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Sample records for plant essential oils

  1. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from plant materials

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    Milojević Svetomir Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with modeling the kinetics of essential oils extraction from plant materials by water and steam distillation. The experimental data were obtained by studying the hydrodistillation kinetics of essential oil from juniper berries. The literature data on the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation from different plant materials were also included into the modeling. A physical model based on simultaneous washing and diffusion of essential oil from plant materials were developed to describe the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation, and two other simpler models were derived from this physical model assuming either instantaneous washing followed by diffusion or diffusion with no washing (i.e. the first-order kinetics. The main goal was to compare these models and suggest the optimum ones for water and steam distillation and for different plant materials. All three models described well the experimental kinetic data on water distillation irrespective of the type of distillation equipment and its scale, the type of plant materials and the operational conditions. The most applicable one is the model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion of the essential oil. However, this model was generally inapplicable for steam distillation of essential oils, except for juniper berries. For this hydrodistillation technique, the pseudo first-order model was shown to be the best one. In a few cases, a variation of the essential oil yield with time was observed to be sigmoidal and was modeled by the Boltzmann sigmoid function.

  2. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Key words: Essential oil plants, Potatoes, Ralstonia solanacearum, Wilt incidence ... the soil level to collect stems, leaves, flowers and the side branches. Harvesting ..... to other factors such as pH, organic matter content and.

  3. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

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    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  5. Antimicrobial Effects of Several Essential Oil from Aromatic Plants

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    Felicia TUŢULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. The present research aimed to study the antimicrobial effects of some volatile oils from aromatic plants (sweet basil and dill against several microorganisms, namely Bacillus subtilis, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. The oils have been extracted through distillation procedures and the antimicrobial action of the oils was assessed through the disc diffusion method. The best effect against the Bacillus subtilis strain has occurred when the essential oil of dill was undiluted. Regarding the the Alternaria species, it was noted that dill volatile oil has acted in an efficient way only undiluted. As the oil's concentration decreased, the strain becomed resistant. The sweet basil oil has proven to be highly effective when acting against the Bacillus strain. By volatilization, the sweet basil oil produced a strong antimicrobial effect, even in control disc, in which it was noticed a small development of colonies comparing with the dill oil. The results indicated that the sweet basil essential oil exerted an antimicrobial effect both against the tested bacteria and moulds, while the dill oil had a great inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternata, but was less efficient against Penicillium expansum.

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  7. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

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    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  8. Essentials of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Chelsea R; Widder, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Information to guide clinicians in educating and advising patients using or intending to use essential oils for self-administered aromatherapy or other medicinal purposes is presented. The term essential oils refers to highly concentrated, aromatic oils extracted from plants by steam distillation, hydrodiffusion, or pressure. Market reports indicate strong growth in the use of essential oils in the United States in recent decades. Therapeutic claims made in the marketing of essential oils have led the Food and Drug Administration to caution a number of suppliers. Along with rapid growth in sales of essential oils to consumers there has been an increase in the amount of published evidence regarding aromatherapy and essential oils; the annual number of relevant articles indexed using Medical Subject Headings terminology has doubled since 2004. In order to help ensure proper application and safe use of essential oils as a self-care modality, healthcare professionals can benefit from a general knowledge of the terminology and foundational concepts of medicinal use of essential oils, as well as resources to facilitate evaluations of appropriateness of use. Because of the increasing popularity of essential oils and the prevalence of essential oil-based self-care practices targeting a wide variety of ailments in the United States, healthcare professionals must be prepared to address concerns about the agents' safety and efficacy. Proper literature evaluation requires the ability to discern the quality of an oil, the safety of administration, and the validity of its use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  10. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects.

  12. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.

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    Peighami-Ashnaei, S; Farzaneh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Behboudi, K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from Syzygium aromoticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum and Mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. The essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on PDA medium against Botrytis cinerea. Results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro condition. After 10 days, results showed that the essential oil of F. vulgare in both of the concentrations (750 and 1000 microL/L) was more effective than the essential oil of S. aromaticum against grey mould of apple and decrease the disease up to 15.5% in comparison with the check treatment (100%). After 20 days, biocontrol potential of the essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare at 1000 microL/L were more effective than the other treatments and the percentage of disease was evaluated 41.6% and 50.8%, respectively, in comparison with the check treatment (100%).

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

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    Shanayda M.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  14. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  15. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  16. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  17. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

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    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  18. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-06-03

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%-96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%-48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%-72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  19. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

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    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  20. Study of Growth, Essential Oil Percentage and Essential Oil Component of Achilleaspp Under Shoushtar Climatic Condition in Fall Planting

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    R. Farhodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spices and herbs are part of daily food intake in many regions of the world. They have been used as natural sources of flavorings and preservatives. Yarrow (Achillea spp. belongs to Asteraceae family and more than 100 species have been recognized in this genus. This plantis reportedto be a diaphoretic, astringent, tonic, stimulant and mild aromatic plant. It contains isovaleric acid, salicylic acid, asparagin, sterols, flavonoids, bitters, tannins, and coumarins. The plant also has a long history as a powerful 'healing herb' used topically for wounds, cuts and abrasions. The genus name Achillea is derived from the mythical Greek character, Achilles. Action is also reflected in some of the common names mentioned below, such as staunchweed and soldier's woundwort. The genus Achillea is a well-known medicinal plant, widely used in folk medicine against gastrointestinal disorders such as lack of appetite. This plant is native to Europe and Western Asia but isalso found in Australia, New Zealand and North America. Nineteen species of Achillea have been recognized in Iran distributed in different geographical and ecological regions. Achillea spp. are diaphoretic, astringent, tonic, stimulant and mild aromatic. Major components in Achillea spp. essential oil are sabinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-pinene, β-pinene, borneol and bornyl acetate. The aim of this work is to investigate growth, essential oil yield and chemical composition of essential oils of A. eriophora, A. millefolium, A. biebersteinii and A. tenuifolia. Material and Methods: This study investigated the growth and essential oil yield of four Achillea species in the North of Khuzestan situation,Shoushtar, in2008-2010. An experiment was conducted in combined analysis based on complete block design with 4 replicates. Achillea species examined concluded Achillea eriophora, A. millefolium, A. biebersteinii and A. nobilis. Seedling establishment, essential oil percentage andyield

  1. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad R

    2007-01-01

    Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)were screened for augmentation of nitrofurantoin activity and the most active components were determined. The effects of essential oils and their components on the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin against Enterobacter cloacae were studied using disk-diffusion and agar-dilution methods. The composition of essential oils was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. M. spicata and A. graveolens oils exhibited the highest effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the oils of these two plants contained 40.12 and 20.32% carvone, respectively. Pure carvone and piperitone equally increased the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin. Other ingredients of essential oils, including camphor, limonene and menthone, were less effective. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Belmont, R; Carvajal, M

    1998-05-01

    The effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against Aspergillus flavus were studied. Tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. Principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (origanum), Teloxys ambrosioides (the flavoring herb epazote), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels. Thymol and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde significantly reduced maize grain contamination. The optimal dosage for protection of maize varied from 3 to 8%. Combinations of C. zeylanicum with the remaining oils gave efficient control. A residual effect of C. zeylanicum was detected after 4 weeks of kernel treatment. No phytotoxic effect on germination and corn growth was detected with any of these oils.

  3. Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress.

  4. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 – 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  5. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu; Jayakumar Manickkam; Prabuseenivasan Seenivasan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tes...

  7. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman; Muhammad Aizam Hassan; Lutfun Nahar; Norazah Basar; Shajarahtunnur Jamil; Sarker,Satyajit D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citru...

  8. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  9. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sureda, Antoni; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Valussi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh; Loizzo, Monica R; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Sharifi-Rad, Razieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdulmajid; Iriti, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  10. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  11. Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M. arvensis and T. vulgaris also showed good inhibition activity in agar disc diffusion assay. M. arvensis essential oil was analysed for its composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealing menthol (63.18 %), menthone (15.08 %), isomenthyl acetate (5.50 %) and limonene (4.31 %) as major components. Significant activity of M. arvensis essential oil against F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides isolates obtained, pave the way for its use as antifungal control agents.

  12. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  13. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  14. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata. δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata, respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  16. Variation of essential oil composition of Melissa officinalis L. leaves during different stages of plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keivan Saeb; Sara Gholamrezaee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best time of harvest for Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) L. to gain highest amounts essential oil.Methods: M. officinalis leaves were harvested in three different stages (before flowering stage, flowering stage and after of flowering stage) and were dried. The essential oils were isolated by hydro- distillation and analyzed by GC/MS.Results: It showed that most essential oils of plants were in before flowering stage. In before flowering stage 37 compounds were identified in leaves oil of M.officinalis. The major components before flowering stage were decadienal (29.38%), geraniol (25.3%), caryophyllene oxide (8.75%), geranyl acetate (5.41%). In the flowering stage 36 compounds were identified as the major components of plant essential oils: decadienal (28.04%), geraniol (24.97%), caryophyllene oxide (7.55%), caryophyllene E (4.65%) and 16 components in the after flowering stage of plant were identified as the major components carvacrol (37.62%), methyl citronellate (32.34%), geranyl acetate (5.82%), caryophyllene (5.50%).Conclusions: The essential oils yields vary considerably from month-to-month and is also influenced by the micro-environment (sun or shade) in which the plant is growing. We found that the essential oil content of M. officinalis L. of leaves is significantly affected by harvesting stages.

