1993-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into a plant growth medium is crucial in the development of a regenerative life support system for a lunar base. Plants, which are the core of such a system, produce food and oxygen for humans and, at the same time, consume carbon dioxide. Because of the scarcity of lunar regolith, simulants must be used to infer its properties and to develop procedures for weathering and chemical analyses. The Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) has been identified to date as the best available simulant for lunar regolith. Results of the dissolution studies reveal that appropriately fertilized MLS can be a suitable medium for plant growth. The techniques used in conducting these studies can be extended to investigate the suitability of actual lunar regolith as a plant growth medium. Dissolution experiments were conducted using the MLS to determine its nutritional and toxicity characteristics for plant growth and to develop weathering and chemical analysis techniques. Two weathering regimes, one with water and one with dilute organic acids simulating the root rhizosphere microenvironment, were investigated. Elemental concentrations were measured using inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry and ion chromatography (IC). The geochemical speciation model, MINTEQA2, was used to determine the major solution species and the minerals controlling them. Acidification was found to be a useful method for increasing cation concentrations to meaningful levels. Initial results indicate that MLS weathers to give neutral to slightly basic solutions which contain acceptable amounts of the essential elements required for plant nutrition (i.e., potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, sodium, silicon, manganese, copper, chlorine, boron, molybdenum, and cobalt). Elements that need to be supplemented include carbon, nitrogen, and perhaps phosphorus and iron. Trace metals in solution were present at nontoxic levels.

  18. Differential growth responses of Brachypodium distachyon genotypes to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Fernanda P; Pankievicz, Vânia C S; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can associate and enhance the growth of important crop grasses. However, in most cases, the molecular mechanisms responsible for growth promotion are not known. Such research could benefit by the adoption of a grass model species that showed a positive response to bacterial inoculation and was amenable to genetic and molecular research methods. In this work we inoculated different genotypes of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon with two, well-characterized PGPR bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense and Herbaspirillum seropedicae, and evaluated the growth response. Plants were grown in soil under no nitrogen or with low nitrogen (i.e., 0.5 mM KNO3). A variety of growth parameters (e.g., shoot height, root length, number of lateral roots, fresh and dry weight) were measured 35 days after inoculation. The data indicate that plant genotype plays a very important role in determining the plant response to PGPR inoculation. A positive growth response was observed with only four genotypes grown under no nitrogen and three genotypes tested under low nitrogen. However, in contrast, relatively good root colonization was seen with most genotypes, as measured by drop plate counting and direct, microscopic examination of roots. In particular, the endophytic bacteria H. seropedicae showed strong epiphytic and endophytic colonization of roots.

  19. Differential responses of onion and garlic against plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oozunidou, G.; Asif, M.; Giannakuola, A.; Iliass, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Gibberellic acid-GA3, Prohexadione-Calcium, and Ethephon pre-harvest application on yield, biomass production, photosynthetic function, lipid peroxidation and quality characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants were investigated. Shoot length and biomass of onion and garlic, expressed either in fresh or dry weight, increased significantly under GA3, while a progressive decrease under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon occurred. Higher MDA (lipid peroxidation) values were recorded after Prohex-Ca and Ethephon supply on onion and garlic plants; it seems that GA3 treatment prevents lipid peroxidation as measured with the help of the TBARS method. Plants treated with Prohex-Ca and Ethephon revealed higher peroxidase activity compared to control and GA3 treated plants. Considering the results of MDA content and peroxidase activities it can be assumed that GA3 treated plants are slightly protected from the natural course of oxidative stress, which occurs during ageing as observed for control samples. The fluctuations of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters represent a general decline in chloroplasts function after plant growth regulators exposure, whereas in combination to the suppressed chlorophyll content, structural malformations of photo systems may also occur. The production of ascorbic acid, glucose and fructose content seems to be enhanced under GA3 in both species, while their values were depressed under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon. Overall, only GA3 supply leads to a vigorous onion and garlic growth and yield. (author)

  20. Phosphorus mobilizing consortium Mammoth P™ enhances plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Mancini, Lauren M.; Lee, Melanie N.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound—P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed. We investigated whether inoculation of soils with a bacterial consortium developed to mobilize soil P, named Mammoth PTM, could increase plant productivity. In turf, herbs, and fruits, the combination of conventional inorganic fertilizer combined with Mammoth PTM increased productivity up to twofold compared to the fertilizer treatments without the Mammoth PTM inoculant. Jalapeño plants were found to bloom more rapidly when treated with either Mammoth P. In wheat trials, we found that Mammoth PTM by itself was able to deliver yields equivalent to those achieved with conventional inorganic fertilizer applications and improved productivity more than another biostimulant product. Results from this study indicate the substantial potential of Mammoth PTM to enhance plant growth and crop productivity. PMID:27326379

  1. Experiments on Growth and Variation of Spaceship Loaded Plant Seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. Y.; Lee, G. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, J. B.

    2008-08-15

    This educational experiment was designed (1)to obtain the basic information on the effects of the space environments on plant growth and mutagenesis, (2)to evaluate plant germination and seedling growth under the effect of microgravity and light conditions and (3)to improve a child's scientific mind through the real-time observations of a seedling growth for two plants conducted both in space and on earth. This project was implemented?as one of the missions in the Korean Astronaut Program. Seeds of eleven plant species (rice, soybean, rape, radish, hot pepper, perilla, arabidopsis, orchids, dandelion, hibiscus, cosmos) was vacuum-sealed in aluminium bags. Those seeds was loaded in the 'Progress' spaceship in Feb. 2008, traveled in the 'Progress', placed in the Russian Sector-International Space Station (RS-ISS), and then was brought by the Korean astronaut from the RS-ISS, and handed over to us at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The germination rate, plant growth and mutation type/frequency of the returned plants are under testing in the lab and field in KAERI now. The first Korean astronaut, Dr. So-Yeon Yi, who had returned to earth on April 19, 2008 after successfully completing her scientific mission for 12 days in Space, performed the experiment of plant germination and seedling growth in the International Space Station (ISS), and a similarly designed experiment kit was distributed to conduct the experiment by student and adult volunteers in Korea at the same time. The experiment was to observe the effects of microgravity and light on a seedling growth for soybean and radish. We designed a growth kit that was an all-in-one package consisting of seeds (12 seeds in each chamber) and rock wool as a growing medium filled in four polycarbonate growing chambers in a light proof textile bag or carton paper. The bottom of the chamber was filled with a tightly-fitted rock wool which can hold water and provide moisture during a

  2. Experiments on Growth and Variation of Spaceship Loaded Plant Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. Y.; Lee, G. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, J. B.

    2008-08-01

    This educational experiment was designed (1)to obtain the basic information on the effects of the space environments on plant growth and mutagenesis, (2)to evaluate plant germination and seedling growth under the effect of microgravity and light conditions and (3)to improve a child's scientific mind through the real-time observations of a seedling growth for two plants conducted both in space and on earth. This project was implemented?as one of the missions in the Korean Astronaut Program. Seeds of eleven plant species (rice, soybean, rape, radish, hot pepper, perilla, arabidopsis, orchids, dandelion, hibiscus, cosmos) was vacuum-sealed in aluminium bags. Those seeds was loaded in the 'Progress' spaceship in Feb. 2008, traveled in the 'Progress', placed in the Russian Sector-International Space Station (RS-ISS), and then was brought by the Korean astronaut from the RS-ISS, and handed over to us at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The germination rate, plant growth and mutation type/frequency of the returned plants are under testing in the lab and field in KAERI now. The first Korean astronaut, Dr. So-Yeon Yi, who had returned to earth on April 19, 2008 after successfully completing her scientific mission for 12 days in Space, performed the experiment of plant germination and seedling growth in the International Space Station (ISS), and a similarly designed experiment kit was distributed to conduct the experiment by student and adult volunteers in Korea at the same time. The experiment was to observe the effects of microgravity and light on a seedling growth for soybean and radish. We designed a growth kit that was an all-in-one package consisting of seeds (12 seeds in each chamber) and rock wool as a growing medium filled in four polycarbonate growing chambers in a light proof textile bag or carton paper. The bottom of the chamber was filled with a tightly-fitted rock wool which can hold water and provide moisture during a seedling growth. The

  3. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  4. Effect of Media Culture on Growth and Sucker Pandanus Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali salehi sardoei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One factor that is of great importance to the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants, is the media. Planting plants in containers as an important component of the nursery technology has grown. Compared with farm volume, growth media used for each plant greatly reduce plant growth that largely influence by the physical and chemical properties of growth media used. Therefore, good management of potted plants bed will cause the plants have good quality. A good growth media with optimal physical and biological properties, relatively inexpensive, stable and style enough to work should be available. The Burgers showed that composted green waste can be used as substrates for soilless cultivation and improve the water-holding capacity of soil. The garden has a range of materials including hardwood and softwood bark, leaves, soil, waste, sewage sludge and coconut (cocopeat that has been used as a seed bed. According to the economic issues and increasing moisture storage, palm peat substrates are primary material that can be prepared as a good growth medium for the producing's presented level Country. Peat moss is not applicable to all plants because of high cost and poor absorption characteristics like low pH and low water holding capacity . This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of replacing peat moss palm waste and the effect of it on growth characteristics were studied. Materials and Methods: The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of eight treatments. The compressed unit (block was supplied and commercial cocopeat was used because of reducing the cost of transportation. Before applying this material, the amount of water was added for opening up and voluminous and become it completely uniform.. In treatments containing sand + perlite, these four types volume ratio of 1:1 and mixed with sand + perlite were used. First, wooden cuttings of pandanus in a bed of sand rooted in the

  5. Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens-plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense.

  6. Mass production of 'Swan's Golden', Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    Some species of 'Swan's Golden' have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of 'Swan's Golden' is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  7. Growth analysis partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom submitted to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at comparing the growth and partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom subjected to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin. This substance favors the development of chloroplasts and the synthesis of chlorophyll. Tomato plants were submitted to the treatments: T1, complete nutrient solution without pyraclostrobin, T2, complete nutrient solution + pyraclostrobin, T3, ½ strength nutrient solution without N pyraclostrobin and T4, ½ strength nutrient solution N + pyraclostrobin. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation throughout the crop cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. From the primary data, growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter (Wt, the instantaneous rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw e net assimilation (Ea, leaf area (Af, production rates (Ca and relative growth of leaf area index (Ra and leaf weight (Fw specific leaf area (Sa the dry matter partitioning between organs and number (Nfr and fresh fruit weight (Wfr. Plants of T1 showed higher Wt, Ct and Wfr compared to those of other treatments. However, the T2 plants exhibited similar Nfr to T1 plants, being superior to others. Also allocated on the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage of dry matter in the seafood compared to T3 and T4 plants. Also they allocated relative to the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage in fruits of plants to T3 and T4. The association between nitrogen and pyraclostrobin changes the growth and assimilated partition on tomato plants cv. Micro – Tom, and those submitted to ½ dose of nitrogen have a higher total dry matter and less final percentage of total dry matter in fruits , comparatively to those submitted to the association ½ dose of nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  8. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri A. Achari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

  9. Nuclear power plant providing a function of suppressing the deposition of radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Kawakami, T.; Izumiya, M.; Minato, A.; Ohsumi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant having a cooling system and radioactive coolant in the cooling system, the cooling system is described including ferrous structural material in contact with the radioactive coolant, wherein the ferrous structural material has a preliminary oxide film formed thereon, by oxidation of the bare surface portion thereof, by contacting bare surfaces of the structural material with flowing water containing an oxidizing agent and no metallic ions. The preliminary oxide film is formed at those portions of the ferrous structural material to be in contact with the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film is formed prior to the structural material contacting the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film consists essentially of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and having a thickness of at least 300 A, whereby later formation of new oxide film while the structural material is in contact with the radioactive coolant is suppressed to thereby suppress deposition of the radioactive substances on the ferrous structural material

  10. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ 13 PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ 13 PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the effect of plant growth regulators, size, and cultivar of the grape inflorescence explant on production of phenolic compounds in an in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large number of secondary metabolites that have useful and desirable effects in the field of agriculture, medicine, and food. This research was aimed to achieve methods of in vitro propagation of grapevine in order to apply biotechnologies for correction, growth, and optimization of products and compounds of the cultivated plant in relation to phenol ratio. Methods: In this interventional study, the effects of cultivar and size of the inflorescence explant and the gibberellin hormone in two levels, benzylaminopurine, and auxin hormones in three levels with three replicates per treatment were evaluated in relation to phenol ratio, in order to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators, the type and size of the grape inflorescence explant on the phenol production. Results: The type of plant growth regulators affected phenolic substances production. The production of phenolic substances decreased in a medium with the highest concentration of growth regulators, 4 and 2.5 μM concentration of benzylaminopurine, and 4.9 μM of auxin. Production of phenolic substances increased in the free-plant hormone medium. In smaller samples tendency to turn brown was more regarding high amount of the sugar. Conclusion: The plant sample and the cultivar as important factors in producing phenol environment are induced by environmental stimuli like sugar, light, temperature, stress, ozone, and wound and can be actually applied to increase phenol production.

  12. Plant growth and development vs. high and low levels of plant-beneficial heavy metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namira Arif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs exists in the environment in both forms as essential and non-essential. These HM ions enter in soil biota from various sources like natural and anthropogenic. Essential HMs such as cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn plays a beneficial role in plant growth and development. At optimum level these beneficial elements improves the plant’s nutritional level and also several mechanisms essential for the normal growth and better yield of plants. The range of their optimality for land plants is varied. Plant uptake heavy metals as a soluble component or solubilized them by root exudates. While their presence in excess become toxic for plants that switches the plant’s ability to uptake and accumulate other nonessential elements. The increased amount of HMs within the plant tissue displays direct and indirect toxic impacts. Such direct effects are the generation of oxidative stress which further aggravates inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures. Although, indirect possession is the substitution of essential nutrients at plant’s cation exchange sites. These ions readily influence role of various enzymes and proteins, arrest metabolism, and reveal phytotoxicity. On account of recent advancements on beneficial HMs ions Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn in soil-plant system, the present paper: overview the sources of HMs in soils and their uptake and transportation mechanism, here we have discussed the role of metal transporters in transporting the essential metal ions from soil to plants. The role played by Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn at both low and high level on the plant growth and development and the mechanism to alleviate metal toxicity at high level have been also discussed. At the end, on concluding the article we have also discussed the future perspective in respect to beneficial HM ions interaction with plant at both levels.

  13. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  14. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  15. Plant growth nutrient (nitrobenzene poisoning with multiple complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrobenzene, a pale yellow oily liquid with an odor of bitter almonds, is used in the synthesis of Aniline dyes, flavoring agent, and also in rubber industry. Recently it is also used as a plant growth nutrient. It causes methemoglobinemia with symptoms including headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, cyanosis, and convulsions. Severe acute exposure to nitrobenzene can cause jaundice, renal failure, and coma, and it may be fatal. We report a case of Plant growth nutrient (nitrobenzene poisoning with multiple complications like hemolytic anemia, renal failure, seizures, and pneumonia. Patient was managed with intravenous methylene blue along with other supportive therapy and survived. So, early aggressive management and a watch on complications might be helpful in saving patient′s life from this poisoning.

  16. Restoring directional growth sense to plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    Introduction of new plant classification: electrotropic (Et) and non-electrotropic (nEt) plants gives us a criterion which plants need electric field to grow "normally" in space. The electric field: E is measured in V/m (volt per meter). Do not confuse "electrotropism" understood by some as the response to current flow transversely through the plant's root. This effect was previously described in biological textbooks. I suggest to call it as (Ct) (here C stands for current and t for tropism). In the laboratory we have in the plant growth chamber two transparent to light (wire mesh) conducting sheets separated by m(meters) and V volts potential difference. It has been shown in laboratory that Et is a very important factor in electrotropic plant development. Space experiments with plants grown in orbit from seed to seed have been fully successful only (in my very best knowledge) with nEt plants. The most common nEt plants are grasses (more than 50% of all plants). The nEt plants in space use phototropism as their sensor of direction. In space (and most greenhouses) we have to provide the electric field at least for the Et plants. It has been shown that the electric field is also beneficial to nEt plants which also acquire the sense of direction imposed by stronger than the normal 130V/m E field (vector). The stronger horizontal E field of 1.6kV/m (slightly more than 12 times stronger than 130V/m) does not influence the rate of growth of maize (which is nEt) in 130V/m vertical field or even in the Faraday cage 0V/m. Yet when the maize gets its leaves, they all lean in the horizontal field (1.6kV/m) towards the anode. The direction of the E vector is defined by the E field lines running from the positive to the negative charges. Because the electric forces are a factor of 1038 times stronger than the gravitational forces, it is not important for the E field whether it acts on ions in the gravity or in weightlessness. We have to recall that on the Earth and in space Et

  17. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  18. Increasing plant growth by modulating omega-amidase expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2015-06-30

    The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for increasing the leaf-to-root ratio of the signal metabolite 2-oxoglutaramate and related proline molecules in plants by modulating levels of .omega.-amidase to increase nitrogen use efficiency, resulting in enhanced growth, faster growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields.

  19. Radiolytically degraded sodium alginate enhances plant growth, physiological activities and alkaloids production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Family Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancerous alkaloids, viz. vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. High demand and low yield of these alkaloids in the plant has led to explore the alternative means for their production. Gamma irradiated sodium alginate (ISA has proved as a plant growth promoting substance for various medicinal and agricultural crops. A pot culture experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ISA on plant growth, physiological activities and production of anticancer alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ISA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ISA enhanced the leaf-yield by 25.3 and 30.2% and the herbage-yield by 29.4 and 34.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control. The spray treatment of ISA at 80 mg L−1 improved the yield of vinblastine by 66.7 and 71.4% and of vincristine by 67.6 and 75.6% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, in comparison to the control. As compared to control, the application of ISA at 80 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum swell in the content and yield of vindoline, increasing them by 18.9 and 20.8% and by 81.8 and 87.2% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively.

  20. Adaptive diversification of growth allometry in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, François; Exposito-Alonso, Moises; Ayala-Garay, Oscar J; Wang, George; Enquist, Brian J; Vile, Denis; Violle, Cyrille; Weigel, Detlef

    2018-03-27

    Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species. However, the observed variation in scaling exponents calls into question the evolutionary drivers and the universality of allometric equations. We have measured growth scaling and fitness traits of 451 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with sequenced genomes. Variation among accessions around the scaling exponent predicted by MST was correlated with relative growth rate, seed production, and stress resistance. Genomic analyses indicate that growth allometry is affected by many genes associated with local climate and abiotic stress response. The gene with the strongest effect, PUB4 , has molecular signatures of balancing selection, suggesting that intraspecific variation in growth scaling is maintained by opposing selection on the trade-off between seed production and abiotic stress resistance. Our findings suggest that variation in allometry contributes to local adaptation to contrasting environments. Our results help reconcile past debates on the origin of allometric scaling in biology and begin to link adaptive variation in allometric scaling to specific genes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  2. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla

    2013-01-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  4. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  5. A hydroponic method for plant growth in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    A hydroponic apparatus under development for long-term microgravity plant growth is described. The capillary effect root environment system (CERES) is designed to keep separate the nutrient and air flows, although both must be simultaneously available to the roots. Water at a pressure slightly under air pressure is allowed to seep into a plastic depression covered by a plastic screen and a porous membrane. A root in the air on the membrane outer surface draws the moisture through it. The laboratory model has a wire-based 1.241 mm mesh polyethylene screen and a filter membrane with 0.45 micron pores, small enough to prohibit root hair penetration. The design eliminates the need to seal-off the plant environment. Problems still needing attention include scaling up of the CERES size, controlling biofouling of the membrane, and extending the applications to plants without fibrous root systems.

