WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant food materials

  1. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to

  2. Review of scientific Research results in identification of plant raw materials in food products

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUBTSOVA YU. V.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials bot...

  3. Pilot-Plant for Energy Recovery from Tropical Waste Food Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental unit for obtaining gaseous methane from waste food materials is discussed and results are presented for experimental tests with animal wastes and tropical waste food materials. The tropical waste food considered include garri, boiled beans and plantains. As expected, the animal wastes produced higher ...

  4. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  5. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  6. MRI of plants and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  7. Methodologies for processing plant material into acceptable food on a small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Thomas R.; Bindon, John N.; Bowles, Anthony J. G.; Golbitz, Peter; Lampi, Rauno A.; Marquardt, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) production of only four crops, wheat, white potatoes, soybeans, and sweet potatoes; a crew size of twelve; a daily planting/harvesting regimen; and zero-gravity conditions, estimates were made on the quantity of food that would need to be grown to provide adequate nutrition; and the corresponding amount of biomass that would result. Projections were made of the various types of products that could be made from these crops, the unit operations that would be involved, and what menu capability these products could provide. Equipment requirements to perform these unit operations were screened to identify commercially available units capable of operating (or being modified to operate) under CELSS/zero-gravity conditions. Concept designs were developed for those equipment needs for which no suitable units were commercially available. Prototypes of selected concept designs were constructed and tested on a laboratory scale, as were selected commercially available units. This report discusses the practical considerations taken into account in the various design alternatives, some of the many product/process factors that relate to equipment development, and automation alternatives. Recommendations are made on both general and specific areas in which it was felt additional investigation would benefit CELSS missions.

  8. Rheological behaviour of fibre-rich plant materials in fat-based food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonarius, G.A.; Vieira, J.B.; Goot, van der A.J.; Bodnar, I.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of fibre-rich materials as bulking agents to replace sucrose in chocolate confectionary products is investigated. Since the rheological behaviour of the molten chocolate mass is key in chocolate production, the rheology of fibre-rich materials in medium chain triglycerides (MCT) is

  9. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  10. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  11. The study of the kinetics of drying food raw material of plant origin in the active hydrodynamic regimes and development of dryer engineering calculation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer properties of food raw material formed during the heat treatment. New physical, flavoring and aromatic properties of the products of plant origin, formed during drying due to substantial changes in the composition of the raw materia l occurring as a result of biochemical reactions. In the production of dried and roasted products is very important to follow the parameters that contribute to the passage of biochemical processes aimed at creating a product with high nutritional qualities, strong aroma and pleasant taste. We studied the basic kinetics of the drying process of food raw material (in terms of artichoke in a dense interspersed layer, which formed the basis for the rational choice of the drying regime with due consideration of changes in the moisture content of the product are studied. The nature of the effect of the dried product movement hydrodynamic conditions on a layer height and intensity of drying is established. As a result of food raw material drying process kinetics analysis (in terms of artichoke multistep drying regimes were chosen. Analysis of the artichoke particles drying by air, air-steam mixture and superheated steam intensity showed the presence of two parts: the horizontal one and gradually diminishing one. Kinetic laws of the artichoke drying process in a dense interspersed layer were the basis of engineering calculation of dryer with a transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave". Application of the dryer with the transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave" for food raw material drying allow to achieve uniform drying of the product due to the use of soft, gentle regimes of oversleeping while preserving to the utmost particles of the product; to improve the quality of the finished product through the use of interspersed layer that reduces clumping of product to be dried.

  12. Antioxidant properties of extracts from selected plant materials (Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana) in vitro and in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are of considerable interest and are increasingly becoming a subject of intensive research due to their bioactive properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from selected plant materials, namely Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana Gams. Plant material extracts we...

  13. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  14. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  15. Food synergies for improving bioavailability of micronutrients from plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K Madhavan; Augustine, Little Flower

    2018-01-01

    Plant foods are endowed with micronutrients but an understanding of bioavailability is essential in countries primarily dependent on plant based foods. Bioavailability depends majorly on food synergies. This review examines the nature of certain food synergies and methods to screen and establish it as a strategy to control micronutrient deficiency in the populations. Strong evidence on the synergistic effect of inclusion of vitamin C rich fruits and non-vegetarian foods in enhancing the bioavailability of iron has been demonstrated. Fat is found to be synergistic for vitamin A absorption. Red wine and protein have been explored for zinc absorption and effect of fat has been studied for vitamin D. Methods for screening of bioavailability, and biomarkers to demonstrate the synergistic effects of foods are required. Translation of food synergy as a strategy requires adaptation to the context and popularization of intelligent food synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Irradiation plant for flowable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, E.

    1975-01-01

    The irradiation plant can be used to treat various flowable materials including effluent or sewage sludge. The plant contains a concrete vessel in which a partition is mounted to form two coaxial irradiation chambers through which the flowable material can be circulated by means of an impeller. The partition can be formed to house tubes of radiation sources and to provide a venturi-like member about the impeller. The operation of the impeller is reversed periodically to assure movement of both heavy and light particles in the flow. (U.S.)

  17. Wild food plants of Remote Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will C. McClatchey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.

  18. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  19. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  20. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  1. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  2. Radiation disinfection or disinfestation of nematodes, aphids, mites, thrips, and other pests on food plant materials: evaluation for effectiveness and product quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, J H; Chinnasri, B; Sipes, B S; Schmitt, D P; Hamasaki, R T; Mersino, E F; Yamakawa, R M [Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Many fresh herbs, ornamental plants, and several varieties of taro grown in Hawaii are infested with various pests such as aphids, mites, thrips, and nematodes. Finding an efficacious quarantine treatment for these commodities is difficult because most cannot tolerate heat or cold, and a suitable chemical treatment is lacking. Irradiation could be a feasible, practical alternative. Quality of these irradiated materials should be studied to help determine if irradiation is a suitable quarantine treatment. Of the ten fresh herbs irradiated with up to 0.70 kGy, five (rosemary, thyme, oregano, parsley, chives) are very tolerant, and show no difference from the controls after two to three weeks at 7 deg. C. Red ginger and four cultivars of heliconia, very attractive ornamental plants, can be irradiated at 0.75 and 0.50 kGy, respectively, and have a vase life of 10 days or more at 21 deg. C. Leafminer in bean plants cannot emerge when irradiated at 0.15 kGy. The nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, which infects taro and ginger, is prevalent in Hawaii. To cause mortality in second stage juveniles (J2), a gamma-radiation dose higher than 4.0 kGy is necessary. Suppression of hatching of egg masses requires doses of 2.0 kGy and above. Galling of tomato plants inoculated with J2 and egg masses decreases when J2 and egg masses were irradiated at 3.25 kGy and above. Heating J2 at 43 deg. C for 10 min before inoculating them into the plants effectively reduces root galling. Synergism was not found between heat treatment (49 deg. C for 10 or 20 min) and irradiation with up to 0.015 kGy, the dose above which sprouting of ginger rhizomes and taro cormels is inhibited. The results suggest that irradiation is promising as a quarantine treatment for selected fresh herbs and ornamental plants, but not for control of nematodes in root crops. (author) 10 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Radiation disinfection or disinfestation of nematodes, aphids, mites, thrips, and other pests on food plant materials: evaluation for effectiveness and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.; Chinnasri, B.; Sipes, B.S.; Schmitt, D.P.; Hamasaki, R.T.; Mersino, E.F.; Yamakawa, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Many fresh herbs, ornamental plants, and several varieties of taro grown in Hawaii are infested with various pests such as aphids, mites, thrips, and nematodes. Finding an efficacious quarantine treatment for these commodities is difficult because most cannot tolerate heat or cold, and a suitable chemical treatment is lacking. Irradiation could be a feasible, practical alternative. Quality of these irradiated materials should be studied to help determine if irradiation is a suitable quarantine treatment. Of the ten fresh herbs irradiated with up to 0.70 kGy, five (rosemary, thyme, oregano, parsley, chives) are very tolerant, and show no difference from the controls after two to three weeks at 7 deg. C. Red ginger and four cultivars of heliconia, very attractive ornamental plants, can be irradiated at 0.75 and 0.50 kGy, respectively, and have a vase life of 10 days or more at 21 deg. C. Leafminer in bean plants cannot emerge when irradiated at 0.15 kGy. The nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, which infects taro and ginger, is prevalent in Hawaii. To cause mortality in second stage juveniles (J2), a gamma-radiation dose higher than 4.0 kGy is necessary. Suppression of hatching of egg masses requires doses of 2.0 kGy and above. Galling of tomato plants inoculated with J2 and egg masses decreases when J2 and egg masses were irradiated at 3.25 kGy and above. Heating J2 at 43 deg. C for 10 min before inoculating them into the plants effectively reduces root galling. Synergism was not found between heat treatment (49 deg. C for 10 or 20 min) and irradiation with up to 0.015 kGy, the dose above which sprouting of ginger rhizomes and taro cormels is inhibited. The results suggest that irradiation is promising as a quarantine treatment for selected fresh herbs and ornamental plants, but not for control of nematodes in root crops. (author)

  4. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  5. Planting seeds for the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broun, Pierre; Cakmak, Ismail; Condon, Liam; Fedoroff, Nina; Gonzalez‐Valero, Juan; Graham, Ian; Lewis, Josette; Moloney, Maurice; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Sanginga, Nteranya; Shewry, Peter; Roulin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The health and wellbeing of future generations will depend on humankind's ability to deliver sufficient nutritious food to a world population in excess of 9 billion. Feeding this many people by 2050 will require science‐based solutions that address sustainable agricultural productivity and enable healthful dietary patterns in a more globally equitable way. This topic was the focus of a multi‐disciplinary international conference hosted by Nestlé in June 2015, and provides the inspiration for the present article. The conference brought together a diverse range of expertise and organisations from the developing and industrialised world, all with a common interest in safeguarding the future of food. This article provides a snapshot of three of the recurring topics that were discussed during this conference: soil health, plant science and the future of farming practice. Crop plants and their cultivation are the fundamental building blocks for a food secure world. Whether these are grown for food or feed for livestock, they are the foundation of food and nutrient security. Many of the challenges for the future of food will be faced where the crops are grown: on the farm. Farmers need to plant the right crops and create the right conditions to maximise productivity (yield) and quality (e.g. nutritional content), whilst maintaining the environment, and earning a living. New advances in science and technology can provide the tools and know‐how that will, together with a more entrepreneurial approach, help farmers to meet the inexorable demand for the sustainable production of nutritious foods for future generations. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26619956

  6. PUTTING PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY TO WORK FOR FOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that ...

  7. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more

  8. Undesired Plant-Derived Components in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Abraham, Klaus; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Among the various chemical compounds, the class of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain is generating increasing concern. Adverse effects encountered may be various and pose risks of acute, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity may be

  9. Food plant toxicants and safety: risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.; Alexander, J.; Bouwmeister, P.J.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Ciere, S.; Gry, J.; Herrman, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Mortby, E.; Renwickn, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI

  10. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  11. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  12. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary C; Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Peck, Michael W

    2016-01-04

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg(-1). Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Barker et al.

  13. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  14. Fracture toughness of mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart-Berry, Alison

    2004-04-01

    Mountain gorillas, the largest extant primates, subsist almost entirely on plant matter. Moreover, their diet includes a substantial amount of structural material, such as bark and stems, which other primates tend to avoid. Accordingly, the robust masticatory apparatus of gorillas may be adaptive to this presumably tough diet; however, quantitative information on this subject is lacking. In this study the fracture toughness of mountain gorilla foods was examined for the first time. Samples of 44 food plants from Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP) were tested. These parks are inhabited by two gorilla populations that regarded by some as being distinct at the subspecific taxonomic level. Although food toughness did not differ between the two populations, both diets contained tough items. Tree barks were the toughest food items (varying from 0.23 to 8.2 kJ/m2), followed by shrub barks, pith, and stems. The toughness of leaves and fruit was negligible compared to that of bark. The toughness of bamboo was low in comparison to the toughest food items. Accordingly, the prominent toughness of bark, pith, and stems may be key factors in the evolution of orofacial robusticity in mountain gorillas. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  16. Documentation and Nutritional profile of some selected food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documentation and Nutritional profile of some selected food plants of Otwal and Ngai sun counties Oyam District, Northern Uganda. ... However, it should be noted that there is a general decline in the consumption of wild plants, despite the apparent high nutritional values. The conservation of wild food plants is not taking ...

  17. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  18. Are Famine Food Plants Also Ethnomedicinal Plants? An Ethnomedicinal Appraisal of Famine Food Plants of Two Districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardous Mohammad Safiul Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have served as sources of food and medicines for human beings since their advent. During famines or conditions of food scarcity, people throughout the world depend on unconventional plant items to satiate their hunger and meet their nutritional needs. Malnourished people often suffer from various diseases, much more than people eating a balanced diet. We are hypothesizing that the unconventional food plants that people eat during times of scarcity of their normal diet are also medicinal plants and thus can play a role in satiating hunger, meeting nutritional needs, and serving therapeutic purposes. Towards testing our hypothesis, surveys were carried out among the low income people of four villages in Lalmonirhat and Nilphamari districts of Bangladesh. People and particularly the low income people of these two districts suffer each year from a seasonal famine known as Monga. Over 200 informants from 167 households in the villages were interviewed with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The informants mentioned a total of 34 plant species that they consumed during Monga. Published literature shows that all the species consumed had ethnomedicinal uses. It is concluded that famine food plants also serve as ethnomedicinal plants.

  19. Are Famine Food Plants Also Ethnomedicinal Plants? An Ethnomedicinal Appraisal of Famine Food Plants of Two Districts of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Fardous Mohammad Safiul; Biswas, Anup; Mannan, Abdul; Afsana, Nusrat Anik; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Plants have served as sources of food and medicines for human beings since their advent. During famines or conditions of food scarcity, people throughout the world depend on unconventional plant items to satiate their hunger and meet their nutritional needs. Malnourished people often suffer from various diseases, much more than people eating a balanced diet. We are hypothesizing that the unconventional food plants that people eat during times of scarcity of their normal diet are also medicinal plants and thus can play a role in satiating hunger, meeting nutritional needs, and serving therapeutic purposes. Towards testing our hypothesis, surveys were carried out among the low income people of four villages in Lalmonirhat and Nilphamari districts of Bangladesh. People and particularly the low income people of these two districts suffer each year from a seasonal famine known as Monga. Over 200 informants from 167 households in the villages were interviewed with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The informants mentioned a total of 34 plant species that they consumed during Monga. Published literature shows that all the species consumed had ethnomedicinal uses. It is concluded that famine food plants also serve as ethnomedicinal plants. PMID:24701245

  20. Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. PMID:26066012

  1. Current investigations of packaging materials used for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiszer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The article reviews current investigations of packaging materials applied for food irradiation. The increasing role of various synthetic materials is described. Author reviews radiation-induced damages in these materials. The article includes the list of materials accepted for food packaging and subsequent irradiation with different doses

  2. Food allergens of plant origin - their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E. N. C.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Shewry, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7-10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies...... are usually triggered by the protein components in a food, which are also known as allergens. However, not all the proteins in an allergenic food like peanut are allergens. Why should this be? This question has been addressed by an EU-funded inter-disciplinary network of clinicians, food chemists and plant...

  3. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  4. Next generation multi-material 3D food printer concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.J.; Anderson, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    3D food printing is a new rapidly developing technology capable of creating food structures that are impossible to create with normal processing techniques. Challenges in this field are creating texture and multi-material food products. To address these challenges a next generation food printer will

  5. Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Serban C.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d3-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d3-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016 54-59

  6. Short inventory of EU legislation on plant toxins in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Plant toxins, secondary metabolites that are not essential for the survival of the organism itself but are toxic to human health, are produced by many plants. Plant toxins can be present as inherent metabolites in daily foods such as potatoes, herbs and spices or in herbal preparations. Plant

  7. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  8. Food Service Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in food services, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to familiarize the student with the food service operation of a restaurant, cafeteria, fast-food operation, hospital, nursing home, industrial or educational facility, food caterer, or bakery. The student should become versatile in…

  9. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining

  10. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.; Gislason, David; Madsen, Charlotte; Summers, Colin; Sodergren, Eva; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; Lindner, Titia; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; McBride, Doreen; Keil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of allergies to plant food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of allergies to plant food according to the different subjective and objective assessment methods. METHODS: Our systematic search of population-based studies (since 1990) in the

  11. Roan antelope ( Hippotragus equinus desmarest1804) food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat changes in Borgu sector of Kainji lake National Park affects the food plants and feeding habits of roan antelope. The changes which are usually seasonal variation in climate and the effect of uncontrolled bush burning by poachers. The objectives of the study were to determine the food plants and feeding habits ...

  12. Some wild growing plants in traditional foods of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olim K. Khojimatov

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The collected data represents less than 10% of the plants which are used as a food in Uzbekistan. Analysis of the indigenous plants revealed a number of them which are also used in traditional food in China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries.

  13. The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and fecundity of Zonocerus variegatus (L) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The performance of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) fed on different food plants namely cassava (Manihot esculenta), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and acalypha ...

  14. Antioxidant capacity of some plants foods and beverages consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric ...

  15. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely

  16. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    and definitions to be used in determining novelty of a plant food and also propose a safety assessment approach for novel plant food with no or limited documented history of safe consumption. A 2-step management procedure is recommended for a smooth introduction of fruits and vegetables; first to establish...

  17. Food allergens of plant origin : their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Madsen, C.; Shewry, P.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7¿10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies are

  18. Hunger: The World Food Crisis. An NSTA Environmental Materials Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathryn Mervine

    This document provides a materials guide containing annotated bibliographies of literature for teachers and students, a film guide, and a curriculum materials guide for educational sources relating to hunger, food, and the world food crisis. Materials span the range from pre-school to grade 12. (SL)

  19. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  20. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Schmidt, Andrew J [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine, J [Decatur, IL

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  1. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  2. Modeling release of chemicals from multilayer materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of chemicals from materials into food is predictable by various mathematical models. In this article, a general mathematical model is developed to quantify the release of chemicals through multilayer packaging films based on Fick's diffusion. The model is solved numerically to elucidate the effects of different diffusivity values of different layers, distribution of chemical between two adjacent layers and between material and food, mass transfer at the interface of material and food on the migration process.

  3. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  4. Advanced power plant materials, design and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, D. (ed.) [Newcastle University (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute

    2010-07-01

    The book is a comprehensive reference on the state of the art of gas-fired and coal-fired power plants, their major components and performance improvement options. Selected chapters are: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant design and technology by Y. Zhu, and H. C. Frey; Improving thermal cycle efficiency in advanced power plants: water and steam chemistry and materials performance by B. Dooley; Advanced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas separation membrane development for power plants by A. Basile, F. Gallucci, and P. Morrone; Advanced flue gas cleaning systems for sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury emissions control in power plants by S. Miller and B.G. Miller; Advanced flue gas dedusting systems and filters for ash and particulate emissions control in power plants by B.G. Miller; Advanced sensors for combustion monitoring in power plants: towards smart high-density sensor networks by M. Yu and A.K. Gupta; Advanced monitoring and process control technology for coal-fired power plants by Y. Yan; Low-rank coal properties, upgrading and utilisation for improving the fuel flexibility of advanced power plants by T. Dlouhy; Development and integration of underground coal gasification (UCG) for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by M. Green; Development and application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by B. McPherson; and Advanced technologies for syngas and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from fossil-fuel feedstocks in power plants by P. Chiesa.

  5. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  6. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ``Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations``, funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ''Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations'', funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  11. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-04-01

    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  13. Materials of 15. autumn school on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The ionizing radiation use for food preservation has been shown on the background of other methods. Several aspects connected with food irradiation have been discussed. Among them the legal aspects and recommendations have been performed. The healthy aspects from the view point of the radiolysis of main components of irradiated food have been presented. The broad review of physical, chemical and biological methods for identification of irradiated food products has been done. The accelerator pilot plant for food irradiation working at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, has been presented as well

  14. Material control for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, D.; Bray, G.; Donelson, S.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Harris, L.; McNamera, R.; Pence, D.; Ringham, M.