  17. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  18. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  19. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  20. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed.

  1. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  3. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  4. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants Against Malaria Vector, Anopheles Stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Salim Abadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anophe­les stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distil­lated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to stan­dard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program.Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activi­ties were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively.Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhib­ited more larvicidal properties.

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  7. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  8. Essential oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a medicinal plant from Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Bos, R; van Meeteren, HE; Baarslag, JJJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Pras, N; do Rego Kuster, G; Petronia, RRL

    2000-01-01

    The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L., a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC/MS (EI) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50%, (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the qualitati

  9. Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice.

  10. Effects of sowing time and plant density on yield and essential oil production of medicinal plant, peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

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    S. Jabarpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of two sowing time (middle of May and early June and four plant density (8, 12, 16 and 20 plants.m-2 on yield and essential oil content of peppermint at two cutting stages, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz during growing season of 2003-2004. These treatments were performed as factorial based of randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of the first cutting showed that plant sowing at the early June and eight plants.m-2densities had the highest leaf (4.47% and plant (2.92% essential oil percentage, but these factors and their interaction effects did not effect on the essential oil yield. In the second cutting, the highest plant essential oil was observed in plant sowing at early June and 12 plants/m2 densities. The highest essential oil yield in second cutting produced in middle of May sowing time. The results of two cutting stages showed that the fresh and dry yield decreased by delaying in sowing time.

  11. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  12. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

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    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  13. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

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    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  14. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

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    Rada Đurović-Pejčev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six essential oils (EOs extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. and walnut [Juglans regia (F] oils was also recorded. Oils extracted from yarrow (Achillea millepholium L. and juniper (Juniperus communis L. exhibited the lowest activity. Peppermint oil showed fungicidal effect on the pathogen, having a minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.64 μl ml-1. The main components of peppermint essential oil were menthone (37.02%, menthol (29.57% and isomenthone (9.06%.

  15. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

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    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  16. Plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Wright, Derek; Buitenhuis, Rose; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2016-02-19

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. Females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. As many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from D. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. Twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for D. suzukii flies. Most essential oils deterred D. suzukii flies from cotton wicks containing attractive raspberry juice. Peppermint oil was particularly effective, preventing almost all flies from contacting treated wicks and remaining 100% repellent for 6 d post-application. Thyme oil was unique because it caused high male mortality and reduced the number of responding flies compared to other oils. KMS was not found to be repellent to D. suzukii, but may have fumigant properties, particularly at high concentrations. Peppermint oil appears to be the best candidate for field testing to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of using essential oils as part of a push-pull management strategy against D. suzukii. This is the first time that essential oils have been evaluated and proven effective in preventing fruit-infesting flies from contacting attractive stimuli.

  17. Plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M.; Wright, Derek; Buitenhuis, Rose; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2016-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. Females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. As many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from D. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. Twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for D. suzukii flies. Most essential oils deterred D. suzukii flies from cotton wicks containing attractive raspberry juice. Peppermint oil was particularly effective, preventing almost all flies from contacting treated wicks and remaining 100% repellent for 6 d post-application. Thyme oil was unique because it caused high male mortality and reduced the number of responding flies compared to other oils. KMS was not found to be repellent to D. suzukii, but may have fumigant properties, particularly at high concentrations. Peppermint oil appears to be the best candidate for field testing to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of using essential oils as part of a push-pull management strategy against D. suzukii. This is the first time that essential oils have been evaluated and proven effective in preventing fruit-infesting flies from contacting attractive stimuli. PMID:26893197

  18. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  19. Cultivation of Herbs and Medicinal Plants in Norway - Essential Oil Production and Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rohloff, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils (EO) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their fragrance and food flavour properties. They consist of a complex mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoids and oxygenated compounds. EOs can be present in different plant organs and materials, and their storage is related to specialised secretory structures. The yield of EOs from plant raw materials by distillation or pressing may on average vary from 0.1 – 1%, thus restricting the major EO production to...

  20. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  1. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  2. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa.

  3. Plant Essential Oils from Apiaceae Family as Alternatives to Conventional Insecticides

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides, but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Furthermore, the demand for organic crops, especially vegetables for the fresh market, has greatly increased worldwide. The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific, rapidly degradable, and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Plant essential oils could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals and are commonly used as flavoring agents in foods. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Moreover, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant essential oils or their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of essential oils from Apiaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. The focus of this review lies on the lethal (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal and sublethal (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, Growth inhibitory and progeny production activities of plant essential oils and theirmain components from Apiaceae family. These features indicate that pesticides based on Apiaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. It can be concluded that essential oils and phytochemicals isolated from Apiaceae family may be efficacious and safe replacements for conventional synthetic

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil.

  6. Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

    2009-07-01

    Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details.

  7. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  8. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  9. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-11-21

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition.

  10. Toxicity of some essential oils and plant extracts against Sitophilus oryzea, Aconthocelides obtectus and Rhizoperta dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Yaman, Cennet; Yarımoǧlu, Berkan; Yılmaz, Ayşegül

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Myrtus sp plants for adult Aconthocelides obtectus, Sitophilus oryzea and Rhizoperta dominica in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oil were compared. Myrtus sp essential oil showed the highest fumigant toxicity on A. obtectus (46.66%). The lowest fumigant toxicity on S. oryzea (8.88%). The contact toxicity plant extracts (Prangos ferulacea, Alkanna orientalis, Myrtus communis) were tested against S. oryzea under laboratory conditions. Single dose contact toxicity effects of plant extracts were tested on S. oryzea adults via applying 1 µl extract suspension (10% w/v) to individual insect. The greatest contact toxicity to S. oryzea adults was observed with M. communis (43.33%) and A. orientalis (41.11%) extracts. P. ferulacea (34.44%) extracts produced moderate toxicity to S. oryzea adults.

  11. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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    Tohidpour, A; Sattari, M; Omidbaigi, R; Yadegar, A; Nazemi, J

    2010-02-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils (EOs) have been investigated through several observations and clinical studies which purpose them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance problem. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial effect of two traditional plants essential oils, Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other standard bacterial strains through disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis examined the chemical composition of the oils. Results revealed both of oils to possess degrees of antibacterial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. T. vulgaris EO showed better inhibitory effects than E. globulus essential oil. GC analysis of T. vulgaris resulted in thymol as the oil major compound whereas GC/MS assay exhibited eucalyptol as the most abundant constitute of E. globulus EO. These results support previous studies on these oils and suggest an additional option to treat MRSA infections. Clinical and further analytical trials of these data are necessary to confirm the obtained outcomes. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

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    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  14. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

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    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  15. Antibacterial activity chemical composition relationship of the essential oils from cultivated plants from Serbia

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    Stanković Nemanja S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects of essential oils from Serbian cultivated plants, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiace and Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiace on different bacteria were investigated, with an emphasis on an antibacterial activity-chemical composition relationship. Essential oil was obtained from airdried aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil analyses were performed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS systems. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95% and p-cymene (18.34%. Linalyl acetate (38.23% and linalool (35.01% were main compounds in lavender oil. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils samples was tested towards 5 different bacteria: laboratory control strain obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media. Gram negative bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 43895 and Salmonella enteretidis ATCC 9027 while researched Gram positive strains were Bacillus cereus ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Essential oils from thyme have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested, with a range of MIC values from 0.025 to 0.10 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 to 0.78 l/ml. Lavender oils demonstrated MIC values from 0.025 to 0.20 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 and 0.78 l/ml. Reference antibiotic tetracycline was active in concentrations between 0.025 and 0.05 l/ml. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of thyme, while Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of lavender. Essential oils from thyme and lavender may be used at low concentrations for prevention and treatment of

  16. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

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    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk.

  17. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  18. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils.

  19. Effects of mycorrhiza on growth and essential oil production in selected aromatic plants

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    Waed Tarraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis is widely investigated in aromatic herbs. Several studies have shown different effects on secondary metabolites, biomass production, as well as oil quantitative and qualitative aspects. The seeking to increase the yield of plants and their oils is an interesting topic in the world of medicinal and aromatic plant production. In tune with that, this study evaluated the effectiveness of two mycorrhiza fungi, Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae and Septoglomus viscosum (syn. Glomus viscosum, on three species from Lamiaceae family: Salvia officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. besides untreated control. It was found that the effect of symbiosis on growth was more favourable with S. viscosum than other AM fungus. The S. viscosum inoculation raised the yield of essential oil in oregano. Analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that manool obtained the highest abundance in leaf essential oil of inoculated sage; thymol was the major component whatever the treatment in thyme and lower relative content of carvacrol was reported with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in oregano. The results suggest the mycorrhizal inoculation as a promising technology in sustainable agricultural system to improve the plant productivity performance. Specific inocula are strategic to enhance the chemical profile of essential oils.