  6. Sulfur availability regulates plant growth via glucose-TOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yihan; Silbermann, Marleen; Speiser, Anna; Forieri, Ilaria; Linster, Eric; Poschet, Gernot; Allboje Samami, Arman; Wanatabe, Mutsumi; Sticht, Carsten; Teleman, Aurelio A; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Saito, Kazuki; Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2017-10-27

    Growth of eukaryotic cells is regulated by the target of rapamycin (TOR). The strongest activator of TOR in metazoa is amino acid availability. The established transducers of amino acid sensing to TOR in metazoa are absent in plants. Hence, a fundamental question is how amino acid sensing is achieved in photo-autotrophic organisms. Here we demonstrate that the plant Arabidopsis does not sense the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine itself, but its biosynthetic precursors. We identify the kinase GCN2 as a sensor of the carbon/nitrogen precursor availability, whereas limitation of the sulfur precursor is transduced to TOR by downregulation of glucose metabolism. The downregulated TOR activity caused decreased translation, lowered meristematic activity, and elevated autophagy. Our results uncover a plant-specific adaptation of TOR function. In concert with GCN2, TOR allows photo-autotrophic eukaryotes to coordinate the fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur for efficient cysteine biosynthesis under varying external nutrient supply.

  7. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  8. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Bradburd, Gideon S; Woods, Ellen C; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-07-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca, which was introduced from North America to Europe over the past 400 years and which lacks most of its specialized herbivores in the introduced range. Using 10 populations from each continent grown in a common environment, we identified several growth and defense traits that have diverged, despite low neutral genetic differentiation between continents. We next developed a Bayesian modeling approach to account for relationships between molecular and phenotypic differences, confirming that continental trait differentiation was greater than expected from neutral genetic differentiation. We found evidence that growth-related traits adaptively diverged within and between continents. Inducible defenses triggered by monarch butterfly herbivory were substantially reduced in European populations, and this reduction in inducibility was concordant with altered phytohormonal dynamics, reduced plant growth, and a trade-off with constitutive investment. Freedom from the community of native and specialized herbivores may have favored constitutive over induced defense. Our replicated analysis of plant growth and defense, including phenotypically plastic traits, suggests adaptive evolution following a continental introduction.

  9. Comparative effects of cobalt, nickel and copper on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, W E

    1938-11-01

    An account is given of the present position of our knowledge with regard to the distribution and the physiological importance of nickel and cobalt, in relation to plants and animals. Experiments on barley and broad beans were carried out in water cultures with the sulfates and chlorides of cobalt, nickel and copper. In every case a range of low concentrations did little or no damage, but toxic action occurred abruptly above a concentration which varied with the species and with the compound. With barley, copper was the most poisonous element in either compound, but the differences were not striking. Low concentrations of the sulfate were innocuous, but parallel low strengths of the chloride caused a slight, significant depression in growth. With broad beans, cobalt was much more poisonous than either nickel or copper, particularly with the sulfate. No slight depression with low concentrations of the chloride was noticeable with this species. The morphological response to toxicity varied with the element concerned. Copper, in poisonous strengths, caused shortening and bunching of barley roots, whereas nickel and cobalt permitted the growth of elongated roots of a very attenuated nature. The individuality of plant response to poison was frequently shown by the great variation in growth in the borderline concentrations just below those which caused marked depression of growth.

  10. Plant Growth Modeling Using L-System Approach and Its Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atris Suyantohadi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The visualizationof plant growth modeling using computer simulation has rarely been conducted with Lindenmayer System (L-System approach. L-System generally has been used as framework for improving and designing realistic modeling on plant growth. It is one kind of tools for representing plant growth based on grammar sintax and mathematic formulation. This research aimed to design modeling and visualizing plant growth structure generated using L-System. The environment on modeling design used three dimension graphic on standart OpenGL format. The visualization on system design has been developed by some of L-System grammar, and the output graphic on three dimension reflected on plant growth as a virtual plant growth system. Using some of samples on grammar L-System rules for describing of the charaterictics of plant growth, the visualization of structure on plant growth has been resulted and demonstrated.

  11. Stripping Away the Soil : Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities in Aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Oyserman, Ben O; Blom, Jesse E; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Newton, Ryan J

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and

  12. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  13. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  14. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  15. EFFICIENCY OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morgado González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are an alternative for promoting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. development. Growth promotion was evaluated in sugarcane vitroplants inoculated separately with twenty-four strains of seven different bacterial species. Total indole synthesis and phosphate solubilization activity were determined in each strain. The experimental unit was one 5 L pot filled with a sterile mixture of farm soil-agrolite and one plant. The experimental design was completely random. Inoculation consisted of 1.0 mL of bacterial suspension (1 × 107 CFU. Plant height, stem diameter, number of shoots, leaf area and dry matter of shoot and root were determined every two weeks. The Ochrobactrum anthropi strains N208 and IMP311 and Pseudomonas luteola IMPCA244 had the highest production of total indoles (116.69, 115.70 and 117.34 µg mL-1, respectively. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains CA158 and 79 exhibited the highest values of phosphate solubilization (222.43 and 216.38 µg mL-1, respectively. In general, plant height increased 27.75%, stem diameter 30.75%, number of tillers 38.5%, leaf area 49%, aerial dry matter 59.75% and root dry matter 59.5%. P. luteola, P. f luorescens, O. anthropi and S. maltophilia exhibited the highest values of the leaf area index, net assimilation, and relative and absolute growth rates. P. luteola IMPCA244, O. anthropi IMP311, Aeromonas salmonicida N264, Burkholderia cepacia N172, P. f luorescens N50 and S. maltophilia 79 promoted the highest values in different response variables throughout the study. Before using these strains as sugarcane biofertilizer, additional studies are required.

  16. Isolation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of guava plants (Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Gómez Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Guava production for 2008 in the state of Guanajuato was 177 ha in area planted and the same number of area harvested, production in 1,130.80 Ton. In traditional farming practices have made excessive use of mineral fertilizers, which, if it is true, ensure a good production are expensive and come to cause imbalances in agroecosystems by contamination of soil, water, and food. In this work we evaluated the effect of Bacillus subtilis strains as plant growth promoter rhizobacteria in guava plants under greenhouse conditions. We used three strains were inoculated potted plant with guava. We measured the height, number of branches and leaves. Guava orchards of 2 then display of soil were taken for the isolation andcharacterization of rhizobacteria. Selective medium was used with 1 - carboxylic acid, -1 - aminocyclopropane and selecting bacteria with ACC desaminase activity. For the isolates were determined antibiotic resistance, confrontation with fungal pathogens, plant growth tests in vitro and BIOLOG metabolic profiles. We found 30 isolates with ACC activities, 7 have the effect of biological control and 5 had effect on root development in vitro. The use of growth promotingrhizobacteria are an excellent alternative for improving the production of guavas, growing very little is known of themicroflora associated with the rhizosphere and the ecological role they have in the ground.

  17. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Y.; Chetirkin, R.; Wheeler, R.; Sager, J.

    In designing innovative Space Plant Growth Facilities (SPGF) for long duration space f ightl various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating onboard resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding of the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M · (EBI) 2 / (V · E · T) ], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is a volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. We analyzed the efficiency of plant crops and the environmental parameters by examining the criteria for 15 salad and 12 wheat crops from the data in the ALS database at Kennedy Space Center. Some following conclusion have been established: 1. The technology involved in growing salad crops on a cylindrical type surface provides a more meaningful Q-criterion; 2. Wheat crops were less efficient than leafy greens (salad crops) when examining resource utilization; 3. By increasing light intensity of the crop the efficiency of the resource utilization could decrease. Using the existing databases and Q-criteria we have found that the criteria can be used in optimizing design and horticultural regimes in the SPGF.

  18. The response of leaves to heat stress in tomato plants with source-sink modulated by growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to heat stress was investigated in heat-sensitive, Roma V. F. and heat-tolerant, Robin, cultivars whose fruit growth was stimulated by NOA + GA3 , or NOA + GA3 + zeatin. The treated plants were compared with untreated control plant. In each of these series half of the plants were subjected to one or three cycles of heat stress. A single cycle of 38°/25°C day and night did not significantly affect either the respiration rate or chlorophyll content. In PGR-untreated intact cv. Roma, heat stress inhibited starch formation during the day and strongly depressed night export from the blades. High temperature depressed the night transport less in plants having a higher sink demand of fruits in plant treated with PGR. In this case the amount of substances available for export was much higher and both sugars and starch were more intensively remobilized at night. In intact Robin plants, PGR and heat stress much less affected sugar and starch content. High temperature diminished noctural starch remobilization only in the NOA + GA3 series. Leaf disc growth was evaluated as a measure of response to heat stress after elimination of the direct effect of fruit demands. One cycle of high temperature did not negatively affect the growth of leaf discs; it even caused thermal low growth activation in both cultivars. Three cycles of heat stress depressed leaf disc growth after short-term stimulation, especially in Roma plants. Immediately after 3-day heat stress, there was no response of discs to GA3 or zeatin added to the solution on which the discs were floated. Leaf disc growth of Robin control and NOA + GA3 series was very similar in plants from optimal temperature conditions. High temperature inhibited only disc growth of the NOA + GA3 series owing to depression of starch break-down, diminishing the pool of sugars. In contrast, leaf discs of Roma cv. excided from NOA + GA3 treated plants from the optimal temperature series, grew more intensively

  19. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  20. Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Oluwaseyi Samuel; Glick, Bernard R; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-10-06

    The idea of eliminating the use of fertilizers which are sometimes environmentally unsafe is slowly becoming a reality because of the emergence of microorganisms that can serve the same purpose or even do better. Depletion of soil nutrients through leaching into the waterways and causing contamination are some of the negative effects of these chemical fertilizers that prompted the need for suitable alternatives. This brings us to the idea of using microbes that can be developed for use as biological fertilizers (biofertilizers). They are environmentally friendly as they are natural living organisms. They increase crop yield and production and, in addition, in developing countries, they are less expensive compared to chemical fertilizers. These biofertilizers are typically called plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). In addition to PGPB, some fungi have also been demonstrated to promote plant growth. Apart from improving crop yields, some biofertilizers also control various plant pathogens. The objective of worldwide sustainable agriculture is much more likely to be achieved through the widespread use of biofertilizers rather than chemically synthesized fertilizers. However, to realize this objective it is essential that the many mechanisms employed by PGPB first be thoroughly understood thereby allowing workers to fully harness the potentials of these microbes. The present state of our knowledge regarding the fundamental mechanisms employed by PGPB is discussed herein.

  1. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  2. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Transplants Growth and Lettuce Yield in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczech Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp. and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp. in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.

  3. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 μg/mL, cadmium 300 μg/mL, chromium 400 μg/mL, lead 1,400 μg/mL, zinc 1,000 μg/mL and copper 300 μg/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil.

  4. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  5. Plant Growth Research for Food Production: Development and Testing of Expandable Tuber Growth Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Brennan A.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled and reliable growth of a variety of vegetable crops is an important capability for manned deep space exploration systems for providing nutritional supplementation and psychological benefits to crew members. Because current systems have been limited to leafy vegetables that require minimal root space, a major goal for these systems is to increase their ability to grow new types of crops, including tuber plants and root vegetables that require a large root space. An expandable root zone module and housing was developed to integrate this capability into the Veggie growth system. The expandable module uses a waterproof, gas-permeable bag with a structure that allows for root space to increase vertically throughout the growth cycle to accommodate for expanding tuber growth, while minimizing the required media mass. Daikon radishes were chosen as an ideal tuber crop for their subterraneous tuber size and rapid growth cycle, and investigations were done to study expanding superabsorbent hydrogels as a potential growth media. These studies showed improved water retention, but restricted oxygen availability to roots with pure gel media. It was determined that these hydrogels could be integrated in lower proportions into standard soil to achieve media expansion and water retention desired. Using the constructed module prototype and ideal gel and soil media mixture, Daikon radishes were grown in the system to test the capability and success of the system through a full growth cycle.

  6. Characterization of Plant Growth under Single-Wavelength Laser Light Using the Model Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Indoor horticulture offers a promising solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available lighting is suboptimal, therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. Lasers are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Besides, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plants. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that laser-grown plants can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteomic data show that the singlewavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture. Furthermore, stomatal movement partly determines the plant productivity and stress management. Abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure by promoting net K+-efflux from guard cells through outwardrectifying K+ (K+ out) channels to regulate plant water homeostasis. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ (ATGORK) channel is a direct target for ABA in the regulation of stomatal aperture and hence gas exchange and transpiration. Addition of (±)-ABA, but not the biologically inactive (−)-isomer, increases K+ out channel activity in Vicia faba guard cell protoplast. A similar ABA

  7. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  8. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  9. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L −1 ) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L −1 ). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g −1 dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g −1 dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg −1 (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10 3 L kg −1 (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day −1 ) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day −1 , in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day −1 , in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day −1 (Llobregat) to 67 g day −1 (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers. • Removal efficiencies in STPs confirm that PFASs are only

  10. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute of Water Research, ICRA Catalan Institute for Water Research — ICRA, C/Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L{sup −1}) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L{sup −1}). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g{sup −1} dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g{sup −1} dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg{sup −1} (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10{sup 3} L kg{sup −1} (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day{sup −1}) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day{sup −1}, in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day{sup −1}, in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day{sup −1} (Llobregat) to 67 g day{sup −1} (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers.

  11. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  12. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Release of UV-absorbing substances from maize coleoptiles during auxin-, fusicoccin- and acid-mediated elongation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Schopfer, P.

    1997-01-01

    Isolated cell walls from maize coleoptiles prepared under conditions that preserve the ability for enzymatic hemicellulose autolysis release UV-absorbing substances into the incubation medium in a time-dependent reaction with an optimal rate at pH 6–7. The reaction can be inhibited by low temperature and protein-denaturing treatments, indicating an enzymatic process. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses showed that the liberated substances represent a complex mixture of free and bound (alkali-hydrolyzable) phenolic compounds with similar absorption spectra restricted to the range below 300 nm and thus excluding hydroxycinnamic acids from cell-wall esters. A spectroscopically and chromatographically similar mixture of soluble UV-absorbing substances is released if living (abraded) maize coleoptiles or coleoptile segments are incubated in water or buffer, suggesting that insoluble phenolic materials in the cell wall are metabolized also in vivo. This reaction can be promoted by anaerobic conditions and application of fusicoccin whereas auxin had a slightly inhibitory effect. No clear relationship to elongation growth could be demonstrated. We conclude from these results that polymeric phenolic constituents of the cell wall are subject to enzymatic degradation in muro similar to polysaccharide autolysis and that this process is under metabolic control

  14. Helical growth trajectories in plant roots interacting with stiff barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbode, Sharon; Noar, Roslyn; Harrison, Maria

    2009-03-01

    Plant roots successfully navigate heterogeneous soil environments with varying nutrient and water concentrations, as well as a variety of stiff obstacles. While it is thought that the ability of roots to penetrate into a stiff lower soil layer is important for soil erosion, little is known about how a root actually responds to a rigid interface. We have developed a laser sheet imaging technique for recording the 3D growth dynamics of plant roots interacting with stiff barriers. We find that a root encountering an angled interface does not grow in a straight line along the surface, but instead follows a helical trajectory. These experiments build on the pioneering studies of roots grown on a tilted 2D surface, which reported ``root waving,'' a similar curved pattern thought to be caused by the root's sensitivity to both gravity and the rigid surface on which it is grown. Our measurements extend these results to the more physiologically relevant case of 3D growth, where the spiral trajectory can be altered by tuning the relative strengths of the gravity and touch stimuli, providing some intuition for the physical mechanism driving it.

  15. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  16. Copper-resistant bacteria enhance plant growth and copper phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renxiu; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Yahua; Wang, Guiping; Xu, Yue; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of rhizospheric bacteria in solubilizing soil copper (Cu) and promoting plant growth. The Cu-resistant bacterium DGS6 was isolated from a natural Cu-contaminated soil and was identified as Pseudomonas sp. DGS6. This isolate solubilized Cu in Cu-contaminated soil and stimulated root elongation of maize and sunflower. Maize was more sensitive to inoculation with DGS6 than was sunflower and exhibited greater root elongation. In pot experiment, inoculation with DGS6 increased the shoot dry weight of maize by 49% and sunflower by 34%, and increased the root dry weight of maize by 85% and sunflower by 45%. Although the concentrations of Cu in inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings did not differ significantly, the total accumulation of Cu in the plants increased after inoculation. DGS6 showed a high ability to solubilize P and produce iron-chelating siderophores, as well as significantly improved the accumulation of P and Fe in both maize and sunflower shoots. In addition, DGS6 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase, which suggests that it may modulate ethylene levels in plants. The bacterial strain DGS6 could be a good candidate for re-vegetation of Cu-contaminated sites. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Phytoremediation to view the supplemental file.

  17. Getting the ecology into the interactions between plants and the plant-growth promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Bezemer, T.M.; Biere, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas

  18. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Ku; Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Dan-Jing

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca(2+) concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and metal accumulation in Zea mays plants grown in fly ash amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalpna V; Patra, D D

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the application of fly ash (FA) into Garden soil (GS), with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), on the growth and metal uptake by Zea mays plants. Three FA tolerant PGPB strains, Pseudomonas sp. PS5, PS14, and Bacillus sp. BC29 were isolated from FA contaminated soils and assessed for their plant growth promoting features on the Z. mays plants. All three strains were also examined for their ability to solubilize phosphate and to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores, and hydrogencynide acid (HCN) production. Although inoculation of all strains significantly enhanced the growth of plants at both the concentration of FA but maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with BC29 and PS14 at low level (25%) of FA concentration. The experimental results explored the plant growth promoting features of selected strains which not only enhanced growth and biomass of plants but also protected them from toxicity of FA.