    1976-01-01

    Adequate control of special nuclear material (SNM) implies a basic knowledge of the quantities of SNM processed through or contained within a fuels processing facility with sufficient accuracy that diversion of the SNM for deleterious purposes can be detected in a timely manner. This report to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) describes the primary process streams containing plutonium that are handled routinely within a spent fuel reprocessing plant and conversion facility. As an aid in implementing the objectives of the accountability system in a realistic situation, the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) reprocessing plant now under construction near Barnwell, South Carolina, was chosen as the study model. The AGNS plant processes are discussed in detail emphasizing those portions of the process that contain significant quantities of plutonium. The unit processes within the separations plant, nitrate storage, plutonium product facility and the analytical laboratory are described with regard to the SNM control system currently planned for use in the facilities. A general discussion of laboratory techniques, nondestructive assay and process instrumentation for plutonium process and product material from a reprocessing plant is included. A comprehensive discussion is given of holdup measurements in plutonium recycle facilities. A brief preliminary overview is presented of alternative processing strategies for LWR fuel. An extensive review and summary of modeling efforts for liquid-liquid extraction cycles is included. A comprehensive bibliography of previous modeling efforts is covered

  15. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  17. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  18. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFB ALE

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Plant extracts are an important part in agroecology, as they benefit environment in combating ... to public health and a major concern for infection control ..... extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Allium sativum against food.

  19. Student reasoning while investigating plant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Näs

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this project, 10-12 year old students in three classes, investigated plant material to learn more about plants and photosynthesis. The research study was conducted to reveal the students’ scientific reasoning during their work. The eleven different tasks helped students investigate plant anatomy, plant physiology, and the gases involved in photosynthesis and respiration. The study was carried out in three ordinary classrooms. The collected data consisted of audio-taped discussions, students’ notebooks, and field notes. Students’ discussions and written work, during the different plant tasks, were analysed to see how the students’ learning and understanding processes developed. The analysis is descriptive and uses categories from a modified general typology of student’s epistemological reasoning. The study shows students’ level of interest in doing the tasks, their struggle with new words and concepts, and how they develop their knowledge about plant physiology. The study confirms thatstudents, in this age group, develop understanding and show an interest in complicated processes in natural science, e.g. photosynthesis.

  20. Materials qualification for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braconi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The supply of materials to be used in the fabrication of components submitted to pressure destined to Atucha II nuclear power plant must fulfill the quality assurance requirements in accordance with the international standards. With the aim of promoting the national participation in CNA II, ENACE had the need to adapt these requirements to the national industry conditions and to the availability of official entities' qualification and inspection. As a uniform and normalized assessment for the qualification of materials did not exist in the country, ENACE had to develop a materials suppliers qualification system. This paper presents a suppliers qualification procedure, its application limits and the alternative procedures for the acceptance of individual stock and for the stock materials purchase. (Author)

  1. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  2. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required,

  3. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any processed...

  4. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  5. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  6. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  7. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  8. Scientific Challenges in the Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muncke, Jane; Backhaus, Thomas; Geueke, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    formed in the production processes. Several factors hamper effective RA for many FCMs, including a lack of information on chemical identity, inadequate assessment of hazardous properties, and missing exposure data. Companies make decisions about the safety of some food contact chemicals (FCCs) without......Food contact articles (FCAs) are manufactured from food contact materials (FCMs) that include plastics, paper, metal, glass, and printing inks. Chemicals can migrate from FCAs into food during storage, processing, and transportation. Food contact materials' safety is evaluated using chemical risk...... to enhance the safety of food contact articles. Based on our evaluation of the evidence, we conclude that current regulations are insufficient for addressing chemical exposures from FCAs. RA currently focuses on monomers and additives used in the manufacture of products, but it does not cover all substances...

  9. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  10. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Stachowicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations on food irradiation began in Poland in the end of 50-ties. Till the end of 70-ties the research activity on food irradiation was rather of the random nature and the objectives involved the fundamental research areas of food science. After the JECFI recommended in 1980 the general approval of foods treated with the doses of ionizing radiation up to 10 kG as unconditionally wholesome, the interest on practical application of food irradiation was gained in Poland. In 1986 the governmental bodies decided to recognize the possibilities of practical application of radiation techniques in agriculture, and the Central Research and Development Project No 10.13. ''Radiation Techniques in Agriculture'' was initiated for the period of 5 years. The project in the part that refers to food irradiations involved 3 major objectives: - radiation preservation of food; - radiation hygienization of animal feed; - Pilot plants for food irradiation. The most liable project of the programme was the construction of experimental plant for electron beam food irradiation, intended to be the national center for future testing and implementary works in this field. (orig.)

  11. Materials in machine, plant, and apparatus construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenauer, H.; Hampe, E.; Hoehne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: principles of materials economy and selection, designation of materials, general construction materials; materials for tools, materials for low temperatures, materials for high temperatures, materials for corrosive stress, materials with high wear resistance and friction materials, sliding and bearing materials, materials for spring load, materials for joints, and materials for nuclear reactors

  12. Dose estimation from food intake due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Takahashi, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, concerns have arisen about the radiation safety of food raised at home and abroad. Therefore, many measures have been taken to address this. To evaluate the effectiveness of these measures, dose estimation due to food consumption has been attempted by various methods. In this paper, we show the results of dose estimation based on the monitoring data of radioactive materials in food published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Radioactive Material Response Working Group in the Food Sanitation Subcommittee of the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council reported such dose estimation results on October 31, 2011 using monitoring data from immediately after the accident through September, 2011. Our results presented in this paper were the effective dose and thyroid equivalent dose integrated up to December 2012 from immediately after the accident. The estimated results of committed effective dose by age group derived from the radioiodine and radiocesium in food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed the highest median value (0.19 mSv) in children 13-18 years of age. The highest 95% tile value, 0.33 mSv, was shown in the 1-6 years age range. These dose estimations from food can be useful for evaluation of radiation risk for individuals or populations and for radiation protection measures. It would also be helpful for the study of risk management of food in the future. (author)

  13. Development of in-plant reference material for composition of chinese cabbage with certified selenium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plant reference material for composition of Chinese cabbage with certified selenium content was developed for accuracy control of the results of selenium determination and within-laboratory quality control of analytical work in the analysis of food raw material.

  14. Plant corrosion: prediction of materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strutt, J.E.; Nicholls, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen papers have been compiled forming a book on computer-based approaches to corrosion prediction in a wide range of industrial sectors, including the chemical, petrochemical and power generation industries. Two papers have been selected and indexed separately. The first describes a system operating within BNFL's Reprocessing Division to predict materials performance in corrosive conditions to aid future plant design. The second describes the truncation of the distribution function of pit depths during high temperature oxidation of a 20Cr austenitic steel in the fuel cladding in AGR systems. (U.K.)

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  16. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1989-01-01

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements. (author)

  17. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts,

  18. World Overview of Packaging Materials for Food Based on Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Evgeniya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the world experience of using zeolites in manufacturing food packaging materials with a view to extend food storage. Antimicrobial properties of zeolites are confirmed by the results of the re-search of antifungal mixture for prolongation of food products shelf life. They correlate with the experience of using the mixture in agriculture as a fungicide and preservative for corn, root crops, sunflower, silage. The ability of zeolites to inactivate pathogens and accelerate excretion of metabolic products from the human body as well as products of disturbed metabolism and toxic compounds derived from the environment was considered. In medicine almost all zeolites are used as highly effective sorbents, and it is confirmed by the positive results of their use in the treatment of poisoning and other intoxications, and for their prevention. Thus, they can be used as raw materials in the development of food with detoxicative properties for people who face food, environmental or occupational poisoning. Bentonite (representative of zeolites, established to meet FDA requirements to contact with food, is included into the List of food additives (E 558. It has the official permission to be used in the food industry and can be used in the development of food products for special purposes.

  19. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  20. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  1. Application of electron irradiation to food containers and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Problems caused by microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals have attracted much attention in the food industry. The number of systems such as hygienic management systems and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems adopted in the manufacturing process is increasing. As manufacturing process control has become stricter, stricter control is also required for microbial control for containers and packaging materials (from disinfection to sterilization). Since safe and reliable methods for sterilizing food containers and packaging materials that leave no residue are required, electron beam sterilization used for medical equipment has attracted attention from the food industry. This paper describes an electron irradiation facility, methods for applying electron beams to food containers and packaging materials, and products irradiated with electron beams. (author)

  2. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment

  3. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... manufacturing practice for food-packaging materials includes the restriction that the quantity of any of these...

  4. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New plant releases from the USDA-NRCS Aberdeen, Idaho, Plant Materials Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. St. John; P. Blaker

    2001-01-01

    The Plant Materials Center at Aberdeen, Idaho, is operated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. The purpose of the Plant Materials Center is to evaluate and release plant materials for conservation use and to develop and transfer new technology for the establishment and management of plants. The Center serves portions...

  6. Index of Free and Inexpensive Food and Nutrition Information Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kathleen, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated index contains approximately 2,000 free or inexpensive pamphlets or brochures about food and nutrition. The prime criterion for inclusion of materials was that they be easily available and inexpensive; the cut-off cost was set at $3.00. The majority of materials listed were produced in either Canada or the United States. These…

  7. Migration of compounds from food contact materials and articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents the different types of food contact/packaging materials (plastics, paper and cardboard, metals, glass, rubbers, lacquers and coatings) and discusses the EU legislation concerning the safety of using these materials. Case studies on the migration of lead, bisphenol A, bisphen...

  8. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  9. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when

  10. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Megan; Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have

  11. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  13. Packaging materials for use in radiation processing of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    In radiation processing of food, the product often has to be prepackaged to prevent microbial recontamination during and after irradiation. The packaging material is exposed to radiation during radiation processing and radiation stability is a key consideration in the selection of packaging materials. The effects of ionizing radiation on many food packaging materials at the dose levels recommended for food precessing can be minimized by selecting appropriate radiation resistant materials. It is important to select materials in which chemicals formed as a result of the radiation treatment do not migrate and interact with the food, affecting its organoleptic and toxicological aspects. It is also important to select materials in which the physical properties are not altered to the extent they cannot resist damage during commercial production, shipment and storage. Radiation treatment of food may be classified broadly into two categories: 1. Processes requiring doses less than 10 kGy; 2. Processes requiring doses from 25 to 40 kGy for production of commercial sterility. In radiation processing of foods, gamma radiation from radioisotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 is most widely used because of its high penetrating power. Electron beam irradiation (E<10 MeV) and X-rays (E<5 MeV) can also be used for certain speciality food and packaging to the food. Because the public acceptance of irradiated foods is a major problem in marketing such products, we have developed in our laboratory an alternative techniques. These techniques are based on applying films on the surfaces of foods. The films are edible, i.e. they are an aqueous solution based on caseine, glycerine, poly-etilene-glycol (PEG), crosslinked by radiation processing. So, our techniques implies no longer the food irradiation but instead its isolation from the environmental biological attacks by means of edible films obtained by irradiation. The protective properties of films, as special humidity, oxygen and fat barriers, are

  14. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  15. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  16. Alternative food promotes broad mite control on chilli pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, M.V.A.; Venzon, M.; de S. Bittencourt, M.C.; Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A.; Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many omnivorous arthropods are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant-provided pollen and several prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of the target pest. Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus

  17. Indigenous African foods plants: vehicles of disease or sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines the mycological quality of traditional leafy vegetables, commonly referred to as morogo, and investigates the folate content of such crops, as well as the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential of indigenous rooibos tea and other traditional food and medicinal plants. Results showed that a ...

  18. The composition and regeneration status of wild food plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and regeneration status of wild food plants in Chenene Miombo woodland, Dodoma rural district, Tanzania. VE Tairo. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 19 (1&2) 2007: pp. 107-121. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used as Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants serve as food supplements and provide essential nutrients to the body in addition to their use as prophylactic and curative measures for some diseases. We conducted a survey among the traditional healers of the Chakma tribe, which is the largest tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeast ...

  20. Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Cassio H.

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

  1. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on food packaging materials and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, F.; Franz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Tests have shown that ionizing radiation induces a characteristic smell in the packaging laminates which also affects the simulated foods used, which however were relatively neutral in flavour, so that the tests represent the worst case. The paper explains that due to the various additives used in the production of the plastic packaging materials, the same types of polymers may react differently to the ionizing radiation, so that the results obtained from the tests are not suitable for general application. It is recommended to very carefully select the suitable packaging material for given foods and intended irradiation processes. Aspects of particular importance are discusses. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  4. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...... less ‘environment’ for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar....

  5. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  7. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  8. The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Paul; Twyman, Richard M

    2004-06-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important social issues faced today, with 840 million individuals enduring chronic hunger and three billion individuals suffering from nutrient deficiencies. Most of these individuals are poverty stricken and live in developing countries. Strategies to address food insecurity must aim to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world in order to tackle poverty, and must provide long-term improvements in crop yields to keep up with demand as the world's population grows. Genetically enhanced plants provide one route to sustainable higher yields, either by increasing the intrinsic yield capability of crop plants or by protecting them from biotic and abiotic constraints. The present paper discusses a range of transgenic approaches that could increase agricultural productivity if applied on a large scale, including the introduction of genes that confer resistance to pests and diseases, or tolerance of harsh environments, and genes that help to lift the intrinsic yield capacity by increasing metabolic flux towards storage carbohydrates, proteins and oils. The paper also explores how the nutritional value of plants can be improved by genetic engineering. Transgenic plants, as a component of integrated strategies to relieve poverty and deliver sustainable agriculture to subsistence farmers in developing countries, could have a significant impact on food security now and in the future.

  9. Iodine in different food articles and standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Stegnar, P.; Stibilj, V.; Rossbach, M.

    1990-01-01

    The greater part of essential iodine enters living organisms via the food chain. Nevertheless, quantitative data on its concentration in diets, food articles and also in available SRMs are very poor and scarce. This and WHO recommendations on daily allowances of iodine for man via food articles caused an added demand for accurate and reliable determination of iodine in these samples. From this point of view the purpose of the present was to analyse and to establish the concentration levels of total iodine in some food articles, diets, SRMs and candidate reference materials by the use of rapid radiochemical separation, developed in our laboratory. The results were checked by the analysis of SRMs with available certified values for iodine and good agreement is evident. (orig.)

  10. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016

  11. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  12. CAN BE BLUEBERRIES THE RISK FOOD AND RAW MATERIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of the highbush blueberries are popular for their beneficial effects on human health and for their excellent sweet-vine taste. Our work is focused on risk assessment of selected elements in relation to the content of bioactive compounds in wild and cultivated of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Anthocyanins are polyphenols that are widely distributed in plants, and contribute to the brilliant blue, red or purple colour in leaves, flowers or fruits. In the samples the antioxidant capacity by the method of Brand – Williams using DPPH (2,2–difenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl and the content of anthocyanins by the modified method Lapornik in two samples of wild blueberries from different areas of Slovakia (Čertovica and Oravské Veselé and in 6 cultivated varieties highbush blueberry (Bluejay, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley, Brigitta, Nelson were determined. The contents of risky elements - Cd, Pb were assessed by AAS method. The contents of Pb were in all observed samples higher than the maximum limit given by the legislation (cultivated: 0.5612 – 0.9912 mg.kg-1, wild: 0.792 – 0.874 mg.kg-1. The measured content values of Cd were in all samples of blueberries lower than hygienic limit. The highest content of anthocyanins from analysed samples was in wild blueberries from surrouding Čertovica 4870.125 ± 22.803 mg.dm-3, but in this sample was simultaneously the lowest antioxidant capacity of 61.15 ± 1.002 %. The highest antioxidant capacity was measured in sample of cultivated variety Bluejay 87.175 ± 0.45 %. It is important to carry out monitoring of heavy metals to consumption of safe food raw materials and foodstuffs.

  13. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  15. POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS IN SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Kudlackova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In two groups of apparently healthy non obese non smoking women aged 20 30 years 79 vegetarians 39 lacto ovo vegetarians plant food, dairy products, eggs, 40 semi-vegetarians as lacto ovo vegetarians with addition of white meat and fish consumption and 81 non vegetarians control group on traditional mixed diet were analyzed the dietary questionnaires of food-frequency and measured the blood concentrations of vitamins B9, C, carotene, B12, D and concentrations of iron. Young women in both groups had similar values of body mass index, concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin B9 and -carotene. In vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian group was found the significantly increased daily intake of fiber, whole grain products, pulses, seeds and nuts. These finding suggest that both nutritional groups had the similar nutritional regimen from view of fruit and vegetables and different from view of other key vegetarian food commodities. Vitamin B12, vitamin D and long-chain n-3 fatty acids are not contained in plant food. Bioavailability of iron from food can be lower in presence of phytic acid from whole grain products and pulses and fiber pulses, seeds, nuts, whole grains. In group of lacto ovo vegetarians narrow range of animal food consumption vs. non vegetarian or semi vegetarian groups were found the significantly reduced concentrations of vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron with a greater incidence of deficient values 49 per cent vs. 13 and 15 per cent for vitamin B12, 67 vs. 46 and 50 for vitamin D, 44 vs. 20 and 30 for iron. Long chain n 3 fatty acid intake eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic in lacto ovo vegetarian group was significantly reduced and very low no fish consumption in comparison to non vegetarians and semi vegetarians. Intake of these acids in semi vegetarians vs. non vegetarians was non significantly increased. The substrate for long chain n 3 fatty acid biosynthesis linolenic acid was significantly more consumed in vegetarian groups

  16. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  17. Beyond food: The multiple pathways for inclusion of materials into ancient dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, Anita; Nikita, Efthymia; Buckley, Stephen; Copeland, Les; Hardy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Dental calculus (mineralized dental plaque) was first recognised as a potentially useful archaeological deposit in the 1970s, though interest in human dental calculus as a resource material has increased sharply in the past few years. The majority of recent research has focused on the retrieval of plant microfossils embedded in its matrix and interpretation of these finds as largely the result of deliberate consumption of plant-derived food. However, while most of the material described in published works does represent food, dental calculus is in fact a "depositional environment" as material can enter the mouth from a range of sources. In this respect, it therefore represents an archaeological deposit that can also contain extensive non-dietary debris. This can comprise a wide variety of cultural and environmental material which reaches the mouth and can become embedded in dental calculus through alternative pathways. Here, we explore the human behaviors and activities besides eating that can generate a flux of particles into the human mouth, the broad range of additional cultural and environmental information that can be obtained through the analysis and contextualisation of this material, and the implications of the additional pathways by which material can become embedded in dental calculus. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  18. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Kosmal, W.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Maciszewski, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  20. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  1. New materials for boilers in USC power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Ho; Hong, Seok Joo

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of boiler in fossil power plants is a strong function of steam temperature and pressure. Thus, the main technology of increasing boiler efficiency is the development of stronger high temperature materials, capable of operating under high stresses at ever increasing temperature. This paper will presents the new material relating to boiler of USC power plant

  2. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the optimal conditions for anthocyanin extraction from natural plant materials in order to develop a pH test kit. The plant materials used were butterfly pea flower (BPF), roselle red flower (RRF) and dragon fruit peel (DFP). The solvents used in this study were distilled water, 1% HCl/95% ...

  3. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  5. [Economic damage caused by lowered prices in the agro-food sector in areas contaminated by radioactive materials leaked from the nuclear power plant severely damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake--consideration from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics and social psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which was severely damaged by the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Economic damage due to lowered prices and supplies of food products produced in the areas contaminated by the radioactive materials leaked from the damaged FDNPP to the agro-food sector in the affected areas is notable. In Japanese, this is known as fuhyo higai. In this study, we investigated fuhyo higai from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics, and social psychology in an effort to seek solutions. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Fuhyo higai, or economic damage of the agro-food sector, which is the main industry in the contaminated areas, is serious because it is difficult to reassure the general population regarding food safety. This fuhyo higai does not derive solely from rumor. It has been reported that improving the science literacy of the general population is important as a countermeasure against fuhyo higai, but this may not be effective because of the human social structure and behavior of people who seek subjective safety. Almost all radiological laboratory results of samples of food produced in the contaminated areas were below detectable limits. Very high values were rarely detected. In general, information about the dose-response relationship is obtained under the assumption that there may be error in the response but not in the dose. The rare cases of extremely high radiological values of food samples from the contaminated areas may correspond to large errors in dose. However, it is difficult to deny a high-dose risk. The reported information on the dose-response relationship obtained under the assumption that there is no error in dose is not sufficient. Thus, response, i.e., health risk, cannot be correctly estimated. This leads the general

  6. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  7. Application of polymer nanocomposite materials in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Odobašić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “nano” refers to nano particle size from 1 to 100 nanometers. The term "nanotechnology" was first introduced by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. Nanotechnology may be used to improve the taste and texture of food and for the production of packaging that maintain fresh product. The primary function of packaging is to maintain the quality and safety of products during transport and storage period, as well as to extend its viability by preventing unwanted effect agents such as microorganisms, chemical contaminants, oxygen, moisture and light. The aim of this paper is to point out the achievements of nanotechnology in terms of food packaging with an overview of polymers that are commonly used in food packaging, as well as strategies to improve the physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability and barrier to gases. By studing of recently published literature, it was clear that nanomaterials such as nano polymers are trying to replace conventional materials in food packaging. Nanosensors can be used to prove the presence of contaminants, microtoxins and microorganisms in food.