  20. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  1. Research Concerning Antimicrobial Activities of Some Essential Oils Extracted from Plants

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    ADRIANA DALILA CRISTE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal components of some essential oils extracted from plants have been found to have microbial activity. Depending on the concentration, the members of this class are known to be bactericide or bacteriostatic. Their action mechanism is unclear, but some studies suggest that the compounds penetrate the cell, where they interfere with cellular metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests. These results showed that mainly all the natural extracts presented an antimicrobial effect. Thereby, some extracts were more efficient than another and the order is: Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus, Mentha piperita (mint, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile, Calendula officinalis (calendula.

  2. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage.

  3. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  4. Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-08-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed.

  5. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

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    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  6. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively.

  7. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli.

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    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Leme, Ewerton Eduardo; Delarmelina, Camila; Soares, Andressa Almeida; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2007-05-04

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500 microg/mL) against 10 out of 13 Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shiga-toxin producers. C. winterianus inhibited strongly two enterotoxigenic, one enteropathogenic, one enteroinvasive and one shiga-toxin producer serotypes. Aloysia triphylla also shows good potential to kill Escherichia coli with moderate to strong inhibition. Other essential oils showed antimicrobial properties, however with a more restricted action against the serotypes studied. Chemical analysis of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including geraniol, geranyl acetate and trans-cariophyllene, which tested separately, indicated geraniol as antimicrobial active compound. The significant antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon martinii oil suggests that they could serve as a source for compounds with therapeutic potential.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

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    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  9. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossou, Annick D; Mangelinckx, Sven; Yedomonhan, Hounnankpon; Boko, Pelagie M; Akogbeto, Martin C; De Kimpe, Norbert; Avlessi, Félicien; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-12-03

    Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible "kisumu" and resistant "ladji-Cotonou" strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was highly susceptible to all the other

  10. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  11. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

    2012-10-01

    The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program.

  12. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Ogawa, K; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of essential oils during the development of clonal plants of fennel propagated through somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Although no essential oil could be detected either in cultured cells or in somatic embryoids, monoter-penes such as alpha-phellandrene and alpha-pinene were found in radical leaves of regenerated plantlets cultured on a hormone-free agar medium. The regenerated plants cultivated in the field for about one month accumulated phenylpropanoids such as estragole, anethole, and fenchone in addition to the two monoterpenes described above in radical leaves. Rich accumulations of phenylpropanoids and monoterpenes were observed in the fruits; especially the contents of estragole and anethole were much higher than in radical leaves.

  13. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta

    2005-06-01

    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites.

  14. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp.

  15. 植物精油的研究进展%Recent Advance of the Plant Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘猛; 李绍钰

    2011-01-01

    植物精油作为抗生素添加剂的替代产品具有很多优势,但是植物精油的化学成分非常复杂,作者就植物精油的主要成分及生物学功能的研究进展进行了综述.%Plant essential oils as an alternative antibiotics additive products have many advantages. But plant essential oil composition is very complicated. This article reviewed main composition and biological function of the plant essential oil.

  16. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  17. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  18. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  19. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. Plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. In this study, a midgut cell line, developed from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (RPW-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. Assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 500 ppm which reached to 86, 65, 60, 59, 56, 54, 54, 53, and 53%, whereas lowest cell mortality at 1 ppm remained at 41, 23, 20, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 10%, for Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Mentha spicata, Cammiphora myrrha, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Schinus molle, and Rosmarinus officinalis, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay revealed the percentage of cell growth inhibition was highest at 500 ppm and remained at 48, 45, 42, 37, 34, 29, 24, 22, and 18% against A. indica, P. nigrum, M. spicata, C. myrrha, E. cardamomum, Z. officinale, C. longa, S. molle, and R. officinalis, respectively. Lowest LC50 value (7.98 ppm) was found for A. indica, whereas the highest LC50 (483.11 ppm) was against R. officinalis. Thus, in this study, essential oils of A. indica exhibited the highest levels of toxicity, whereas those from R. officinalis exhibited the lowest levels of toxicity toward RPW-1 cells.

  20. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration.

  1. Essential plant oils in reducing the intensity of soft rot in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrzânia de Lira Guerra

    Full Text Available The action of essential oils in reducing soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and their influence on the colorimetry and physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable were evaluated. In the greenhouse, plants of the cultivar Natsume were sprayed with 11 oils selected in preliminary tests for phytotoxicity: bergamot, lemongrass, copaiba, Eucalyptus citriodora, blue gum, fennel, ginger, spearmint, sweet orange, lemon and clary sage (0.5% and also the antibiotic Mycoshield® (3 g L-1. After 72 hours the plants were inoculated with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc-c. The oils and the Mycoshield® significantly reduced (P<0.05 the severity (SEV and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange were then tested for the stability of their effectiveness in the control of three isolates of P. carotovora subsp. carotovorum. These oils reduced the SEV (30.5 to 38.6% and the AUDPC (23.1 to 26.6% with no differences between them or the Mycoshield® (SEV 45.2 and AUDPC 32.8%, except for the copaiba (20.3% which was less effective than the antibiotic in the reduction of the AUDPC. In vitro, only Mycoshield® inhibited the pathogen. None of the treatments altered the colorimetry, levels of ascorbic acid or pH of the leaves of the Chinese cabbage. The spearmint oil increased the total titratable acidity in the same way as the oils of sweet orange, E. citriodora and bergamot increased the total soluble solids. Therefore, spraying with the oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange has potential in the control of this disease.

  2. Allelopathic effect of essential oils of medicinal plants in Bidens pilosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the inhibitory allelopathic effects of the volatile extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Cymbopogum nardus L. on seed germination and root growth of seedlings of Bidens pilosa. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. For this end, we used oils at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (v/v. Five treatments were used for each of the oils arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in Petri dishes lined with filter paper moistened with distilled water and, aiming at the indirect contact with each oil, two sheets of filter paper were placed on top of the lid, in which three (3 mL of each oil solution were added. Then, the dishes were incubated in a germination chamber at 25°C. The pH did not contribute to alter the results; the volatile extracts of essential oils of C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides and C. nardus inhibited seed germination and root growth of seedlings of B. pilosa, which shows allelopathic potential; and the concentration of 0.08% of oils caused the overall deterioration of the roots and death of seedlings of B. pilosa.

  3. Essential-oil polymorphism in the 'resurrection plant' Myrothamnus moschatus and associated ethnobotanical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivo, Emmanuel; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Nicoletti, Marcello; Razafimahefa, Solofoniaina; Lefebvre, Manon; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis (GC/MS) of essential oils obtained from populations of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus moschatus, growing in different areas of Madagascar, allowed identification of three main chemotypes in the species. The first one was provided by plants with a high content of trans-pinocarveol and pinocarvone; the second one involved plants with high percentages of limonene, cis- and trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, and β-selinene; and the third chemotype was characterized by plants with high levels of oxygenated sesquiterpenes such as caryophyllene oxide and α- and β-isomers of caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5-ol. Chemical data were supported by chemometric technique as the principal component analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between the dioecy and phytochemistry within one population was also considered. Finally, correlations between chemical variations and ethnobotanical data were assessed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Hassanali, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita)

  5. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  6. Effects of wild plants essential oils on the growth of Phytophthra cinnamomi and Castanea sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria João; Martins,Fátima; Belo, Hélio; Choupina, Altino; Martins, Anabela

    2010-01-01

    Wild plant essential oil effects on the growth control of Phytophthora cinnamomi and Castanea sativa M. João Sousa1, Fátima Martins1, Hélio Belo1, Altino Choupina1, 2 and Anabela Martins1 1Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Escola Superior Agrária, Campus de Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-854 Bragança, Portugal 2CIMO- Centro de Investigação de Montanha, Campus de Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-854 Bragança, Portugal Corresponding author: In regions that...