  20. Effect of vanadium on plant growth and its accumulation in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Vachirapatama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate vanadium uptake by Chinese green mustard and tomato plantsand its effect on their growth. Twenty-eight (Chinese green mustard and 79 days (tomato after germination, the plants wereexposed for a further seven days to a solution containing six different concentrations of ammonium metavanadate (0-80 mg/lNH4VO3. The vanadium accumulated in the plant tissues were determined by ion-interaction high performance liquid chromatography,with confirmation by magnetic sector ICP-MS.The results indicated that nutrient solution containing more than 40 mg/l NH4VO3 affected plant growth for bothChinese green mustard and tomato plant. Chinese green mustard grown in the solution containing NH4VO3 at the concentrationsof 40 and 80 mg/l had stem length, number of leaves, dry weight of leaf, stem and root significantly lower than those ofplants grown in the solution containing 0-20 mg/l NH4VO3. Tomato plants were observed to wilt after four days in contactwith the nutrient solutions containing 40 and 80 mg/l NH4VO3. As the vanadium concentrations increased, a resultantdecrease in the stem length, root fresh weight, and fruit fresh weight were noted. The accumulation of vanadium was higher inthe root compared with leaf, stem, or fruit. Measured levels of vanadium, from a nutrient solution containing 40 mg/l NH4VO3,were 328, 340, and 9.66x103 g/g in the leaf, stem and root for Chinese green mustard, and 4.04 and 4.01x103 g/g in the fruitand roots for tomato plants, respectively.

  1. Dextrins from Maize Starch as Substances Activating the Growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria Simultaneously Inhibiting the Growth of Firmicutes, Responsible for the Occurrence of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczynska, Renata; Kapusniak, Janusz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Slizewska, Katarzyna; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw

    2016-06-01

    Unarguably, diet has a significant impact on human intestinal microbiota. The role of prebiotics as substances supporting the maintenance of appropriate body weight and reducing the demand for energy via stimulation of the growth of beneficial microbiota of the gut and formation products such as short-chain fatty acids, is more and more often highlighted. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dextrins from maize starch resistant to enzymatic digestion stimulate the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in lean individuals and limit the growth of Firmicutes bacterial strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in obese individuals. The study was conducted with the use of in vitro method, using isolates from faeces of children characterized by normal weight, overweight and obesity. It was demonstrated that dextrins from maize starch equally efficient stimulate the growth of the isolates derived from normal-weight, overweight and obese children, and therefore may be added to foods as a beneficial component stimulating growth of strains belonging to Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes for both overweight, obese and normal-weight children.

  2. the role of plant growth regulators in morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mujib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow belonging to the Malvaceae family, is an important plant that contains a variety of important phytocompounds including asparagine, pectin, flavonoids, polyphenolic acid, and scopoletin. The yield of these compounds can be improved using biotechnological methods that allow for a steady and continuous regeneration of plant material. To the best of our knowledge, thus far, the In vitro clonal multiplication of marshmallow has not been attempted on a large scale. Therefore, in this study, we developed callus induction and multiple shoot regeneration protocols from explants. All the explants, i.e., roots, nodes, and leaves, evoked compact white or yellow calli in a medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, which grew vigorously. The callus induction frequency was the highest (62.1% from stem nodes, followed by leaves (39.1% and roots (27.5%. The differential behavior of explants in response to various plant growth regulators (PGRs was studied. The calli from leaves and roots were noted to be non-organogenic/embryogenic in media containing different PGR concentrations and have been described in this communication. The stem nodes used were cultured on MS media amended with different concentrations of benzyl-amino-purine (BAP: 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/l. Multiple shoots were formed at variable numbers, the maximum being in a medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l of BAP. The induced shoots were rooted in IBA-, NAA-, and IAA-amended media, where IBA at 0.5 mg/l induced a maximum number of roots (8.8 roots/shoot. The regenerated plants were transferred to plastic pots, filled with soilrite and soil (1 : 1, and finally, transferred to outdoor conditions.

  3. The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Pérez-Soba, M.

    2001-01-01

    Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass

  4. Selenium promotes sulfur accumulation and plant growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and a target for biofortification in crops. Sulfur (S) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth. To gain better understanding of Se and S nutrition and interaction in plants, the effects of Se dosages and forms on plant growth as well ...

  5. Vegetative growth response of cotton plants due to growth regulator supply via seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Ferrari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global cotton industry is distinguished by its numerous industrial uses of the plume as well as by high production costs. Excessive vegetative growth can interfere negatively with productivity, and thus, applying growth regulators is essential for the development of the cotton culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of the cotton cultivar FMT 701 with the application of mepiquat chloride to seeds and leaves. The experimental design used a randomized block design with four replications, arranged in bands.The treatments consisted of mepiquat chloride rates (MC (0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g a.i. kg-1 of seeds applied directly to the cotton seeds and MC management by foliar spray using a 250 mL ha-1 rates that was administered under the following conditions: divided into four applications (35, 45, 55 and 65 days after emergence; as a single application at 70 days; and without the application of the product. The mepiquat chloride applied to cotton seeds controls the initial plant height and stem diameter, while foliar application reduces the height of the plants. After application to seed, foliar spraying MC promotes increase mass of 20 bolls, however no direct influence amount bolls per plant and yield of cotton seed. Higher cotton seed yield was obtained with a rate of 3.4 g a.i. MC kg-1 seeds.

  6. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for responsiveness to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermans, Paul C A; Bakker, Peter A H M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r stimulates lateral root formation and increases shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These plant growth-stimulating effects are partly caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the bacterium.

  7. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for responsiveness to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermans, P.C.A.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r stimulates lateral root formation and increases shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These plant growth-stimulating effects are partly caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the bacterium.

  8. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T.; Inada, K.; Takanashi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space stations. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12 hr dark may be needed for plant growth.

  9. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance

  10. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the

  11. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  12. Chromium Resistant Bacteria: Impact on Plant Growth in Soil Microcosm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayel Hanane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three chromium resistant bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PF28, Enterobacter amnigenus EA31 and Enterococcus gallinarum S34 isolated from tannery waste contaminated soil were used in this study. All strains could resist a high concentration of K2Cr2O7 that is up to 300 mg/L. The effect of these strains on clover plants (Trifolium campestre in the presence of two chromium salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 was studied in soil microcosm. Application of chromium salts adversely affected seed germination, root and shoot length. Bacterial inoculation improved the growth parameters under chromate stress when compared with non inoculated respective controls. There was observed more than 50% reduction of Cr(VI in inoculated soil microcosms, as compared to the uninoculated soil under the same conditions. The results obtained in this study are significant for the bioremediation of chromate pollution.

  13. Mullerian Inhibiting Substances (MIS) Augments IFN-gamma Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Vandana

    2006-01-01

    MIS is a member of the TGF family. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that MIS and IFN-gamma might be more effective in the inhibition of breast cancer cell growth than either agent alone...

  14. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  15. Beryllium and growth. II. The effect of beryllium on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoagland, M B

    1952-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether beryllium could replace magnesium in a growing organism. This was stimulated by the several known growth effects of beryllium in animals and by the fact that beryllium apparently competes with magnesium for animal alkaline phosphatases. The following findings are noted: (1) beryllium can reduce the magnesium requirement of plants by some 60% within a certain range of magnesium deficiency. (2) The residual obligatory magnesium requirements is probably accounted for by chlorophyll since beryllium appears to have no primary effect on chlorophyll or chlorophyll production. (3) The pH of the nutrient solution is critical: at acid pH's, beryllium is highly toxic, and growth increase due to beryllium only appears at initial pH's above 11.2, although this initial pH rapidly falls to neutrality during the experimental period. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  17. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  18. Nutrient Leaching When Soil Is Part of Plant Growth Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sand and packed into columns 0.5 m long, with or without compost on the surface. Infiltration and effluent concentrations were measured before and after growing plants [Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt. Engelm. and bluegrama grasses (Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K. and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.]. The growth media with compost at the surface had higher nutrient levels than the media without the compost, but the final effluent nitrate concentrations post-harvest were significantly lower for columns with the compost blanket (59 vs. 86 mg L−1. All of the nitrate concentrations were high (many >100 mg L−1 due to mineralization and nitrogen fixation. The final effluent P concentrations before planting were significantly higher in the soil with the most sand (0.71 mg L−1, and after harvest in the mixture that contained the high soil P levels (0.58 mg L−1. Some soils (high in aluminum or calcium were adequate sorbents for P without additions of other sorbents, but soils often generated too much nitrate in effluent.

  19. Behavior of phenolic substances in the decaying process of plants. V. Elution of heavy metals with phenolic acids from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, H; Kuwatsuka, S

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between the elution of heavy metals with phenolic substances and the chemical structure of phenolic substances, as well as the interaction between phenolic substances and metals were studied using batch and column methods. The elution of 3 metals (Fe, Al and Mn) with 4 phenolic acids (rho-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic, ..cap alpha..-resorcylic, and protocatechuic acids) and phthalic acid were investigated using 3 different soils. The results are as follows: (1) The elution of heavy metals was largely influenced by the chemical structures of the phenolic acids. Protocatechuic, salicylic, and phthalic acids which had different chelating sites easily extracted iron, aluminum, and manganese from the soils. Hydroxybenzoic and ..cap alpha..-resorcylic acids which had no chelating sites contributed little to the elution process. (2) In many cases protocatechuic acid showed a stronger affinity to iron than to aluminum, but salicylic acid showed the opposite trend. The affinity of phthalic acid to metals was much less than that of both phenolic acids. (3) The elution of heavy metals was also influenced by the soil pH. The amounts of heavy metals eluted with protocatechuic acid increased as the soil pH increased. The amounts eluted with salicylic and phthalic acids increased as the soil pH decreased. (4) The results suggested that chelating phenolics such as protocatechuic and salicylic acids, which were exuded from plant residues or produced during the decaying process of plant residues, eluted heavy metals such as iron, aluminum and manganese from soil particles and accelerated the downward movement of these metal ions.

  20. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  1. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jin-Ku, E-mail: jkliu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: yxh6110@yeah.net [Department of Chemistry, Chizhou University, Chizhou 247000 (China); Hong, Dan-Jing [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Mung bean sprouts were first used as the experimental model to research the cytotoxicity of the HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity depends on the concentration and particle size of HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity mechanism of HAP nanomaterials was discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5 mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24 h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca{sup 2+} concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth.

  2. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Ku; Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Dan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mung bean sprouts were first used as the experimental model to research the cytotoxicity of the HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity depends on the concentration and particle size of HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity mechanism of HAP nanomaterials was discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5 mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24 h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca 2+ concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth

  3. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  4. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA),

  5. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore

  6. Effect of plant growth regulators on production of alpha-linolenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujana Kokkiligadda

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... MS received 13 October 2016; revised 22 March 2017; accepted 30 May 2017; ... Plant growth regulators; microalgae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; alpha-linolenic acid. 1. ... the growth period by flocculation method [9] using alum.

  7. Measuring and modeling the hygroscopic growth of two humic substances in mixed aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Zamora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA / inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the water activity range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on chemical composition data for different

  8. Utilization of γ-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed γ-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of γ-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of γ-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of γ-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  9. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyser De La Torre-Ruiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  10. Determining Optimal Degree of Soil Compaction for Balancing Mechanical Stability and Plant Growth Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldsmith, Wendi

    2001-01-01

    .... Agronomists, on the other hand, recommend minimal soil compaction because compacted soils are widely understood to impede the growth and development of crops, forests, and native plant communities...

  11. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir.

  13. Adhesion, Growth, and Maturation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Low-Density Polyethylene Grafted with Bioactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Parizek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attractiveness of synthetic polymers for cell colonization can be affected by physical, chemical, and biological modification of the polymer surface. In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE was treated by an Ar+ plasma discharge and then grafted with biologically active substances, namely, glycine (Gly, polyethylene glycol (PEG, bovine serum albumin (BSA, colloidal carbon particles (C, or BSA+C. All modifications increased the oxygen content, the wettability, and the surface free energy of the materials compared to the pristine LDPE, but these changes were most pronounced in LDPE with Gly or PEG, where all the three values were higher than in the only plasma-treated samples. When seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, the Gly- or PEG-grafted samples increased mainly the spreading and concentration of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin in these cells. LDPE grafted with BSA or BSA+C showed a similar oxygen content and similar wettability, as the samples only treated with plasma, but the nano- and submicron-scale irregularities on their surface were more pronounced and of a different shape. These samples promoted predominantly the growth, the formation of a confluent layer, and phenotypic maturation of VSMC, demonstrated by higher concentrations of contractile proteins alpha-actin and SM1 and SM2 myosins. Thus, the behavior of VSMC on LDPE can be regulated by the type of bioactive substances that are grafted.

  14. EFFECT OF SELECTED PETROLEUM-DERIVED SUBSTANCES ON BRUCHUS RUFIMANUS BOH. FEEDING AND ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of petrol, used engine oil and diesel oil on Bruchus rufimanus Boh. feeding and on selected morphological characteristics of plants. In addition, the effect of bioremediation process on the above mentioned features was examined. Pest’s feeding intensity assessment was carried out by determining the number of damaged seeds and their weight. Assessment of morphological characteristics of plants was made in the technological maturity of broad bean seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all substances used in the experiment had no significant effect on B. rufimanus Boh feeding. Diesel oil most adversely affected the analyzed morphological characteristics. Applied bioremediation caused a decrease the mass of seeds developed by plant and the number of damaged seeds in the object contaminated with petrol and contributed to the increase in the number and weight of pods and the number of seeds per one plant in the object contaminated with diesel oil.

  15. Method for Bacterial Growth and Ammonia Production and Effect of Inhibitory Substances in Disposable Absorbent Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Yhlen, Birgitta; Blomqvist, Marie; Larsson, Peter

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4.5 and 4.9) and 3 antimicrobial substances-chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and thymol-at 2 concentrations each, were studied. From the initial inocula of 3.3 log colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) at baseline, the bacterial growth of the references increased to 5.0 to 6.0 log cfu/mL at 6 hours for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. At 12 hours there was a further increase to 7.0 to 8.9 log cfu/mL. Adjusting the pH of the superabsorbent in the incontinence product from 6.0 to pH 4.5 and pH 4.9 significantly (P disposable absorbent products to inhibit bacterial growth and ammonia production. This technique, we describe, provides a pragmatic method for assessing the odor-inhibiting capacity of specific incontinence products.

  16. Plant-mediated restriction of Salmonella enterica on tomato and spinach leaves colonized with Pseudomonas plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiun-Kang; Micallef, Shirley A

    2017-10-16

    Reducing Salmonella enterica association with plants during crop production could reduce risks of fresh produce-borne salmonellosis. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizing plant roots are capable of promoting plant growth and boosting resistance to disease, but the effects of PGPR on human pathogen-plant associations are not known. Two root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains S2 and S4 were investigated in spinach, lettuce and tomato for their plant growth-promoting properties and their influence on leaf populations of S. enterica serovar Newport. Plant roots were inoculated with Pseudomonas in the seedling stage. At four (tomato) and six (spinach and lettuce) weeks post-germination, plant growth promotion was assessed by shoot dry weight (SDW) and leaf chlorophyll content measurements. Leaf populations of S. Newport were measured after 24h of leaf inoculation with this pathogen by direct plate counts on Tryptic Soy Agar. Root inoculation of spinach cv. 'Tyee', with Pseudomonas strain S2 or S4 resulted in a 69% and 63% increase in SDW compared to non-inoculated controls (pgrowth by over 40% compared to controls (pgrowth promotion was detected in tomato cv. 'BHN602', but S2-inoculated plants had elevated leaf chlorophyll content (13%, pgrowth, but also reduce the fitness of epiphytic S. enterica in the phyllosphere. Plant-mediated effects induced by PGPR may be an effective strategy to minimize contamination of crops with S. enterica during cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro effects of substance P analogue [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11] substance P on human tumour and normal cell growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, M. J.; Macaulay, V. M.; Miller, J. L.; Smith, I. E.

    1992-01-01

    Analogues of the neurotransmitter substance P (SP) can interact with neuropeptide receptors, and are reported to inhibit growth of small cell lung cancer cell lines (SCLC CLs). We found [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11] substance P (D-Phe5SP) significantly inhibited DNA synthesis by 10/10 human tumour CLs; six SCLC, one N-SCLC (squamous), two ovarian and one squamous cervical carcinoma, with inhibition to 50% control levels (IC50) of 20-50 microM. There was dose dependent inhibition of colony...

  18. Effect of simulated microgravity on growth and production of exopolymeric substances of Micrococcus luteus space and earth isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauclaire, Laurie; Egli, Marcel

    2010-08-01

    Microorganisms tend to form biofilms on surfaces, thereby causing deterioration of the underlaying material. In addition, biofilm is a potential health risk to humans. Therefore, microorganism growth is not only an issue on Earth but also in manned space habitats like the International Space Station (ISS). The aim of the study was to identify physiological processes relevant for Micrococcus luteus attachment under microgravity conditions. The results demonstrate that simulated microgravity influences physiological processes which trigger bacterial attachment and biofilm formation. The ISS strains produced larger amounts of exopolymeric substances (EPS) compared with a reference strain from Earth. In contrast, M. luteus strains were growing faster, and Earth as well as ISS isolates produced a higher yield of biomass under microgravity conditions than under normal gravity. Furthermore, microgravity caused a reduction of the colloidal EPS production of ISS isolates in comparison with normal gravity, which probably influences biofilm thickness and stability as well.

  19. The effectiveness of removing precursors of chlorinated organic substances in pilot water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata; Szerzyna, Sławomir; Machi, Justyna; Mołczan, Marek; Adamski, Wojciech; Wiśniewski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    The presence of organic substances in the water intaken for consumption could be hazardous to human health due to the potential formation of disinfection by-products (TOX). The study were carried out in the pilot surface water treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, ozonation, adsorption and disinfection. Due to continuous operation of the system and interference with the parameters of the processes it was possible not only assess the effectiveness of individual water treatment processes in removing TOX, but also on factors participating on the course of unit processes.