  8. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  9. Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Pyszko, Petr; Abe, Tomokazu; Libra, Martin; Kotásková, Nela; Šigut, Martin; Kumar, Rajesh; Kaman, Ondřej; Butterill, Philip T; Šipoš, Jan; Abe, Haruka; Fukushima, Hiroaki; Drozd, Pavel; Kamata, Naoto; Murakami, Masashi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-05-01

    Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity. We studied herbivore assemblages in three temperate forests in Japan and the Czech Republic. Sampling from a canopy crane, a cherry picker and felled trees allowed a complete census of plant-herbivore interactions within three 0·1 ha plots for leaf chewing larvae, miners, and gallers. We analyzed the effects of host phylogeny by comparing the observed food webs with randomized models of host selection. Larval leaf chewers exhibited high generality at all three sites, whereas gallers and miners were almost exclusively monophagous. Leaf chewer generality dropped rapidly when older host lineages (5-80 myr) were collated into a single lineage but only decreased slightly when the most closely related congeneric hosts were collated. This shows that leaf chewer generality has been maintained by feeding on confamilial hosts while only a few herbivores were shared between more distant plant lineages and, surprisingly, between some congeneric hosts. In contrast, miner and galler generality was maintained mainly by the terminal nodes of the host phylogeny and dropped immediately after collating congeneric hosts into single lineages. We show that not all levels of host plant phylogeny are equal in their effect on structuring plant-herbivore food webs. In the case of generalist guilds, it is the phylogeny of deeper

  10. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Aspects of cleaning environmental materials for multi-element analysis, e.g. plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1992-01-01

    Cleaning of samples is often the first step in the entire procedure of sample preparation in environmental trace element research. The question must generally be raised of whether cleaning is meaningful before chemical investigations with plant material (e.g. for the determination of transfer factors in the soil/plant system) or not (e.g. for food chain analysis in the plant/animal system). The most varied cleaning procedures for plant samples are currently available ranging from dry and wet wiping of the leaf or needle surface up to the complete removal of the cuticule with the aid of chlorofom. There is at present no standardized cleaning procedure for plant samples so that it is frequently not possible to compare analytical data from different working groups studying the same plant species. (orig.)

  12. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher

  13. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  14. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved method for measurement of dietary fiber as non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

    1988-01-01

    A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.

  16. Rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidid, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Eight out of the fourteen rare earth elements were estimated from the leaves of Pelthophorum pterocarpum, the leaves and roots of Impatiens balsamina, and the soils from four sampling sites by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The chondrite normalized rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in the plant materials were found to be significantly correlated to the abundances of the rare earth elements occurring in the soils. The extent of accumulation of the rare earth elements in some plant materials was also governed by the age of the plants and the plant organs. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  18. What do we know about plant food allergens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, J. A.; Sancho, A. I.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    databases has allowed their classification into families. This has shown that plant food allergens fall into four main families, with the prolamin superfamily (including the 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cc-amylase inhibitors) predominating, followed by the family of allergens related...... to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, and the cupin superfamily, including the I IS and 7S seed storage globulins. Future studies will be required to allow us to begin understand what it is about these protein families - whether it be their abundance, stability or some as yet unidentified factor...... - that is predisposing certain family members to becoming allergens....

  19. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed...... that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants...... and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community....

  20. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  1. Alaska Plant Materials Center | Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Plan for Alaska, 2005 2017 AK Potato Seed Certification Handbook Tobacco Rattle Virus in Peonies Virus and Thrips Vectors Resources Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook Pacific Northwest Potato Production Disease Risk Monitoring Publications and Reports Late Blight Management Plan for Alaska

  2. Strategies to increase Vitamin C in plants: from plant defence perspective to food biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria eLocato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by classical breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defence responses.

  3. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.

  4. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  5. Erosion and corrosion of nuclear power plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This conference is composed of 23 papers, grouped in 3 sessions which main themes are: analysis of corrosion and erosion damages of nuclear power plant equipment and influence of water chemistry, temperature, irradiations, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, flow assisted cracking, stress cracking; monitoring and control of erosion and corrosion in nuclear power plants; susceptibility of structural materials to erosion and corrosion and ways to improve the resistance of materials, steels, coatings, etc. to erosion, corrosion and cracking

  6. Foundational literature for moving native plant materials in changing climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary I. Williams; Kas Dumroese; Jeremy Pinto; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2015-01-01

    Seed transfer guidelines and zones are used to manage the movement of plant materials, but by the end of the century many landscapes across the globe will have climates that are incompatible with current vegetation. The mismatch in rates between climate change and plant migration and adaptation will pose significant challenges for natural resource managers, especially...

  7. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  8. Materials Investigation for Power Plants Industry. Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szteke, W.; Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wagner, T.; Wojciechowska, J.; Zubowski, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Report is an assembly of the papers concerning perspectives of evolution of power in Poland. The material and diagnostic problems occurring the exploitation of power station as well as gas pipelines are discussed. The progress in the accommodation of the Polish technical prescriptions to the European law is described

  9. INVESTIGATION OF METHODS OF DNA EXTRACTION FROM PLANT ORIGIN OBJECTS AND FOODS BASED ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades modern and highly efficient methods of determining the quality and safety of food products, based on the application of the latest scientific achievements were developed in the world. A special place is given to the methods based on achievements of molecular biology and genetics. At the present stage of development in the field of assessing the quality of raw materials and processed food products much attention is given to highly accurate, sensitive and specific research methods, the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR occupying a leading place among them. PCR is a sophisticated method that simulates the natural DNA replication and allows to detect a single specific DNA molecule in the presence of millions of other molecules. The key point in the preparation of material for PCR is the extraction of nucleic acids. The low content of DNA in plant material and the high concentration of secondary metabolites complicate the process of extraction. The key solution to this problem is highly effective method of extraction, which allows to obtain the DNA of adequate quality and purity. Comparative analysis of methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from fruit raw materials and products based on them was carried out in the study. General analysis of the experimental data allowed us to determine the most efficient method for DNA extracting. In the comparative analysis it was found out that to extract DNA from plant raw materials and food products prepared on their basis it is the most suitable to use "Sorb-GMO-A" reactants kit (set. The approach described gives us a brilliant opportunity to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid proper quality and purity.

  10. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  11. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  13. Wild food plants used by people living with HIV/AIDS in Nakisunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ' health, nutrition and food security. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic infections calls for research into natural products to find solutions to this pandemic. This involves exploration of the readily available wild food plant ...

  14. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  15. DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similar...

  16. Prevention of spontaneous combustion of backfilled plant waste material.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adamski, SA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Grootegeluk Coal Mine commenced operation in 1980 all plant discards and inter-burden material have been stacked on discards dumps, a practice that has led to the spontaneous combustion of the waste material on these dumps. From 1980 to 1988...

  17. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  19. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  20. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  1. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  2. Material control and accountancy at EDF PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Cormis, F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive system which is developed and implemented at Electricite de France to provide a single reliable nuclear material control and accounting system for all nuclear plants. This software aims at several objectives among which are: the control and the accountancy of nuclear material at the plant, the optimization of the consistency of data by minimizing the possibility of transcription errors, the fulfillment of the statutory requirements by automatic transfer of reports to national and international safeguards authorities, the servicing of other EDF users of nuclear material data for technical or commercial purposes

  3. Reuse of contaminated material from nuclear-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Some building structures of decommissioned nuclear power plants are contaminated to a very low extent. Little experience is so far available concerning the recycling and furher exploitation of such materials, the majority of which is constituted by concrete and steel. The mass and activities of the metal parts of the Bohunice A-1 nuclear power plant are estimated and the major contaminant radionuclides are listed. Czechoslovak as well as foreign regulations concerning radioactive material handling are cited and criteria for releasing such materials for further use are discussed. (M.D.). 7 tabs., 3 figs, 28 refs

  4. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  5. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  6. Creep property testing of energy power plant component material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitiswati, Sri; Histori; Triyadi, Ari; Haryanto, Mudi

    1999-01-01

    Creep testing of SA213 T12 boiler piping material from fossil plant, Suralaya has been done. The aim of the testing is to know the creep behaviour of SA213 T12 boiler piping material which has been used more than 10 yeas, what is the material still followed ideal creep curve (there are primary stage, secondary stage, and tertiary stage). This possibility could happened because the material which has been used more than 10 years usually will be through ageing process because corrosion. The testing was conducted in 520 0C, with variety load between 4% until 50% maximum allowable load based on strength of the material in 520 0C

  7. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; Hal, van R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Scheu, H.; Setälä, S.; šmilauer, P.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  8. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs beneath individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, M.T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; van Hal, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Milauer, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  9. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-24

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required, however, this was lacking for the Netherlands. In the current study, the consumption of PFS was investigated for several subgroups in the Dutch population, including children. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys were used to get a first impression on the consumption of PFS. To obtain more detailed information, a specific PFS consumption survey was performed using online questionnaires. First, a screening survey was performed among a representative sample of 75 100 adults and children of the Dutch population, followed by a main survey among 739 selected PFS users in eight different age and gender subgroups. The prevalence of PFS users in the Dutch population was approximately 10% for men, 17% for women and 13% for children. A wide variety of PFS was used, with around 600 different PFS reported, containing 345 different botanicals. The most frequently used botanicals were echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), ginseng (Panax ginseng) and algae (such as species belonging to the genus Spirulina or Chlorella). Because PFS are widely used in the Dutch population, it is important to evaluate the potential risks associated with PFS consumption in the Netherlands, including potential herb-drug interactions. The data collected in this study are of great value to assess these risks.

  10. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  11. of Effect of different organic materials on plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrnosh eskandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Using organic matter, such as, peat and vermicompost as soil amendment, increases aeration, water infiltration, water holding capacity and nutrients of soil . A greenhouse experiment was performed to study the effect of organic materials on plant growth characteristics, total biomass and grain weight of chickpea with four treatments; 1 Soil + 3% peat (PS, 2 Sterile soil + 3% peat (SPS, 3 Soil + vermicompost (1:6 (VCS, 4 control (C in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that the maximum germination percentage, number of branch and number of pod per plant were observed in SPS treatment due to the avoidance of harmful microbial impacts. Plant height in this treatment reduced, whereas, no significant differences in total dry matter per plant and dry weight of chickpea per plant were observed compared to control. Plant growth consist of plant height, number of branch and number of pod per plant in vermicompost and soil + peat treatment reduced in the early stages probably because of plant - microbes interaction effects. Application of vermicompost increased fresh and dry weight, pod dry weight and single grain weight, probably due to more plant nutrient availability in this treatment when compared with other treatments.

  12. Information on plant foods in eBASIS: what is in a correct botanical scientific name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...... studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant...

  13. Production of biogas from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuer, J.

    1980-12-01

    Different crop residues from agriculture and horticulture were investigated for feasibility of producing biogas. The anaerobic fermentation has been performed in batch system fermentation reactors (5 liters) at mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Content of volatile solids (VS/TS) in raw materials varied from 78.5 percent in silage from top of sugar beet to 97.3 percent in straw of rye. The highest content of lignin was found in stalks of Jerusalem artichoke (49.6 percent), stalks of horse bean (47.6 percent) and the lowest in leaves of cauliflower (9.5 percent), top of sugar beet and leaves of cabbage (11 percent) in both. Ratio of carbon to nitrogen was the highest in the straw of rye (60) and the lowest in silage from top of sugar beet (11) and in leaves of cauliflower (11). Rate of biogas production during the first 13 days of fermentation was about 27 liters per kg TS per day, achieved from top of sugar beet. Typical mean rate of biogas production, about 9 liters per kg TS per day, was performed during the first 40 days of retention time from straw of wheat and stalks of rape. Top of sugar beet and manure slurry have had the shortest effective retention time ca 20 days. Maximum total yield of biogas (427.0 liters per kg TS) was achieved from top of sugar beet. From manure slurry 257.5 liters biogas per kg TS was obtained. Methane content in biogas produced during the final 7 days of retention time was the highest from silage from top of artichoke (72.8 percent), stalks of horse bean (71.6 percent) and straw of wheat (71.0 percent). The lowest percentage of methane (59.0 percent) was found in biogas from top of sugar beet.

  14. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food products...

  15. Plant materials program. Progress report, June 1980-May 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.; Cubicciotti, D.; Fox, M.; Giannuzzi, A.; Gilman, J.; Jones, R.; McIlree, A.

    1981-11-01

    This is the first annual progress report of the Plant Materials Subprogram, which was organized in May 1980 to address corrosion-related materials problems in light water reactors. The first section of the report provides an overview of plant materials problems which have a high impact on plant availability. These include pipe and pressure vessel cracking, condenser leakage, turbine disc cracking, and steam generator tube denting and cracking. The status and goals of research and development work related to each of these problems are reviewed briefly. Subsequent report sections provide more detailed reviews of significant progress in the relevant technical topic areas: intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; environmentally-assisted cracking of carbon and low alloy steels; intergranular stress corrosion cracking of nickel-base alloys; and improved fabrication technology

  16. Plant Materials Program: progress June 1981 to May 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.; Cubicciotti, D.; Fox, M.; Giannuzzi, A.; Gilman, J.; Jones, R.

    1983-02-01

    This is the second annual progress report of the Plant Materials Subprogram, which was organized in May 1980 to address corrosion-related materials problems in light water reactors. The first section of the report provides an overview of plant materials problems which have a high impact on plant availability. These include pipe and pressure vessel cracking, condenser leakage, turbine disc cracking, steam geerator tube attack and cracking, and cracking of nickel alloy springs, beams and pins. The status and goals of research and development work related to each of these problems are reviewed briefly. Subsequent report sections provide more detailed reviews of significant progress in the relevant technical topic areas: intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; environmentally-assisted cracking of carbon and low alloy steels; intergranular stress corrosion cracking of nickel-base alloys; and improved fabrication technology

  17. Plant Materials Program: progress June 1981-May 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.; Cubicciotti, D.; Fox, M.; Giannuzzi, A.; Gilman, J.; Jones, R.

    1983-02-01

    This is the second annual progress report of the Plant Materials Subprogram, which was organized in May 1980 to address corrosion-related materials problems in light water reactors. The first section of the report provides an overview of plant materials problems which have impact on plant availability. These include pipe and pressure vessel cracking, condenser leakage, turbine disc cracking, steam generator tube attack and cracking, and cracking of nickel alloy springs, beams and pins. The status and goals of research and development work related to each of these problems are reviewed briefly. Subsequent report sections provide more detailed reviews of significant progress in the relevant technical topic area: integranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels; environmentally-assisted cracking of carbon and low alloy steels; intergranular stress corrosion cracking of nickel-base alloys; and improved fabrication technology

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  19. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  20. IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in many countries, and it poses a clearly increasing health problem in Korea. In Korea, as a part of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), a series of nation-wide population studies for prevalence of allergic disease in children were carried out, with the Korean version of ISAAC in 1995, 2000, and 2010. From the survey, the twelve-month prevalence of FA showed no significant differences from 1995 to 2000 in both age groups (6-12 years-old, 6.5% in 1995 and 5.7% in 2000; 12-15 year-olds, 7.4% in 1995 and 8.6% in 2000). The mean lifetime prevalence of FA which had ever been diagnosed by medical doctor was 4.7% in 6-12 year-olds and 5.1% in 12-15 year-olds respectively in 2000. In Korean children, the major causes of FA are almost same as in other countries, although the order prevalence may vary, a prime example of which being that peanut and tree nut allergies are not prevalent, as in western countries. Both pediatric emergency department (ED) visits and deaths relating to food induced anaphylaxis have also increased in western countries. From a study which based on data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (KHIRA) from 2001 to 2007, the incidence of anaphylaxis under the age of 19 was 0.7-1 per 100,000 person-year, and foods (24.9%) were the most commonly identified cause of childhood anaphylaxis. In another epidemiologic study, involving 78889 patients aged 0-18 years who visited the EDs of 9 hospitals during June 2008 to Mar 2009, the incidence of food related anaphylaxis was 4.56 per 10,000 pediatric ED visits. From these studies, common causes of food related anaphylaxis were seafood, buckwheat, cow's milk, fruits, peanut and tree nuts. Although systematic epidemiologic studies have not reported on the matter, recently, plant foods related allergy has increased in Korean children. Among 804 children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis

  1. Materials and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Matias

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  2. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  3. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as

  4. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 commonly consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that common domestic methods of processing may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in commonly consumed Indian plant foods.

  5. Implications of fusion power plant studies for materials requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Ian; Ward, David; Dudarev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the key requirements for fusion materials, as these have emerged from studies of commercial fusion power plants. The objective of the international fusion programme is the creation of power stations that will have very attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. Fusion power plant studies have shown that these objectives may be achieved without requiring extreme advances in materials. But it is required that existing candidate materials perform at least as well as envisaged in the environment of fusion neutrons, heat fluxes and particle fluxes. The development of advanced materials would bring further benefits. The work required entails the investigation of many intellectually exciting physics issues of great scientific interest, and of wider application than fusion. In addition to giving an overview, selected aspects of the science, of particular physics interest, are illustrated

  6. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  7. Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-12-24

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  8. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

  9. Using thermal power plants waste for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduik, R. S.; Smoliakov, A. K.; Timokhin, R. A.; Batarshin, V. O.; Yevdokimova, Yu G.

    2017-10-01

    The recycled use of thermal power plants (TPPs) wastes in the building materials production is formulated. The possibility of using of TPPs fly ash as part of the cement composite binder for concrete is assessed. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis as well as and materials photomicrographs are presented. It was revealed that the fly ash of TPPs of Russian Primorsky Krai is suitable for use as a filler in cement binding based on its chemical composition.

  10. Radioactive materials in ashes from peat fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, B.; Hedvall, R.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements of the gamma radiation have been used for determination of radioactive materials in peat ashes from five Swedish heating plants. The results show that the amount of radioactive materials was almost the same in all samples. The concentration of 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 144 Cs and 155 Eu were in good conformity with the concentrations found in the environment. The 235 U-concentration was hardly possible to measure. (Edv)

  11. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2012-01-01

    the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...... lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more...... resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose...

  12. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  13. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Pauková

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In three groups of apparently healthy subjects – vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs, semi-vegetarians (as vegetarians with addition of white meat consumption and non-vegetarians (control group on traditional mixed diet were analyzed the dietary questionnaires of consumption frequency  and measured the values of lipid profile, insulin resistance, homocysteine with determinants (vitamins B6, B9, B12 and plasma antioxidative vitamins (C,E, beta-carotene. Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians consumed the significantly reduced amount of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, methionine, lysine, vitamin B12 and on the other hand, they have the significantly higher daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, fiber, plant proteins, arginine, glycine, serine, alanine, folic acid (vitamin B9, vitamin B6, vitamins C,E and beta-carotene. Alternative nutrition groups vs. non-vegetarians have the significantly reduced concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin as well as values of atherogenic index and insulin resistance. The vegetarian (but not semi-vegetarian value of homocysteine is significantly increased as a consequence of the significantly reduced and low concentration of vitamin B12. Other two determinants of homocysteine degradation were significantly increased in serum of alternative nutrition groups. The both vegetarian groups have the significantly higher plasma concentrations of antioxidative vitamins and these values are in range of effective free radical disease reduction. The results  of favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers and antioxidants document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of degenerative age-related diseases. doi:10.5219/148

  14. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.

    2001-01-01

    and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food categories......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible films...

  15. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Food Recovery Challenge (FRC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As part of EPA's Food Recovery Challenge (FRC), organizations pledge to improve their sustainable food management practices and report their results. The FRC is part...

  16. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    small quantities of the green leaves and eagerly feed on dried leaves after the first winter frost without obvious negative effects (H. Stehn, pers. obs.). On being informed of the incident, NT was intrigued, as he had never heard of vultures eating plant material and as White-backed. Vultures eat primarily soft body parts and do ...