  7. The Effect of Nitrogen and Plant Density on Some Growth Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Izadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of different amounts of nitrogen and plant density on growth, yield, the percentage of essential oil in leaf and essential oil yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita L., an experiment was conducted in 2008 at the Experimental Field of the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University. The experiment was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications over two cuts. The main plots included the amounts of 100, 150 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha in which half of fertilizer were used for the first cut and another half for the second. The sub-plots were consisted of plant densities as 8, 12 and 16 plants/m2. Morphophysiological characteristics including plant height, node and leaf number per plant, leaf area index, fresh and dry yield, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield over two cuts, and also the growth of dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate in the first cut were measured. The results showed that, nitrogen treatment significantly affected the properties measured, so that, their highest rates were obtained with the application of 100 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha from the first and the second cut, respectively. In addition, total dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate increased with increasing the amounts of nitrogen. Plant density also affected the plant height; node number, leaf number and leaf area index, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield in the first cut significantly, and in the second cut, plant density effect on leaf number and leaf area index was significant as well. Keywords: Peppermint, Nitrogen, Plant density, Yield, Growth indices, Essential oil

  8. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  10. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  11. The potential application of plant essential oils as natural preservatives against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlara, A; Najafzadeh, H; Lak, E

    2008-09-01

    Investigation were carried out to compare the efficiency of three plant essential oils; Zataria multiflora, Carum carvi and Mentha piperita as natural food preservatives. The effect of these plant essential oils at concentrations of 0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1% was studied against inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10(5) cfu mL(-1)) in prepared commercial chicken soup stored at 8 and 35 degrees C over seven (168 h) and three (72 h) days, respectively by plate count technique on CT-SMAC agar. Zataria multiflora was the most effective essential oil against the bacterium in all concentrations, followed by Mentha piperita and Carum carvi. The maximum inhibitory effects of all essential oils were seen at 1% concentration. The inhibitory effects were affected by the incubation temperature as well as by the type and concentrations of essential oils. The 1% concentration of Mentha piperita and 0.6 and 1% concentrations of Zataria multiflora essential oil showed bacteriostatic effect on growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 35 degrees C. Also 1% concentration of Carum carvi, 0.6 and 1% concentrations of Mentha piperita and 0.6% concentration of Zataria multiflora essential oil had bacteriostatic effect while 1% concentration of Zataria multiflora essential oil showed bactericidal effect on the bacteria during the incubation period at 8 degrees C. It is concluded that selected plant essential oils have promising inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in chicken soup and could be considered as natural food preservatives. This is especially relevant at a time when there is an increasing interest in finding more natural alternatives to many existing preservatives.

  12. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  13. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  15. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  16. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Aristides M.; Lima, Edeltrudes de O.; Evandro L. de Souza; Margareth de F. F. M. Diniz; Leite, Sônia Pereira; Aline L. Xavier; Medeiros,Isac A. de

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward...

  17. Antibacterial activity of aromatic plants essential oils from Serbia against the Listeria monocytogenes

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    Klaus Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of the growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, which are of significant importance in food hygiene. Essential oils extracted from Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Majorana hortensis Moench., Thymus vulgaris L., Carum carvi L., Pimpinella anisum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated. Antibacterial activity was done by the disk diffusion method in the presence of pure essential oils and four suspensions in alcohol. The best results obtained with Thymus vulgaris and Majorana hortensis essential oils, which were acting microbicidaly on both observed strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even in the small concentration. Because some of the essential oils were highly inhibitory even in small quantities to selected pathogenic bacteria, they may provide alternatives to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. .

  18. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

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    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  20. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  1. In vitro control of post-harvest fruit rot fungi by some plant essential oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; Altieri, Luciana; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia; Rana, Gian Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  2. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

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    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  3. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; Djellouli; Houcine; Benmehdi; Siham; Mammeri; Abdellah; Moussaoui; Laid; Ziane; Noureddine; Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea(Del.)(Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria.Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were(E)-citral(24.01%), limonene epoxide cis-(18.26%), thymol methyl ether(15.04%), carvacrol(15.03%), trans-carveol(13.79%), carvone(3.06%) and trans-piperitol(2.54%).Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  4. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plantCotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil ofCotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plantCotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara fromsouthwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (Pessential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents. PMID:27222835

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  7. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  8. Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro

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    Martínez Jairo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. Aim In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV replication was investigated. Methods The cytotoxicity (CC50 on Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The minimum concentration of the essential oil that inhibited virus titer by more than 50% (MIC was determined by virus yield reduction assay. YFV was incubated 24 h at 4°C with essential oil before adsorption on Vero cell, and viral replication was carried out in the absence or presence of essential oil. Vero cells were exposed to essential oil 24 h at 37°C before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Results The CC50 values were less than 100 μg/mL and the MIC values were 3.7 and 11.1 μg/mL. The CC50/MIC ratio was of 22.9, 26.4, 26.5 and 8.8 for L. alba, L origanoides, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris, respectively. The presence of essential oil in the culture medium enhances the antiviral effect: L. origanoides oil at 11.1 μg/mLproduced a 100% reduction of virus yield, and the same result was observed with L. alba, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris oils at100 μg/mL. No reduction of virus yield was observed when Vero cells were treated with essential oil before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Conclusion The essential oils evaluated in the study showed antiviral activities against YFV. The mode of action seems to be direct virus inactivation.

  9. Natural Plant Essential Oils for Controlling the Grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis and their Pathological Effects on the Alimentary Canal

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    Aziza Sharaby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the toxic effect of three different natural essential oils of medicinal plants, namely Garlic (Allium sativum, Mint (Mintha pipereta and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus were tested on 1st nymphal instar of the grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis. The LC50 values of the tested oils were estimated after 14 days from feeding on treated diet mixed with different concentrations of the oil. The LC50 of the tested oils were arranged as follows: 0.067, 0.075 and 0.084ml. /100ml. diet for Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint respectively. The effect of LC50 concentration of the oils on the biological aspects and histological changes that observed on the alimentary canal and fat bodies were recorded. The normal development of the grasshopper was exhibited. Results cleared that there was statistical variable numbers of increased the nymphal periods, life cycle, adults longevity and life span comparing with the control test. Garlic oil inhibited egg lying by the resulting females offspring of the treated1st instar nymphs. High reduction in the deposited eggs and egg fertility caused by Eucalyptus or Mint oil and marked malformation were observed. Histological changes on the alimentary canal and fat bodies of the remaining nymphs after treatment with Garlic oil (the most effective oil were detected by the light microscope have been recorded. The results suggest that the natural plant essential oils of Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint may be used in IPM control program against H. littoralis grasshopper.

  10. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  11. Comparative chemical and antimicrobial study of nine essential oils obtained from medicinal plants growing in Egypt

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    Nashwa Tarek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of interesting natural products group that are used in different aspects of life due to their various biological activities. This study investigate the antimicrobial activities of 9 herbal essential oils on survival and growth of selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method and were analyzed using GC/MS technique. The oils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 2 Gram +ve, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Listeria innocua (L. innocua, 2 Gram −ve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi as well as 2 Fungi, Aspergillus niger (A. niger and Candida albicans (C. albicans, using agar dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed against the test organisms by disc diffusion method. Results showed that Cinnamon oil was found effective against all the tested strains (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml. Peppermint, lemon grass, caraway, anise, fennel and clove showed activity at (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml with all the tested organisms except for P. aeruginosa. Lavender oil exhibited antimicrobial activities against 4 strains (S. aureus, L. innocua, A. niger and C. albicans with MIC (≤1 μl/ml while geranium oil was inhibitory at (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml against S. aureus, S. Typhi, A. niger and C. albicans and with MIC ∼ 2 μl/ml against L. innocua. Although Gram −ve organisms had shown high resistance toward different essential oils, they were found to be susceptible to cinnamon oil even at lower concentration. Cinnamon oil is effective against drug resistant organisms. It can be suggested to use essential oils/constituents as potential natural preservatives and would be helpful in the treatment of various infections.

  12. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

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    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  13. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2009-05-26

    With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides to manage the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) in laying hen flocks are increasingly needed. These mites may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and even death of hens. It may be possible to use plant-derived products as D. gallinae repellents, especially if such products have a minimal impact on non-target organisms. An experiment was conducted with D. gallinae to assess the repellence of a range of plant essential oils, previously found to be of varying toxicity (relatively highly toxic to non-toxic) to this pest. Experiments were also undertaken to assess the toxicity of these products to mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.), a non-target invertebrate typical of poultry production systems. Results showed that all seven essential oils tested (manuka, thyme, palmarosa, caraway, spearmint, black pepper and juniper leaf) were repellent to D. gallinae at 0.14mg oil/cm(3) (initial concentration) during the first 2 days of study. Thyme essential oil appeared to be the most effective, where repellence lasted until the end of the study period (13 days). At the same concentration toxicity to T. molitor differed, with essential oils of palmarosa and manuka being no more toxic to adult beetles than the control. There was neither a significant association between the rank toxicity and repellence of oils to D. gallinae, nor the toxicity of oils to D. gallinae (as previously determined) and T. molitor.

  14. Intraspecific variation in essential oil composition of the medicinal plant Lippia integrifolia (Verbenaceae). Evidence for five chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, Guillermo; de Lampasona, Marina P; Vega, Marta I; Lizarraga, Emilio; Viturro, Carmen I; Slanis, Alberto; Juárez, Miguel A; Elechosa, Miguel A; Catalán, César A N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia (incayuyo) are widely used in northwestern and central Argentina for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential oil composition of thirty-one wild populations of L. integrifolia covering most of its natural range was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of one hundred and fifty two terpenoids were identified in the essential oils. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant components in all but one of the collections analyzed, the only exception being a sample collected in San Juan province where monoterpenoids amounted to 51%. Five clearly defined chemotypes were observed. One possessed an exquisite and delicate sweet aroma with trans-davanone as dominant component (usually above 80%). Another with an exotic floral odour was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids based on the rare lippifoliane and africanane skeletons. The trans-davanone chemotype is the first report of an essential oil containing that sesquiterpene ketone as the main constituent. The absolute configuration of trans-davanone from L. integrifolia was established as 6S, 7S, 10S, the enantiomer of trans-davanone from 'davana oil' (Artemisia pallens). Wild plants belonging to trans-davanone and lippifolienone chemotypes were propagated and cultivated in the same parcel of land in Santa Maria, Catamarca. The essential oil compositions of the cultivated plants were essentially identical to the original plants in the wild, indicating that the essential oil composition is largely under genetic control. Specimens collected near the Bolivian border that initially were identified as L. boliviana Rusby yielded an essential oil practically identical to the trans-davanone chemotype of L. integrifolia supporting the recent view that L. integrifolia (Gris.) Hieron. and L. boliviana Rusby are synonymous.