  20. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  1. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  2. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  3. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  4. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    gratefully acknowledge the support of the Waterways Experi- ment Station and Drs. Howard Westerdahl and Kurt Getsinger as this research was being conducted...E. Westerdahl , eds., Plant Growth Regulator Society of America, San Antonio, TX, 127-45. Anderson, L. W. J., and Dechoretz, N. (1988). "Bensulfuron...Vegetation Management. J. E. Kaufman and H. E. Westerdahl , eds., Plant Growth Regulator Society of America, San Antonio, TX, 155-86. Herbicide Handbook

  5. N2O4 as a working substance for a spacecraft power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popyrin, L.S.; Starostenko, N.N.; Starostenko, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    A gas turbine cycle on dissociating nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4 ) as working medium is considered. Nitrogen tetroxide has a number of properties advantageous in this respect. A direct cycle power plant is considered. A fast reactor with a gas coolant is an energy source. Some versions of a power plant have been analysed for the gas temperature at the turbine inlet ranging from 1170 to 1470 K. The cycle efficiency is found to increase considerably with the working medium temperature rise at the turbine inlet only to 1380-1400 K. To determine the efficiency of the plants of this type, they are compared to identical designs of gas and gas-liquid cycles on alkali metals, inert gases and dissociating phosphorus. Theoretical and experimental data show that the turbine with nitrogen tetroxide as working medium is more compact in comparison to that with inert gases. Small specific surfaces of the radiator, small size of the turbine and thermal process equipment, and high efficiency are evidence of the advisability of using the plant of the type considered as on-board power plant of a space ship

  6. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE RHAMNOLIPID BIOCOMPLEX AND ETHYLTHIOSULFANILATE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PLANTS IN THE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Banya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on field pea and sorghum plants when growing in petroleum contaminated soil. Plant seeds were treated with solutions of rhamnolipid biocomplex or ethylthiosulfanilate (0.01 g/l before planting and grown in containers with soil artificially contaminated with petroleum (5, 8 and 10%. Effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate was determined by the determination of growth (weight, length plants and biochemical parameters (content of photosynthetic pigments, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde. The stimulating effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on growth parameters of field pea was shown: the shoot mass has significantly increased on 39%, root mass – on 26% if compared with the control. For sorghum somewhat smaller increase of growth parameters was observed. Under the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate the content of photosynthetic pigments in field pea and sorghum has also increased. It was determined that the action rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate promoted the decrease of indicators of plant oxidative reactions if compared with control: the content of hydrogen peroxide – in average on 15% and 16%, malondialdehyde – on 13.5% and 16% respectively. The results of the study testify to the effectiveness of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate as growth stimulators for field pea and sorghum, as well as improvement of adaptive capability of plants to unfavorable conditions. It creates the prospects of their application as effective and ecologically safe substances for the intensification of contaminated soil phytoremediation.

  7. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochrobactrum intermedium Strain SA148, a Plant Growth-Promoting Desert Rhizobacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-03-03

    Ochrobactrum intermedium strain SA148 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from sandy soil in the Jizan area of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 4.9-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting different pathways characteristic of plant growth promotion activity and environmental adaptation of SA148.

  9. INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE GROWTH-RESPONSE OF PLANTS TO AN ELEVATED AMBIENT CO2 CONCENTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POORTER, H

    The effect of a doubling in the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the growth of vegetative whole plants was investigated. In a compilation of literature sources, the growth stimulation of 156 plant species was found to be on average 37%. This enhancement is small compared to what could be expected on

  10. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus, shoot and root formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root and stem explants of fluted pumpkin were cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The explants were observed for callus, root and shoot formation parameters after four months. Differences among explants, plant growth regulators and their interaction were ...

  11. Effect of the different timing of AMF inoculation on plant growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohn, B.K.; Kim, K.Y.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, W.S.; Park, S.M.; Kang, J.G.; Rim, Y.S.; Cho, J.S.; Kim, T.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant growth and flower quality of an ornamental plant (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) var. Baekgwang in response to the different timing of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were examined. To evaluate the effects of AMF inoculation timing on growth of chrysanthemum cuttings, AMF was

  12. Radiation exposure of the population by residual substances from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution gives a survey of common practice in the Federal Republic of Germany with model studies carried out so far to derive limit values. In this context, the SSK recommendations for 'Possibilities and Limits of Collective Doses' is applied to this specific problem and compared with the ideas of the ICRP. Questions on the 'cut-off dose' and on the 'de minimis' concept are discussed. Finally, a suggestion is developed and substantiated for the uniform determination of limit values for non-harmful utilization of low-level radioactive residual substances. The radiation exposure taken as 'de minimis' for individual persons out of a general public is taken as a basic. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios eBitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  14. Impacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria-based Biostimulants on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh; Ongena, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Vandenbol, Micheline; Spaepen, Stijn; Bodson, Bernard; Jijakli, Haissam; du Jardin, Patrick; Delaplace, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use efficiency in crops. The aim of this study is to screen commercially PGPR-containing products to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affectin...

  15. An Evolutionary Robotics Approach to the Control of Plant Growth and Motion: Modeling Plants and Crossing the Reality Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahby, Mostafa; Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The self-organizing bio-hybrid collaboration of robots and natural plants allows for a variety of interesting applications. As an example we investigate how robots can be used to control the growth and motion of a natural plant, using LEDs to provide stimuli. We follow an evolutionary robotics...... approach where task performance is determined by monitoring the plant's reaction. First, we do initial plant experiments with simple, predetermined controllers. Then we use image sampling data as a model of the dynamics of the plant tip xy position. Second, we use this approach to evolve robot controllers...

  16. Crystal growth of pure substances: Phase-field simulations in comparison with analytical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, B.; Danilov, D.; Galenko, P.

    2005-07-01

    A phase-field model for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent systems [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 (3) (2004) 775-799] consistent with the formalism of classic irreversible thermodynamics is used for numerical simulations of crystal growth in a pure material. The relation of this approach to the phase-field model by Bragard et al. [Interface Science 10 (2-3) (2002) 121-136] is discussed. 2D and 3D simulations of dendritic structures are compared with the analytical predictions of the Brener theory [Journal of Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 165-170] and with recent experimental measurements of solidification in pure nickel [Proceedings of the TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, pp. 277-288; European Physical Journal B, submitted for publication]. 3D morphology transitions are obtained for variations in surface energy and kinetic anisotropies at different undercoolings. In computations, we investigate the convergence behaviour of a standard phase-field model and of its thin interface extension at different undercoolings and at different ratios between the diffuse interface thickness and the atomistic capillary length. The influence of the grid anisotropy is accurately analyzed for a finite difference method and for an adaptive finite element method in comparison.

  17. Controlled ecological life support systems: Development of a plant growth module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averner, Mel M.; Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    An effort was made to begin defining the scientific and technical requirements for the design and construction of a ground-based plant growth facility. In particular, science design criteria for the Plant Growth Module (PGM) of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) were determined in the following areas: (1) irradiation parameters and associated equipment affecting plant growth; (2) air flow; (3) planting, culture, and harvest techniques; (4) carbon dioxide; (5) temperature and relative humidity; (6) oxygen; (7) construction materials and access; (8) volatile compounds; (9) bacteria, sterilization, and filtration; (10) nutrient application systems; (11) nutrient monitoring; and (12) nutrient pH and conductivity.

  18. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  19. Effects of microgravity on growth hormone concentration and distribution in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, gravity affects the distribution of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a manner such that the plant grows into a normal vertical orientation (shoots up, roots down). How the plant controls the amount and distribution of IAA is only partially understood and is currently under investigation in this laboratory. The question to be answered in the flight experiment concerns the effect of gravity on the concentration, turn over, and distribution of the growth hormone. The answer to this question will aid in understanding the mechanism by which plants control the amount and distribution of growth hormone. Such knowledge of a plant's hormonal metabolism may aid in the growth of plants in space and will lead to agronomic advances.

  20. Development of a procedure for the sequential extraction of substances binding trace elements in plant biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 381, - (2005), s. 863-872 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : organic compounds binding trace elements * spinach plant * sequential extraction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  1. Stilbenes from Deguelia rufescens var. urucu (Ducke) A. M. G. Azevedo leaves: effects on seed germination and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Freitas, Manolo C.C. de; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Mara S.P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro S. [Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal da Amazonia Oriental (CPATU), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Amazon biodiversity may provide plants whose chemical substances are capable of controlling weeds. In this study we report the isolation and identification of five stilbenes from the leaves of 'timbo vermelho' (Deguelia rufescens var. urucu): 4-methoxylonchocarpene (1); 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-3'-prenyl-trans-stilbene (2), lonchocarpene (3), 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-Oprenyl- trans-stilbene (4) and pterostilbene (5). Compounds 2 and 4 are new natural products although 2 has been previously cited as synthesis product. Potential allelopathic activity for 1, 2 and 4 was evaluated over seed germination and plant growth of Mimosa pudica weed. The observed effects on seed germination did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) when the analysis of phytotoxicity was performed with the substances alone, the maximum inhibition did not exceed 20%. The most intense inhibitions on radicle and hypocotyl development were found for compound 4 (p < 0.05). When tested in pairs, showed antagonism for seed germination and synergism for radicle and hypocotyl development. (author)

  2. Growth inhibition of Listeria spp. on Camembert cheese by bacteria producing inhibitory substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, G; Busse, M

    1991-12-01

    Bacterial strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity towards other bacteria are quite common in nature. During the past few years several genera have been shown to exert inhibitory action against Listeria. spp. In the present work strains of Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were tested for their influence on the development of Listeria spp. on Camembert cheese. Partial or complete inhibition of growth of Listeria spp. was observed using various inhibitory bacteria. Complete inhibition occurred when the inhibitory strain was used as a starter culture and there was a low level of contamination with Listeria spp. during the first stage of ripening. Very little inhibition occurred if the inhibitory strain was added together with the starter culture.

  3. Protection of thylakoids against combined light and drought by a lumenal substance in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Sárvári, Éva; Keresztes, Áron

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Haberlea rhodopensis is a perennial, herbaceous, saxicolous, poikilohydric flowering plant that is able to survive desiccation to air-dried state under irradiance below 30 µmol m−2 s−1. However, desiccation at irradiance of 350 µmol m−2 s−1 induced irreversible changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, and mature leaves did not recover after rehydration. The aim here was to establish the causes and mechanisms of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to dehydration at high irradiance, and to elucidate the mechanisms determining recovery. Methods Changes in chloroplast structure, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, fluorescence imaging and the polypeptide patterns during desiccation of Haberlea under medium (100 µmol m−2 s−1; ML) irradiance were compared with those under low (30 µmol m−2 s−1; LL) irradiance. Key Results Well-watered plants (control) at 100 µmol m−2 s−1 were not damaged. Plants desiccated at LL or ML had similar rates of water loss. Dehydration at ML decreased the quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and particularly the CO2 assimilation rate, more rapidly than at LL. Dehydration induced accumulation of stress proteins in leaves under both LL and ML. Photosynthetic activity and polypeptide composition were completely restored in LL plants after 1 week of rehydration, but changes persisted under ML conditions. Electron microscopy of structural changes in the chloroplast showed that the thylakoid lumen is filled with an electron-dense substance (dense luminal substance, DLS), while the thylakoid membranes are lightly stained. Upon dehydration and rehydration the DLS thinned and disappeared, the time course largely depending on the illumination: whereas DLS persisted during desiccation and started to disappear during late recovery under LL, it disappeared from the onset of dehydration and later was completely lost under ML. Conclusions Accumulation of DLS

  4. Isolation, Characterization, Screening, Formulation and Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are bioresources which may be viewed as a novel and potential tool for providing substantial benefits to the agriculture. Soil is the dynamic living matrix and the major source of food security providing various resources of plant growth and maintaining life processes. PGPR are originally defined as root- colonizing bacteria that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. Chemical fertilizers are used for killing pathogens, increase crop yield but long term use of chemical fertilizers lead to adverse effect to the soil profile and is the reason for decrease in soil productivity, on the other hand PGPR promote plant growth directly by either facilitating resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. PGPR is the indispensable part of rhizosphere biota that when grown in association with the host plants can stimulate the growth of the host. PGPR seemed as successful rhizobacteria in getting established in soil ecosystem due to their high adaptability in a wide variety of environments, faster growth rate and biochemical versatility to metabolize a wide range of natural and xenobiotic compounds. Isolated PGPRs from selective crop rizosphere soil were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. Different studies have been carrying out to develop some new bioformulations and evaluate their efficacy in promoting crop seedlings growth characteristics. Field trials were performed to evaluate selective crops with formulations of several plants PGPR in a production system. The present review highlights the Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as an alternative of chemical fertilizer for sustainable, environment friendly agriculture.

  5. Stripping Away the Soil: Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities in Aquaponics

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Oyserman, Ben O; Blom, Jesse E; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Newton, Ryan J

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and drought, producing beneficial molecules, and supplying nutrients and trace metals to the plant rhizosphere. Previous studies of PGPMs have focused primarily on soil-based crops. In contrast, aquapo...

  6. Dual Effect of the Cubic Ag₃PO₄ Crystal on Pseudomonas syringae Growth and Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that the antibacterial activity of silver phosphate crystals on Escherichia coli depends on their structure. We here show that the cubic form of silver phosphate crystal (SPC can also be applied to inhibit the growth of a plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae bacterium. SPC pretreatment resulted in reduced in planta multiplication of P. syringae. Induced expression of a plant defense marker gene PR1 by SPC alone is suggestive of its additional plant immunity-stimulating activity. Since SPC can simultaneously inhibit P. syringae growth and induce plant defense responses, it might be used as a more effective plant disease-controlling agent.

  7. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Tirgani, Sana; Komakech, Allan John; Niwagaba, Charles B; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-08-01

    Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL -1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL -1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8.5-12ngL -1 ) and Lake Victoria (1.0-2.5ngL -1 ), due to dilution, sorption to sediment and uptake by plants in the wetland. ∑PFAS concentrations were within the range 1700-7900pgg -1 dry weight (dw) in soil and 160pgg -1 dw (maize cobs) to 380pgg -1 dw (sugarcane stems) in plants. The dominant PFASs were perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in wastewater, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in soil and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) and PFOA in different plant tissues, reflecting PFAS-specific partitioning behaviour in different matrices. Soil-water partitioning coefficient (log K d ) in wetland soil under yam was lowest for short-chain PFHxA (1.9-2.3Lkg -1 ) and increased with increasing chain length to 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS). The log K oc values ranged between 2.2 and 3.6Lkg -1 , with the highest log K oc estimated for long-chain perfluorocarbon PFASs (i.e. PFUnDA 3.2-3.5Lkg -1 and PFOS 3.2-3.6Lkg -1 ). The concentration ratio (CR) between plants and soil was <1 for all PFASs and plant species, with the highest CR estimated for PFHpA (0.65-0.67) in sugarcane stem and PFBS (0.53-0.59) in yam root. Overall, this investigation demonstrated PFASs entry into the terrestrial food chain and drinking water resources in Kampala, Uganda. Source identification, assessment of

  8. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  9. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  10. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  11. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...

  12. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X-F; Zhou, D; Guo, J; Manter, D K; Reardon, K F; Vivanco, J M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest soil on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth-promoting effects on Arabidopsis (Col-0). Four selected isolates including one Bacillus subtilis, two B. atrophaeus and one B. pumilus significantly promoted growth of Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, the PGPRs significantly promoted growth of S. lycopersicum in both low and nitrogen-amended soil conditions. These PGPR strains were further studied to obtain insights into possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Volatile chemicals from those isolates promoted Arabidopsis growth, and the expression of genes related to IAA production was induced in the Arabidopsis plants treated with PGPRs. Further, selected PGPR strains triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis. PGPR strains isolated from the rainforest soil promoted the plant growth of Arabidopsis, corn and tomato. New PGPR that have wider adaptability to different crops, soils and environmental conditions are needed to decrease our reliance on agricultural amendments derived from fossil-based fuels. The PGPRs isolated from a nonagricultural site constitute new plant growth-promoting strains that could be developed for agricultural uses. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. RESEARCH REGARDING THE POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS ON PLANTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-IRINA PATRICIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.

  15. Evaluation of pyritic mine tailings as a plant growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseby, Stuart J; Kopittke, Peter M; Mulligan, David R; Menzies, Neal W

    2017-10-01

    At the Kidston gold mine, Australia, the direct establishment of vegetation on tailings was considered as an alternative to the use of a waste rock cover. The tailings acid/base account was used to predict plant growth limitation by acidity, and thus methods capable of identifying tailings that would acidify to pH 4.5 or lower were sought. Total S was found to be poorly correlated with acid-generating sulfide, and total C was poorly correlated with acid-neutralizing carbonate, precluding the use of readily determined total S and C as predictors of net acid generation. Therefore, the selected approach used assessment of sulfide content as a predictor of acid generation, and carbonate content as a measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity available at pH 5 and above. Using this approach, the majority of tailings (67%) were found to be non-acid generating. However, areas of potentially acid-generating tailings were randomly distributed across the dam, and could only be located by intensive sampling. The limitations imposed by the large sample numbers, and costly analysis of sulfide and carbonate, make it impractical to identify and ameliorate acid-generating areas prior to vegetation establishment. However, as only a small proportion of the tailings will acidify, a strategy of re-treating acid areas following oxidation is suggested. The findings of the present study will assist in the selection of appropriate methods for the prediction of net acid generation, particularly where more conservative measurements are required to allow vegetation to be established directly in tailings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Potentially Harmful Substances in Dried Sludge of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bina

    2004-05-01

    Thus, taking into account the potential risks caused by presence of heavy metals in sludge and for the control of processes of sludge treatment and disposal and also protect of environmental health and enhauncement of public health level, specially for farmers and consumers of raw crops, needs sampling and characterization of sludge. In the present research concentration of 11 heavy metals and potentially toxic elements in dried sludge of Isfahan South and North and Shahinshahr wastewater treatment plants were determined using standard methods. Samples have been taken from dried sludge of treatment plants, and been measured after being prepared through atomic absorption apparatus and were compared with EPA enacted standards in regulation 40 CFR part 503. As well, fertilizer value parameters of sludge were measured and were compared with standards and guidelines. The results showed that the average concentration of above elements in all three treatment plants, not exceeded from EPA standards, however, regarding the accumulative property of these elements and lack of necessary protective effects of EPA standards, in using these sludges in the agricultural soils, the necessary caution and care should be taken, in other uses of sludges, however, there is no limitation.

  17. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acquisition of plant sterols, mediated via elicitins, is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. In this paper, we looked at the interaction between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. When ground leaf tissue was added to growth media, P. ramorum growth and sporulation was greates...

  18. Colonization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Two Different Root Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M. Z.; Naz, A. U.; Nawaz, A.; Nawaz, A.; Mukhtar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones producing bacteria enhance the plants growth by positively affecting growth of the root. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) must colonize the plant roots to contribute to the plant's endogenous pool of phytohormones. Colonization of these plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosplane and soil of different crops was evaluated on different root types to establish if the mechanism of host specificity exist. The bacteria were isolated from maize, wheat, rice, canola and cotton and phytohormone production was detected and quantified by HPLC. Bacteria were inoculated on surface sterilized seeds of different crops and seeds were germinated. After 7 days the bacteria were re-isolated from the roots and the effect of these bacteria was observed by measuring increase in root length. Bacteria isolated from one plant family (monocots) having fibrous root performed well on similar root system and failed to give significant results on other roots (tap root) of dicots. Some aggressive strains were able to colonize both root systems. The plant growth promoting activities of the bacteria were optimum on the same plant from whom roots they were isolated. The results suggest that bacteria adapt to the root they naturally inhabit and colonize the same plant root systems preferably. Although the observe trend indicate host specificity but some bacteria were aggressive colonizers which grew on all the plants used in experiment. (author)

  19. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eWingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g. via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellins (GA and jasmonate (JA play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor (CBF dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants.