  18. Extraction of secondary metabolites from plant material: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Nijhuis, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    This review article intends to give an overview of the developments in the extraction technology of secondary metabolites from plant material. There are three types of conventional extraction techniques. In order of increasing technological difficulty, these involve the use of solvents, steam or

  19. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Outline of material accountancy system for Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Touko; Yamazaki Yoshihiro; Ai, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, Facility Attachment (FA) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was entered into force and the safeguards has been implemented in accordance with the FA. So operator must carry out the effectual material accountancy on the basis of facility operation. RRP is large and complex facility and operated based on automatic and remote system. For efficient material accounting viewpoint, the system especially automatic data collection is established using RRP computer network. The paper describes the outline of material accountancy system, the structure of RRP computer network including how to collect the source data, to convert the batch data and the reporting. (author)

  1. Materials control and accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, G.E.; Britschgi, J.J.; Spraktes, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ICPP high enriched uranium recovery process has historically been operated as a single Material Balance Area (MBA), with input and output measurement capabilities. Safeguards initiated changes in the last five years have resulted in significant materials control and accountability improvements. Those changes include semi-automation of process accountability measurement, data collection and recording; definition of Sub-MBAs; standard plant cleanouts; and, bimonthly inventory estimates. Process monitoring capabilities are also being installed to provide independent operational procedural compliance verification, process anomaly detection, and enhanced materials traceability. Development of a sensitivity analysis approach to defining process measurement requirements is in progress

  2. Development of a multiplex DNA-based traceability tool for crop plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Prins, Theo W; Van Hoef, A M Angeline; Seyfarth, Ralf; Kok, Esther J

    2012-01-01

    The authenticity of food is of increasing importance for producers, retailers and consumers. All groups benefit from the correct labelling of the contents of food products. Producers and retailers want to guarantee the origin of their products and check for adulteration with cheaper or inferior ingredients. Consumers are also more demanding about the origin of their food for various socioeconomic reasons. In contrast to this increasing demand, correct labelling has become much more complex because of global transportation networks of raw materials and processed food products. Within the European integrated research project 'Tracing the origin of food' (TRACE), a DNA-based multiplex detection tool was developed-the padlock probe ligation and microarray detection (PPLMD) tool. In this paper, this method is extended to a 15-plex traceability tool with a focus on products of commercial importance such as the emmer wheat Farro della Garfagnana (FdG) and Basmati rice. The specificity of 14 plant-related padlock probes was determined and initially validated in mixtures comprising seven or nine plant species/varieties. One nucleotide difference in target sequence was sufficient for the distinction between the presence or absence of a specific target. At least 5% FdG or Basmati rice was detected in mixtures with cheaper bread wheat or non-fragrant rice, respectively. The results suggested that even lower levels of (un-)intentional adulteration could be detected. PPLMD has been shown to be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent/intentional admixtures in premium foods and is ready for the monitoring of correct labelling of premium foods worldwide.

  3. [Historical materials of Chinese food hygiene (1927-1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the situation on the work of food hygiene from 1928 to 1949 in China. During this period, the Health and Epidemic Prevention Bureau under the Ministry of Health were all in charge of food hygiene work. They formulated a series of standards, laws and rules on food hygiene which were carried out by hygienic policemen of the Bureau of Public Security. There were two ways for the education of food hygiene: Short-term course teaching class for food hygiene in medical college. The inspection and research work of food hygiene were performed by the Central Testing House of Hygiene, The Central Experimental Office of Hygienic Facilities and the Central Office of Epidemic Prevention and Nutritional Institute of the Health Office. After anti-Japanese war was broken out in 1937, food hygiene work were carried out mainly in the service in the war.

  4. Contaminated fluid filtration plant using pneumatically renewable granulated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr

  5. Leaf spray: direct chemical analysis of plant material and living plants by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Wang, He; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-10-15

    The chemical constituents of intact plant material, including living plants, are examined by a simple spray method that provides real-time information on sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, lipids, and alkaloids. The experiment is applicable to various plant parts and is demonstrated for a wide variety of species. An electrical potential is applied to the plant and its natural sap, or an applied solvent generates an electrospray that carries endogenous chemicals into an adjacent benchtop or miniature mass spectrometer. The sharp tip needed to create a high electric field can be either natural (e.g., bean sprout) or a small nick can be cut in a leaf, fruit, bark, etc. Stress-induced changes in glucosinolates can be followed on the minute time scale in several plants, including potted vegetables. Differences in spatial distributions and the possibility of studying plant metabolism are demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Wild plants spark revival in traditional foods | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Newly trained in commercial food preparation and marketing, the nutritional ambassadors are popularizing these widely available foods. The research, which ... Small-scale agriculture plays an essential role in reducing poverty and improving food security for rural and urban people. IDRC Digital Library

  7. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  8. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  9. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  10. A general model for the transfer of radioactive materials in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.; Linsley, G.S.; Jones, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    A general methodology for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in the food chains to man is described. The models are dynamic in nature so that the long-term time dependence of processes in environmental materials can be represented, for example, the build-up of activity concentrations in soils during continuous deposition from atmosphere. Modules for radionuclide migration are described in well-mixed (cultivated) soil and undisturbed soil (pasture). The methods by which the transfer coefficients used in plant and animal modules are derived are also given. The foodstuffs considered are those derived from green vegetables, grain, and root vegetables together with meat and liver products from the cow and sheep and cow dairy products. The dynamic model permits the time dependence of food chain transfer processes to be represented for different land contamination scenarios; in particular, the model can be adapted to represent behaviour following a single deposit. Using the sensitivity of results to the variation of transfer parameters the model can be used to determine the parts of the food chain where improved data would be most effective in increasing the reliability of radiological assessments; a worked example is given. (author)

  11. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  12. IAEA verification of materials accounting in commercial reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Hakkila, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The reprocessing plants currently under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards have design capacities up to 210 tonnes of heavy metal per year. All of the plants use conventional materials accounting for safeguards. However, several larger commercial reprocessing plants are being designed with capacities of 350 to 1200 tonnes of heavy metal per year. It is likely that many of these plants, as well as some of the existing smaller ones, will adopt near-real-time materials accounting. The major effect of the combination of larger plants and near-real-time accounting on IAEA safeguards will be the demand for greater timeliness of verification. Continuous inspector presence may be required, as well as more on-site measurements by the inspector. In this paper, the authors review what needs to be verified, as well as current inspector activities in the process area. The bulk of the paper describes rapid, easy-to-use measurement techniques and instruments that may be applied to on-site verification measurements

  13. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  14. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  15. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  16. Microbial mineralization processes in Antarctic soils and on plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelter, M.

    1991-01-01

    Soil samples and different plant material from the maritime and continental Antarctic were analyzed for their actual and potential respiration by different methods: total CO 2 -evolution, biological oxygen demand and use of 14C-labeled glucose which may serve as a model for dissolved organic carbohydrates. Since these methods are argued to indicate the mineralization of different fractions of the total organic material by different actual populations, a comparison between the data from these techniques is carried out with regard to their contributions of the total organic matter debris in these environments. The part of respired material calculated from 14C-studies may contribute to nearly 90% of the metabolized material. Results show that the individual fractions differ significantly with respect to the parent material. There are several aspects which have to be taken into account when looking at these data: the original content of water; the contents of dissolved and particulate carbohydrates; and, other edaphic factors. Of special interest is the overall respiration of plant material (mainly lichens) which is strongly influenced by the bacterial respiration of dissolved carbohydrates, probably by ongrowing organisms due to their efficiency in using dissolved organic matter. In terms of respiratory activity, the (bacterial) respiration of glucose may contribute to more than 50% of the total CO 2 -evolution. This influences considerably the modeling of overall respiration of plant material in those environments where close interactions between different parts of the system are very important for their life strategy. Further, the bacterial part may be an overlooked part of metabolic rates in Antarctic lichens

  17. Active and Intelligent Materials for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Buškuvienė, Nijolė; Jankauskaitė, Virginija

    2017-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) reveals the growing problem of food-borne illness around the world. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are getting sick from contaminated food, because 1/3 - 1/2 of food products are not consumed (EC Directives 80/590/EEC and 89/109/EEC). Therefore, the preservation of food freshness and shelf life extension is important task for researchers around the world. In the last decade, much attention is paid to active and intelligent packaging investigation, dev...

  18. Chemical identification of contaminants in paper and board food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda

    Paper and board are used for a variety of food contact materials, such as baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and packaging for cereals as well as fast foods. Despite this extensive use, there are currently large data gaps about the chemical composition of different paper and board food contact...

  19. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food...

  20. Evaluating use stage exposure to food contact materials in a LCA framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present novel methods to incorporate exposure to chemicals within food contact materials (FCM) (e.g. packaging) into life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical migration into food is modeled as a function of contact temperature, time, and various chemical, FCM, and food properties. In order...... in a way compatible with intake fraction, iF, a metric traditionally used in LCIA. The model predicts PiF increases with temperature and for compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients within more permeable materials which are in contact with foods with high ethanol equivalencies (fatty foods)....

  1. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  2. Thermal conductivity of food materials at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiess, W.E.L.; Walz, E.; Nesvadba, P.; Morley, M.; Haneghem, van I.A.; Salmon, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In order to expand the available information on thermal conductivity of foods, within the framework of COST Action 93, a collaborative study was organised. In the first step, typical food components (apple pulp, meat, olive oil, sodium caseinate, starch, tomato paste) were used as standards for

  3. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  5. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  6. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  7. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N.

    2011-01-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  8. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  9. Preparation of plant-specific NDA reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Beetle, T.; Kuhn, E.; Terrey, D.; Turel, S.; Busca, G.; Guardini, S.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of having suitable and well characterized non-destructive assay (NDA) reference materials for the verification activities of the safeguards control authorities is stressed. The Euratom Inspectorate and the IAEA have initiated an extensive programme for the procurement and preparation of Joint Euratom/IAEA safeguards NDA reference materials with the active participation of the Ispra Establishment of the Euratom Joint Research Centre. The different type and nature of materials, condition of measurements, and plant characteristics and provisions had to be taken into account for plant-specific NDA reference materials. The preparation of each reference material was planned case by case and specific criteria such as limitations in different facilities, measurement capabilities, conditions, product availability and population variability are being ascertained. A procurement scheme was prepared describing step-by-step procedures detailing responsibilities, measurement conditions, destructive analysis schemes, desired characteristics and methods of data evaluation. This paper describes the principles and procedures carried out for the preparation of a reference MOX pin, low enriched uranium reference rods, low enriched uranium reference drums, reference MTR assemblies, and THTR reference pebbles. The scheme for each characterization technique is presented. (author)

  10. Application of ceramic and glass materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnabard, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and glass are high temperature materials that can be used in many fields of application in nuclear industries. First, it is known that nuclear fuel UO 2 is a ceramic material. Also, ability to absorb neutrons without forming long lived radio-nuclides make the non-oxide ceramics attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Glass-ceramic materials are a new type of ceramic that produced by the controlled nucleation and crystallization of glass, and have several advantages such as very low or null porosity, uniformity of microstructure, high chemical resistance etc. over conventional powder processed ceramics. These ceramic materials are synthesized in different systems based on their properties and applications. In nuclear industries, those are resistant to leaching and radiation damage for thousands of years, Such as glass-ceramics designed for radioactive waste immobilization and machinable glass-ceramics are used. This article introduces requirements of different glass and ceramic materials used in nuclear power plants and have been focused on developments in properties and application of them

  11. Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:certified reference materials; diffusion; food contact materials; food packaging; laurolactam; migration modelling; nylon; specific migration This thesis compiles several research topics

  12. Effect of different sizes of planting material on the growth and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a significant (P<0.05) effect was recorded in cap diameter (3.68cm) from the 20g weight planting material. Stipe height and girth did not show any significant difference amongst the treatments. The 60g planting material weight recorded more shoots than the 20g and 40g planting material sizes. The 60g planting ...

  13. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Garcia Gisella S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80% can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand.

  14. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung; Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam

    2014-01-01

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods

  15. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung [Kyonghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods.

  16. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.../or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. The substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as antistatic and/or antifogging agents in food-packaging materials, subject to...

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R and D) Program is responsible for performing R and D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R and D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  19. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  20. Occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal- and plant-derived food: results of a survey across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Patrick P J; López, Patricia; Castelari, Massimo; Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and particularly in tea. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the PA content in animal- and plant-derived food from the European market, and to provide a basis for future risk analysis, a total of 1105 samples were collected in 2014 and 2015. These comprised milk and milk products, eggs, meat and meat products, (herbal) teas, and (herbal) food supplements collected in supermarkets, retail shops, and via the internet. PAs were detected in a large proportion of plant-derived foods: 91% of the (herbal) teas and 60% of the food supplements contained at least one individual PA. All types of (herbal) teas investigated were found to contain PAs, with a mean concentration of 460 µg kg -1 dry tea (corresponding to 6.13 µg L -1 in [herbal] tea infusion). The highest mean concentrations were found in rooibos tea (599 µg kg -1 dry tea, 7.99 µg L -1 tea infusion) and the lowest in camomile tea (274 µg kg -1 dry tea, 3.65 µg L -1 tea infusion). Occurrence of PAs in food supplements was found to be highly variable, but in comparable ranges as for (herbal) tea. The highest concentrations were present in supplements containing plant material from known PA-producing plants. In contrast, only 2% of the animal-derived products, in particular 6% of milk samples and 1% of egg samples, contained PAs. Determined levels in milk were relatively low, ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 µg L -1 and only trace amounts of 0.10-0.12 µg kg -1 were found in eggs. No PAs were detected in the other animal-derived products.

  1. The prevalence of plant food allergies: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    ) in the literature database MEDLINE focused on fruits, vegetables/legumes, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cereals, and seeds. Prevalence estimates were categorized by food item and method used (food challenges, skin prick test, serum IgE, parent/self-reported symptoms), complemented by appropriate meta-analyses. Results: We...

  2. The application of plant biotechnology for non-food uses: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... in China has more diverse applications for non-food uses and environmental sustainability. This paper ..... pollen distribution on mulberry leaves near rice fields. Acta .Ecol. Sin. .... resistant plants on pollinating bees. Acta Ecol.

  3. VERIFICATION OF THE FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DEEP FROZEN FOOD PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In work is presented verification of food safety management system of deep frozen food. Main emphasis is on creating set of verification questions within articles of standard STN EN ISO 22000:2006 and on searching of effectiveness in food safety management system. Information were acquired from scientific literature sources and they pointed out importance of implementation and upkeep of effective food safety management system. doi:10.5219/28

  4. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  5. Primary Food Processing : Cornerstone of plant-based food production and the bio-economy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logatcheva, K.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the supply chains and special characteristics of plant-based primary food processors; producers of (wheat) flour, starches, vegetable oils and fats, sugar, and cocoa. The production value, direct employment in the industry, and indirect employment in farming were calculated.

  6. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer an...

  7. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...

  8. Development and evaluation of high temperature materials for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Schubert, F.

    1992-01-01

    The development of high temperature materials requires the evaluation of the interaction of microstructure and mechanical properties, the implementation of the microstructural aspects in the constitutive equations for the analysis of loads in a high temperature component and verification of the materials reactions. In this way the full potential of materials properties can be better used. This fundamental method is the basis for the formulation of the structural design code KTA 3221 'Metallic HTR Components'. The method of 'design by analysis' is also activated for large internally cooled turbine blades for stationary gas turbines in combined cycle power plants. This kind of exploratory analysis during the dimensioning procedure are discussed with two examples: He/He-heat exchanger produced of NiCr23Co12Mo (Alloy 617) and turbine blades made of superalloys (e.g. IN 738 LC). (author)

  9. Effect of decontamination on nuclear power plant primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezina, M.; Kupca, L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of repeated decontamination on the properties of structural materials of the WWER-440 primary coolant circuit was examined. Three kinds of specimens of 08Kh18Ni10T steel were used for radioactivity-free laboratory experiments; they included material obtained from assembly additions to the V-2 nuclear power plant primary piping, and a sheet of the CSN 17247 steel. Various chemical, electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination procedures were tested. Chemical decontamination was based on the conventional AP(20/5)-CITROX(20/20) procedure and its variants; NP-CITROX type procedures with various compositions were also employed. Solutions based on oxalic acid were tested for the electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination. The results of measurements of mass losses of the surfaces, of changes in the corrosion resistance and in the mechanical properties of the materials due to repeated decontamination are summarized. (Z.S.). 12 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  10. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kuwaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B 1 B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid. It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  11. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 ìg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher ...

  12. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  13. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  14. Ethnobotanical study of wild food plants used by rice farmers in Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wild food plants have been recognized as an essential component of the world’s food basket. Farmer’s gathering locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems given the decline of pristine environments. However, there are neither quantitative studies on the ecological characterization

  15. Bio-accumulation of essential and heavy metals in plant food

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of soils due to the presence of toxic metals can result in serious negative consequences, such as damage of ecosystems and of agricultural productivity, deterioration of food chain and serious human and animal health problems. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of essential and potentially toxic metals in polluted soil and their possible transfer in various plant foods were...

  16. Possibilities of avoidance and control of bacterial plant diseases when using pathogen-tested (certified) or - treated planting material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.; Wenneker, M.

    2002-01-01

    Testing of planting material for freedom from phytopathogenic bacteria is an important, although not exclusive, method for control of bacterial diseases of plants. Ideally, pathogen-free or pathogen-/disease-resistant planting material is desirable, but this situation is not always possible on a

  17. Combinatory Models for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frozen and Unfrozen Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Reddy; P Karthikeyan

    2010-01-01

    A model to predict the effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials is proposed based on unit cell approach. The model is combined with four fundamental effective thermal conductivity models (Parallel, Series, Maxwell-Eucken-I, and Maxwell-Eucken-II) to evolve a unifying equation for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of porous and nonporous food materials. The effect of volume fraction (ν) on the structure composition factor (ψ) of the food materials is studied. Th...

  18. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  19. Features in the aspect of materials in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The process of the reprocessing plant installed in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, by Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. is the Purex wet process experienced in Japan and abroad, and which can obtain the uranium and plutonium products of high purity at high recovery rate. This process is to melt spent fuel with nitric acid, and extract and separate uranium, plutonium and fission products from the obtained solution by utilizing the difference in chemical properties. The yearly amount of treatment of the reprocessing plant of this company is 800 t uranium. In order to ensure the safety in the reprocessing plant that handles the solution with high radioactivity, the function of confining radioactive substances in definite areas is demanded. For the purpose, the machinery, equipment and piping containing radioactive substances are made of the materials having the corrosion resistance against nitric acid, and welded structure is adopted to prevent leakage. Negative pressure is maintained in waste gas treatment facilities in relation to cells, and in the cells in relation to the building. The outline of the facilities, the materials of the main machinery and equipment, and the applied technologies are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginova, S.V.; Veselova, I.A.; Parova, L.M.; Shekhovtseva, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Prospects are outlined for using the following enzymes (native and immobilized on polyurethane foam) in the rapid and highly sensitive determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead ions in plant materials (wild grass, fresh pea, and grape): horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatases isolated from chicken intestine and Greenland seal small intestine. The analytical ranges of the above metals are 1x10 -3 -25; 7x10 -3 -250, and 3x10 -2 -67 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. The enzymatic determination procedures developed are based on the inhibiting effect of metal ions on the catalytic activity of peroxidase in the oxidation of o-dianisidine with hydrogen peroxide and alkaline phosphatases in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The rates of enzymatic reactions were monitored spectrophotometrically or visually. In the analysis of plant extracts, their high acidity was diminished by choosing optimum dilution factors and pH values for test samples and the nature and concentration of a buffer solution. The interference of iron(III) was removed by introducing a 0.1 M tartaric acid solution into the indicator reaction. The accuracy of the results of the enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials was supported by atomic absorption spectrometry and anodic stripping voltammetry [ru

  1. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. GAVIRANGAPPA HITHAMANI1 DHANYA KIZHAKAYIL1 KRISHNAPURA SRINIVASAN1. Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR – Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India ...

  2. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A challenge for growing fresh foods (vegetables) in space is demonstrating that they are safe for consumption according to NASA microbiological standards set for...

  3. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, other biologically active compounds impair health by ... of essential elements through different mechanisms and giving astringent taste, odor, ... The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to ...

  4. Development of reference materials for composition of food dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Kulev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of the research. Development of standard samples (SS of food colour content continues to be relevant to enhance safety and quality of food products, additives and other micro-ingredients as well as to deal with import substitution. Work objective. The objective of this work is to develop SS for the basic substance and toxic elements in the most frequently used in food technologies synthetic food colours: Tartrazine E102, Yellow Quinoline E104, Azorubine E122 and Ponseau 4R E124. Research techniques. Mass fraction of colour in the samples was determined by spectrophotometry as per 320502013 GOST Standard; colour samples for toxic elements were evaluated according to 26929-94 GOST Standard; content of lead and cadmium was determined by atomic absorption analysis defined in the GOST 30178-96, arsenic -by calorimetry as per GOST 26930-94, mercury - by flameless atomic sorption spectrometry according to MU № 5178-90, homogeneity and shelf life - in conformity with RMG 93-2009, GOST 8.531-2002 and Р 50.2.031-2003. Results. SS for the content of four food colours were developed based on the research findings. Their following metrological specification is given in the Table 6: mass fraction of the basic substance, %, fractional error limits (P = 0,95, S, %; content of toxic elements, mg/kg with fractional error limits, S, %.