  15. EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT VALERIAN (VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITIONS CULTIVATED AT GARMSAR ZONE IN IRAN

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    Elham Morteza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on experimental field at Garmsar zone in Iran during 2010 – 2011 in order to Evaluation of medicinal plant valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. essential oil compositions cultivated at Garmsar zone in Iran. Sowing date was 20 September and planting densitiy was 80000 plant ha–1. The volatile constituents of the root part of cultivated Valeriana officinalis were isolated by steam distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS systems that were identified the 69 compositions. The results showed that oil percentage was 1.65%. The basic oil components among the identified 69 compounds were α-Fenchene (6.1%, Camphene (11%, Borneol (6.6%, Bornyl acetate (10.1% and Valerenal (12.9%. and Our finding may give applicable advice to commercial and medicinal and aromatic plants researches for management for increase of quantity and quality yields in medicinal and aromatic plants farming.

  16. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  17. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  18. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

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    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  19. In vivo and in vitro control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Sanjeev; Prasad, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-08-07

    Contamination of environment and food from the prevalent spores and mycotoxins of Aspergillus niger has led to several diseases in humans and other animals. The present study investigated the control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of A. niger. In the elaborate assays done through microdilution plate assay and agar disk diffusion assay in the lab condition and in vivo assay on the stored wheat grains, the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris depicted overall superior efficacy. In microdilution plate assay, the oil of Anethum graveolens showed best fungistatic activity, while best fungicidal activity was depicted by Syzygium aromaticum oil. The oil of T. vulgaris showed moderate control efficacy against A. niger strains with its antifungal activity resulting mainly due to killing of microorganism rather than growth inhibition. In agar disk diffusion assay, T. vulgaris oil with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 23.3-61.1% was the most effective fungicide. The in vivo assay to evaluate the protection efficacy of oils for stored wheat grains against A. niger (AN1) revealed T. vulgaris (90.5-100%) to be the best control agent, followed by the oil of S. aromaticum (61.9-100%). The GC-MS analysis of T. vulgaris oil indicated the presence of thymol (39.11%), γ-terpinene (19.73%), o-cymene (17.21%), and β-pinene (5.38%) as major oil components. Phytotoxic effects of the oils on wheat seeds showed no significant phytotoxic effect of oils in terms of seed germination or seedling growth. The results of the study demonstrated control potentiality of essential oils for the protection of stored wheat against A. niger with prospect for development of eco-friendly antifungal products.

  20. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  2. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols: An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

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    Fethi Benbelaïd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of Rosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of R. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results: An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown by R. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of both R. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition of R. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%, 1,8- cineole (17.4%, camphene (13.3%, and α-pinene (10.9% were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that R. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids, R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  5. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

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    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  6. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  7. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO.

  8. Headspace single drop microextraction coupled with microwave extraction of essential oil from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Yupu; Liu, He; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2011-05-01

    Headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) coupled with microwave extraction (ME) was developed and applied to the extraction of the essential oil from dried Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry and Cuminum cyminum L. The operational parameters, such as microdrop volume, microwave absorption medium (MAM), extraction time, and microwave power were optimized. Ten microliters of decane was used as the microextraction solvent. Ionic liquid and carbonyl iron powder were used as MAM. The extraction time was less than 7 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The proposed method was compared with hydrodistillation (HD). There were no obvious differences in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods.

  9. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  10. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Several Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ruth M; Stashenko, Elena; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-01

    We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively. The greatest pupicidal activity was exhibited at 390 ppm with a 24-h exposure by L. origanoides, and 390 ppm with a 48-h exposure by Citrus sinensis . Lippia origanoides killed all adult mosquitoes at 300 ppm after 120 min of exposure. Only L. origanoides and E. citriodora EOs, applied at 1,000 ppm to human skin, produced the greatest repellency (100%) to host-seeking Ae. aegypti after 2 min of exposure; the repellency decreased between 12% and 10% after 15 min. Complete oviposition deterrence by gravid Ae. aegypti was observed for E. citriodora EOs at 200 ppm with an oviposition activity index of -1.00. These results confirm that the EOs assessed in this study have insecticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities against the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

  11. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

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    Muhammad Ayaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils (EOs and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

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    Aghil Sharifzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis, Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe, Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla, Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare. The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%, linalool (42%, α-pinene (27.87%, α-pinene (22.10%, and zingiberene (31.79% were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P

  13. Myrtaceae Plant Essential Oils and their β-Triketone Components as Insecticides against Drosophila suzukii

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    Chung Gyoo Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, Diptera: Drosophilidae is recognized as an economically important pest in North America and Europe as well as in Asia. Assessments were made for fumigant and contact toxicities of six Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs and their components to find new alternative types of insecticides active against SWD. Among the EOs tested, Leptospermum citratum EO, consisting mainly of geranial and neral, exhibited effective fumigant activity. Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L values of L. citratum were 2.39 and 3.24 for males and females, respectively. All tested EOs except Kunzea ambigua EO exhibited effective contact toxicity. LD50 (µg/fly values for contact toxicity of manuka and kanuka were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively, for males and 1.10 and 1.23, respectively, for females. The LD50 values of the other 3 EOs-L. citratum, allspice and clove bud were 2.11–3.31 and 3.53–5.22 for males and females, respectively. The non-polar fraction of manuka and kanuka did not show significant contact toxicity, whereas the polar and triketone fractions, composed of flavesone, isoleptospermone and leptospermone, exhibited efficient activity with the LD50 values of 0.13–0.37 and 0.22–0.57 µg/fly for males and females, respectively. Our results indicate that Myrtaceae plant EOs and their triketone components can be used as alternatives to conventional insecticides.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

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    Amel Bendiabdellah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering. Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxygenated monoterpenes, 5 phenolic compounds, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, 2 oxygenated diterpenes, and 01 diterpene hydrocarbons. Whatever the analyzed stage, phenolic compounds were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 36.4 to 82.1%. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested on four different microorganisms. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against Candida albicans (30 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (11–28 mm bacteria strains which are deemed very dangerous and very difficult to eliminate. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  16. Changes in growth, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L. plants treated with some bioregulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Iman M; Khattab, Hemmat I; Ahmed, Aisha M

    2014-09-01

    The effects of foliar application of different concentrations of amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) and phenolic acids (trans-cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid) on growth, pigment content, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L were carried out during two successive seasons. It is clear that foliar application of either amino acids or phenolics significantly promoted the growth parameters in terms of shoot height, fresh and dry biomass, number of branches and number of umbels per plant. The increment of growth parameter was associated with elevated levels of growth promoters (IAA, GA3, total cytokinins) and low level of ABA. The greatest increase in the previously mentioned parameters was measured in plants exposed to different concentrations of phenols particularly in benzoic acid-treated plants. Such effect was concentration dependent. All treatments led to significant increments in yield seeds and oil content. Moreover, gas liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the main identified components of essential oil were 2,2-dimethyl butanoic acid, isobutyl isobutyrate, α-isophorone, thymol, fenchyl acetate and linalool. Phenolics and amino acid treatments resulted in qualitative differences in these components of essential oil.

  17. Effect of essential oil of Satureja hortensis against Bacillus pumilus, which cause of soft rot on some plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it is aimmed to be determined the antimicrobial effects of the essential oil in vitro conditions, extracted from wild forms of plant which is known as Satureja hortensis around the world and grows naturally at Erzurum province of Turkey against Bacillus pumilus isolates, which are the agent of Soft Rot for some fruits and vegetables. For this purpose, 18 isolates of B. pumilus which have been determined as the agent of Soft Rot in previous studies performed in plants such as potatos, onions, strawberries, melons and watermelons. As the positive control, Streptomycin antibiotics sold as ready produce were used. According to the obtained results, the essential oil have the antibactericidal effect of 19-29 mm against 18 isolates of B. pumilus. It has been observed that the antibiotics used as the positive control has the antibacterial effect of 16-22 mm. In conclusion, the essential oil has the lethal effect against 18 B. pumilus isolates which are agents of Soft Rot. It is assesed that these essential oil extracted from Satureja hortensis can be used against these Soft Rot pathogens.