  20. Plant Growth Enhancement, Disease Resistance, and Elemental Modulatory Effects of Plant Probiotic Endophytic Bacillus sp. Fcl1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Aswathy; Krishna, Arathy; Mohan, Mahesh; Nair, Indu C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-04-13

    Endophytic bacteria have already been studied for their beneficial support to plants to manage both biotic and abiotic stress through an array of well-established mechanisms. They have either direct or indirect impact on mobilizing diverse nutrients and elements from soil to plants. However, detailed insight into the fine-tuning of plant elemental composition by associated microorganism is very limited. In this study, endophytic Bacillus Fcl1 characterized from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was found to have broad range of plant growth-promoting and biocontrol mechanisms. The organism was found to have indole acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase production properties along with nitrogen fixation. The Bacillus Fcl1 could also inhibit diverse phytopathogens as confirmed by dual culture and well diffusion. By LC-MS/MS analysis, chemical basis of its antifungal activity has been proved to be due to the production of iturin A and a blend of surfactin compounds. Moreover, the organism was found to induce both plant growth and disease resistance in vivo in model plant system. Because of these experimentally demonstrated multiple plant probiotic features, Bacillus Fcl1 was selected as a candidate organism to study its role in modulation of plant elemental composition. ICP-MS analysis of Bacillus Fcl1-treated plants provided insight into relation of bacterial interaction with elemental composition of plants.

  1. Interactions of zinc and cadmium toxicity in their effects on growth and in antioxidative systems in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaouhra Cherif; Chamseddine Mediouni; Wided Ben Ammar; Fatma Jemal

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between zinc and cadmium was investigated in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 10 μmol/L CdCl2 associated to different concentrations of ZnCl2 (10, 50, 100, and 150 μmol/L).Zn supply clearly reduced Cd accumulation in leaves and simultaneously increased Zn concentration.Cd induced oxidative stress in leaves as indicated by an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and chlorophyll breakdown.Furthermore, compared with control, Cdtreated plants had significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), whereas, catalase (CAT, EC 1.111.1.6),ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities were significantly suppressed by Cd addition.Zn supplementation, at low level, restored and enhanced the functional activity of these enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) as compared to Cd-alone-treated plants.The beneficial effect of adequate Zn level on Cd toxicity was confirmed by a significant decrease in TBARS level and restoration of chlorophyll content.However, when Zn was added at high level in combination with Cd there was an accumulation of oxidative stress, which was higher than that for Cd or excess Zn alone treatments.These results suggested that higher Zn concentrations and Cd are synergistic in their effect on plant growth parameters and oxidative stress.

  2. Symbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium: fungal and bacterial partners and their influence on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Zeng, Songjun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V

    2015-07-01

    The genus Dendrobium is one of the largest genera of the Orchidaceae Juss. family, although some of its members are the most threatened today. The reason why many species face a vulnerable or endangered status is primarily because of anthropogenic interference in natural habitats and commercial overexploitation. The development and application of modern techniques and strategies directed towards in vitro propagation of orchids not only increases their number but also provides a viable means to conserve plants in an artificial environment, both in vitro and ex vitro, thus providing material for reintroduction. Dendrobium seed germination and propagation are challenging processes in vivo and in vitro, especially when the extreme specialization of these plants is considered: (1) their biotic relationships with pollinators and mycorrhizae; (2) adaptation to epiphytic or lithophytic life-styles; (3) fine-scale requirements for an optimal combination of nutrients, light, temperature, and pH. This review also aims to summarize the available data on symbiotic in vitro Dendrobium seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors as well as composition and amounts of different exogenous nutrient substances is examined. With a view to better understanding how to optimize and control in vitro symbiotic associations, a part of the review describes the strong biotic relations of Dendrobium with different associative microorganisms that form microbial communities with adult plants, and also influence symbiotic seed germination. The beneficial role of plant growth-promoting bacteria is also discussed.

  3. Probiotics for Plants? Growth Promotion by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Depends on Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Susanna; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2018-03-28

    Cultivation of crops requires nutrient supplements which are costly and impact the environment. Furthermore, global demands for increased crop production call for sustainable solutions to increase yield and utilize resources such as nutrients more effectively. Some entomopathogenic fungi are able to promote plant growth, but studies over such effects have been conducted under optimal conditions where nutrients are abundantly available. We studied the effects of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA) seed treatment on the growth of maize (Zea mays) at high and low nutrient conditions during 6 weeks in greenhouse. As expected, B. bassiana seed treatment increased plant growth, but only at high nutrient conditions. In contrast, the seed treatment did not benefit plant growth at low nutrient conditions where the fungus potentially constituted a sink and tended to reduce plant growth. The occurrence of endophytic B. bassiana in experimental plant tissues was evaluated by PCR after 6 weeks, but B. bassiana was not documented in any of the above-ground plant tissues indicating that the fungus-plant interaction was independent of endophytic establishment. Our results suggest that B. bassiana seed treatment could be used as a growth promoter of maize when nutrients are abundantly available, while the fungus does not provide any growth benefits when nutrients are scarce.

  4. Application of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion Effect and Biocontrol of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum to various degrees. The results primarily showed that antibiotic substances produced by the selected bacteria were effective and resulted in strong antifungal activity against the fungi. However, isolate AB15 was the most effective bacterial strain, with the potential to suppress more than 50% mycelial growth of C. acutatum in vitro. Moreover, antibiotics from Paenibacillus polymyxa (AB15) and volatile compounds from Bacillus subtilis (AB14) exerted efficient antagonistic activity against the pathogens in a dual culture assay. In vivo suppression activity of selected bacteria was also analyzed in a greenhouse with the reference to their prominent in vitro antagonism efficacy. Induced systemic resistance in pepper against C. acutatum was also observed under greenhouse conditions. Where, isolate AB15 was found to be the most effective bacterial strain at suppressing pepper anthracnose under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, four isolates, AB10, AB12, AB15, and AB17, were identified as the most effective growth promoting bacteria under greenhouse conditions, with AB17 inducing the greatest enhancement of pepper growth. PMID:23323049

  5. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H.

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA 3 -stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed. (author)

  6. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  7. Study on growth-promotion of paddy plants treated with oligo chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud; Norzita Yacob; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has been degraded to produced oligo chitosan with different molecular weight using gamma ray irradiation from a Co-60 source in solid state (powder form) and liquid state (aqueous solution). Study on growth promotion of paddy plants was done using oligo chitosan and conventional plant growth promoter as a comparison. Oligo chitosan was used with different molecular weight and different concentrations. Smaller molecular weight of oligo chitosan with smaller concentration showed better result than bigger molecular weight of oligo chitosan as a plant growth promoter. This study also showed that conventional growth promoter can be replaced with oligo chitosan as it is more effective as plant growth promoter as well as more environmental friendly. (author)

  8. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of PLA/PCL films with natural substances for bacterial growth control in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Hollermann, Gesa; Errenst, Cornelia; Pajnik, Jelena; Frerich, Sulamith; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch; Ivanovic, Jasna

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable polymers with antibacterial properties are highly desirable materials for active food packaging applications. Thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol with a strong antibacterial activity is abundant in plants belonging to the genus Thymus. This study presents two approaches for supercritical CO 2 impregnation of poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) blended films to induce antibacterial properties of the material: (i) a batch impregnation process for loading pure thymol, and (ii) an integrated supercritical extraction-impregnation process for isolation of thyme extract and its incorporation into the films, operated in both batch or semi-continuous modes with supercritical solution circulation. The PCL content in films, impregnation time and CO 2 flow regime were varied to maximize loading of the films with thymol or thyme extract with preserving films' structure and thermal stability. Representative film samples impregnated with thymol and thyme extract were tested against Gram (-) (Escherichia coli) and Gram(+) (Bacillus subtilis) model strains, by measuring their metabolic activity and re-cultivation after exposure to the films. The film containing thymol (35.8 wt%) showed a strong antibacterial activity leading to a total reduction of bacterial cell viability. Proposed processes enable fast, controlled and organic solvent-free fabrication of the PLA/PCL films containing natural antibacterial substances at moderately low temperature, with a compact structure and a good thermal stability, for potential use as active food packaging materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant growth regulation by the light of LEDs; LED ko wo tsukatta shokubutsu saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H. [Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Tokyo (Japan). Yokohama Research Center

    1996-03-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) has not only an excellent display function for the luminescent device but also a superior feature without other lamps as light source for plant growth. It was National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to find out such merit for this light source for plant growth and try at first to use for plant growth at the space. They began to examine the LED application to the light source for the plant growth at the space since a stage at high cost of the LED, to develop some researches centered at cultivation of lettuce, wheat, and others. Finding out future possibility of cost-down of the LEDs on the cost/performance and large merits of the LEDs for control of the plant growth and plant physiology, authors have conducted some cultivation experiments of the plants using the LEDs for light source some years ago. In this papers, characterizations, actual possibility, and future developments of the LEDs for the light sources of the plant growth, are introduced. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jujie Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  11. Differential oxidative and antioxidative response of duckweed Lemna minor toward plant growth promoting/inhibiting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Kuroda, Masashi; Morikawa, Masaaki; Ike, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria colonizing the plant rhizosphere are believed to positively or negatively affect the host plant productivity. This feature has inspired researchers to engineer such interactions to enhance crop production. However, it remains to be elucidated whether rhizobacteria influences plant oxidative stress vis-a-vis other environmental stressors, and whether such influence is associated with their growth promoting/inhibiting ability. In this study, two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and two plant growth-inhibiting bacteria (PGIB) were separately inoculated into axenic duckweed (Lemna minor) culture under laboratory conditions for 4 and 8 days in order to investigate their effects on plant oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. As previously characterized, the inoculation of PGPB and PGIB strains accelerated and reduced the growth of L. minor, respectively. After 4 and 8 days of cultivation, compared to the PGPB strains, the PGIB strains induced larger amounts of O 2 •- , H 2 O 2 , and malondialdehyde (MDA) in duckweed, although all bacterial strains consistently increased O 2 •- content by two times more than that in the aseptic control plants. Activities of five antioxidant enzymes were also elevated by the inoculation of PGIB, confirming the severe oxidative stress condition in plants. These results suggest that the surface attached bacteria affect differently on host oxidative stress and its response, which degree correlates negatively to their effects on plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of heavy metals on Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110 growth, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, ultrastructure and protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rita; Pereira, Sara B; Meazzini, Marianna; Fernandes, Rui; Santos, Arlete; Evans, Caroline A; De Philippis, Roberto; Wright, Phillip C; Tamagnini, Paula

    2015-04-29

    The effects of several heavy metals on the growth/survival, EPS production, ultrastructure and protein profiles of the highly efficient extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)-producer cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110 were evaluated. Our results clearly show that each heavy metal affects the cells in a particular manner, triggering distinctive responses. Concerning chronic exposure, cells were more affected by Cu(2+) followed by Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Li(+). The presence of metal leads to remarkable ultrastructural changes, mainly at the thylakoid level. The comparison of the proteomes (iTRAQ) allowed to follow the stress responses and to distinguish specific effects related to the time of exposure and/or the concentration of an essential (Cu(2+)) and a non-essential (Cd(2+)) metal. The majority of the proteins identified and with fold changes were associated with photosynthesis, CO2 fixation and carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and nitrogen and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, our results indicate that during chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of Cu(2+), the cells tune down their metabolic rate to invest energy in the activation of detoxification mechanisms, which eventually result in a remarkable recovery. In contrast, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) are cumulative. Unexpectedly, the amount of released polysaccharides (RPS) was not enhanced by the presence of heavy metals. This work shows the holistic effects of different heavy metals on the cells of the highly efficient EPS-producer the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110. The growth/survival, EPS production, ultrastructure, protein profiles and stress response were evaluated. The knowledge generated by this study will contribute to the implementation of heavy-metal removal systems based on cyanobacteria EPS or their isolated polymers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  14. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Cheung, K.C.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations

  15. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Cheung, K.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Luo, Y.M. [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Wong, M.H. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China) and Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-03-15

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations.

  16. Uses of plants, animal and mineral substances in Mediterranean ethno-veterinary practices for the care of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluzza, G; Virdis, S; Serralutzu, F; Bullitta, S

    2015-06-20

    The cultural heritage of Sardinian shepherds is rapidly vanishing and survives in the memory of elderly people. The objective of our study was not only to report the usage of plants and their preparation for administration but also the use of other remedies of different origin arising from traditional ethno-veterinary knowledge, as Sardinian shepherds were used to employ plants, animals, minerals and combinations of several substances to prepare remedies for prophylaxis or therapy on their animals. The work was carried out in rural areas of the island of Sardinia (Italy) by interviewing shepherds and filling questionnaires in order to record ethno-veterinary practices traditionally used for animal health care. Ethno-veterinary remedies traditionally utilised for treatments of small ruminants against ecto-and endo-parasites, gastrointestinal diseases, viral and bacterial diseases, wounds, sprains and bruises were identified. Non herbal remedies outnumbered the herbal ones, as usually plant species were mainly used for the care of cattle and equines. A total of 150 ethno-veterinary uses were documented for the treatment of 33 animal conditions, a detailed account of the formulations and their administration to sheep and goats was provided. Herbal remedies involved the use of twenty two spontaneous species and seven cultivated species. This study identifies remedies used in ethno-veterinary practices for small ruminants care in Sardinia, the second major Mediterranean island which has agro-pastoral activities dating back to Neolithic. Moreover, the danger of losing oral traditions, and the increasing attention towards traditional remedies as potential sources of natural products for improving animal health and welfare, support the interest of our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival and growth of fresh and stored planting stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth

    1953-01-01

    Does planting stock that has been kept in storage survive and grow as well as freshly dug stock? This question is important because the ground at a forest nursery may still be frozen when spring planting time arrives in the warmer parts of the region. This means that seedlings for spring planting need to be dug in the fall, kept in cold storage over winter, and shipped...

  18. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  19. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Plant Population and Nitrogen-Fertilizer at Various Levels on Growth and Growth Efficiency of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Tajul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate plant population and N-fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.. Three levels of plant populations (53000, 66000, and 800000 plants ha−1 corresponding to spacings of 75 × 25, 60 × 25, and 50 × 25 cm and 4 doses of N (100, 140, 180, and 220 kg ha−1 were the treatment variables. Results revealed that plant growth, light interception (LI, yield attributes, and grain yield varied significantly due to the variations in population density and N-rates. Crop growth rate (CGR was the highest with the population of 80,000 ha−1 receiving 220 kg N ha−1, while relative growth rate (RGR showed an opposite trend of CGR. Light absorption was maximum when most of densely populated plant received the highest amount of N (220 kg N ha−1. Response of soil-plant-analysis development (SPAD value as well as N-content to N-rates was found significant. Plant height was the maximum at the lowest plant density with the highest amount of N. Plants that received 180 kg N ha−1 with 80,000 plants ha−1 had larger foliage, greater SPAD value, and higher amount of grains cob−1 that contributed to the maximum yield (5.03 t ha−1 and the maximum harvest index (HI compared to the plants in other treatments.

  1. PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING MICROBIAL INOCULANT FOR Schizolobium parahyba pv. parahyba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Jane Romano de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSchizolobium parahyba pv. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby (paricá occurs naturally in the Amazon and is significant commercial importance due to its rapid growth and excellent performance on cropping systems. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a microbial inoculants such as arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF and Rhizobium sp. that promote plant growth. The inocula was 10 g of root colonized and spores of Glomus clarum and/or 1 mL of cell suspension (107 CFU/mL of Rhizobium sp. and/or 100 g of chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 per planting hole. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with five replications and eight treatments (n = 800. Plant height, stem diameter and plant survival were measured. The results were tested for normality and homogeneity of variances and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. Rhizobium sp and AM fungi showed no effect on plant growth. Environmental factors probably influenced the effectiveness of symbiosis of both microorganisms and plant growth. The chemical fertilizer increased S. parahyba growth. During the first 120 days plants suffered with drought and frost, and at 180 days plants inoculated with microorganism plus chemical fertilizer showed higher survival when compared with control. The results showed that the microbial inoculants used showed an important role on plant survival after high stress conditions, but not in plant growth. Also was concluded that the planting time should be between November to December to avoid the presence of young plants during winter time that is dry and cold.

  2. Influence of atmospheric SO/sub 2/ on the formation of goitrogenic substances in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaleny, J.; Kutacek, M.

    1970-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether SO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere, after having passed through the stoma into the tissue of the assimilating organs of plants, may incorporate into naturally occurring goitrogens, the thioglycosides, and so increase their content. Results of tests with cauliflower indicate that the sulfur does incorporate into the thioglycosides. From these results it is considered essential to propose a medical test of a sample of the population from polluted areas with regard to the pathology of the thyroid gland. The excessive supply of goitrogenic thioglycosides may lead to the disturbance of the activity of the thyroid gland in individual patients who consume excessive quantities of Brassica in areas that are strongly polluted by SO/sub 2/.

  3. A general advection-diffusion model for radioactive substance dispersion released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buske, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution focuses on the question of radioactive material dispersion after discharge from a nuclear power plant in the context of micro-meteorology, i.e. an atmospheric dispersion model. The advection-diffusion equation with Fickian closure for the turbulence is solved for the atmospheric boundary layer where the eddy diffusivity coefficients and the wind profile are assumed to be space dependent. The model is solved in closed form using integral transform and spectral theory. Convergence of the solution is discussed in terms of a convergence criterion using a new interpretation of the Cardinal Theorem of Interpolation theory and Parseval's theorem. The solution is compared to other methods and model adequacy is analyzed. Model validation is performed against experimental data from a controlled release of radioactive material at the Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, 1985). (author)

  4. In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum by substances isolated from Amazonian antimalarial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter F de Andrade-Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a quassinoid, neosergeolide, isolated from the roots and stems of Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae, the indole alkaloids ellipticine and aspidocarpine, isolated from the bark of Aspidosperma vargasii and A. desmanthum (Apocynaceae, respectively, and 4-nerolidylcatechol, isolated from the roots of Pothomorphe peltata (Piperaceae, all presented significant in vitro inhibition (more active than quinine and chloroquine of the multi-drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Neosergeolide presented activity in the nanomolar range. This is the first report on the antimalarial activity of these known, natural compounds. This is also the first report on the isolation of aspidocarpine from A. desmanthum. These compounds are good candidates for pre-clinical tests as novel lead structures with the aim of finding new antimalarial prototypes and lend support to the traditional use of the plants from which these compounds are derived.

  5. Growth changes of plants following the removal of nutritional stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, D.