  5. Multielement analysis of foods and related materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents FDA's use of prompt- and delayed-gamma thermal neutron activation analysis (PGAA and INAA, respectively), collectively referred to here is NAA, for the analysis of foods. Several elements of nutritional or toxicological importance can be simultaneously determined at levels ranging from trace to percent. Concentrations of aluminum, boron, bromine, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, sodium, and sulfur can be determined in < 1 day in most foods. For INAA, after a few weeks of decay following irradiation, cobalt, cesium, iron, rubidium, scandium, and zinc can also be determined. Other elements that are detectable in only some food types include cadmium, chromium, copper, iodine, phosphorus, antimony, selenium, titanium, and vanadium

  6. Metabolome analysis of food-chain between plants and insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution has shown the co-dependency of host plants-predators (insects), especially inevitable dependency of predators on plant biomass for securing their energy sources. In this respect, it had been believed that NAD+ source used for major energy producing pathway in insects is a glycerol-3-phosph...

  7. Estrogenic plant foods of red colobus monkeys and mountain gorillas in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael D; Taylor-Gutt, Alexandra; Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Milton, Katharine; Leitman, Dale C

    2012-05-01

    Phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and other legumes. Because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. Despite this interest, little is known about the occurrence of phytoestrogens in the diets of wild primates, nor their likely evolutionary importance. We investigated the prevalence of estrogenic plant foods in the diets of two folivorous primate species, the red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) of Kibale National Park and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, both in Uganda. To examine plant foods for estrogenic activity, we screened 44 plant items (species and part) comprising 78.4% of the diet of red colobus monkeys and 53 plant items comprising 85.2% of the diet of mountain gorillas using transient transfection assays. At least 10.6% of the red colobus diet and 8.8% of the gorilla diet had estrogenic activity. This was mainly the result of the red colobus eating three estrogenic staple foods and the gorillas eating one estrogenic staple food. All estrogenic plants exhibited estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selectivity, as their phytoestrogens activated ERβ, but not ERα. These results demonstrate that estrogenic plant foods are routinely consumed by two folivorous primate species. Phytoestrogens in the wild plant foods of these two species and many other wild primates may have important implications for understanding primate reproductive ecology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identification and risk assessment of unknown contaminants migrating from Food Contact Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieke, Eelco Nicolaas

    The exposure of humans to possibly thousands of chemical compounds through food poses a health risk that is questioning our ability to ensure high standards for food safety. Food contact materials (FCM) are a major source of extraneous chemical compounds in food, yet not much knowledge is available...... interpretations. Risk prioritization is successful in classifying estimated risk based on predicted exposure and predicted hazard, and is valuable for to preliminary RA studies. The overarching strategy in this study shows that explorative techniques are valuable tools to help ensure food safety in the future...

  9. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants......Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...... resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly...

  10. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjichambis, A.C.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D.; Della, A.; Giusti, M.E.; Pasquale, C.; Lenzarini, C.; Censorii, E.; Gonzales-Tejero, M.R.; Sanchez-Rojas, C.P.; Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M.; Skoula, M.; Johnson, C.; Sarpaki, A.; Hmamouchi, M.; Jorhi, S.; El-Demerdash, M.; El-Zayat, M.; Pieroni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time

  11. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  12. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  13. Power plant wastes capitalization as geopolymeric building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Litu, Loredana; Harja, Maria

    2017-11-01

    In this innovative study, we are present an investigation over the properties of geopolymeric materials prepared using ash supplied by power plant Iasi, Romania and sodium hydroxide solutions/pellets. Having as objective a minimum consumption of energy and materials was developed a class of advanced eco-materials. New synthesized materials can be used as a binder for cement replacement or for the removal/immobilization of pollutants from waste waters or soils. It offers an advanced and low cost-effective solution too many problems, where waste must be capitalized. The geopolymer formation, by hydrothermal method, is influenced by: temperature (20-600°C), alkali concentration (2M-6M), solid /liquid ratio (1-2), ash composition, time of heating (2-48 h), etc. The behaviour of the FTIR peak of 6M sample indicated upper quantity of geopolymer formation at the first stage of the reaction. XRD spectra indicated phases like sodalite, faujasite, Na-Y, which are known phases of geopolymer/zeolite. Advanced destroyed of ash particles due to geopolymerisation reaction were observed when the temperature was higher. At the constant temperature the percentage of geopolymer increases with increasing of curing time, from 4-48 h. Geopolymer materials are environmentally friendly, for its obtaining energy consumption, and CO2 emission is reduced compared to cement binder.

  14. Management and Motivations to Manage “Wild” Food Plants. A Case Study in a Mestizo Village in the Amazon Deforestation Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human management of anthropogenic environments and species is tightly linked to the ecology and evolution of plants gathered by humans. This is certainly the case for wild food plants, which exist on a continuum of human management. Given alarming deforestation rates, wild food plant gathering is increasingly occurring in anthropogenic ecosystems, where farmers actively manage these species in order to ensure their availability and access. This study was conducted in a mestizo village in the Peruvian Amazon deforestation frontier, with the objective of documenting the management practices, including the human-induced movement of wild food plant species across the forest-agriculture landscape, and the motivations that farmers have to manage them using a qualitative ethnobotanical approach. The results of focus group discussions showed that 67% of the 30 “wild” food plant species reported for the village were managed, and almost all plants that were managed have been transplanted. The strongest flow of transplanted material was from forest to agricultural field (11 species, followed by market to field (five species, and field to home garden (four species. Farmers argued that the main reason for transplanting “wild” food plants was to have them closer to home, because they perceived that the abundance of 77% of these species decreased in the last years. Conversely, the most important reason for not transplanting a “wild” plant was the long time it takes to grow, stated for 67% of the species that have not been transplanted. Remarkably, more than half (57% of the “wild” food plant species, including 76% of the species that are managed, have been classified as weeds by scientific literature. Finally, the “wild” food plant species were classified in six mutually exclusive groups according to management form and perceived abundance. The study concluded that “wild” food plant management, including management of species classified

  15. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: prevalence in food and inactivation by food-compatible compounds and plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-04-22

    Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahemolyticus can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involved in their pathogenesis is needed. To help meet this need, this overview surveys and interprets much of our current knowledge of antibiotic (multidrug)-resistant bacteria in the food chain and the implications for microbial food safety and animal and human health. Topics covered include the origin and prevalence of resistant bacteria in the food chain (dairy, meat, poultry, seafood, and herbal products, produce, and eggs), their inactivation by different classes of compounds and plant extracts and by the use of chlorine and physicochemical methods (heat, UV light, pulsed electric fields, and high pressure), the synergistic antimicrobial effects of combinations of natural antimicrobials with medicinal antibiotics, and mechanisms of antimicrobial activities and resistant effects. Possible areas for future research are suggested. Plant-derived and other safe natural antimicrobial compounds have the potential to control the prevalence of both susceptible and resistant pathogens in various environments. The collated information and suggested research will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of approaches that could be used to minimize the presence of resistant pathogens in animal feed and human food, thus reducing adverse effects, improving microbial food safety, and helping to prevent or treat animal and human infections.

  16. The cosmological aspects of food in the material world | Hegarty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a general tendency today to believe that all truth worth knowing is to be found in the various branches of the physical sciences. If this were so, there could be no place for a philosophy of matter, or by extension the cosmological aspects of food. In order to vindicate cosmology and its extension from the charge of ...

  17. Food Marketing: Cashier-Checker. Student Material. Competency Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Larry; And Others

    This curriculum for food marketing (cashier-checking) is designed to provide entry-level employment skills. It is organized into 13 units which contain one to ten competencies. A student competency sheet provided for each competency is organized into this format: unit and competency number and name, learning steps, learning activities, and…

  18. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  19. Influence of polystryrene and polyethylene packaging materials on food quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) used for packaging of food were studied on their effect on product quality. Different types of PS were tested: General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS, which contains a dispersed rubber phase) and several blends of

  20. The use of urban plant resources for health and food security in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria

    an understanding of the current and potential contribution of urban plant resources to human wellbeing (with a focus on food security) in Kampala, Uganda. To fulfil this aim, I created 4 objectives: 1) to assess plant species composition and use in Kampala’s homegardens, 2) to explore associations between...... homegardens and socio-economic determinants of dietary diversity and fruit consumption of children aged 2-5 years, 3) to explore the prevalence and determinants of wild plant collectors in Kampala, Uganda, and 4) to assess the extent and importance of alternative food sources of different food groups for low...... species) were collected for food purposes, while the other 25 species were collected for medicinal purposes and were also collected more frequently. The findings indicate that urban homegardens and wild space can play an important role in human wellbeing. It is important to incorporate biodiversity...

  1. The validation of a method for determining the migration of trace elements from food packaging materials into food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Parry, S.J.; Benzing, R.

    1997-01-01

    A new radiotracer method has been developed to measure the migration of trace elements from food contact packaging into four standard food simulants; acetic acid, ethanol, olive oil, deionised water. A sample of material is irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 16 n x m -2 x s -1 to activate the trace elements and produce a range of radionuclides. The samples is then placed in the food simulant and the migration of the radionuclides is monitored by performing γ-ray spectrometry on a sample of the simulant. Any radionuclides measured must be due entirely to the migration of the elements present in the plastic, since the simulant itself is not radioactive. Preliminary studies have shown that detection limits of around 0.2 μg x dm -2 (0.002 mg/kg) can be achieved for antimony in a sample of polyethylene terephthalate. This method can now been extended to measure migration into real foods. This will highlight any differences between the standard simulants currently used and real foods. Since the method only involves irradiation of the packaging material any food matrix can be studied. (author)

  2. Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Shah, Adil Gani; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Nissar, Nazia; Shagoo, Mudasir Ahmad

    2016-11-17

    Functional foods find a very important place in the modern era, where different types of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. are on a high. Irrespective of the abundance of bioactive components in different fruits and vegetables, their low solubility in aqueous solution, vulnerability to destruction in different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and a low intestinal absorption becomes a concern. Because it is quite difficult to commercialize non food materials for the food encapsulation purposes due to their safety concerns in the human body, scientists in the recent times have come up with the idea of encapsulating the different bioactive components in different food grade materials that are able to safeguard these bioactive components against the different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and ensure their safe and targeted delivery at their absorption sites. Different food grade encapsulation materials including various oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, cyclodextrins, alginates, chitosan, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose) and proteins and their suitability for encapsulating various bioactive components like flavonoids (catechins, rutin, curcumin, hesperetin, and vanillin), nonflavonoids (resveratrol), carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein), and fatty acids (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and olive oil) of high medical and nutritional value are reviewed here.

  3. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  4. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  5. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  6. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  7. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  8. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). A limiting factor to achieving these higher temperatures and pressures for future A-USC plants are the materials of construction. The goal of this project is to assess/develop materials technology to build and operate an A-USC boiler capable of delivering steam with conditions up to 760°C (1400°F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). The project has successfully met this goal through a focused long-term public-private consortium partnership. The project was based on an R&D plan developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and an industry consortium that supplemented the recommendations of several DOE workshops on the subject of advanced materials. In view of the variety of skills and expertise required for the successful completion of the proposed work, a consortium led by the Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) with cost-sharing participation of all the major domestic boiler manufacturers, ALSTOM Power (Alstom), Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W), Foster Wheeler (FW), and Riley Power, Inc. (Riley), technical management by EPRI and research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed. The project has clearly identified and tested materials that can withstand 760°C (1400°F) steam conditions and can also make a 700°C (1300°F) plant more economically attractive. In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys have been assessed to provide a basis for

  9. Countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This report was tentative safety standard on countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components issued in 2004 on the base of the testing data obtained until March 2004, which was to be applied for technical evaluation for lifetime management of aged plants and preventive maintenance or repair of neutron irradiated components such as core shrouds and jet pumps. In order to prevent stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) of austenitic stainless steel welds of reactor components, thermal surface modification using laser beams was used on neutron irradiated materials with laser cladding or surface melting process methods by limiting heat input according to amount of accumulated helium so as to prevent crack initiation caused by helium bubble growth and coalescence. Laser cladding method of laser welding using molten sleeve set inside pipe surface to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds, alloy 690 cladding method using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds for dissimilar joints of pipes, and laser surface solid solution heat treatment method of laser irradiation on surfaces to prevent SCCs of austenitic stainless steel welds were also included as repair technologies. (T. Tanaka)

  10. TEM investigation of plant-irradiated NPP bolt material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Ehrnsten, U.; Keinaenen, H.; Karlsen, W.; Karlsen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) was used to examine irradiation-induced damage in material removed from two different bolts from two different nuclear power plants. One section came from a French PWR, was made of CW AISI 316, and included a section of the bolt that had accumulated a dose of approximately 15 dpa during 19 operation cycles at 350 - 390 C. degrees. Another section came from a VVER bolt that was removed from the plant due to indications found in non-destructive examinations (NDE). The VVER bolt was made of solution annealed titanium stabilized 0X18H10T (corresponding to Type AISI 321) and had accumulated a fluence of 2.9 dpa. During the removal of that bolt, it was found that the bolt washer had been inappropriately spot welded to the shielding plate during assembly. Destructive investigations showed that the bolt had two large intergranular cracks, and the TEM samples were prepared from the material adjacent to those cracks. The PWR bolt had not failed, although cracks in the bolts with a similar history had been found previously. The fluence for the cold-worked AISI 316 PWR bolt was estimated to be about 15 dpa. Both the examined bolts showed a clear radiation induced segregation of alloying elements at the grain boundaries (GB-RIS), the presence of dislocation loops, the formation of precipitates, and linear deformation microstructures. Additionally, voids were found from the PWR bolt and the VVER bolt had a high density of dislocations. (authors)

  11. Family food practices: relationships, materiality and the everyday at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Julie

    2018-02-01

    This article draws on data from a research project that combined participant observation with in-depth interviews to explore family relationships and experiences of everyday life during life-threatening illness. In it I suggest that death has often been theorised in ways that make its 'mundane' practices less discernible. As a means to foreground the everyday, and to demonstrate its importance to the study of dying, this article explores the (re)negotiation of food and eating in families facing the end of life. Three themes that emerged from the study's broader focus on family life are discussed: 'food talk' and making sense of illness; food, family and identity; and food 'fights'. Together the findings illustrate the material, social and symbolic ways in which food acts relationally in the context of dying, extending conceptual work on materiality in death studies in novel directions. The article also contributes new empirical insights to a limited sociological literature on food, families and terminal illness, building on work that theorises the entanglements of materiality, food, bodies and care. The article concludes by highlighting the analytical value of everyday materialities such as food practices for future research on dying as a relational experience. © 2018 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  12. Materials Selection And Fabrication Practices For Food Processing Equipment Manufacturers In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baptist Kirabira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industry is one of the fast-growing sub-sectors in Uganda. The industry which is majorly composed of medium and small scale firms depends on the locally developed food processing equipment. Due to lack of effective materials selection practices employed by the equipment manufacturers the materials normally selected for most designs are not the most appropriate ones hence compromising the quality of the equipment produced. This has not only led to poor quality food products due to contamination but could also turn out health hazardous to the consumers of the food products. This study involved the assessment of the current materials selection and fabrication procedures used by the food processing equipment manufacturers with a view of devising best practices that can be used to improve the quality of the food products processed by the locally fabricated equipment. Results of the study show that designers experience biasness and desire to minimize cost compromise the materials selection procedure. In addition to failing to choose the best material for a given application most equipment manufacturers are commonly fabricating equipment with inadequate surface finish and improper weldments. This hinders the equipments ability to meet food hygiene standards.

  13. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal ...

  14. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  15. The selection by the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus of spring plant food items according to their nutritional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shino Furusaka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional aspects of the bear diet quantitatively, in order to understand plant food selection in spring. Bears were observed directly from April to July in 2013 and 2014, to visually recognize plant species consumed by bears, and to describe the foraging period in the Ashio-Nikko Mountains, central Japan. Leaves were collected from eight dominant tree species, regardless of whether bears fed on them in spring, and their key nutritional components analyzed: crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total energy. Bears tended to consume fresh leaves of specific species in May, and nutritional analysis revealed that these leaves had higher CP and lower NDF than other non-food leaves. However, CP in consumed leaves gradually decreased, and NDF increased from May to July, when the bears’ food item preference changed from plant materials to ants. Bears may consume tree leaves with high CP and low NDF after hibernation to rebuild muscle mass.

  16. Survey of the occurrence of 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether in food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    producers and importers. The substance is not allowed for use in plastic materials for food contact. One Danish company reported a possible use of HDDGE in coating of drinking tanks and pipelines. This is the only use of HDDGE confirmed in relation to food contact materials in Denmark. The project...... is following up on a previous survey under the Danish EPA’s LOUS-review (Environmental Project no. 1472)....

  17. The development of 3D food printer for printing fibrous meat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Ho, C.; Wang, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 3-D food printer was developed by integrating 3D printing technology with fibrous meat materials. With the help of computer-aided design and computer animation modeling software, users can model a desired pattern or shape, and then divide the model into layer-based sections. As the 3D food printer reads the design profile, food materials are extruded gradually through the nozzle to form the desired shape layer by layer. With the design of multiple nozzles, a wide variety of meat materials can be printed on the same product without the mixing of flavors. The technology can also extract the nutrients from the meat material to the food surface, allowing the freshness and sweetness of food to be tasted immediately upon eating it. This will also help the elderly’s eating experience since they often have bad teeth and poor taste sensing problems. Here, meat protein energy-type printing is used to solve the problem of currently available powder slurry calorie-type starch printing. The results show the novel technology development which uses pressurized tank with soft piping for material transport will improve the solid-liquid separation problem of fibrous meat material. In addition, the technology also allows amino acids from meat proteins as well as ketone body molecular substances from fatty acids to be substantially released, making ketogenic diet to be easier to accomplish. Moreover, time and volume controlled material feeding is made available by peristaltic pump to produce different food patterns and shapes with food materials of different viscosities, allowing food to be more eye-catching.

  18. Rwsearch on Effective Teaching Materials for “Food Education” in Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    渡部,佳美; 久山,明生; 三浦,芳助; 瀨山,一正; 西尾,佳代子

    2011-01-01

    Though food education in elementary and jinior high school has been promoted centrally by Nutrition Teachers since the Basic Law of Foof Education was esrablished, effective teaching materiales are yet to be found in the classroom. In Jine and December 2010, in an attempt to develop effective teaching materials for food education in jinior high schools, schools that employ nutrition educators were asked to use developmental teaching material - the “Dietary Habit Step-up Guide” - on an experim...

  19. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, I-F.; Tsai, C.-J.; Shen, S.-H.; Lin, T.-F.; Chen, W.-K.; Chen, M.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH 3 , amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery

  20. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  1. Grewia asiatica L., a Food Plant with Multiple Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Grewia asiatica L., is a species native to south Asia from Pakistan, east to Cambodia, cultivated primarily for its edible fruit and well-reputed for its diverse medicinal uses. Fruits are a rich source of nutrients such as proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals and contain various bioactive compounds, like anthocyanins, tannins, phenolics and flavonoids. Different parts of this plant possess different pharmacological properties. Leaves have antimicrobial, anticancer, antiplatelet and antiemetic activities; fruit possess anticancer, antioxidant, radioprotective and antihyperglycemic properties; while stem bark possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. This review focuses on the botanical description, phytochemistry, nutritional studies and pharmacological properties of this plant.

  2. Public-Private Partnerships in Plant Genomics for Global Food

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ina

    2012-06-06

    Jun 6, 2012 ... revolution in the way we approach the science of crop im- provement. ... to transition its emphasis from generation of sequence data ...... genetic markers for Ug99 stem rust. 2009- ..... Plant Cell Physiology 52(12): 2017-2038.

  3. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, E.J.; Keijer, J.; Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting

  4. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  5. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  6. Material balance areas and frequencies for large reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.

    1994-01-01

    It has long been recognized that facilities with a large nuclear material throughput will probably not meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) goal for detecting trickle diversion of plutonium over periods of about one year. The reason is that measurement errors for plutonium concentration and for liquid volume are often approximately relative over a fairly wide range of true values. Therefore, large throughput facilities will tend to have large uncertainties assigned to their annual throughput. By the same argument, if frequent balances are performed over small material balance areas, then the uncertainty associated with each balance period for each balance area will be small. However, trickle diversion would still be difficult to detect statistically. Because the IAEA will soon be faced with safeguarding a new large-scale reprocessing plant in Japan, it is timely to reconsider the advantages and disadvantages of performing frequent material balances over small balance areas (individual tanks where feasible). Therefore, in this paper the authors present some simulation results to study the effect of balance frequency on loss detection probability, and further simulation results to study possibilities introduced by choosing small balance areas. They conclude by recommending frequent balances over small areas

  7. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  8. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups, mushrooms (used in diverse ways and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products or as a jam. Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and

  9. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  10. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang [ORIONENC Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement.