  18. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

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    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  19. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  20. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

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    Wycliffe Wanzala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita, were initially screened (at two doses for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg. Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%, dihydrotagetone (16.71%, piperitenone (10.15%, trans-tagetone (8.67%, 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10diene (6.47%, β-ocimene (3.25%, and cis-tagetone (1.95%, whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%, β-pinene (15.00%, isocaryophyllene (7.62%, nerolidol (3.70%, 1-tridecanol (1.75%, limonene (1.52%, and sabinene (1.00%. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

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    Henrieta ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation with essential oils on egg weight and body mass of laying hens. Hens of the laying breed Isa Brown were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n=26 and fed for 45 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. Hens were fed from day 1 by the standard feed mixture. Laying hens accepted fodder ad libitum. In the control group hens took feed mixture without additions, in the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with 0.25 ml/kg thyme essential oil and in the second one hens got hyssop essential oil in the same dose of 0.25 ml/kg. The housing system satisfied enriched cage requirements specified by the Directive 1999/74 EC. The useful area provided for one laying hen presented 943.2 cm2. The equipment of cage consisted of roosts, place for rooting in ashes – synthetic grass, nest and equipment for shortening of clutches. The results showed that the average body weight for a rearing period was in order groups: 736.15±523.49; 747.20±541.6 and 721.95±522.57 (g±SD. Differences between groups were not significant (P>0.05. The average body weight during the laying period was 1763.85±171.46; 1786.08±192.09 and 1729.73±129.12 g for control, thyme oil and hyssop oil supplementation respectively. During the laying period there were significant differences in body weight between control and experimental group with hyssop essential oil supplementation (P<0.05 and between both experimental groups (P<0.01. No significant differences were found out between control group and experimental groups (P>0.05 in egg weight (58.36±4.91; 58.82±4.95 and 58.26±5.33 g respectively.

  2. Physicochemical properties of apple puree-alginate films containing plant essential oils and oil compounds active against Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of edible films as carriers of antimicrobial plant essential oils and other phytochemicals constitutes an approach for external protection of food systems to reduce surface microbial populations and to enhance oxygen-barrier properties, thus enhancing food safety as well as shelf life. To de...

  3. Antioxidant, Anti-5-lipoxygenase and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils and Decoction Waters of Some Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia M. Albano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenging of free radicals and superoxide anion, the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and the antiacetylcholinesterase activities of essential oils and decoction waters of eight aromatic plants (Dittrichia viscosa , Foeniculum vulgare, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Thymbra capitata , Thymus camphoratus, Thymus carnosus and Thymus mastichina were studied. The essential oils were dominated by 1,8-cineole in S. officinalis (59%, T. mastichina (49% and T. camphoratus (21%; borneol (20% in T. carnosus; carvacrol in Thymbra capitata (68%; γ -terpinene (49% in O. vulgare; α -pinene (26% in F. vulgare; and trans-nerolidol (8% + β -oplopenone (7% in D. viscosa. O. vulgare decoction waters had the highest amount of phenols (4 5 ± 3 mg GAE/mL while F. vulgare only had 5 ± 0 mg GAE/mL. The decoction waters showed higher radical scavenging activity than the essential oils. O. vulgare decoction water showed the best antioxidant activity (IC 50= 3 ± 0 m g/mL, while the most effective essential oils were those of Thymbra capitata (IC 50=61 ± 2 m g/mL and O. vulgare (IC 50=15 6 ± 5 m g/mL. Thymbra capitata (IC 50= 6 ± 0 m g/mL decoction water showed the best superoxide anion scavenging activity. F. vulgare decoction water and essential oil revealed the best 5-lipoxygenase inhibition capacity (IC 50=2 7 ± 1 m g/mL and IC 50=6 8 ± 2 m g/mL, respectively. T. mastichina (IC 50=4 6 ± 4 m g/mL, S. officinalis (IC 50=5 1 ± 4 m g/mL, Thymbra capitata (IC 50=5 2 ± 1 m g/mL and T. camphoratus (IC 50=13 7 ± 2 m g/mL essential oils showed the best antiacetylcholinesterase activity.

  4. Aromatic plants essential oils activity on Fusarium verticillioides Fumonisin B(1) production in corn grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A G; Theumer, M G; Zygadlo, J A; Rubinstein, H R

    2004-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Origanum vulgare, Aloysia triphylla, Aloysia polystachya and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Fusarium verticillioides M 7075 (F. moniliforme, Sheldon) were assessed, using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique. O. vulgare, A. triphylla, A. polystachya and M. piperita EOs were evaluated at final concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 epsilonl per litre (epsilonl/l) of culture medium. A. triphylla and O. vulgare EOs showed the highest inhibitory effects on F. verticillioides mycelial development. This inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 epsilonl/l for EOs coming from Aloysia triphylla and O. vulgare, respectively. Thus, the effects of EOs on FB(1) production were evaluated using corn grain (Zea mays) as substrate. The EOs were inserted on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of maize postinoculation with a conidia suspension of F. verticillioides. O. vulgare and A. triphylla were applied to give final concentrations of 30 ppm and 45 ppm, respectively. Different effects were observed in the toxicogenicity at the 20th day treatment. The O. vulgare EO decreased the production level of FB(1) (P < 0.01) while A. triphyla EO increased it (P < 0.001) with respect to those obtained in the inoculated maize, not EOs treated. Results obtained in the present work indicate that fumonisin production could be inhibited or stimulated by some constituents of EOs coming from aromatic plants. Further studies should be performed to identify the components of EOs with modulatory activity on the growth and fumonisins production of Fusarium verticillioides.

  5. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

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    Ewa Skała

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62% dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5,11(12-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10,11-diene, and dauca-4(11,8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 (MIC value = 125 µg/mL. HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  6. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  7. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  8. Changes in the essential oil content and terpene composition of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. by using plant biostimulants

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    Amir FOROUTAN NIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants can stimulate the increase of growth, metabolism and the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants. This study investigated the changes of rosemary essential oil and its components composition under use of biostimulants for the possible reduction in use of chemical fertilizers. Treatments included biostimulants based on amino acids in four formulations, Aminolforte, Kadostim, Humiforte, and Fosnutren (each of them at 0.75 and 1.5 L ha-1, and application of N.P.K fertilizer as a control treatment (by applied complete fertilizer at 100 kg per hectar with proportion of 15:8:15 percentage of N:P:K in the fertilizer. Results showed that the essential oil content and its components were significantly affected by biostimulants application. The maximum content of essential oil was obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Humiforte and both concentrations of Aminolforte. While, the highest content of α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor as major components of rosemary essential oil were obtained at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren. In addition, the maximum content of linalool, z-pinocamphone, bornyl acetate, and caryophyllene oxide were observed at 1.5 L ha-1 Fosnutren.Although, the highest content of myrcene and verbenone was obtained in the treatment with N.P.K fertilizer, but the maximum contents of β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and α-terpineol were related to the both concentrations of Aminolforte.We can conclude that biostimulants based on amino acids can be an effective alternative in reducing the use of chemical fertilizer and increasing the quantity and quality of rosemary essential oil.

  9. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

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    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  10. Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

    2014-12-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize.

  11. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  12. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis. PMID:27807462

  13. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators’ secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  14. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Almer Boström, Elisabeth; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  15. In vitro study of anti-coccidial activity of essential oils from indigenous plants against Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitviriyanon, Surapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Porntrakulpipat, Sarthorn; Paraksa, Nuanchan

    2016-09-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro anticoccidial properties against Eimeria tenella of different essential oils and their major active components. Efficacy of ten essential oils from different Thai indigenous plants were preliminarily screened and only those with potential were further tested for effective concentrations and identifying their active compounds. Oocysticidal property was evaluated in term of sporulation inhibition of oocysts and the percentage of unsporulated, sporulated and degenerated oocysts, after treatment with 125μg/ml of the selected essential oil, the sample was enumerated by haemocytometer, while coccidiocidal activity was assessed by the inhibition of sporozoite invasion in MDBK cell lines. Results showed that only Boesenbergia pandurata and Ocimum basilicum essential oils had strong sporulation inhibition activity by providing a higher ratio of degenerated oocysts and their IC50 were 0.134 and 0.101mg/ml, respectively. GC-MS analysis of B. pandurata essential oil found trans-b-ocimene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, geraniol, camphene, methyl cinnamate, l-limonene and linalool as the major components, while methyl chavicol, α-bergamotene, 1,8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene were the main compounds of O. basilicum essential oil. Methyl cinnamate and camphor were the active components of B. pandurata oil, whereas methyl chavicol was the active component of O. basilicum oil by exhibiting the oocysticidal effect against E. tenella with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.023 and 0.054mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, B. pandurata and O. basilicum oils also showed a strong cytotoxic property against coccidia with more than 70% inhibition of sporozoite invasion in MDBK cell lines, and their IC50 were 0.004 and 0.004mg/ml, respectively. Methyl cinnamate as well as camphor from B. pandurata and methyl chavicol from O. basilicum were also effective with IC50 values of 0.029, 0.023, and 0.022mg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Growth, essential oil content, and content of coumarin in young plants of guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlene Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine, mainly to treat respiratory disorders, which acts by dilating the bronchi, being coumarin one of the substances associated with this effect. Therefore, understanding the physiological behavior of this species and its responses to the environmental conditions is necessary to improve the cultivation methods. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of light spectrum control on growth, the essential oil content, and the content of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel. Plants were grown for four months under nets with 50% shading in gray, red, blue, and exposed to full sunlight (0%. The essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves through hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The identification and quantification of coumarin were performed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed the blue fabric allowed an increase in total dry matter accumulation and leaf area, as plants under red shading presented higher dry matter allocation to the roots. The smallest quantity of dry leaves was observed in plants grown under full sun exposure. Changes were not observed, however, in leaf weight ratio and in root/shoot proportion. The essential oil content of plants grown under blue net was 0.14%, which corresponded to an increase of 142% over the level found in plants grown under full sun exposure, as the coumarin content was not influenced by the net color. These results show that light can be modulated during cultivation, in order to obtain desirable morphological characteristics and maximize the production of active principles in this species.