    1965-01-01

    Differential changes in leaf area of plants were used to assess the fertility status of soils. For this method subterranean clover plants were raised in solutions with different levels of nutrients and transferred either into complete solutions or to solutions lacking one of the elements. Response

  6. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  7. Thidiazuron: A multi-dimensional plant growth regulator | Guo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thidiazuron (TDZ) has gained a considerable attention during past decades due to its efficient role in plant cell and tissue culture. Wide array of physiological responses were observed in response to TDZapplication in different plant species. TDZ has shown both auxin and cytokinin like effects, although, chemically, it is ...

  8. Plant Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Three Riparian Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers can significantly reduce sediment-bound phosphorus (P) entering surface water, but control of dissolved P inputs is more challenging. Because plant roots remove P from soil solution, it follows that plant uptake will reduce dissolved P losses. We evaluated P uptake of smooth bromegr...

  9. Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J V; Lobato, A K S

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is considered the main abiotic stress that limits agricultural production worldwide. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural substances that play roles in plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, including water deficit. This research aims to determine whether BRs can mitigate the negative effects caused by water deficiency, revealing how BRs act and their possible contribution to increased tolerance of cowpea plants to water deficit. The experiment was a factorial design with the factors completely randomised, with two water conditions (control and water deficit) and three levels of brassinosteroids (0, 50 and 100 nM 24-epibrassinolide; EBR is an active BRs). Plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR under the water deficit presented significant increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR compared with plants subjected to the water deficit without EBR. With respect to gas exchange, P N , E and g s exhibited significant reductions after water deficit, but application of 100 nM EBR caused increases in these variables of 96, 24 and 33%, respectively, compared to the water deficit + 0 nM EBR treatment. To antioxidant enzymes, EBR resulted in increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX, indicating that EBR acts on the antioxidant system, reducing cell damage. The water deficit caused significant reductions in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases of 26, 58 and 33% in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, respectively. This study revealed that EBR improves photosystem II efficiency, inducing increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR. This substance also mitigated the negative effects on gas exchange and growth induced by the water deficit. Increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX of plants treated with EBR indicate that this steroid clearly increased the tolerance to the water deficit, reducing reactive oxygen species, cell damage, and maintaining the photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, 100 nM EBR resulted in a better dose-response of cowpea

  10. In vitro growth, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated Tacca (Tacca leontopetaloides) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betalini Widhi Hapsari; Andri Fadillah Martin; Tri Muji Ermayanti

    2016-01-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze is tuberous plant belongs to family Taccaceae. Tacca plant has a potential as the source of natural antioxidant. Radiation with Gamma radiation done either by in vitro or ex vitro plants is often used to increase chemical content of plants including antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and phytochemical content and as well as the antioxidant activity of gamma irradiated tacca plant. Phytochemical analysis was done to detect alkaloids, flavonoids, steroid, tannin and saponin compounds, meanwhile, antioxidant activity was carried by DPPH analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiated tacca plant had lower growth compared to the control. Phytochemical analysis showed that tacca plant contains an alkaloid, flavonoid, and steroid. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from tacca clone number 30 Gy 3.1.3.1 with an IC_5_0 value of 50.85 μg/mL. (author)

  11. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  12. Characterization of Effective Rhizobacteria Isolated from Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens) to Enhance Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A. R.; Mahmood, T.; Batool, A.; Khalid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobacteria with plant growth promoting ability exist in association with plant roots and ameliorate over all plant development and yield. Numerous species of rhizobacteria have been identified with plant growth promoting ability, which can be attributed to multiple microbial characteristics. In the current study rhizobacterial isolates with best plant growth promotion traits were subjected to screening for plant growth promotion under axenic condition. The results of lab assays revealed that out of five rhizobacterial isolates three of bacterial isolate were Gram -ve and two of them were Gram +ve bacterial group. All isolates found positive for the auxin production and ACC-demainase activity. The isolate HS9 showed highest ACC activity (331 ketobutyrate nmol mg-1 biomass hr-1) and auxin production (3.85 without L-TRP). PGPR increase plant growth by reducing the ethylene release and its inhibitory effects, the role of isolates to decrease ethylene effects was affirmed via classical triple response assay on velvet bean. Furthermore, isolate were assessed for resistance test, three efficient strains (G9, HS9 and H38) exhibited antibiotic resistance for streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin at 100 mg L-1in TSB medium. For the purpose of co-inoculation, all three isolates showed positive relation to grow together. The results concluded that rhizobacteria selected from rain fed areas were found effective to improve plant growth with their multiple growth enhancing traits. Therefore, PGPR with various characteristics could be a better option for inoculation and co-inoculation to improve plant growth in well watered and water stressed environment. (author)

  13. Isolation and selection of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Alves Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in maintaining soil fertility and plant health. They can act as biofertilizers and increase the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane, as well as assessing their ability to promote plant growth. Endophytic bacteria from leaf, stem, root and rhizosphere were isolated from the RB 867515 commercial sugarcane variety and screened for indole acetic acid (IAA production, ability to solubilize phosphate, fix nitrogen and produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN, ammonia and the enzymes pectinase, cellulase and chitinase. A total of 136 bacteria were isolated, with 83 of them presenting some plant growth mechanism: 47 % phosphate solubilizers, 26 % nitrogen fixers and 57 % producing IAA, 0.7 % HCN and chitinase, 45 % ammonia, 30 % cellulose and 8 % pectinase. The seven best isolates were tested for their ability to promote plant growth in maize. The isolates tested for plant growth promotion belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family and the Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pantoea genera. Five isolates promoted plant growth in greenhouse experiments, showing potential as biofertilizers.

  14. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  15. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-12-15

    To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus ( n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly ( P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1.03%). CM

  16. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  17. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  18. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  19. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  20. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  1. Root-induced decomposer growth and plant N uptake are not positively associated among a set of grassland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, S.; Mikola, J.; Ekelund, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Base...... that plant traits such as competitive ability for soil mineral N were more important for plant uptake of litter-N than those that directly affected the growth of soil decomposers.......It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Based...... on the hypothesis that root-induced growth of soil decomposers leads to accelerated decomposition of SOM and increased plant N availability in soil, we predicted that (1) among a set of grassland plants the abundance of soil decomposers in the plant rhizosphere is positively associated with plant N uptake from soil...

  2. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  3. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    the plant hormone, gibberellin , which is necessary for stem elongation Susceptible Species: Ornamentals, turf species, wheat, barley, rice , sor- ghum...Paclobutrazol - inhibits gibberellin synthesis; activity of both compounds togethef results in reduced vegetative growth and sup- pressed seedhead

  4. Physiological and proteomic analysis of plant growth enhancement by the rhizobacteria Bacillus sp. JS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Seong; Lee, Jeong Eun; Nie, Hualin; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sun-Hyung

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Bacillus sp. JS on the growth of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi') and lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Crispa'), were evaluated by comparing various growth parameters between plants treated with the bacterium and those exposed to water or nutrient broth as control. In both tobacco and lettuce, fresh weight and length of shoots were increased upon exposure to Bacillus sp. JS. To explain the overall de novo expression of plant proteins by bacterial volatiles, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed on samples from PGPR-treated tobacco plants. Our results showed that chlorophyll a/b binding proteins were significantly up-regulated, and total chlorophyll content was also increased. Our findings indicate the potential benefits of using Bacillus sp. JS as a growth-promoting factor in agricultural practice, and highlight the need for further research to explore these benefits.

  5. Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially

  6. Integrated LED/Imaging Illumination Panels Demonstrated within a Small Plant Growth Chamber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LED light sources are ideal for plant growth systems. However, commercially available multi-color LED illumination panels are designed and manufactured to produce a...

  7. Differential response of potato toward inoculation with taxonomically diverse plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqqash, Tahir; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Majeed, Afshan; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen), five bacteria,

  8. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  9. Contrasting growth responses of dominant peatland plants to warming and vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom N; Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2015-05-01

    There is growing recognition that changes in vegetation composition can strongly influence peatland carbon cycling, with potential feedbacks to future climate. Nevertheless, despite accelerated climate and vegetation change in this ecosystem, the growth responses of peatland plant species to combined warming and vegetation change are unknown. Here, we used a field warming and vegetation removal experiment to test the hypothesis that dominant species from the three plant functional types present (dwarf-shrubs: Calluna vulgaris; graminoids: Eriophorum vaginatum; bryophytes: Sphagnum capillifolium) contrast in their growth responses to warming and the presence or absence of other plant functional types. Warming was accomplished using open top chambers, which raised air temperature by approximately 0.35 °C, and we measured air and soil microclimate as potential mechanisms through which both experimental factors could influence growth. We found that only Calluna growth increased with experimental warming (by 20%), whereas the presence of dwarf-shrubs and bryophytes increased growth of Sphagnum (46%) and Eriophorum (20%), respectively. Sphagnum growth was also negatively related to soil temperature, which was lower when dwarf-shrubs were present. Dwarf-shrubs may therefore promote Sphagnum growth by cooling the peat surface. Conversely, the effect of bryophyte presence on Eriophorum growth was not related to any change in microclimate, suggesting other factors play a role. In conclusion, our findings reveal contrasting abiotic and biotic controls over dominant peatland plant growth, suggesting that community composition and carbon cycling could be modified by simultaneous climate and vegetation change.

  10. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Hasna Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  11. Thidiazuron: A multi-dimensional plant growth regulator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... recently, the morpho-regulatory potential of the chemical has led to its application in ..... The structure of TDZ is totally different from naturally occurring ..... some researches on plant melatonin and serotonin focused on their ...

  12. Growth patterns of deer-browse plants in southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls; R. Alcaniz

    1972-01-01

    Among plants of 16 browse species common in east Texas, the combination that would furnish succulent green forage earliest in spring and latest in fall includes yellow jessamine, Alabama supplejack, yaupon, rusty blackhaw, and flowering dogwood.

  13. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant portion derived...

  14. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant...

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators and nitrogenous compounds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The seed germination of Capsicum frutescens L. was investigated through various ... The seeds were subjected to the following treatments namely ... The pre-soaking in plant ..... sowing treatments on seedling emergence and.

  16. Endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting and biocontrol abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malfanova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    Since global food insecurity is one of the major problems faced by humanity, there is a necessity to increase plant productivity. For this, biofungicides and biofertilizers present an ecologically friendly alternative to their chemical counterparts. Among these bioinoculants, endophytic bacteria

  17. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  19. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  1. Root temperature and growth of young tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harssema, H.

    1978-01-01

    During recent years sophisticated techniques are applied in the glasshouse industry for the control of the glasshouse climate. Along with that development, extensive research programs were carried out to establish optimum conditions for growth. Air temperature, radiation, CO

  2. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  3. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... effects of PGPR isolates on the growth of rice, a pot culture experiment was conducted. Prior to seeds ... undertaken to screen the PGPR strains that are ..... promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach.

  4. New insights into the cellular mechanisms of plant growth at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Dananjali; Thompson, Michael; Sutherland, Mark; Hirotsu, Naoki; Makino, Amane; Seneweera, Saman

    2018-04-02

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) significantly influences plant growth, development and biomass. Increased photosynthesis rate, together with lower stomatal conductance, have been identified as the key factors that stimulate plant growth at elevated [CO 2 ] (e[CO 2 ]). However, variations in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance alone cannot fully explain the dynamic changes in plant growth. Stimulation of photosynthesis at e[CO 2 ] is always associated with post-photosynthetic secondary metabolic processes that include carbon and nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle functions and hormonal regulation. Most studies have focused on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in response to e[CO 2 ], despite the emerging evidence of e[CO 2 ]'s role in moderating secondary metabolism in plants. In this review, we briefly discuss the effects of e[CO 2 ] on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance and then focus on the changes in other cellular mechanisms and growth processes at e[CO 2 ] in relation to plant growth and development. Finally, knowledge gaps in understanding plant growth responses to e[CO 2 ] have been identified with the aim of improving crop productivity under a CO 2 rich atmosphere. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L. according to the BBCH Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Lopez-Corcoles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.. Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system.

  6. Phenological growth stages of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) according to the BBCH Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Corcoles, H.; Brasa-Ramos, A.; Montero-Garcia, F.; Romero-Valverde, M.; Montero-Riquelme, F.

    2015-07-01

    Phenological studies are important for understanding the influence of climate dynamics on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting on plants and can be used in many scientific subjects, such as Agronomy, Botany and Plant Biology, but also Climatology as a result of the current global interest in climate change monitoring. The purpose of the detailed specific culture descriptions of the principal growth stages in plants is to provide an instrument for standardization of data recording. To date, there was no coding method to describe developmental stages on saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Because of the increasing world-wide interest on this crop, a novel growth development code based on the BBCH extended scale is proposed in this paper. Six principal growth stages were set up, starting from sprouting, cataphylls and flowers appearance, plant appearance and development, replacement corms development, plant senescence and corm dormancy. Each principal growth stage is subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are included to make effective use of the system. (Author)

  7. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A Stinson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a European invader of North American forests, suppresses native plant growth by disrupting mutualistic associations between native canopy tree seedlings and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Our results elucidate an indirect mechanism by which invasive plants can impact native flora, and may help explain how this plant successfully invades relatively undisturbed forest habitat.

  8. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere and their plant growth promoting effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnwal Arun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is increasing in agriculture and gives an appealing manner to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and dietary supplements. The objective of our research was to access the plant growth promotion traits of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis isolated from the maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere. In vitro studies showed that isolates have the potential to produce indole acetic acid (IAA, hydrogen cyanide, phosphate solubilisation, and siderophore. RNA analysis revealed that two isolates were 97% identical to P. aeruginosa strain DSM 50071 and P. aeruginosa strain NBRC 12689 (AK20 and AK31, while two others were 98% identical to P. fluorescens strain ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens strain IAM 12022 (AK18 and AK45 and one other was 99% identical to B. subtilis strain NCDO 1769 (AK38. Our gnotobiotic study showed significant differences in plant growth variables under control and inoculated conditions. In the present research, it was observed that the isolated strains had good plant growth promoting effects on rice.

  9. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Vejan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer—thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  10. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-04-29

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  11. Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Chaitanya Kumar; Patel, Baldev; Saraf, Meenu

    2012-03-01

    A novel Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 is a plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Jatropha cucas a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain MSA2 could be classified as a member of E. cancerogenus. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Enterobacter suggested that strain MSA2 could be a novel PGPB strain. In vitro studies were carried for the plant growth promoting attribute of this culture. It tested positive for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase production, phytase, phosphate solubilization, IAA (Indole acetic acid) production, siderophore, and ammonia production. The isolate was then used as a inoculant for the vegetative study of Jatropha curcas plant. Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 supplemented with 1% carboxymethylcellulose showed overall plant growth promotion effect resulting in enhanced root length (124.14%), fresh root mass (81%), fresh shoot mass (120.02%), dry root mass (124%), dry shoot mass (105.54%), number of leaf (30.72%), chlorophyll content (50.41%), and biomass (87.20%) over control under the days of experimental observation. This study was designed for 120 days and was in triplicate and the data was collected at every 30 days.

  12. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  13. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  14. Effects of Plant Density and NPK Application on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in a forest zone to examine the effect of increasing plant population and NPK application on the growth and tuber yield of Dioscorea rotundata (Poir) cv “Obiaoturugo”. This study involved three trials. The first was conducted in 2010 involving five plant densities (10000 ...

  15. Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sarneel, J.M.; Ravensbergen, Lone; Huig, N.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing

  16. Stimulation of growth and yield of cucumber plant through seeds treatments with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez Nunez, L.M.; Garcia Rodriguez, B.; Licea Castro, L.; Porras Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with low doses of x rays on several growth and yield indicators of cucumbers plants was studied in laboratory and in organoponic conditions. The results showed that the stimulation doses for this crop were between 6-18 Gy, and the better dose for the stimulation of plant yield was 8.58 Gy

  17. The effect of plant growth regulators on optimization of tissue culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature seeds of four upland rice cultivars namely Kusan, Lamsan, Selasi and Siam were assessed for callus induction and plant regeneration on different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium. Callus induction frequency was significantly ...

  18. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus initiation in wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in the Biotechnology laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria to study the effect of some plant growth regulators on the in vitro initiation of callus using the leaves of Chiyong variety of Artemisia annua. The explants were sterilized and incubated on Murashige ...

  19. Transient negative biochar effects on plant growth are strongest after microbial species loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, (Gera) W.H.G.; Vestergård, M.; Ten Hooven, F.C.; Duyts, H.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Biochar has been explored as an organic amendment to improve soil quality and benefit plant growth. The overall positive effects of biochar on crop yields are generally attributed to abiotic changes, while the alternative causal pathway via changes in soil biota is unexplored. We compared plant

  20. Effects of plant-soil feedback on tree seedling growth under arid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.S.; Holmgren, M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Plants are able to influence their growing environment by changing biotic and abiotic soil conditions. These soil conditions in turn can influence plant growth conditions, which is called plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback is known to be operative in a wide variety of ecosystems ranging

  1. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  2. An application of analyzing the trajectories of two disorders: A parallel piecewise growth model of substance use and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamey, Mary Rose; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McPherson, Sterling; Burns, G Leonard; Parks, Craig; Roll, John

    2015-12-01

    Researchers often want to examine 2 comorbid conditions simultaneously. One strategy to do so is through the use of parallel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). This statistical technique allows for the simultaneous evaluation of 2 disorders to determine the explanations and predictors of change over time. Additionally, a piecewise model can help identify whether there are more than 2 growth processes within each disorder (e.g., during a clinical trial). A parallel piecewise LGCM was applied to self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and self-reported substance use symptoms in 303 adolescents enrolled in cognitive-behavioral therapy treatment for a substance use disorder and receiving either oral-methylphenidate or placebo for ADHD across 16 weeks. Assessing these 2 disorders concurrently allowed us to determine whether elevated levels of 1 disorder predicted elevated levels or increased risk of the other disorder. First, a piecewise growth model measured ADHD and substance use separately. Next, a parallel piecewise LGCM was used to estimate the regressions across disorders to determine whether higher scores at baseline of the disorders (i.e., ADHD or substance use disorder) predicted rates of change in the related disorder. Finally, treatment was added to the model to predict change. While the analyses revealed no significant relationships across disorders, this study explains and applies a parallel piecewise growth model to examine the developmental processes of comorbid conditions over the course of a clinical trial. Strengths of piecewise and parallel LGCMs for other addictions researchers interested in examining dual processes over time are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Early survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir with red alder in four mixed regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray; Richard E. Miller

    1986-01-01

    To quantify between-species interactions, we measured and compared survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir and associated planted and volunteer red alder at a location on the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington. The planted alder were wildlings dug either from a nearby area or from a distant, coastal site and interplanted into a 3-year-old Douglas-fir...