  11. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement

  12. Study on the natural radionuclides in vegetables and food materials in Coonoor Taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarappandian, S.; Kannan, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important route through which radionuclides enter human body is food material. A considerable study on this aspect focuses on the natural radionuclides content since it is the major contributor to the total dose received by human beings. Natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb in uranium series and 228 Ra in the thorium series exist ubiquitously in the environment and significantly contribute to the effective dose equivalent. The concentration of these radionuclides in different vegetables and food material collected in Coonoor taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere has been estimated. The concentration of 210 Po has been estimated by radiochemical separation followed by alpha counting. 210 Pb content in food material has been estimated by in growth of its daughter 210 Bi and followed by its counting by low background beta counting system. 228 Ra content has been estimated by chemical separation followed by, low background beta counting. 226 Ra has been estimated by chemical separation followed by emanation of 222 Rn and alpha counting. The vegetables and other food materials have been collected throught the study area Coonoor. The collected vegetable and food materials are coming under five categories such as leafy vegetable, tuberous vegetables, other vegetables, cereals and other food materials. The observed 210 Po concentration in the present study varies from 0.06 to 0.91 Ba/kg (fresh weight). The highest concentration of 210 Po (0.91 Bq/kg) has been observed in Tea collected at Thaimalai and the lowest value (0.06 Bq/kg) has been observed in carrot (root) collected at Bikole. The highest concentration of 210 Pb (1.12 Bq/kg) has been found in Cauliflower collected at Colocombai, while the least concentration of 210 Pb (0.12 Bq/kg) has been observed in Beans collected at Bikole. The Carrot coming under tuberous vegetable collected at Kateri have registered the highest value of 2.30 Bq/kg and the Cauliflower coming under leafy vegetable collected at

  13. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Medicine is not health care, food is health care: plant metabolic engineering, diet and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathie; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Contents 699 I. 699 II. 700 III. 700 IV. 706 V. 707 VI. 714 714 References 714 SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many. We review the progress that has been made in nutritional enhancement of foods, both improvements through breeding and through biotechnology and the engineering principles on which increased phytonutrient levels are based. We also consider the evidence, where available, that such foods do enhance health and protect against chronic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  16. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, in 't P.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing

  18. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  19. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, M.B.; Davis, M.V.

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10 4 rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10 5 rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects

  20. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Cofiring of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw fired......Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...

  1. Radioactive contaminants in raw materials and foodstuffs of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovicj, S.; Krainchanicj, M.; Stankovicj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the results of activity level of radioactive caesium 134 and 137 in the samples of raw materials (barley, oats, soybean, sunflower, pumpkin seed, hops, shreded sugar beet, maize), animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape, concentrates fed to chickens, pigs or bpvines, dry turnip shreds) and foodstuff of plant origin (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, carrot, celery, cucumber, tomato, olives, sesame). All samples - produced locally on the major part but also including some imported stuff -have been subjected to continuous gamma spectrometry starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 through 1989. The highest activity of caesium was recorded in the samples of animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape) in the years 1986 and 1987. In time, however, the activity tends to drop considerably. (author) 4 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. DA and NDA measurement of nuclear materials Mayak reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Lelyuk, G.A.; Sazhnov, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of nuclear material (NM) analysis and their quality assurance at the laboratory of RT-1 plant of PA Mayak are reviewed as applicable to the NM control and accounting system. The impact of analysis quality on the NM control and accounting system quality is analyzed. It has been shown that major component of the inventory difference for plutonium is caused by the errors of its measurement in the initial solution. The expedience of decreasing this error from 5 % to 1-1.5 % has been substantiated. Errors of plutonium detection on the other flows of NM at the facility prove to be acceptable for the NM control and accounting system. Accuracy of uranium concentration measurements proved to be satisfactory for all NM flows [ru

  3. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  4. Plants and mushrooms as sources of bio-based food coloring, preserving and bioactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Food additives have been used for thousands of years to enhance food properties, safety and appearance. Nevertheless, several of the worldwide used artificial additives have been related to potential toxic and allergenic effects to the consumers, which has been justifying the growing interest in additives of natural origin that provide colouring, preserving, and bioactive properties to foodstuff without hazardous effects [1]. In this context, several plants and mushrooms have been...

  5. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Tsitsilin, Andrey N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a "herbophilious" society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called "functional foods", which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and-through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia-showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  6. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  7. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  8. The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the actual gathering and use of wild edible plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, with a brief concluding discussion on the present day use of wild plants as food within Sweden. The peasants and the nomads in pre-industrial Sweden utilised very few wild plant taxa as food. Many even despised the wild fruits and green plants. Some plants and fruits were earlier mostly eaten fresh on the spot, or gathered for consumption in bread, gruel or soup. Other fruits were dried or preserved in other ways. In times of food shortages the amount of wild plants increased in the diet, but still the peasantry and nomads were often able to use fish and game to provide enough nutrients. With access to cheap sugar in the early 20th century wild fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., and Rubus chamaemorus L. increased in importance, especially among urban-dwellers and within food industry. In the last few decades fungi have also become part of the urban diet. Fifty years ago working class people gathered only Cantharellus cibarius (Fr. and occasionally Boletus edulis Bull. Nowadays more taxa are utilised within the Swedish households, and especially the easy to pick Cantharellus tubaeformis (Pers. has become very popular recently. Harvesting fruits and mushrooms in the forests is a popular pastime for many urban people, but also a source of income for immigrants and especially foreign seasonal labour. The only traditional green wild food plant that is regularly eaten in contemporary Sweden is Urtica dioica L.

  9. Interaction of plant phenols with food macronutrients: characterisation and nutritional-physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols are dietary constituents of plants associated with health-promoting effects. In the human diet, polyphenols are generally consumed in foods along with macronutrients. Because the health benefits of polyphenols are critically determined by their bioavailability, the effect of interactions between plant phenols and food macronutrients is a very important topic. In the present review, we summarise current knowledge, with a special focus on the in vitro and in vivo effects of food macronutrients on the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols. The mechanisms of interactions between polyphenols and food macronutrients are also discussed. The evidence collected in the present review suggests that when plant phenols are consumed along with food macronutrients, the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols can be significantly affected. The protein-polyphenol complexes can significantly change the plasma kinetics profile but do not affect the absorption of polyphenols. Carbohydrates can enhance the absorption and extend the time needed to reach a maximal plasma concentration of polyphenols, and fats can enhance the absorption and change the absorption kinetics of polyphenols. Moreover, as highlighted in the present review, not only a nutrient alone but also certain synergisms between food macronutrients have a significant effect on the bioavailability and biological activity of polyphenols. The review emphasises the need for formulations that optimise the bioavailability and in vivo activities of polyphenols.

  10. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

    2007-01-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material...

  11. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  12. Discovery and validation of urinary exposure markers for different plant foods by untargeted metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Kristensen, Mette; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the food metabolome and identify new markers of food exposure, limited attention has been given to the validation of such markers. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) discover potential food exposure markers (PEMs) for a range...... of plant foods in a study setting with a mixed dietary background and (2) validate PEMs found in a previous meal study. Three-day weighed dietary records and 24-h urine samples were collected three times during a 6-month parallel intervention study from 107 subjects randomized to two distinct dietary...... patterns. An untargeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabolomics analysis was performed on the urine samples, and all features detected underwent strict data analyses, including an iterative paired t test and sensitivity and specificity analyses for foods. A total of 22 unique PEMs were identified that covered 7 out...

  13. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  14. A multipurpose irradiation plant for simultaneous treatment of different foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Tata, A.

    1982-01-01

    An industrial multipurpose irradiation plant with a particularly high effectiveness of radiation utilization is presented. The originality of this conceptual design consists of the simultaneous treatment of two products, which are separately irradiated to either high or low absorbed doses. A pneumatical transport system into appropriate channels with air mixing during irradiation has been proposed for the radappertization of granular animal feed, meanwhile a conventional truck-conveyor system has been suggested for the sprout inhibition treatment of potatoes. Moreover, potatoes pass through the irradiation cell twice at high and low level respectively. (author)

  15. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  16. RNAi-based GM plants: food for thought for risk assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Matthew; Devos, Yann; Lanzoni, Anna; Liu, Yi; Gomes, Ana; Gennaro, Andrea; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technology that offers new opportunities for the generation of new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Potential risks associated with RNAi-based GM plants and issues specific to their risk assessment were discussed during an international scientific workshop (June 2014) organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Selected key outcomes of the workshop are reported here. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Unconventional methods for food preservation and recovery of phytochemicals from plant wastes: towards a science for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are irreplaceable sources of food and bioactive phytochemicals. In this sense, this work has been focused on valorisation and processing of traditional plant foods, including medicinal plants (consumed in herbal beverages), leafy vegetables, and tomato farmers’ varieties, but also biowastes (source of biomolecules), using non-conventional and emerging technologies [1]. The preservation of dried medicinal plants (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. and Malva neglecta Wallr.) ...

  18. Dosimetry in radiation plant of food and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental concept for sterilization is generally to bring the objects into the condition that less than one microorganism can grow in 10 6 products. Therefore required dose differs according to the selection of indexing microorganism. In the U.K., approximately 2.5 Mrad is adopted by employing methylmethacrylate (trade name Perspex) as the standard dosimeter. Japan has no legally controlled sterilization dose, but 2.5 Mrad in adopted in irradiation plants. In Japan, plants for the germination suppression of potatos and onions have been operated, the permitted dose being 15 krad. It is legal obligation to measure dose, and presently Fricke dosimeter is used, though it has some problems. As for rice and wheat sterilization, also Fricke dosimeter meets the requirements for the package forms of box or bag, but problems arise in bulk treatment at silo type equipments. Considering future expansion of application, the following developments may be necessary: dosimeters for 10--50 krad, dosimeters for 0.1 to 0.5 Mrad measurement being able to be handled similarly to Fricke or Perspex dosimeter, and measuring method for absorbed dose of electron beam. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  20. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  1. Processing concepts for the use of green leaves as raw materials for the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, A.; Schreuders, F.K.G.; Zisopoulos, F.K.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale processing of leaves for food applications requires quick processing or stabilisation to avoid perishability, due to the high moisture content in this biomass. Leaf perishability is compounded by the seasonal availability of crops, like sugar beet plants, of which the leaves are regarded

  2. The enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Sanders, P.; Rozema, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enzymatic starch determination which can be used for the analysis of starch in a very broad range of different samples is evaluated, ranging from starch in plants, feed and food to industrial applications as starch in starch. The method is based on a complete enzymatic conversion of the starch

  3. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and production methods.

  4. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  5. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  6. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  8. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allana K L; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Cansanção, Isaac F; Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.

  10. Spatial and seasonal diversity of wild food plants in home gardens of Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast

  11. Minor components in food plants--Note I. Flavonol glycosides from Ullucus tuberosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, A; Rastrelli, L; Saturnino, P; Schettino, O

    1991-12-01

    This work deals with the isolation and characterization in Ullucus tuberosus of flavonoids, a class of natural products influencing potentially the taste and nutritional value of the plant food. The three flavonoids, rutin, narcissin and kaempferol 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosil)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated, are devoid of taste, but appear to possess health promoting effects.

  12. Plant foods in the Upper Palaeolithic at Dolní Věstonice? Parenchyma redux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pryor, A.; Steele, M.; Jones, M. K.; Svoboda, Jiří; Beresford-Jones, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 338 (2013), s. 971-984 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Czech Republic * Dolní Věstonice * upper palaeolithic * gravettian * archaeobotany * plant foods * parenchyma Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.594, year: 2013

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction for the detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in low dose irradiated plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Peter; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude; Marchioni, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction [152 bar (15,200 kPa), 80 degrees C, 4 ml min(-1), 60 min], performed on lipids (2 g) previously extracted from irradiated plant foods, allowed a selective extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and its further detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  14. Certified reference, intercomparison, performance evaluation and emergency preparedness exercise materials for radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, S.M.; Inn, K.G.W.; Uwe Waetjen; Zhichao Lin

    2015-01-01

    The threat to global security from terrorist attack does not solely arise from illicit use of firearms, explosives or weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist threats will inevitably become more subtle as information and expertise is acquired by terrorist groups, and one vulnerable area is food and the food supply chain. Many laboratories, especially in countries with nuclear programmes, are involved in the routine monitoring of foodstuffs, and will be required to respond with increased food monitoring necessary for ensuring food safety and protecting public health after real (or perceived) contamination of food by either accidental or illicit means. This paper examines the needs for reference and performance testing materials that were identified at an international workshop to discuss this matter held at NIST in 2008, and further refined at a follow-up workshop in 2009. (author)

  15. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material. Extraction and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, F A; Barrett, F C

    1967-09-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol-water-aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether-formic acid-2-methylpropan-2-ol-water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that

  16. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-01-01

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based mi...

  17. Prospects for the use of plant cell cultures in food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M; Deroles, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell cultures can offer continuous production systems for high-value food and health ingredients, independent of geographical or environmental variations and constraints. Yet despite many improvements in culture technologies, cell line selection, and bioreactor design, there are few commercial successes. This is principally due to the culture yield and market price of food products not being sufficient to cover the plant cell culture production costs. A better understanding of the underpinning biological mechanisms that control the target metabolite biosynthetic pathways may allow the metabolic engineering of cell lines to provide for economically competitive product yields. However, uncertainty around the regulatory and public acceptance of products derived from engineered cell cultures presents a barrier to the uptake of the technology by food product companies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  1. A novel method for the determination of migration of contaminants from food contact materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Parry, S.J.; Benzing, R.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron activation method has been developed for the analysis of high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polystyrene food contact plastics. The method provides determination of over 50 elements at concentrations below 1 mg kg -1 . This technique has now been extended to study migration from food contact materials into standard food simulants (olive oil, acetic acid, ethanol and water). Samples of plastic are irradiated in a thermal neutron flux to procedure radionuclides of the elements present in the plastic. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Introduction of a Nonfermented Bread-like Food as a Learning Material in Home Economics Education

    OpenAIRE

    冨永, 美穂子; 小林, 京子; 森, 敏昭; 佐藤, 一精

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was made to prepare a nonfermented bread-like food usable as home economics teaching and learning material. The new receipe could be a model for showing the leavening process of bread by use of sodium bicarbonate and yogurt as an acidifying agent. In this study, the nonfermented bread was used in the class by forty second grade high school students on the theme of "Infant foods — focusing on snacks— " The students favorably evaluated the bread-like food as being easy to prepare...

  3. Carotenoid deposition in plant and animal foods and its impact on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2017-06-13

    Over the past decades, an enormous body of literature dealing with the natural deposition of carotenoids in plant- and animal-based foods has accumulated. Prominent examples are the large solid-crystalline aggregates in carrots and tomatoes or the lipid-dissolved forms in dairy products and egg yolk. Latest research has identified lipid-dissolved forms in a rare number of plant foods, such as tangerine tomatoes and peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). In addition, liquid-crystalline forms were assumed in so-called tubular chromoplasts of numerous fruits, e.g., in papaya, mango, and bell pepper. The bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh and processed foods strongly depends on their genuine deposition form, since their effective absorption to the human organism requires their liberation from the food matrix and subsequent solubilization into mixed micelles in the small intestine. Consequently, a broad overview about the natural array of carotenoid deposition forms should be helpful to better understand and modulate their bioavailability from foods. Furthermore, naturally highly bioavailable forms may provide biomimetic models for the improved formulation of carotenoids in food supplements. Therefore, this review paper presents scientific evidence from human intervention studies associating carotenoid deposition forms with their bioavailability, thus suggesting novel technological and dietary strategies for their enhanced absorption.

  4. Indonesian jellyfish as potential for raw materials of food and drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Abdullah, N.; Zulhaeriah

    2018-05-01

    Jellyfish used to be considered as a pest of fish and a nuisance to fishing operations. Yet, forty years ago this jellyfish was found to be materials of food, medicine and cosmetics and the utilization of jellyfish is now familiar in Indonesia after being imported by China and Japan industry. This study aims to determine the potential development of jellyfish commodities as food and drugs from Indonesia with the target to improve the welfare of fishermen. This research used methods of rapid observation, limited interview, processing with immersion experiment and desiccation. In addition, various literatures were also used to enrich the knowledge about jellyfish business. Observation showed that the appearance of jellyfish in Indonesian waters varies based on the fertility of the waters affected by oceanographic conditions. Jellyfish contains low calorie and fat content, high protein and minerals as well as total collagen. Thus, jellyfish is a nutritious food source to be developed into food supplements, nutricosmetics and functional foods. Due to its large size, the jellyfish from Bunyu Island is more viable than jellyfish from Suppa Pinrang to be exported as raw material. Therefore, the manufacture of food and medicines from jellyfish materials is possible to be done in Indonesia.

  5. When material world speaks. Slovenian festive food and Slovenians in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godina-Golija Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on material collected during this author’s fieldwork research in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Ruma in 2008, 2012 and 2015. Obtained by various research methods, particularly the narrative interview, observation methods, and the questionnaire, the data provides an insight into the Slovene immigrant community in Serbia and the importance of Slovene food elements for members of this community and for the community as a whole. Although primarily an element of the material world, food also plays an important role within the context of a different cultural or social milieu. Some elements of food culture, particularly certain dishes, spices, and food preparation techniques, are especially important in the creation and preservation of ethnic identity of immigrant communities and of individual identities of their members. Among the Slovenes living in Serbia, this prominent position is occupied primarily by Slovene festive dishes, which are prepared for all major family celebrations and events. Food and especially festive dishes not only symbolizes the social ties and the division but actively participates in their creation and rebirth. Having become a symbol of ethnic affiliation of Slovenes living outside Slovenia, such food serves to materialize their ethnic identity.

  6. Combinatory Models for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frozen and Unfrozen Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to predict the effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials is proposed based on unit cell approach. The model is combined with four fundamental effective thermal conductivity models (Parallel, Series, Maxwell-Eucken-I, and Maxwell-Eucken-II to evolve a unifying equation for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of porous and nonporous food materials. The effect of volume fraction (ν on the structure composition factor (ψ of the food materials is studied. The models are compared with the experimental data of various foods at the initial freezing temperature. The effective thermal conductivity estimated by the Maxwell-Eucken-I + Present model shows good agreement with the experimental data with a minimum average deviation of ±8.66% and maximum deviation of ±42.76% of Series + Present Model. The combined models have advantages over other empirical and semiempirical models.

  7. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as

  8. IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in many countries, and it poses a clearly increasing health problem in Korea. In Korea, as a part of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), a series of nation-wide population studies for prevalence of allergic disease in children were carried out, with the Korean version of ISAAC in 1995, 2000, and 2010. From the survey, the twelve-month prevalence of FA showed no significant differences from 1995 to...

  9. Cadmium measurements in blood and hair of occupationally non-exposed military recruits and in the foods of plant origin produced in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana

    2003-10-01

    To determine cadmium content in the most frequently consumed foods of plant origin grown in different regions of Slovenia, assess cadmium content in the biological materials (blood and hair) from Slovenian young men, and verify the hypothesis that the cadmium pollution of the environment varies across regions in Slovenia. We analyzed cadmium concentration in 982 composite samples of foods of plant origin, and determined the cadmium burden in the population by analyzing cadmium content in whole blood and hair samples from 742 randomly selected healthy men aged 18-26 years. There were significant differences in cadmium content in the analyzed foods with respect to the regions in Slovenia where were the foods of plant origin were produced (porigin and cadmium burden in the blood showed only a weak correlation (Spearman's r=0.13), whereas the correlation between cadmium content in the foods and hair was much stronger (Spearman's r=0.55). Our research confirmed the hypothesis of regionally different environmental pollution with cadmium, and clearly showed the connection between cadmium burden in foods and in population in Slovenia.

  10. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Borrell, Roberto; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Iglesias-Peinado, Irene; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2016-11-01

    To review interactions between oral antineoplastic agents (OAAs) for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors and common food and medicinal plants. All potential interactions between OAAs, medicinal plants and food were reviewed. OAAs were considered to be drugs for oral administration that have direct antitumor activity and were approved by the European Medicines Agency in April 2015. We performed the literature search in Pubmed(®) considering only medicinal plants and food. In addition, available data were analyzed from each OAA in secondary data sources taken from Thomson Micromedex(®) and Lexi-comp(®), as well as in the summary of product characteristics. Fifty-eight OAAs were analyzed. We found interactions in 60.3 % of OAAs. Those with most interactions described were: imatinib and procarbazine (4 interactions) and erlotinib, vemurafenib, pomalidomide, medroxyprogesterone and methotrexate (3 interactions). We found 39 interactions (74.4 % important). St. John's wort was the medicinal plant with most interactions (92.6 % were considered important). The rest were: important (ginseng-imatinib, methotrexate-cola and tobacco-erlotinib and tobacco-pomalidomide) and moderate (caffeine-vemurafenib/medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone-ruxolitinib/St. John's wort, garlic-anagrelide and ginseng-procarbazine). Twenty-six interactions (61.5 % important). Grapefruit had most interactions (82.4 % were considered important). The rest were: important (alcohol-procarbazine) and moderate (dairy-estramustine, methotrexate-ethanol, procarbazine-tyramine, vitamin A-tretinoin/bexarotene and grapefruit-bexarotene/etoposide/sunitinib). A review of interactions of medicinal plants and food should be taken into account in the management of OAAs, since more than half have interactions with MPs and food, of which 70.3 % are considered important. The most relevant are HSJ, grapefruit, ginseng and tobacco. This review is intended to serve as a support to all healthcare

  11. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  12. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  13. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  14. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  15. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    million MEDLINE abstracts for information thatlinks plant-based foods with their small moleculecomponents and human disease phenotypes. Nu-triChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals,and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751diseases. In addition......,there is currently no exhaustive resource on thehealth benefits associated to specific dietary inter-ventions, or a resource covering the broad molecu-lar content of food. Here we present the first releaseof NutriChem, available athttp://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text miningof 21...