  17. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato grey mould disease agent Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Emine Mine; Kurt, Sener; Soylu, Soner

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants, which belong to the Lamiacea family such as origanum (Origanum syriacum L. var. bevanii), lavender (Lavandula stoechas L. var. stoechas) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), were investigated against B. cinerea. Contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. A volatile vapour of origanum oil at 0.2 μg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of lavender and rosemary was, however, observed at 1.6 μg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, origanum oil at 12.8 μg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea completely. Essential oils of rosemary and lavender were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (25.6 μg/ml). Spore germination and germ tube elongation were also inhibited by the essential oils tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the essential oils cause considerable morphological degenerations of the fungal hyphae such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, hyphal shrivelling and protoplast leakage and loss of conidiation. In vivo assays with the origanum essential oil, being the most efficient essential oil, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants resulted in good protection against grey mould severity especially as a curative treatment. This study has demonstrated that the essential oils are potential and

  19. Developing a sector by creating community-owned enterprises based on the cultivation and processing of essential oils and medicinal plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of essential oils and medicinal plant products by communities with access to arable land represents a promising new sector in the agroprocessing industry. The Enterprise Creation for Development (ECD) unit of the CSIR transfers...

  20. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  1. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed.

  2. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  3. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-01-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay. PMID:28181580

  4. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Three Essential Oils Extracted from Mediterranean Aromatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Sakr, Shimaa; Mang, Stefania M; Belviso, Sandra; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing interest in essential oils (EOs) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. This study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three EOs extracted from Verbena officinalis, Majorana hortensis, and Salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. The antifungal activity was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with Azoxystrobin as a large spectrum fungicide. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, and Clavibacter michiganensis (G+ve) and Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (G-ve) compared to a synthetic antibiotic tetracycline. Minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated against the above tested fungi using 96-well microplate method. Results showed that the chemical structure of the three studied EOs was mainly composed of monoterpene compounds and all oils belong to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. Results of GC analysis identified 64 compounds, which were identified based on their mass to charge ratio. Furthermore, the different concentrations of studied EOs inhibited the growth of tested microorganism in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Components of Purified Essential Oil from Nilam Plants using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo; Utami Nofitasari; Atik Setyani; Nuni Widiarti

    2017-01-01

    T This study aimed to determine the chemical components of the patchouli oil. Patchouli oil is one of the export commodities that have high economic value for Indonesia. In general, patchouli oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of patchouli leaves. Most industries are still using patchouli oil refiners made by ferrous metal. The rust will dissolve in patchouli oil obtained and led to the resulting of dark oil and patchouli aroma becomes lower. The main purpose of this research is to ...

  8. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL−1 for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL...

  9. FEATURES OF ACCUMULATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN PLANTS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagkikh E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the accumulation of essential oil in the collection samples of Oregano studied in the foothill zone of the Crimea. The range of variability of the mass fraction of essential oil of Origanum vulgare (from trace amounts to 0.53% of the bone dry weight. We have revealed that the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the inflorescences during the flowering phase

  10. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

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    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  11. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  12. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

  13. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

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    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  15. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (Pessential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (Pessential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations.

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  18. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  19. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  20. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived essential oils against fungal pathogens of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farah; Follett, Peter; Dang Vu, Khang; Harich, Mehdi; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-02-01

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 96-well microplate analysis. The interactions between different EO combinations were done by the checkerboard technique. The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by oregano and thyme which showed lower MIC values amongst all the tested fungi. The antifungal activity of the other EOs could be appropriately ranked in a descending sequence of cinnamon, peppermint, tea tree and basil. Eucalyptus and mandarin showed the least efficiency as they could not inhibit any of the fungal growth at 10,000 ppm. The interaction between these two EOs also showed no interaction on the tested species. A combined formulation of oregano and thyme resulted in a synergistic effect, showing enhanced efficiency against A. flavus and A. parasiticus and P. chrysogenum. Mixtures of peppermint and tea tree produced synergistic effect against A. niger. Application of a modified Gompertz model considering fungal growth parameters like maximum colony diameter, maximum growth rate and lag time periods, under the various EO treatment scenarios, showed that the model could adequately describe and predict the growth of the tested fungi under these conditions.

  1. HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATION AT THE JEJUNUM LEVEL GENERATED BY INTRODUCING MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN BROILERS FEED

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    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and extracts including in monogastric animals feeding represents a current practice because phyto-additives can represent an alternative to antibiotics using. In this way, in Nutrition and animals feeding discipline was been performed an experiment on 6 weeks, respectively from hatching to 42 days of age, on 120 broiler chickens, divided on three experimental variants (LEU, LEP and LM with 40 individuals each of them. The used hybrid was Ross 308. In LEU group were incorporated essential oils of Coriandri fructus, Satureja hortensis, Hipophae rhamnoides, 250 mg at 1 kg combined fodder. In LEP group were included in combined fodder structure a plants premix (Mentha piperita, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis in 2% proportion.. Microscopic studies showed, in the case of experimental groups, a hypertropic process of intestinal mucous membrane, emphasized by villousities and glandular apparatus development, through capilar system extending and leucocytar infiltrate development on all mucous chorion thickness.

  2. Effect of the Date of Planting on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil Content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L in Mashhad Climatic Conditions

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    A. Ghani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of planting date on morphological characteristic, yield and essential oil content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L., an experiment in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four treatments including four planting date (6 July, 1 August, 7 September and 7 October in four replications was conducted. During the growing stage and at the end of experiment period, following factors were measured: time and growth degree day (GDD to bolting and flowering, plant height, shoot number, lateral inflorescence numbers, inflorescence diameter and height, inflorescence yield, essential oil percentage and yield and total biomass. Our results indicated that planting date affects all of the measured factors. In the first planting date, the plants were tall (116 cm and had big inflorescence (9.97 and 8.72 cm for inflorescence diameter and height respectively. Most measured traits (shoot and lateral inflorescence number, inflorescence dry weight and total biomass had highest value in the August 1st planting date and lowest value in forth planting date (7 October 7th. Essential oil percentage was affected by planting date and the highest essential oil percentage (0.17 was produced in 7 October and the lowest (0.13 was obtained in August 1st planting date but the maximum and minimum essential oil yield (1.77 and 0.87 ml relation with 1 August and 7 September planting date respectively. In conclusion, 1 August is the best date for sowing of the plant. In general, The first of August was the best planting date for this Achillea species in Mashhad climate.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Components of Purified Essential Oil from Nilam Plants using Gas Chromatography

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    Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available T This study aimed to determine the chemical components of the patchouli oil. Patchouli oil is one of the export commodities that have high economic value for Indonesia. In general, patchouli oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of patchouli leaves. Most industries are still using patchouli oil refiners made by ferrous metal. The rust will dissolve in patchouli oil obtained and led to the resulting of dark oil and patchouli aroma becomes lower. The main purpose of this research is to improve the quality of patchouli oil by the purification process technologies after oil refining process. In this research the purification of the impure and crude oil can be carried out using adsorption process with bentonite. Purification results with UV-VIS spectrophotometer showed that the activation energy at a wavelength of 510 nm-550 nm with 3.9 x 10-19 Joules. GC (Gas Chromatography analysis showed that there are 13 components from patchouli oil, the 6 dominant peaks were compounds of patchouli alcohol (29.64%, delta-guanine (23.26%, alpha-guanine (21.9%, alpha-patchouline (4.24%, pogostol (4.15%, palustrol (4.00%, beta-pinene (3.9%. Based on the physical properties, the main constituent component content, and the Fe2+ content, refined patchouli oil meets the requirements of the Indonesian National Standards.

  4. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

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    Dell’Agli Mario

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae, Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae, and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2. Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%; and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2 and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively. The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further

  5. In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella da Silva; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Albano, Mariana; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Doyama, Julio Toshimi; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobials products from plants have increased in importance due to the therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO. EO chemical analysis showed a predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis), and the lowest activity was with Eugenia uniflora (from 50.80 mg/mL against MSSA to 92.40 mg/mL against both Salmonella sources and P. aeruginosa) EO. The time kill curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C. aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet requires further investigation because these interactions between the various chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect of essential oils against bacterial strains.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.