  4. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus and three plant species on the aquaponic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustikasari, A.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish and three types of plants consist of Ipomoea Aquatica, Brassica rapa, and Capsicum annuum on the aquaponic technology have been studied. The aquaponic technology system has been done with 200 fishes m-3, water pump with 15 watts solar energy panel, physical and biological filter, and deep flow technique (DFT). In this study, we have reported that the specific growth rate (SGR), survival (SR), Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and Wet weight (W) are used as the physical growth indicator of Oreochromis niloticus fish, while the length and the number of leaves of plants are used as the physical growth indicator of plants. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish showed that SGR is 5,56% day-1, SR is 97,67%, FCR is 0,92g and the wet weight is 1220g. The physical growth of the plant in aquaponic technology systems has been compared with the hydroponic treatment systems as controls. Analysis with t-test shows that physical growth of Ipomoea Aquatica and Brassica rapa has no significant difference respectively, whereas Capsicum annuum has significant differences compared with controls. Also, Brassica rapa in the aquaponic technology system shows a more yellow leaf color than the control. Based on these results, we conclude that aquaponic technology system provides effective results for the physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus with Ipomoea Aquatica, while additional nutrients for the both Brassica rapa and Capsicum annuum are required.

  5. Diffusivity-Based Characterization of Plant Growth Media for Earth and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamindu, Deepagoda; Møldrup, Per; Jones, Scot B.

    will likely fulfill diffusion requirements when designing safe plant growth media for earth and space. The CWD concept was also applied to a natural volcanic ash soil (Nishi-Tokyo, Japan), and natural volcanic ash soil exhibited a CWD performance fully comparable with the best among the aggregated growth...

  6. growth and development of wetland-grown taro under different plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Each experimental subplot measured 6 m x 6 m and contained 36, 64 and 144 experimental plants, respectively. During a 5-month growth period, leaf area index (LAI) and corm yield were significantly (P 0.05) effect on taro growth and.

  7. Biogeochemical anomaly above oil-containing structures in an arid zone. [Growth stimulation of plants by sodium naphthenate used for prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    Visual biological anomalies above the oil-containing structures are characterized by bright green coloring of the vegetation cover, gigantism of the plants, extended vegetation period of the plants, deformity of the plants, etc. Biological anomalies are associated with geological features and are observed only above the zone of fault disorders of the earth's crust, above deep faults. A conclusion is drawn about the presence above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone of a biogeochemical anomaly whose origin is explained by the biological activity of oil and its derivatives. The petroleum growth matter is the sodium salt of naphthene acid, a growth stimulator of plants and animals. The oils of the USSR contain 0.8-4.8% naphthene acids, which effuse through the faults into the root area levels of the soil. As a result of stimulation of growth and development by the petroleum growth matter, the vegetation period of the plants is prolonged. Under the influence of natural petroleum growth substances, the height and productivity of the anomalous plants increases 2-3-fold. Formation and manifestation of signs of biogeochemical anomalies above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone predetermine the following conditions: presence of fault disorders of the earth's crust; salinity of the root area of the soil layer necessary for neutralization of the naphthene acids with subsequent formation of the biologically active naphthenates; aridity of the desert landscape; plain relief excluding color diversity in vegetation cover because of nonuniform wetting, etc. The established biogeochemical anomaly can be used in prospecting and exploration of oil, gas and bitumen, and also in determining the fault disorders of the earth's crust.

  8. Effect of planting density and growing media on growth and yield of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.; Qureshi, K.M.; Hassan, I.; Rasheed, M.; Qureshi, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa), belonging to Rosaceae family, is a rich source of vitamins and minerals with delicate flavors. It is perishable crop which is exceedingly in demand for its taste, profitability, high yield and good quality. To make the plant growth successful in the container, the requirement of special media is very important step because plant growth is largely depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to open-field production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T 1 = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 60 cm and growing media silt, sand and farm yard manure (FYM); T 2 = 15 cm 2 x 30 cm and silt, sand and FYM; T 3 = 30 cm x 60 cm and coir; T 4 = 15 cm x 30 cm and coir; T 5 = 30 cm x 60 cm and peat moss; T 6 = 15 cm x 30 cm and 5 6 peat moss. Results showed that plants grown at low planting distance on all growth media showed more pronounced results as compared to high planting distance. Plants grown in peat moss at both planting densities moderately increased the plant height, canopy size, leaf area, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering with more flowers per plant, better fruit setting and fruit set percentage, greater fruit size and weight but fruit number per plant was reduced which lowered the overall

  9. Lactococcus lactis Metabolism and Gene Expression during Growth on Plant Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from living, harvested, and fermented plant materials; however, the adaptations these bacteria possess for growth on plant tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated plant habitat-specific traits of Lactococcus lactis during growth in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue lysate (ATL). L. lactis KF147, a strain originally isolated from plants, exhibited a higher growth rate and reached 7.9-fold-greater cell densities during growth in ATL than the dairy-associated strain L. lactis IL1403. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of KF147 identified 853 induced and 264 repressed genes during growth in ATL compared to that in GM17 laboratory culture medium. Genes induced in ATL included those involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and a total of 140 carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes, many of which are involved in xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, and hemicellulose metabolism. The induction of those genes corresponded with L. lactis KF147 nutrient consumption and production of metabolic end products in ATL as measured by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) untargeted metabolomic profiling. To assess the importance of specific plant-inducible genes for L. lactis growth in ATL, xylose metabolism was targeted for gene knockout mutagenesis. Wild-type L. lactis strain KF147 but not an xylA deletion mutant was able to grow using xylose as the sole carbon source. However, both strains grew to similarly high levels in ATL, indicating redundancy in L. lactis carbohydrate metabolism on plant tissues. These findings show that certain strains of L. lactis are well adapted for growth on plants and possess specific traits relevant for plant-based food, fuel, and feed fermentations. PMID:25384484

  10. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the suitability of paste as a medium for plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yongsheng; Sinclair, L.; Fung, Y.P.

    1999-01-01

    When a polymer is added to the tailings slurry in the extraction process in oil sands refining, it accelerates the release of water and forms a consolidated, dense material known as 'paste.' This material has a solids content of approximately 65% by weight, 30% of which is made up of fine particles. A study was initiated to explore the possibility of using paste as a plant growth medium in which the paste must hold water and nutrients for growth while allowing adequate water movement and aeration. To also attain a favorable soil structure, it was thought that amending the paste with an adequate amount of peat would improve its physical and chemical properties such as to render it a suitable soil environment for plant growth. The study was a growth chamber experiment in which the effects were assessed of peat amendments on seed germination, and a greenhouse experiment in which the growth of three selected plant species were determined, including highlander grass, jack pine, and trembling aspen. Paste has the potential to be modified into a suitable plant growth medium. Adding peat can greatly enhance seed germination, and seedling survival and growth. There seemed to be some improvement in plant performance as the amount of peat included increased from 5% to 10%. Increasing the amount of peat still further to 15% had at best marginal incremental effects. The optimum amount of peat amendment was around 10%. Of the three plant types tested, highlander grass performed the best on the paste material amended with peat, showing performance comparable to the control. Trembling aspen grew relatively well but the survival rate was low. If the seedlings survived the first few weeks, the potential for continued growth seemed good. Jack pine showed signs of stress such as needle damage, stunted growth and low survival rates and seemed unlikely to establish well even on the peat amended paste. 1 ref., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  13. Effect of space flight on seeds and plant growth of Dianthus barbatus in SP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuejun; Teng Wenjun; Yuan Xiaohuan; Chao Gongping; Zhang Jianfang; Sun Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    The dry seeds of Dianthus barbatus were carried by recoverable satellite No.21 of China, and seeds were sown after returning back to the ground. The growth characteristic were observed, including seed vitality, emergence rate, plant growth and chlorophyll content of SP 1 generation. The results showed that the seed vitality, emergence rate and plant height, flower stalk length in SP 1 generation were significantly decreased and the floret size were significantly increased. The leaf width, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while crown diameter and floret number increased in SP 1 generation plants. (authors)

  14. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  15. Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... their water balance in plant (Sairam and Tyagi, 2004). It has been ... There is limited information about the effect of salinity on the ... mixture of peat and vermiculite (7:3, v : v) in greenhouse. ... v/v) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission ... For internal ..... URR+SCI+INDIA 86: 407-421.

  16. Lettuce growth and quality optimization in a plant factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicole, C.C.S.; Charalambous, F.; Martinakos, S.; De Voort, Van S.; Li, Z.; Verhoog, M.; Krijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, plant factory (or vertical farm) technology has been introduced for growing vegetables and soft fruits. With a well-controlled environment, new health benefits, food safety, optimized nutrients and increased shelf-life can be offered to consumers. With the progress of light

  17. DNA from soil mirrors plant taxonomic and growth form diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoccoz, N. G.; Brathen, K. A.; Gielly, L.; Haile, J.; Edwards, M. E.; Goslar, T.; von Stedingk, H.; Brysting, A.; Coissac, E.; Pompanon, F.; Sonstebo, J. H.; Miquel, C.; Valentini, A.; de Bello, Francesco; Chave, J.; Thuiller, W.; Wincker, P.; Cruaud, C.; Gavory, F.; Rasmussen, M.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Orlando, L.; Brochmann, C.; Willerslev, E.; Taberlet, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2012), s. 3647-3655 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity assessment * environmental sequencing * plant diversity * DNA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.275, year: 2012

  18. effect of plant density and land race on the growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPUTER UNIT

    Key words: optimum plant density sweet potato landraces and yield. ..... From this work it can be seen that improved management practices play a role in obtaining ... 22.2. 24.7. 21.4. 22.2. SED D. 5.23. 6.15. SED V. 5.23. 6.15. SED D xV. 10.46.

  19. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cananga odorata callus was initiated from petals of the C. odorata flowers on MS medium and B5 vitamins containing 30 g/L sugar and 3 g/L agar. The medium was also supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), and combinations of NAA with 6-benzylaminpurine (BAP) as the plant ...

  20. Relationship between plant growth and organic acid exudates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant–mycorrhizal interaction is an important association in the ecosystem with significant impacts on the physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil. In the present study, potential relationships that exist between organic acid production by ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings and plant parameters in the absence of ...

  1. Screening of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic bacteria, inhabiting the endosphere of plants, presents a major opportunity to develop cheap and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic agrochemicals. Using standard microbiological procedures, culturable bacteria were isolated from the endosphere (root, stem and leaf) of two Nigerian rice varieties (Ofada and ITA ...

  2. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Theobroma cacao L.) using Thidiazuron. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 34:293-299. Michaux-Ferrière N, Carron MP (1989). Histology of early somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. The importance of timing of subculturing. Plant Cell Tiss ...

  3. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  4. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  5. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  6. Synthesis Of 2- (1- Naphthyl) Ethanoic Acid ( Plant Growth Regulator ) From Coal Tar And Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Mooh Theint; Tin Myint Htwe

    2011-12-01

    Plant growth regulators, which are commonly called as plant hormones, naturally produced non-nutrient chemical compounds involved in growth and development. Among the various kinds of plant growth regulators, 2- (1- Naphthyl ) ethanoic acid especially encourages the root development of the plant. In this work, NAA was successfuly synthesized from naphthalene which was extracted from coal tar. The purity of naphthalene, -Chloromethyl naphthalene, -Naphthyl acetonitrile, - Naphthyl acetic acid or 2 - ( 1-Naphthyl ) ethanoic acid were also confirmed by Thin Layer Chromatography, and by spectroscopy methods. The yield percent of NAA based on naphthalene was found to be 2.1%. The yield percent of naphthaleneFrom coal tar is found to be 4.09%. The effect of NAA on root development was also studied in different concentrations of soy bean (Glycine max)and cow pea (Vigna catjang walp).

  7. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  8. The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Olle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

  9. Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Mating occurred a few hours after emergence from the pupal cases. Pieces of liver were ..... Aedes aegypti, resulting in growth inhibition and prolong- ... and related biting flies, there is also the possibility of volatile oils playing ...

  10. Growth responses to ozone in plant species from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franzaring, J.H.; Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Kooijman, A.W.N.; Dueck, Th.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ten wet grassland species were fumigated with four concentrations of ozone (charcoal-filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air plus 25 or 50 nl 1-1 ozone) in open-top chambers during one growing season to investigate the long-term effect of this air pollutant on various growth variables.

  11. Engineered chitosan based nanomaterials: Bioactivities, mechanisms and perspectives in plant protection and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, R V; Kumari, Sarita; Choudhary, Ram Chandra; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Saharan, Vinod

    2018-07-01

    Excessive use of agrochemicals for enhancing crop production and its protection posed environmental and health concern. Integration of advanced technology is required to realize the concept of precision agriculture by minimizing the input of pesticides and fertilizers per unit while improving the crop productivity. Notably, chitosan based biodegradable nanomaterials (NMs) including nanoparticles, nanogels and nanocomposites have eventually proceeded as a key choice in agriculture due to their inimitable properties like antimicrobial and plant growth promoting activities. The foreseeable role of chitosan based NMs in plants might be in achieving sustainable plant growth through boosting the intrinsic potential of plants. In-spite of the fact that chitosan based NMs abode immense biological activities in plants, these materials have not yet been widely adopted in agriculture due to poor understanding of their bioactivity and modes of action towards pathogenic microbes and in plant protection and growth. To expedite the anticipated claims of chitosan based NMs, it is imperative to line up all the possible bioactivities which denote for sustainable agriculture. Herein, we have highlighted, in-depth, various chitosan based NMs which have been used in plant growth and protection mainly against fungi, bacteria and viruses and have also explained their modes of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant growth inhibition by soluble salts in sewage sludge-amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.S.; Anderson, R.C. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-07-01

    The growth response of prairie switchgrass {ital Panicum virgatum}L was compared in strip mine spoil amended with various levels of anaerobically digested waste-activated sewage sludge (0, 56, 111, 222, or 333 dry Mg ha{sup -1}) and commercial fertilizer, pure sludge, and glasshouse soil. Plants were grown in a growth chamber and substrates were maintained at field capacity during the study. Soluble salt concentrations of the substrates increased linearly as a function of sludge amendment and were within the range known to inhibit the growth of many plant species at the high levels of sludge application. There was, however, a linear response of biomass production to increasing levels of sludge amendment. Maintaining substrates at field capacity apparently prevented the high concentration of soluble salts from inhibiting plant growth. The increased biomass yield associated with sludge application was likely due to the increased availability of inorganic nutrients associated with sludge amendment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  14. Using Remote Sensing Mapping and Growth Response to Environmental Variability to Aide Aquatic Invasive Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Schlick, Greg; Genovese, Vanessa; Wilson, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass density), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records enable review of results following previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Examples of remote sensing aiding effectiveness of aquatic weed management will be discussed as well as areas for potential technological improvement. Modeling at local and watershed scales using the SWAT modeling tool provides insight into land-use effects on water quality (described by Zhang in same Symposium). Controlled environment growth studies have been conducted to quantify the growth response of invasive aquatic plants to water quality and other environmental factors. Environmental variability occurs across a range of time scales from long-term climate and seasonal trends to short-term water flow mediated variations. Response time for invasive species response are examined at time scales of weeks, day, and hours using a combination of study duration and growth assessment techniques to assess water quality, temperature (air and water), nitrogen, phosphorus, and light effects. These provide response parameters for plant growth models in response to the variation and interact with management and economic models associated with aquatic weed management. Plant growth models are to be informed by remote sensing and applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments and

  15. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  16. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  17. The correlation between plant growth and intercepted radiation: an interpretation in terms of optimal plant nitrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthesis of leaves is commonly observed to have a saturating response to increases in their nitrogen (N) content, while the response of plant maintenance respiration is more nearly linear over the normal range of tissue N contents. Hence, for a given amount of foliage, net primary productivity (NPP) may have a maximum value with respect to variations in plant N content. Using a simple analytically-solvable model of NPP, this idea is formulated and its broad implications for plant growth are explored at the scale of a closed stand of vegetation. The maximum-NPP hypothesis implies that NPP is proportional to intercepted radiation, as commonly observed. The light utilization coefficient (ε), defined as the slope of this relationship, is predicted to be ε = αY g (1−λ) 2 , where α is the quantum yield, Y g is the biosynthetic efficiency, and λ is a dimensionless combination of physiological and environmental parameters of the model. The maximum-NPP hypothesis is also consistent with observations that whole-plant respiration (R) is an approximately constant proportion of gross canopy photosynthesis (A c ), and predicts their ratio to be R:A c = 1−Y g (1−λ). Using realistic parameter values, predicted values for ε and R:A c are typical of C 3 plants. ε is predicted to be independent of plant N supply, consistent with observations that long-term growth responses to N fertilization are dominated by increased light interception associated with increased growth allocation to leaf area. Observed acclimated responses of plants to atmospheric [CO 2 ], light and temperature are interpreted in terms of the model. (author)

  18. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  19. Methylobacterium populi VP2: Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from a Highly Polluted Environment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ventorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to accelerate the natural detoxification processes of toxic substances in the soil represents an alternative ecofriendly and low-cost method of environmental remediation compared to harmful incineration and chemical treatments. Fourteen strains able to grow on minimal selective medium with a complex mixture of different classes of xenobiotic compounds as the sole carbon source were isolated from the soil of the ex-industrial site ACNA (Aziende Chimiche Nazionali Associate in Cengio (Savona, Italy. The best putative degrading isolate, Methylobacterium populi VP2, was identified using a polyphasic approach on the basis of its phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular characterisation. Moreover, this strain also showed multiple plant growth promotion activities: it was able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and siderophores, solubilise phosphate, and produce a biofilm in the presence of phenanthrene and alleviate phenanthrene stress in tomato seeds. This is the first report on the simultaneous occurrence of the PAH-degrading ability by Methylobacterium populi and its multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Therefore, the selected indigenous strain, which is naturally present in highly contaminated soils, is good candidate for plant growth promotion and is capable of biodegrading xenobiotic organic compounds to remediate contaminated soil alone and/or soil associated with plants.

  20. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  1. Oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and jasmonates: nontraditional regulators of plant growth, development, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1997-07-01

    Each of the nontraditional plant hormones reviewed in this article, oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and JA, can exert major effects on plant growth and development. However, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these compounds are involved in the endogenous regulation of morphogenesis remain to be established. Nevertheless, the use of mutant or transgenic plants with altered levels or perception of these hormones is leading to phenomenal increases in our understanding of the roles they play in the life cycle of plants. It is likely that in the future, novel modulators of plant growth and development will be identified; some will perhaps be related to the peptide encoded by ENOD40 (Van de Sande et al., 1996), which modifies the action of auxin.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  3. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  4. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  5. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2012-01-01

    the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...... lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more...... resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose...