  16. The life prediction study of Rokkasho reprocessing plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Yano, M.; Takizawa, M.; Shibata, S.

    1998-01-01

    The life prediction study of major equipment materials used in heavily corrosive nitric acid solutions of the RRP was carried out. The nitric acid recovery made of type 304ULC austenitic steel and the dissolver made of type 705 metallic zirconium are selected on the present study. This study is composed of major three programs, namely, the mock-up tests by small-sized equipments simulated to the practical design, laboratory tests for examining corrosion controlling factors by small specimens and to establish the data base system for the life prediction. Important parameters on this study was extracted with analyzing the past data of the life prediction on the Tokai reprocessing equipments. The mock-ups design was made by considering the quantitative evaluation of the most important parts on objective equipments, namely, heat conducting tubes in an acid recovery evaporator and a thermal jacket in a dissolver. From pre-examinations, the effects of radioactive species, nitric acid solution chemistry, the corrosion mechanisms were elucidated. Mock-up testing conditions corrosion monitoring methods and a data base concept for the the life prediction were selected from pre-examination data by referencing the plant operation planning. (author)

  17. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C

    2005-03-01

    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  18. Extrusion Processing of Raw Food Materials and by-products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Vivian; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Falade, Kolawole O

    2018-05-22

    Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.

  19. Apple allergy across Europe: how allergen sensitization profiles determine the clinical expression of allergies to plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Bolhaar, Suzanne; González-Mancebo, Eloina; Asero, Riccardo; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Bohle, Barbara; Ma, Yan; Ebner, Christof; Rigby, Neil; Sancho, Ana I.; Miles, Susan; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Knulst, André; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, Clare; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to a plant food can either result from direct sensitization to that food or from primary sensitization to pollen, latex, or another food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the primary sensitizers in apple allergy across Europe, the individual allergens involved, and whether

  20. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  1. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  2. The use of plants containing genotoxic carcinogens as foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gerhard; Nogemane, Noluyolo; Street, Renee

    2018-04-05

    In many developing countries, populations rely on traditional medicine for primary health care, which have infiltrated commercial markets globally as natural remedies are generally regarded as safe. Traditional and natural remedies are adapted and expanded in commercial products and product ranges to provide alternatives for various diseases and illnesses. These products resemble very little of the traditional use and application and adverse effects are observed in several cases. Some of the herbs and botanical formulations therefore, are not as safe as are commonly contemplated. This paper discusses some plants that are used as food or medicine. These plants are known to contain chemical components that have been identified as genotoxic carcinogens. Often contradictory results are obtained with beneficial and adverse effects reported. The concentration, biotransformation and metabolism of these compounds, as well as the matrix effect, affect the outcome of these results, therefore not providing a clear picture of the risk associated with the use and consumption of these plants. This paper focuses on plants that are accepted as healthy, however contain compounds that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. We further highlight the risks in use of these plants where thorough studies have been conducted in various food and plant products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameters on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants for Korean food chain dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, K. M.; Cho, Y. H.

    2001-12-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. In this report, results of last about 15 years' studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, were summarized and put together. Soil-to-plant transfer factors, parameters quantifying the root uptake of radionuclides, were measured through greenhouse experiments and field studies. In addition to traditional transfer factors, which are based on the activity in unit weight of soil, those based on the activity applied to unit area of soil surface were also investigated. Interception factors, translocation factors and weathering half lives, parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, were investigated through greenhouse experiments. The levels of initial plant contamination with HTO and I2 vapor were described with absorption factors. Especially for HTO vapor, 3H levels in crop plants at harvest were expressed with TFWT (tissue free water tritium) reduction factors and OBT (organically bound tritium) production factors. The above-mentioned parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops and radionuclide species and application times. On the basis of summarized results, the points to be amended or improved in food chain dose assessment models were discussed both for normal operation and for accidental release

  4. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Imaging of plant materials using indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging is a method for imaging distributions of metabolites in plant materials, in particular leaves and petals. The challenge in direct imaging of such plant materials with DESI-MS is particularly the protective layer of cu...... of interest from parts of their matrix while preserving the spatial information in the two dimensions. The imprint can then easily be imaged by DESI-MS. The method delivers simple and robust mass spectrometry imaging of plant material with very high success ratios....... of cuticular wax present in leaves and petals. The cuticle protects the plant from drying out, but also makes it difficult for the DESI sprayer to reach the analytes of interest inside the plant material. A solution to this problem is to imprint the plant material onto a surface, thus releasing the analytes...

  6. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  7. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  8. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABA A receptor (GABA A R) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABA A R modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABA A R was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABA A R expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABA A -modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABA A R activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABA A R modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  9. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bittencourt Luciano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p1   Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and there is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  10. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Luciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and here is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  11. The role of plant pathology and plant pathology journals in future food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050 and this will require a significant increase in crop production for global food security. Future increases in crop production will require limiting the effects of weeds, insects, and diseases incited by fungi, viruses, nematodes, and ba...

  12. Nuclear techniques for the determination of protein content in plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    Elemental analysis for nitrogen has gained in importance over the last decade, as protein improvement and protein control in food and feed has come to be recognized as one of the most promising ways of overcoming deficiencies in food production and distribution. The need for fast and reliable screening methods has stimulated the improvement and automation of classic chemical methods for protein and nitrogen determination and, on the other hand, the development and adaptation of physical and nuclear analysis procedures. After about ten years of work this process has come to a stage where a critical evaluation of the existing methods seems necessary and justified. The present review describes and compares nuclear techniques for nitrogen determination in plant material. These include activation analysis techniques, based on various nuclear reactions, initiated by fast and thermal neutrons, energetic photons, protons, deuterons and α-particles. Other nuclear methods have been applied for nitrogen or protein determination, like ESCA, PIXE, NMR, NQR and Moessbauer spectroscopy, some of which possess good potential as screening methods. Depending on the needs, such as sample size, analysis rate and postulated accuracy, different nuclear techniques may be selected today for nitrogen screening. Some of the techniques discussed have additional potential for carbon or oxygen determination, for measuring depth or lateral N distribution, or for the recognition of the type of chemical N binding. Though most if not all techniques need further development for routine application, they are able to compete with chemical techniques in cost, rate and accuracy. (author)

  13. Compounds in food packaging materials - toxicological profiling of knowns and unknowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine

    compounds present in these materials. Specific focus was placed on in vitroendpoints assessing endocrine activity. BPA, five BPA analogues, and 19 fluorinated substances including fluorochemical containing technical mixtures (TMs) were investigated. The in vitro assays included the androgen receptor (AR....... It is recommended to test more FCMs of paper and board with the strategy to obtain information on other potentially problematic compounds present in these materials. The presented data overall suggest that some compounds present in FCMs or suspected of being used can exert endocrine activities in vitro, though......Food contact materials (FCMs) are sources of food contamination and human chemical exposure. Some chemicals in these materials are known to cause adverse effects, but many are poorly characterized for their potential toxicological hazards making risk assessment a challenge. The aim of the project...

  14. Creation and validation of web-based food allergy audiovisual educational materials for caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jamie; Albin, Stephanie; Sicherer, Scott H

    2014-01-01

    Studies reveal deficits in caregivers' ability to prevent and treat food-allergic reactions with epinephrine and a consumer preference for validated educational materials in audiovisual formats. This study was designed to create brief, validated educational videos on food allergen avoidance and emergency management of anaphylaxis for caregivers of children with food allergy. The study used a stepwise iterative process including creation of a needs assessment survey consisting of 25 queries administered to caregivers and food allergy experts to identify curriculum content. Preliminary videos were drafted, reviewed, and revised based on knowledge and satisfaction surveys given to another cohort of caregivers and health care professionals. The final materials were tested for validation of their educational impact and user satisfaction using pre- and postknowledge tests and satisfaction surveys administered to a convenience sample of 50 caretakers who had not participated in the development stages. The needs assessment identified topics of importance including treatment of allergic reactions and food allergen avoidance. Caregivers in the final validation included mothers (76%), fathers (22%), and other caregivers (2%). Race/ethnicity were white (66%), black (12%), Asian (12%), Hispanic (8%), and other (2%). Knowledge tests (maximum score = 18) increased from a mean score of 12.4 preprogram to 16.7 postprogram (p audiovisual curriculum on food allergy improved knowledge scores and was well received.

  15. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  17. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey-Marie Syne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods: Samples of air, surfaces (swabs, raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively. This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7% of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20 of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively while 5 (12.5% of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1% of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7% of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion: A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant.

  18. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  19. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  1. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  2. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  3. Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in black nylon and other food-contact materials, 2004-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Okholm, B.; Foverskov, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in migrates from 234 samples of food-contact materials, including black nylon (polyamide) kitchen utensils (n = 136), coloured plastics (28), and clear/printed multilayer film/laminates (41......), from retailers, importers, and food producers. A further 29 utensils in use were obtained from colleagues. Very high PAA migration was found from black nylon kitchen utensils to the food simulant 3% acetic acid: the 'non-detectable' limit (20 mu g aniline equivalents kg-1 food) was exceeded by up...... migration test conditions influenced the final test results. Long-term release of PAAs was fitted by diffusion modelling experiments and long-term release was also seen as expected from used utensils. Toxicologists consider these migration levels of the suspected carcinogenic PAAs as a problem of major...

  4. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Food contact materials (FCM), e.g. bottles and food handling gloves, can contain potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP, CAS: 117-81-7). To investigate the contribution of FCM to dietary DEHP exposure we apply...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...... than 5% would cause exceedance of US EPA threshold when used with certain food items,e.g. radishes based on PiF calculated here. The PiF used in thís context has applications for regulations related to FCM and exposure assessments on a per unit kilo basis....

  5. Evaluation of various digestion procedures for trace element contents of some food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Sule; Tuzen, Mustafa; Saracoglu, Sibel; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The levels of trace elements in different types of food material consumed in Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food samples were digested with dry ashing, wet ashing and microwave digestion procedures in this study. The microwave digestion procedure was chosen for the digestion of all the food samples because it required shorter time and made higher recovery (specially for Se). Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al and Se were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) were found below 10%. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials. Moreover, this procedure was easier to use when compared with dry and wet digestions

  6. The use of rapid spectroscopic screening methods to detect adulteration of food raw materials and ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-01-01

    with chemometrics appears to be an efficient first choice for testing incoming raw materials and ingredients in the food production. However, in order to realize its full potential, it is necessary to move away from the current thoughts at the Parnassus, namely the targeted approach. This review will focus......International trade in food commodities will continue to increase and the complex food supply chains make adulteration detection and traceability a technical, logistical and financial challenge. There is no magic solution for adulteration testing, but NIR spectroscopy in combination...... on the exploitation of the capability of NIR spectroscopy to fingerprint incoming raw materials and ingredients as an integrated part of the industry's self-monitoring program typically called process analytical technology....

  7. Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Biogenic Amines in Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Vanegas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity of 23.3 µA/mM, a lower detection limit of 11.6 µM, and a response time of 7.3 s, showing similar performance to biosensors constructed from analytical grade materials. We demonstrated the application of the biosensor by testing total BA concentration in fish paste samples subjected to fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Biogenic amines concentrations prior to lactic acid fermentation were below the detection limit of the biosensor, while concentration after fermentation was 19.24 ± 8.21 mg histamine/kg, confirming that the sensor was selective in a complex food matrix. The low-cost, rapid, and accurate device is a promising tool for biogenic amine estimation in food samples, particularly in situations where standard laboratory techniques are unavailable, or are cost prohibitive. This biosensor can be used for screening food samples, potentially limiting food waste, while reducing chances of foodborne outbreaks.

  8. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  9. Urban forest justice and the rights to wild foods, medicines, and materials in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Poe; Rebecca J. McClain; Marla Emery; Patrick. Hurley

    2013-01-01

    Urban forests are multifunctional socio-ecological landscapes, yet some of their social benefits remain poorly understood. This paper draws on ethnographic evidence from Seattle, Washington to demonstrate that urban forests contain nontimber forest products that contribute a variety of wild foods, medicines, and materials for the wellbeing of urban residents. We show...

  10. Safety by design of printed multilayer materials intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina; Isella, Francesca; Fedeli, Mauro; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2017-07-01

    Printing inks are commonly used in multilayer plastics materials used for food packaging, and compounds present in inks can migrate to the food either by diffusion through the multilayers or because of set-off phenomena. To avoid this problem, the right design of the packaging is crucial. This paper studies the safety by design of multilayer materials. First, the migration from four different multilayers manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate (PET), aluminium (Al) and polyethylene (PE) was determined. The structural differences among materials such as the presence of inks or lacquer coatings as well as the differences in layers position allowed the study of a safety-by-design approach. Sixty-nine different compounds were detected and identified; 49 of them were not included in the positive list of Regulation EU/10/2011 or in Swiss legislation and 15 belong to Cramer class III, which means that they have a theoretical high toxicity. Some of the compounds related to ink composition were pyrene, a compound commercially used to make dyes and dye precursors and the antioxidant Irganox 1300. The application of external lacquers decreased the concentration of some migrants but also brought the potential for new migrants coming from its composition. A final risk assessment of the material allowed evaluating food safety for different food simulants and confirm it.

  11. Detection of some safe plant-derived foods for LTP-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, Riccardo; Mistrello, Gianni; Roncarolo, Daniela; Amato, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP) is a widely cross-reacting plant pan-allergen. Adverse reactions to Rosaceae, tree nuts, peanut, beer, maize, mustard, asparagus, grapes, mulberry, cabbage, dates, orange, fig, kiwi, lupine, fennel, celery, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, chestnut and pineapple have been recorded. To detect vegetable foods to be regarded as safe for LTP-allergic patients. Tolerance/intolerance to a large spectrum of vegetable foods other than Rosaceae, tree nuts and peanut was assessed by interview in 49 subjects monosensitized to LTP and in three distinct groups of controls monosensitized to Bet v 1 (n = 24) or Bet v 2 (n = 18), or sensitized to both LTP and birch pollen (n = 16), all with a history of vegetable food allergy. Patients and controls underwent skin prick test (SPT) with a large spectrum of vegetable foods. The absence of IgE reactivity to foods that were negative in both clinical history and SPT was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and their clinical tolerance was finally assessed by open oral challenge (50 g per food). All patients reported tolerance and showed negative SPT to carrot, potato, banana and melon; these foods scored positive in SPT and elicited clinical symptoms in a significant proportion of patients from all three control groups. All patients tolerated these four foods on oral challenge. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the lack of IgE reactivity to these foods by LTP-allergic patients. Carrot, potato, banana and melon seem safe for LTP-allergic patients. This finding may be helpful for a better management of allergy to LTP.

  12. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  13. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lacour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption.MethodsFood intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED, and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age.ResultsParticipants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissionsQ5vsQ1 = 838/1,664 kg CO2eq/year, −49.6%, P < 0.0001; CEDQ5vsQ1 = 4,853/6,775 MJ/year, −26.9%, P < 0.0001; land occupationQ5vsQ1 = 2,420/4,138 m2/year, −41.5%, P < 0.0001. Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only

  14. Symposium on application of new materials to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The papers on the application of new materials for upgrading LWRs, the application of new materials to FBRs, the application of new materials to high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the application of new materials to nuclear fusion reactors, engineering ceremics shape memorizing alloys and metal base composite materials are collected in this book. As for LWRs, the change of materials for LWR components and the present status of the research and development of the application of new materials in ANERI are described. As for the application of new materials to a demonstration FBR, high Cr-Mo steel, high ductility stainless steel, neutron resistant stainless steel and low cobalt case hardening material are explained, and the development of new materials for practical FBRs is discussed. As for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the materials for control rod cladding tubes, heat exchangers and high temperature piping, fuel cladding, moderator and reflector, and heat insulator are described. As for nuclear fusion reactors, the structural materials, the materials facing plasma, and superconductive materials, electrode materials and others are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Certification of materials for steam generator condensor and regeneration heat exchanger for nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovicj, M.V.; Jovashevicj, V.J.; Jovashevicj, V.D.J.; Spasicj, Zh.Lj.

    1977-01-01

    In the construction of a nuclear power plant almost all known materials are used. The choice depends on working conditions. In this work standard specifications of contemporary materials that take part in larger quantities in the following components of the secondary circuit of PWR-type nuclear power plant are proposed: steam generator with moisture separator, condensor and regenerative heat eXchanger

  16. Simulation of the decomposition and nitrogen mineralization of aboveground plant material in two unfertilized grassland ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, H.S.; Berendse, F.

    1995-01-01

    A simple model of the decomposition and nitrogen mineralization of plant material from two unfertilized grassland ecosystems has been developed, with only the proportion of leaves and stems in the original material, the initial nitrogen contents of these plant parts and temperature as input data.

  17. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  18. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  19. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Bryan Jennings

    Full Text Available Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants--including several frequently eaten species--were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change

  20. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Background This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Methods Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were i...

  1. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-02

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent.

  2. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  3. [Role of the EFSA in risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Półtorak, Hanna; Pawlicka, Marzena

    2009-01-01

    The role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles is related with the risk assessment of the substances for the European Commission. General rules for the authorisation of substances used in materials and articles intended to contact with food is established in the Regulation (EC) no 1935/2004. For the evaluation of substances their toxicological properties and magnitude of migration into food simulants is taken into account. Toxicological studies include the mutagenicity tests, oral toxicity studies, carcinogenicity, reproduction and also studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the substance and other studies when needed. The set of the relevant toxicological data for substance depends on the magnitude of migration. In the case of positive opinion by EFSA the substance appears on the Community list of authorised substances. Sometimes, the earlier evaluated and authorized substances must undergo re-evaluation due to their new toxicological properties or as a result of a presence in the food of their earlier unknown decomposition products. Examples of the selected substances which underwent re-evaluation by EFSA in the light of the current toxicological knowledge and the relevant activities undertaken by the European Commission have been presented.

  4. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  5. An overview of consumer attitudes and beliefs about plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Bernadette; Hodgkins, Charo; Shepherd, Richard; Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique

    2011-12-01

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing globally and this includes the use of plant food supplements (PFS). A variety of factors may be influencing this increased consumption including the increasing number of older people in society, mistrust in conventional medicine and the perception that natural is healthy. Consumer studies in this area are limited, with a focus on dietary supplements in general, and complicated by the use of certain plant food supplements as herbal medicines. Research indicates that higher use of dietary supplements has been associated with being female, being more educated, having a higher income, being white and being older, however the drivers for consumption of supplements are complex, being influenced by both demographic and health-related factors. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the users and the determinants of usage of plant food supplements. With growing consumption of these products, the need for effective risk-benefit assessment becomes ever more important and an insight into who uses these types of products and why is an important starting point for any future science-based decisions made by policy makers, PFS manufacturers and ultimately by consumers themselves.

  6. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gerald; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for future human exploration missions to space, NASA evaluates habitat concepts to assess integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. The concept of a Food Production System utilizes fresh foods, such as vegetables and small fruits, harvested on a continuous basis, to improve the crew's diet and quality of life. The system would need to fit conveniently into the habitat and not interfere with other components or operations. To test this concept, a plant growing "atrium" was designed to surround the lift between the lower and upper modules of the Deep Space Habitat and deployed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) test site in 2011 and at NASA Johnson Space Center in 2012. With this approach, no-utilized volume provided an area for vegetable growth. For the 2011 test, mizuna, lettuce, basil, radish and sweetpotato plants were grown in trays using commercially available red I blue LED light fixtures. Seedlings were transplanted into the atrium and cared for by the. crew. Plants were then harvested two weeks later following completion of the test. In 2012, mizuna, lettuce, and radish plants were grown similarly but under flat panel banks of white LEDs. In 2012, the crew went through plant harvesting, including sanitizing tlie leafy greens and radishes, which were then consumed. Each test demonstrated successful production of vegetables within a functional hab module. The round red I blue LEDs for the 2011 test lighting cast a purple light in the hab, and were less uniformly distributed over the plant trays. The white LED panels provided broad spectrum light with more uniform distribution. Post-test questionnaires showed that the crew enjoyed tending and consuming the plants and that the white LED light in 2012 provided welcome extra light for the main HAB AREA.