  6. The Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Metal Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaoyu; Glick, Bernard R

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants. Several recent examples of phytoremediation of metals facilitated by PGPB are reviewed. Although many encouraging results have been reported in the past years, there have also been numerous challenges encountered in phytoremediation in the field. To implement PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of metals in the natural environment, there is also a need to critically assess the ecological effects of PGPB, especially for those nonnative bacteria. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  7. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  8. PGPR Potentially Improve Growth of Tomato Plants in Salt-Stressed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Zameer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are colonized bacterial species that has the capability to improve plant growth by certain direct and indirect means. Environmental factors including both biotic and abiotic stresses are among the major constraints to crop production. In the current study, the effectiveness of microbial inoculation (Bacillus megaterium for enhancing growth of tomato plants under salt stress conditions has been investigated. Significant improvement in shoot length, root length, leaf surface area, number of leaves, total weight of the shoot and root was observed in tomato plants inoculated with zm7 strain post 15 and 30 days of its application. Zm3, Zm4 and Zm6 strains improved the morphological parameters as compared to the control. Chlorophyll content a, chlorophyll content b, anthocyanin and carotenoid content was increased in tomato plants subjected to Zm7, Zm6 and Zm4 strains. Stress responsive genes; metallothionein and glutothion gene were found highly expressed in Zm7 treated tomato plants as compared to control, untreated plants. Significant correlation of anthocyanin was reported for carotenoids, chlorophyll-b, shoot weight and total weight of seedling while carotenoids were significantly correlated with leaf surface area, root length, chlorophyll-b and anthocyanin. Overall, Zm7 strain proved best for improvement in salt stressed plant’s morphological parameters and biochemical parameters as compared to control, untreated plants.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  10. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  11. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Bernard R.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and pla...

  12. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Yin, Dongxue; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, and Nyingchi, Tibet, conditions were favorable to the production of quercetin and kaempferol.

  13. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  14. Plasmodesmata: channels for intercellular signaling during plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilem, Iris; Yadav, Shri Ram; Helariutta, Ykä

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved strategies for short- and long-distance communication to coordinate plant development and to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular nanochannels that provide an effective pathway for both selective and nonselective movement of various molecules that function in diverse biological processes. Numerous non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAP) and small RNAs have been identified that have crucial roles in cell fate determination and organ patterning during development. Both the density and aperture size of PD are developmentally regulated, allowing formation of spatial symplastic domains for establishment of tissue-specific developmental programs. The PD size exclusion limit (SEL) is controlled by reversible deposition of callose, as well as by some PD-associated proteins. Although a large number of PD-associated proteins have been identified, many of their functions remain unknown. Despite the fact that PD are primarily membranous structures, surprisingly very little is known about their lipid composition. Thus, future studies in PD biology will provide deeper insights into the high-resolution structure and tightly regulated functions of PD and the evolution of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  15. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  17. Usage and control of solid-state lighting for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.

    2008-07-01

    The work begins with an introductory part in which the basic aspects related to the photosynthetic radiation, the photobiology of plants and the technology of light-emitting diodes (Leads) are overviewed. It is followed by a review of related research works that have been conducted during the last two decades, and by the main design issues of Led lumin aires for plant growth. The following part of the work reports the experimental growth tests performed. The effects of the radiation emitted by spectrally tailored Led lumin aires on plant growth have been investigated. A total of four growth tests using lettuce and radish cultivars were performed. Two basic approaches were used to investigate the effects and the future possibilities of the usage of solid-state lighting (SSL) in plant growth. The first approach evaluates the growth development of lettuce plants in real greenhouse conditions using LEDs as supplementary light sources to natural daylight. In the second approach the evaluation was carried out with a total absence of natural daylight by growing lettuce and radish plants in phytotron-chamber conditions. The effects of SSL treatments on the growth development and quality of crops were compared with reference lighting systems composed of conventional and well-established light-source technologies, such as fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps. During the process of the investigation, the need to coherently quantify and evaluate the spectral quality of the radiation in terms of its photosynthetic appetence arose. Different metrics are still been used indiscriminately to quantify radiation used by plants to perform photosynthesis. Therefore, the existing metrics are discussed and a new proposal for coherent systematization is presented. The proposed system is referred to phyllophotometric and it is developed using the average photosynthetic spectral quantum yield response curve of plants. The results of the growth tests showed that the usage of SSL in

  18. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  19. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-11-30

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops.

  20. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  1. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  2. Root growth and hydraulic conductivity of southern pine seedlings in response to soil temperature and water availability after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of the root system growth and water transport of southern pine species after planting in different root-zone environments is needed to guide decisions regarding when, and what species to plant. Evaluation of how seed source affects root system responses to soil conditions will allow seed sources to be matched to planting conditions. The root growth and...

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth and development of micropropagated Annona cherimola plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Azcón-Aguilar

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Annona cherimola Mill., cherimoya, is a tropical plantation crop of interest in fruit culture. Micropropagation techniques have been developed due to the need to increase productivity through clonal selection. Because of the mycorrhizal dependence exhibited by this crop for optimal growth and the recognized role of mycorrhiza establishment for the survival and development of most of the plants produced in vitro, the effect of mycorrhiza inoculation on the development of micropropagated plants of Annona cherimola was investigated. Mycorrhizal inoculation was assayed at two different stages of the micropropagation process: (i immediately after the in vitro phase, before starting the acclimatization period, and (ii after the acclimatization phase, before starting the post-acclimatization period under greenhouse conditions. Plantlet survival was about 50 % after the acclimatization period. Plant growth and development profited remarkably from mycorrhiza establishment. Most of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF assayed greatly increased shoot and root biomass and leaf area. Micropropagated Annona plants seem to be more dependent on mycorrhiza formation for optimal growth than plants derived from seeds. The greatest effects of AMF on plant growth were observed when they were introduced after the acclimatization period.

  4. Growth of Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjeet

    2014-01-01

    Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi (RPP) is the first commercial scale Gamma Irradiator for food processing in India. The facility was commissioned on 1 st January 2000 with the mandate of showcasing commercial viability of food processing using gamma radiation. Some of the food products that are processed at RPP, Vashi include dehydrated onion powder, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cumin, pet food and dried seafood items. RPP, Vashi is the largest radiation processor of food products in the country. More than 95% of the quantity processed is exported to various countries generating millions of foreign exchange annually

  5. Effect of diesel fuel on growth of selected plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, G.; Duncan, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Diesel oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with an average carbon number of C8–\\ud C26. The majority of components consist of alkanes, both straight chained and branched and aromatic\\ud compounds including mono-, di- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Regardless of this complexity,\\ud diesel oil can be readily degraded by a number of soil microorganisms making it a likely candidate for\\ud bioremediation. The concept of using plants to enhance bioremediation, termed phytoremediation,\\ud is a ...

  6. Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Yu, Guanghui; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhong; Fu, Lin; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of natural products on plant growth and protection will underpin new product development for plant production. The isolation and characterization of a known secondary metabolite named harzianolide from Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 were described, and the bioactivity of the purified compound as well as the crude metabolite extract in plant growth promotion and systemic resistance induction was investigated in this study. The results showed that harzianolide significantly promoted tomato seedling growth by up to 2.5-fold (dry weight) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm compared with the control. The result of root scan suggested that Trichoderma secondary metabolites may influence the early stages of plant growth through better root development for the enhancement of root length and tips. Both of the purified harzianolide and crude metabolite extract increased the activity of some defense-related enzymes to response to oxidative stress. Examination of six defense-related gene expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that harzianolide induces the expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid (PR1 and GLU) and jasmonate/ethylene (JERF3) signaling pathways while crude metabolite extract inhibited some gene expression (CHI-II and PGIP) related to basal defense in tomato plants. Further experiment showed that a subsequent challenge of harzianolide-pretreated plants with the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in higher systemic resistance by the reduction of lesion size. These results indicate that secondary metabolites of Trichoderma spp., like harzianolide, may play a novel role in both plant growth regulation and plant defense responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  8. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  10. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Zhang, Wenhao; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the extensive understanding of seed mucilage biosynthesis, much less is known about how mucilage is biodegraded and what role it plays in the soil where seeds germinate. We studied seed mucilage biodegradation by a natural microbial community. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) was used to determine monosaccharide composition in achene mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Mucilage degradation by the soil microbial community from natural habitats was examined by monosaccharide utilization tests using Biolog plates, chemical assays and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Glucose (29.4%), mannose (20.3%) and arabinose (19.5%) were found to be the main components of achene mucilage. The mucilage was biodegraded to CO(2) and soluble sugars, and an increase in soil microbial biomass was observed during biodegradation. Fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of mucilage (or its derivatives) in seedling tissues after growth with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled mucilage. The biodegradation also promoted early seedling growth in barren sand dunes, which was associated with a large soil microbial community that supplies substances promoting seedling establishment. We conclude that biodegradation of seed mucilage can play an ecologically important role in the life cycles of plants especially in harsh desert environments to which A. sphaerocephala is well-adapted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Thinning effect on plant growth of pruned eucalypt clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pruned stand of eucalypt clone underwent five thinning treatments with the removal of different proportion of the planted trees, at different ages: a 0% - unthinned, b 35% at 55 months, c 35% at 81 months, d 70% at 81 months, removing sprouts in the thinned plant stumps and, e 70% at 81 months, without coppice sprouts removal. By the age of 141 months, the Weibull distribution showed higher number of trees in the smallest diameter classes for the unthinned treatment. The 70% thinning, with thinned coppice sprouts removal, presented higher number of individuals in the largest diameter classes. Height and yield were the smallest with the removal of 70% of the trees at 81 months, maintaining coppice sprouts. The afterthinning periodic annual increment was greater by thinning 35% of the trees at 55 months resulting in greater number of trees in the largest diameter classes as compared to the other treatments. Yield was higher for the unthinned treatment. The results of this study indicated that thinning 70% of the trees at the age of 81 months, with coppice sprout removal, could be recommended to obtain trees of larger diameter for multiproduct.

  12. Plant probiotic bacteria Bacillus and Paraburkholderia improve growth, yield and content of antioxidants in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosaddiqur; Sabir, Abdullah As; Mukta, Julakha Akter; Khan, Md Mohibul Alam; Mohi-Ud-Din, Mohammed; Miah, Md Giashuddin; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Islam, M Tofazzal

    2018-02-06

    Strawberry is an excellent source of natural antioxidants with high capacity of scavenging free radicals. This study evaluated the effects of two plant probiotic bacteria, Bacillus amylolequefaciens BChi1 and Paraburkholderia fungorum BRRh-4 on growth, fruit yield and antioxidant contents in strawberry fruits. Root dipping of seedlings (plug plants) followed by spray applications of both probiotic bacteria in the field on foliage significantly increased fruit yield (up to 48%) over non-treated control. Enhanced fruit yield likely to be linked with higher root and shoot growth, individual and total fruit weight/plant and production of phytohormone by the probiotic bacteria applied on plants. Interestingly, the fruits from plants inoculated with the isolates BChi1 and BRRh-4 had significantly higher contents of phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins over non-treated control. Total antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fruits of strawberry plants treated with both probiotic bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of significant improvement of both yield and quality of strawberry fruits by the application of plant probiotic bacteria BChi1 and BRRh-4 in a field condition. Further study is needed to elucidate underlying mechanism of growth and quality improvement of strawberry fruits by probiotic bacteria.

  13. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Jun Kang, Yi; Li Wang, Huan; Sheng Zhang, Xiang; Xin Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of three PGPRs on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato under simulated seawater irrigation, a two consecutive seasons' field experiment was conducted in Yancheng Teachers University plot from April to June and August to October, 2011. The results showed that Erwinia persicinus RA2 containing ACC deaminase exhibited the best ability compared with Bacillus pumilus WP8 and Pseudomonas putida RBP1 which had no ACC deaminase activity to enhance marketable yields of fresh and dried fruits in tomato under simulated seawater irrigation especially under HS condition. B. pumilus WP8 had significant effects on improving tomato fruit quality under the conditions of irrigating with 1.0% NaCl solution (MS) and with 2.0% NaCl solution (HS). Na(+) contents were generally accumulated much more in tomato plant mid-shoot leaves than in fruits whatever the salt concentration. More sodium accumulation in leaves of E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 treatments under HS condition were found than in control. E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 can promote tomato growth, improve fruit quality more firmly than P. putida RBP1 during two consecutive seasons. Our study suggested that E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 are considered to be promising PGPR strains which are suited for application in salt marsh planting, ACC deaminase activity was not unique index on screening for PGPRs with the aim of salt stress tolerance, and plant growth promoting activities may be relevant to different growth indices and different stress conditions.

  14. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P < 0.001. In contrast, organic matter was the most important limiting factor and was significantly and positively correlated with the active substances. These ecological factors caused 98.13% of the total geographical variation of the active ingredient contents. The climate factors contributed more to the active ingredient contents than did the soil factors. It was concluded that from the view of the contents of the secondary metabolites and ecological factors of each growing location, in Jingyuan, Ningxia Province, and Yongdeng, Gansu Province, conditions were favorable to the production of podophyllotoxin and lignans, whereas in Shangri-La, Yunnan

  15. Analysis of plant growth-promoting properties of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 using Arabidopsis thaliana as host plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asari, S.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Palmero, D. V.; Bejai, S.; Meijer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 245, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-30 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rape brassica-napus * cell elongation * root-growth * rhizobacteria * gibberellins * bacteria * cytokinin * seedlings * defense * stress * Beneficial bacteria * Biocontrol * Growth promotion * Phytohormones * Rhizosphere * Root structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  16. Soilless plant growth media influence the efficacy of phytohormones and phytohormone inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Norman B; Hartwig, Thomas; Budka, Joshua S; Bishop, Brandon J; Brown, Elliot; Potluri, Devi P V; Cooper, Bruce R; Premachandra, Gnanasiri S; Johnston, Cliff T; Schulz, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators, such as hormones and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors, are effective tools to elucidate the physiological function of phytohormones in plants. A problem of chemical treatments, however, is the potential for interaction of the active compound with the growth media substrate. We studied the interaction and efficacy of propiconazole, a potent and specific inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis, with common soilless greenhouse growth media for rice, sorghum, and maize. Many of the tested growth media interacted with propiconazole reducing its efficacy up to a hundred fold. To determine the molecular interaction of inhibitors with media substrates, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and sorption isotherm analysis was applied. While mica clay substrates absorbed up to 1.3 mg of propiconazole per g substrate, calcined clays bound up to 12 mg of propiconazole per g substrate. The efficacy of the gibberellic acid biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazole, and the most active brassinosteroid, brassinolide, was impacted similarly by the respective substrates. Conversely, gibberellic acid showed no distinct growth response in different media. Our results suggest that the reduction in efficacy of propiconazole, uniconazole, and brassinolide in bioassays when grown in calcined clay is caused by hydrophobic interactions between the plant growth regulators and the growth media. This was further confirmed by experiments using methanol-water solvent mixes with higher hydrophobicity values, which reduce the interaction of propiconazole and calcined clay.

  17. On the genetic control of planar growth during tissue morphogenesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Kirchhelle, Charlotte; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-06-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires extensive intercellular communication. Plant organs are composites of distinct radial cell layers. A typical layer, such as the epidermis, is propagated by stereotypic anticlinal cell divisions. It is presently unclear what mechanisms coordinate cell divisions relative to the plane of a layer, resulting in planar growth and maintenance of the layer structure. Failure in the regulation of coordinated growth across a tissue may result in spatially restricted abnormal growth and the formation of a tumor-like protrusion. Therefore, one way to approach planar growth control is to look for genetic mutants that exhibit localized tumor-like outgrowths. Interestingly, plants appear to have evolved quite robust genetic mechanisms that govern these aspects of tissue morphogenesis. Here we provide a short summary of the current knowledge about the genetics of tumor formation in plants and relate it to the known control of coordinated cell behavior within a tissue layer. We further portray the integuments of Arabidopsis thaliana as an excellent model system to study the regulation of planar growth. The value of examining this process in integuments was established by the recent identification of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase UNICORN as a novel growth suppressor involved in the regulation of planar growth and the inhibition of localized ectopic growth in integuments and other floral organs. An emerging insight is that misregulation of central determinants of adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity can lead to the formation of spatially restricted multicellular outgrowths in several tissues. Thus, there may exist a link between the mechanisms regulating adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity and planar growth in plants.

  18. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth and development of the plants - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk-Golaszewska, K.

    2003-01-01

    Paper presents a review of the recent literature dealing with the UV-B radiation, its effect on physiological processes of plant growth and development, cellular changes, concentration of chemical compounds and changes in morphological plant traits. The reasons of increasing UV-B radiation level are rapidly developing civilization and decreasing of ozone layer. It was stated that the plant reaction to UV-B irradiation depends on plant species and environmental conditions. Destructive effects of UV-B radiation to plants may be - to some extent - neutralized by defence mechanisms, a form of specific plant adaptation to stress, however, under conditions of strong UV-B irradiation such mechanisms are not sufficient

  19. Growth rates of rhizosphere microorganisms depend on competitive abilities of plants for nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Littschwager, Johanna; Lauerer, Marianna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Rhizosphere - one of the most important ‘hot spots' in soil - is characterized not only by accelerated turnover of microbial biomass and nutrients but also by strong intra- and inter-specific competition. Intra-specific competition occurs between individual plants of the same species, while inter-specific competition can occur both at population level (plant species-specific, microbial species-specific interactions) and at community level (plant - microbial interactions). Such plant - microbial interactions are mainly governed by competition for available N sources, since N is one of the main growth limiting nutrients in natural ecosystems. Functional structure and activity of microbial community in rhizosphere is not uniform and is dependent on quantity and quality of root exudates which are plant specific. It is still unclear how microbial growth and turnover in the rhizosphere are dependent on the features and competitive abilities of plants for N. Depending on C and N availability, acceleration and even retardation of microbial activity and carbon mineralization can be expected in the rhizosphere of plants with high competitive abilities for N. We hypothesized slower microbial growth rates in the rhizosphere of plants with smaller roots, as they usually produce less exudates compared to plants with small shoot-to-root ratio. As the first hypothesis is based solely on C availability, we also expected the greater effect of N availability on microbial growth in rhizosphere of plants with smaller root mass. These hypothesis were tested for two plant species of strawberry: Fragaria vesca L. (native species), and Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke (an invasive plant in central Europe) growing in intraspecific and interspecific competition. Microbial biomass and the kinetic parameters of microbial growth in the rhizosphere were estimated by dynamics of CO2 emission from the soil amended with glucose and nutrients. Specific growth rate (µ) of soil microorganisms was

  20. Wall extensibility: its nature, measurement and relationship to plant cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cells is controlled principally by processes that loosen the wall and enable it to expand irreversibly. The central role of wall relaxation for cell expansion is reviewed. The most common methods for assessing the extension properties of plant cell walls ( wall extensibility') are described, categorized and assessed critically. What emerges are three fundamentally different approaches which test growing cells for their ability (a) to enlarge at different values of turgor, (b) to induce wall relaxation, and (c) to deform elastically or plastically in response to an applied tensile force. Analogous methods with isolated walls are similarly reviewed. The results of these different assays are related to the nature of plant cell growth and pertinent biophysical theory. I argue that the extensibilities' measured by these assays are fundamentally different from one another and that some are more pertinent to growth than others.