  8. Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokma Folmer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants, plant-feeding insects, and insect parasitoids form some of the most complex and species-rich food webs. According to the classic escape-and-radiate (EAR hypothesis, these hyperdiverse communities result from coevolutionary arms races consisting of successive cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. It has also been suggested that "enemy-free space" provided by novel host plants could promote host shifts by herbivores, and that parasitoids could similarly drive diversification of gall form in insects that induce galls on plants. Because these central coevolutionary hypotheses have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework, we combined phylogenetic information on willow-galling sawflies with data on their host plants, gall types, and enemy communities. Results We found that evolutionary shifts in host plant use and habitat have led to dramatic prunings of parasitoid communities, and that changes in gall phenotype can provide "enemy-free morphospace" for millions of years even in the absence of host plant shifts. Some parasites have nevertheless managed to colonize recently-evolved gall types, and this has apparently led to adaptive speciation in several enemy groups. However, having fewer enemies does not in itself increase speciation probabilities in individual sawfly lineages, partly because the high diversity of the enemy community facilitates compensatory attack by remaining parasite taxa. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects, and that prey divergence can cause speciation in parasite lineages. However, the results also show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic for species-rich food webs: instead, diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary

  9. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  10. Prediction of porosity of food materials during drying: Current challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardder, Mohammad U H; Kumar, C; Karim, M A

    2017-07-18

    Pore formation in food samples is a common physical phenomenon observed during dehydration processes. The pore evolution during drying significantly affects the physical properties and quality of dried foods. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration when predicting transport processes in the drying sample. Characteristics of pore formation depend on the drying process parameters, product properties and processing time. Understanding the physics of pore formation and evolution during drying will assist in accurately predicting the drying kinetics and quality of food materials. Researchers have been trying to develop mathematical models to describe the pore formation and evolution during drying. In this study, existing porosity models are critically analysed and limitations are identified. Better insight into the factors affecting porosity is provided, and suggestions are proposed to overcome the limitations. These include considerations of process parameters such as glass transition temperature, sample temperature, and variable material properties in the porosity models. Several researchers have proposed models for porosity prediction of food materials during drying. However, these models are either very simplistic or empirical in nature and failed to consider relevant significant factors that influence porosity. In-depth understanding of characteristics of the pore is required for developing a generic model of porosity. A micro-level analysis of pore formation is presented for better understanding, which will help in developing an accurate and generic porosity model.

  11. The research on the material management system in nuclear power plant construction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuegeng; Huang Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    According to the module construction speciality of nuclear power plant, this article analyzes the relationship between the actual amount of the material transported to the construction site and the planed needs of the material, and points out the zero inventory management target in the nuclear power plant construction site. Based on this, the article put forward a nuclear power plant material management system which is based on the 'pull' information driver. This system is composed by material coding sub-system, procurement and site material integrated management sub-system and project control sub-system, and is driven by the material demand from construction site to realize the JIT purchasing. This structure of the system can reduce the gap between the actual amount of the material transported to the site and the planed needs of the material and achieve the target of reducing storage at construction site. (authors)

  12. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  13. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bryan W.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants—including several frequently eaten species—were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change if such changes

  14. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  15. Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of common plant-based foods and processed foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J

    2018-06-01

    The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods common in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food processing can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food processing techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food processing lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. [Determination of photoinitiators in printing inks used in food contact materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yu, Yanjun; Li, Ningtao; Wang, Libing

    2011-05-01

    A new analytical method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques was developed for the determination of five photoinitiators (PIs), benzophenone (BP), 4-methylbenzophenone (MBP), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB), 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHDAB) and 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (Irgacure 184), in the printing inks used in food contact materials. The test solutions were extracted from selected food contact materials using Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. By adding 50 and 200 microg/L of a standard mixture of photoinitiators into the extracts of the blank packaging materials, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 66.7%-89.4%. The repeatability of the method was assessed by determining the contents of the photoinitiators in five types of food contact materials, and the results were lower than 10%. The instrumental detection limits (IDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the range of 2.9-6.0 microg/L and 0.0017-0.0036 mg/dm2, respectively. The method was applied in the analysis of about twenty real samples (yogurt carton, milk carton, fruit juice carton and plastic bags samples). The most significant pollutants were BP and MBP. The concentrations of Irgacure 184, EDAB and EHDAB found in three individual samples were 0.84 mg/dm2, 0.2 mg/dm2 and 1.2 mg/dm2, respectively. The work proposed a new method to analyze the migration level of initiators from the inks.

  17. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E Mahiban; Raj, Y Lenin; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the 'pulses' group and were the lowest in 'other vegetable' category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide (228)Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for (226)Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  19. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance

  20. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  1. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Plant functional traits reveal the relative contribution of habitat and food preferences to the diet of grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Manneville, Olivier; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Valentini, Alice; Aubert, Serge; Coissac, Eric; Colace, Marie-Pascale; Duparc, Quentin; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Food preferences and food availability are two major determinants of the diet of generalist herbivores and of their spatial distribution. How do these factors interact and eventually lead to diet differentiation in co-occurring herbivores? We quantified the diet of four grasshopper species co-occurring in subalpine grasslands using DNA barcoding of the plants contained in the faeces of individuals sampled in the field. The food preferences of each grasshopper species were assessed by a choice (cafeteria) experiment from among 24 plant species common in five grassland plots, in which the four grasshoppers were collected, while the habitat was described by the relative abundance of plant species in the grassland plots. Plant species were characterised by their leaf economics spectrum (LES), quantifying their nutrient vs. structural tissue content. The grasshoppers' diet, described by the mean LES of the plants eaten, could be explained by their plant preferences but not by the available plants in their habitat. The diet differed significantly across four grasshopper species pairs out of six, which validates food preferences assessed in standardised conditions as indicators for diet partitioning in nature. In contrast, variation of the functional diversity (FD) for LES in the diet was mostly correlated to the FD of the available plants in the habitat, suggesting that diet mixing depends on the environment and is not an intrinsic property of the grasshopper species. This study sheds light on the mechanisms determining the feeding niche of herbivores, showing that food preferences influence niche position whereas habitat diversity affects niche breadth.

  3. Classification of scrap material from nuclear power plants as acceptable for recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.

    1983-06-01

    The Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection has in a principal decision accepted that scrap material from nuclear power plants, that contains or may contain radioactive material, can be recirculated. The document is an English translation of the background material for the Board meeting decision and gives some guide-lines for the authority when dealing with this questions. (author)

  4. PSO 5806 Material development for waste-to-energy plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jørgen; Frederiksen, Jens; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2010-01-01

    The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service.......The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service....

  5. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  7. Response of plant species to coal-mine soil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Tucker, T.C.; Thames, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The two-year Black Mesa Coal Mine Research Study on the area near Kayenta, Arizona investigating the growth and establishment of seven plant species in unmined soil and coal-mined soils found that plant species grew better in unmined soil and that irrigation is essential during seedling establishment for the effective stabilization of coal-mined soils in a semi-arid environment. Differences among the species included variations in germination, response to irrigation, seedling establishment, and stem growth. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-10-13

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  9. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  10. Modification of Edible Food Packaging Materials Based on Natural Polymer Blends by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, H.El-Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Blends based on different ratios of plasticised starch (PLST), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by solution casting in the form of thin films. The PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC films were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the thermal, mechanical and structure morphology properties was investigated. As an application in the field of the prolongation of food preservation life time, Mango fruits were coated with solutions of gamma-irradiated PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC blends in the presence of chitosan, as an antimicrobial material, to form thin films. The results showed that the gamma-irradiation improved all the physical properties, which provides suitable materials based on natural biodegradable polymers for food preservation withstanding the temperature and stresses.

  11. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  12. Effect of food processing on plant DNA degradation and PCR-based GMO analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryson, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    The applicability of a DNA-based method for GMO detection and quantification depends on the quality and quantity of the DNA. Important food-processing conditions, for example temperature and pH, may lead to degradation of the DNA, rendering PCR analysis impossible or GMO quantification unreliable. This review discusses the effect of several food processes on DNA degradation and subsequent GMO detection and quantification. The data show that, although many of these processes do indeed lead to the fragmentation of DNA, amplification of the DNA may still be possible. Length and composition of the amplicon may, however, affect the result, as also may the method of extraction used. Also, many techniques are used to describe the behaviour of DNA in food processing, which occasionally makes it difficult to compare research results. Further research should be aimed at defining ingredients in terms of their DNA quality and PCR amplification ability, and elaboration of matrix-specific certified reference materials.

  13. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuti, Hiroko; Ikawa, Yoshiko

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  14. Utilization of Okara-Tempeh as Novel Food Material (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    河端, 信; 田口, 邦子; 大槻, 耕三; Makoto, Kawabata; Kuniko, Taguchi; Kozo, Ohtsuki; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; 光華女子短期大学家政科; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University; Kohka Women's Junior College; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University

    1990-01-01

    Okara-tempeh, fermented soybean pulp with Rhizopus oligosporus, was blanched for 3-4 minutes per 100g by electronic range and ground twice with meat chopper and stored in the freezer at -20℃. The functional properties, water holding capacity, oil retention, emulsifying capacity etc. and some organoleptic tests were performed to investigate the possibility of utilization as the novel food material. Present study indicated that Okara-tempeh is not only excellent dietary fiber supplement but als...

  15. Cytogenetics for dosimetry in cases of radiation accidents and assessing the safety of irradiated food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the many areas of research initiated by Swaminathan at the Botany Division of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi was radiation cytogenetics, which involves study of induced chromosomal aberrations. These studies had impact not only on elucidating basic mechanisms involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, but also several practical applications related to human health. In this review, we briefly summarize two applications, namely biological dosimetry following radiation accidents and safety of irradiated food material. (author)

  16. Plant for processing radioactive materials or toxic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.; Schneider, V.; Kiy, M.; Schneider, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the fuel element manufacturing plant, there are several steel vessels which can only be entered via air locks. Inside these steel vessels, there are groups of glove boxes. For safety reasons, the pressure in the steel vessels is kept higher than that in the glove boxes for plutonium treatment and lower than that in the building by suitable equipment. (DG) [de

  17. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Chemical and physical change of packaging materials for food by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Yamada, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Recently, foods are often exposed to radiation under packed states with various wrapping materials. In this study, the effects of γ-ray radiation were investigated on the additives in wrapping materials on the market. 10 - 50 kGy γ radiation was irradiated to samples under sealed condition in a glass-ware. Polyethylene bag and wrapping film, polypropylene wrapping film, cup and sheet, and polystyrene cup were used as samples. And the additives in these materials were analyzed by GC/MS to evaluate the radiation effects on them. The irradiation was found to induce rapid degradation of antioxidants, especially, Irgafos 168. Some fatty acid amides used as a lubricant and a plasticizer, DBP were also reduced, but not aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, all polystyrene products used in this study included no additives. The contents of styrene dimer and trimer in those wrapping materials were not changed by γ-irradiation. (M.N.)

  19. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

    1980-04-01

    The second volume describes the requirements and functions of materials measurement and accounting systems (MMAS) and conceptual designs for an MMAS incorporating both conventional and near-real-time (dynamic) measurement and accounting techniques. Effectiveness evaluations, based on recently developed modeling, simulation, and analysis procedures, show that conventional accountability can meet IAEA goal quantities and detection times in these reference facilities only for low-enriched uranium. Dynamic materials accounting may meet IAEA goals for detecting the abrupt (1-3 weeks) diversion of 8 kg of plutonium. Current materials accounting techniques probably cannot meet the 1-y protracted-diversion goal of 8 kg for plutonium

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on plastic food packaging materials: a review. 1. Chemical and physical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, R.; Schuttler, C.; Bögl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation of prepackaged food causes chemical and physical changes in plastic packaging materials. The effects of ionizing radiation on these materials have been studied for almost 40 years; the respective literature is reviewed to provide the basis for a safety evaluation of plastics for use in food irradiation. Permeability of plastic films is generally not affected; deterioration of mechanical properties, that may occur with certain polymers, can usually be controlled with adequate stabilizers; and changes in infrared and UV/VIS spectra are slight at food irradiation doses. Gaseous radiolysis products include hydrogen, methane, CO 2 , CO, hydrocarbons, and for chlorine-containing polymers, hydrogen chloride. A range of volatile products, mainly hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids, has been characterized for low density polyethylene and polypropylene, other important materials, e.g., polystyrene and poly(vinyl chloride), are less well-investigated. Comparatively little is known on the effect of irradiation on multilayer structures. Radiation-induced changes are shown to depend on the chemical structure of the polymer, on the composition (additives) and processing history of the plastic, and on the irradiation conditions

  1. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  2. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  3. Listing the investment costs and producing material analyses for given plants for energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Hansen, K.; Schoen, R.; Wassmann, B.

    1989-01-01

    In this comparison, the investment and material cost for the following plants are examined: 1. Solar service water treatment plants, 2. Solar heating plants, 3. Conventional comparative plants, 4. Heat pump heating plants, 5. Nuclear power stations and hardcoal-fired power stations, and 6. Wind energy converters. The technique of energy conversion of each is generally explained. In the appendix, points of the use of energy are given for the manufacture of components of the heating and installation trade. Specific energy costs per product unit are compiled for the different branches. (UA) [de

  4. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  5. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  6. Materials concepts in PWR power plants. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa e Silva, A.L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Some measures to reduce the risk of exposure in case of nuclear accidents are presented. Some material questions concerning the integrity of reactor pressure vessel, the containment vessel and external systems are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Genome-wide-analyses of Listeria monocytogenes from food-processing plants reveal clonal diversity and date the emergence of persisting sequence types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Marvig, Rasmus L; Ng, Yin; Worning, Peder; Westh, Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2017-08-01

    Whole genome sequencing is increasing used in epidemiology, e.g. for tracing outbreaks of food-borne diseases. This requires in-depth understanding of pathogen emergence, persistence and genomic diversity along the food production chain including in food processing plants. We sequenced the genomes of 80 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes sampled from Danish food processing plants over a time-period of 20 years, and analysed the sequences together with 10 public available reference genomes to advance our understanding of interplant and intraplant genomic diversity of L. monocytogenes. Except for three persisting sequence types (ST) based on Multi Locus Sequence Typing being ST7, ST8 and ST121, long-term persistence of clonal groups was limited, and new clones were introduced continuously, potentially from raw materials. No particular gene could be linked to the persistence phenotype. Using time-based phylogenetic analyses of the persistent STs, we estimate the L. monocytogenes evolutionary rate to be 0.18-0.35 single nucleotide polymorphisms/year, suggesting that the persistent STs emerged approximately 100 years ago, which correlates with the onset of industrialization and globalization of the food market. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Low activation structural material candidates for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Cook, I.

    1997-06-01

    Under the SEAL Programme of the European Long-Term Fusion Safety Programme, an assessment was performed of a number of possible blanket structural materials. These included the steels then under consideration in the European Blanket Programme, as well as materials being considered for investigation in the Advanced Materials Programme. Calculations were performed, using SEAFP methods, of the activation properties of the materials, and these were related, based on the SEAFP experience, to assessments of S and E performance. The materials investigated were the SEAFP low-activation martensitic steel (LA12TaLC); a Japanese low-activation martensitic steel (F-82H), a range of compositional variants about this steel; the vanadium-titanium-chromium alloy which was the original proposal of the ITER JCT for the ITER in-vessel components; a titanium-aluminium intermetallic (Ti-Al) which is under investigation in Japan; and silicon carbide composite (SiC). Assessed impurities were included in the compositions of these materials, and they have very important impacts on the activation properties. Lack of sufficiently detailed data on the composition of chromium alloys precluded their inclusion in the study. (UK)

  9. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  10. Stability lies in flowers: Plant diversification mediating shifts in arthropod food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes Haro

    Full Text Available Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species. Here, we reported quantitative and qualitative alterations in arthropod food web complexity due to the presence of floral resources from the Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta L. in a field scale lettuce community network. The presence of marigold flowers in the field successfully increased richness, body size, and the numerical and biomass abundance of natural enemies in the lettuce arthropod community, which affected the number of links, vulnerability, generality, omnivory rate and food chain length in the community, which are key factors for the stability of relationships between species. Our results reinforce the notion that diversification through insertion of floral resources may assist in preventing pest outbreaks in agroecosystems. This community approach to arthropod interactions in agricultural landscapes can be used in the future to predict the effect of different management practices in the food web to contribute with a more sustainable management of arthropod pest species.

  11. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Glavatska

    Full Text Available Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of

  12. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  13. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1993. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regular meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the Merlin-Gerin Headquarters in Paris and was attended by twenty one national delegates and observers from 17 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Paris, 21-22 October 1993, (2) report by the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1991-1993 in the NPPCI area, and (3) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The papers and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Food plant diversity as broad-Scale Determinant of Avian Frugivore Richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    from niche assembly mechanisms (e.g. coevolutionary adaptations to fruit size, fruit colour or vertical stratification of fruit presentation) or, alternatively, from stochastic speciation-extinction processes. In any case, the close relationship between species richness of Ficus and avian frugivores......The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa....... Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, whereas the influences of variables related to water-energy and habitat heterogeneity are mainly...

  16. Selection of construction materials for equipment in an experimental reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, R.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is made of the most significant corrosion problems that may be present in different stages of the process in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The influence of different variables is analyzed: concentration of nitric acid and other oxidizing species, temperature, etc., in corrosion of materials of most frequent use in pipings and equipment. The materials are austenitic stainless steels and refractory metals, especially zirconium and its alloys. Both general and localized corrosion phenomena are analyzed for these materials. Selection criteria for the use of adequate material in different components of the plant are also discussed. (author). 32 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Radiation inactivation of microorganisms on food materials with different dry conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryomoto, Yasuhisa; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The effect of dry condition of food materials such as spices or herbs with grain or powder were investigated for inactivation of microorganisms by gamma-rays or electron-beams. Radiation sensitivities on endospores of Bacillus pumilus and B. cereus at polished rice, whole black pepper and glass fiber filter dried with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin were almost equivalent, and D{sub 10} values of gamma-rays were obtained to be 1.8 - 2.2 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.2 - 1.3 kGy for B. cereus, respectively. However, D{sub 10} value was decreased to 1.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.0 kGy for B. cereus in white pepper powder, and increased significantly as 2.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.8 kGy for B. cereus in senna herb powder. In the case of B. megaterium, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, D{sub 10} values were increased at all of food materials even in white pepper powder compared with glass fiber filter with additives. These results are indicating that glycerin and related radical scavengers in food components protect the bacteria such as B. megaterium, Ent. cloacae and E. coli more significantly from effects of radiation than B. pumilus or B. cereus. The increase of radiation resistance of these bacteria should be responsible also to the amount of oxygen penetration in bacterial cells which dried at different conditions. On the irradiation of electron-beams, radiation resistance of all of bacteria increased more significantly than gamma-rays which depending to dose rate effects on bacteria. However, increase of radiation resistance was not observed at Aspergillus oryzae in all of food materials at different dry conditions. (author)

  18. Radiation inactivation of microorganisms on food materials with different dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryomoto, Yasuhisa; Ito, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dry condition of food materials such as spices or herbs with grain or powder were investigated for inactivation of microorganisms by gamma-rays or electron-beams. Radiation sensitivities on endospores of Bacillus pumilus and B. cereus at polished rice, whole black pepper and glass fiber filter dried with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin were almost equivalent, and D 10 values of gamma-rays were obtained to be 1.8 - 2.2 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.2 - 1.3 kGy for B. cereus, respectively. However, D 10 value was decreased to 1.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.0 kGy for B. cereus in white pepper powder, and increased significantly as 2.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.8 kGy for B. cereus in senna herb powder. In the case of B. megaterium, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, D 10 values were increased at all of food materials even in white pepper powder compared with glass fiber filter with additives. These results are indicating that glycerin and related radical scavengers in food components protect the bacteria such as B. megaterium, Ent. cloacae and E. coli more significantly from effects of radiation than B. pumilus or B. cereus. The increase of radiation resistance of these bacteria should be responsible also to the amount of oxygen penetration in bacterial cells which dried at different conditions. On the irradiation of electron-beams, radiation resistance of all of bacteria increased more significantly than gamma-rays which depending to dose rate effects on bacteria. However, increase of radiation resistance was not observed at Aspergillus oryzae in all of food materials at different dry conditions. (author)

  19. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  20. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephen; Usai, Donatella; Jakob, Tina; Radini, Anita; Hardy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.