  7. A Survey of the Effect of Some Heavy Metals in Plant on the Composition Of The Essential Oils Close to Veshnaveh-Qom Mining Area

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    Mohammad Hadi Givianrad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper and silver in the plants on the mining area and the ingredients of essential oils. Plants collected from the same family, but they were collected randomly from various regions. The concentration of heavy metal in plant samples collected from Veshnave, Qom, Iran have been determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from Tanacetum polycephalum and was determined using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS. Results obtained from unidirectional variance analysis suggest that there is a meaningful statistical difference between various regions.

  8. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; M. Y. Ahmad-Mudzaqqir; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinn...

  9. The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

  10. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

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    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  11. Influence of Essential Oils on Infectious Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Elżbieta; Rusiecka-Ziółkowska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are substances of plant origin used to produce cosmetics, to preserve and aromatize food. Recently, they have become more popular among scientists and doctors due to their germicidal, antifungal, antiviral and anti-parasitic properties. As a consequence, essential oils are regarded as the source of new therapeutic substances. Numerous publications have been written regarding their effect on microorganisms in vitro. There have also been reports regarding their use in therapy as an additive to the traditional medical treatment. Essential oils may have other properties with positive effect on health because they may have an influence on the central nervous system and human mental state. It should be, however, kept in mind that compounds of essential oils might also have side effects and lead, like antibiotics, to the selection of resistant pathogens. It is necessary to develop quality standards of obtaining and using these plant preparations, so that they may provide safe and effective assistance in the fight against human pathogens.

  12. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination.

  13. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. Essential Oils and Their Constituents: Anticonvulsant Activity

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    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature-based survey of plants species and their essential oils with anticonvulsant activity was carried out. As results, 30 species belonging to 13 families and 23 genera were identified for their activities in the experimental models used for anticonvulsant drug screening. Thirty chemical constituents of essential oils with anticonvulsant properties were described. Information on these 30 species is presented together with isolated bioactive compound studies.

  15. Chemical variation of leaf essential oil at different stages of plant growth and in vitro antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae, from Iran

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    Azizollah Nezhadali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil components of the leaves were isolated by hydrodistillation from Thymus vulgaris (T. Lamiaceae, at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils from T. Lamiaceae leaves were obtained in yields of 0.83–1.39% (w/w. The oils were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS and thirty-six components were identified in the oil. The major components in the leaf oils were: thymol (38.23–63.01%, o-cymene (5.56–15.47%, γ-terpinene (4.43–7.17%, borneol (1.72–6.65%, 4-terpineol (1.24–5.16% and 1,8-cineole (0.09–1.54%. The results showed that the oil yield and the major constituents' percentage of the leaf were different at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils of T. Lamiaceae leaves were tested against five strains of Gram positive bacteria (g+ and five strains of Gram negative bacteria (g−. The average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were determined using agar dilution method against the organisms by agar dilution method.

  16. The Investigation of Decontamination Effects of Ozone Gas on Microbial Load and Essential Oil of Several Medicinal Plants

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    Razieh VALI ASILL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, Ozone as a disinfectant method, without putting on the harmful effects on human and plant products, it is alternative common methods for disinfection of plant material. The research as a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications and the effects of Ozone gas on decreasing the microbial load of some important medicinal plants include: Peppermint (Mentha piperita, Summer savory (Satureja hortensis, Indian valerian(Valeriana wallichii, Meliss (Melissa officinalis and Iranian thyme (Zataria multiflora were investigated. Medicinal plants leaves were treated with Ozone gas concentration 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ml/L at times of 10 and 30 then total count, coliform and mold and yeast of the samples were studied. The result showed that Ozone gas decreases microbial load of medicinal plants samples. But Ozone gas and Ozone gas in medicinal plants interaction effect had no effect on essential oil content. The lowest and the highest of microbial load were detected in samples treated with concentration of 0.9 ml/L of Ozone gas and control respectively. The highest and the lowest of microbial load were observed in Iranian thyme and Indian valerian respectively. Also result showed that Ozone gas treatment for 30 min had the greatest of effect in reducing the microbial load and 0.9 ml/L Ozone gas concentration had the lowest of microbial load. Results of this survey reflect that the use of Ozone as a method of disinfection for medicinal plants is a decontamination.

  17. Bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae related to the drying treatment of the plant material.

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    Maggi, M; Gende, L; Russo, K; Fritz, R; Eguaras, M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, chemical composition, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis extracted from plant material with different drying treatments against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae were assessed. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for mites and bees was estimated using a complete exposure method test. The broth microdilution method was followed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils against P. larvae. Physicochemical properties were similar in both the essential oils, but the percentage of components showed certain differences according to their drying treatment. β-Myrcene and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents in the oils. The LC50 for complete exposure method at 24, 48 and 72 h was minor for mites exposed to R. officinalis essential oil dried in oven conditions. MIC values were 700-800 µg mL(-1) and 1200 µg mL(-1) for R. officinalis dried in air and oven conditions, respectively. The results reported in this research show that oil toxicity against V. destructor and P. larvae differed depending on the drying treatment of the plant material before the distillation of essential oil.

  18. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus

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    Stephane L. Ngahang Kamte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  19. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae) were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Al...

  1. GC/GC-MS analysis, isolation and identification of bioactive essential oil components from the Bhutanese medicinal plant, Pleurospermum amabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2013-09-01

    We have hydrodistilled the essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of the Bhutanese medicinal plant, Pleurospermum amabile using a Clevenger apparatus and evaluated this EO by GC/GC-MS and NMR analysis followed by testing for bioactivity. The GC-MS analysis identified 52 compounds with (E)-isomyristicin as a major component (32.2%). Repeated purification yielded four compounds; (E)-isomyristicin (1), (E)-isoapiol (2), methyl eugenol (3) and (E)-isoelemicin (4). Compound 2 and the mother EO showed the best antiplasmodial activity against the Plasmodium falciparum strains, TM4/8.2 (chloroquine and antifolate sensitive) and K1CB1 (multidrug resistant). They exhibited mild antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. None of the test samples showed cytotoxicity.

  2. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries.

  3. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  4. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  5. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthanont, Nataya; Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Junkum, Anuluck; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Chaithong, Udom; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2010-06-01

    The chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. Using a GC/MS, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of Citrus hystrix, Citrus reticulata, Zingiber zerumbet, Kaempferia galanga, and Syzygium aromaticum, respectively. The principal constituents found in peel oil of C. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene-4-ol (17.37%). Compounds in C. reticulata peel oil consisted mostly of d-limonene (62.39%) and gamma-terpinene (14.06%). The oils obtained from Z. zerumbet rhizome had alpha-humulene (31.93%) and zerumbone (31.67%) as major components. The most abundant compounds in K. galanga rhizome oil were 2-propeonic acid (35.54%), pentadecane (26.08%), and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (25.96%). The main component of S. aromaticum bud oil was eugenol (77.37%), with minor amounts of trans-caryophyllene (13.66%). Assessment of larvicidal efficacy demonstrated that all essential oils were toxic against both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant Ae. aegypti laboratory strains at LC50, LC95, and LC99 levels. In conclusion, we have documented the promising larvicidal potential of essential oils from edible herbs, which could be considered as a potentially alternative source for developing novel larvicides to be used in controlling vectors of mosquito-borne disease.

  6. Essential oils for rust control on coffee plants Óleos essenciais no controle da ferrugem em cafeeiro

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    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rust is considered the most important disease in coffee because it causes severe defoliation in plants and, consequently, reduction in productivity. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of essential oils of cinnamon, citronella, lemongrass, clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the germination of urediniospores of Hemileia vastatrix; the effectiveness of these oils to control rust on seedlings of coffee cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in the greenhouse; and the effect of more promising oils on urediniospores of H. vastatrix by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. All the essential oils inhibited the germination of urediniospores with increasing concentrations. All oils promoted partial control of the disease in the greenhouse. However, the oils of thyme, clove and citronella, at a concentration of 1000 µL L-1, were most effective in controlling the disease on cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19, respectively. The images generated in TEM showed that urediniospores exposed to oils of clove, citronella and thyme promoted cellular disorganization and cytoplasmic vacuolization, which was more pronounced in urediniospores exposed to citronella oil. The oils of thyme, clove and citronella are promising for the control of rust in coffee.A ferrugem é considerada a doença de maior importância no cafeeiro, pois causa acentuada desfolha nas plantas e, consequentemente, redução na produtividade. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de urediniósporos de Hemileia vastatrix; a eficácia desses óleos no controle da ferrugem em mudas de cafeeiro das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e o efeito dos óleos mais promissores sobre urediniósporos de H. vastatrix por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmiss

  7. Synergistic repellent activity of plant essential oils against Aedes aegypti on rabbit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koech Peter Kiplang'at

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are the major causes of mortality particularly in tropics. Due to drug and insecticide resistance, personal protection by use of skin repellents has become a common approach of control. The purpose of the study is to determine if synergy exists between Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora oils. Kinga Mosquito repelling Wax® and Vaseline Pure Petroleum Jelly® were included as positive and negative test control respectively. The results showed that Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract had no paralytic effect at 0.002% and 0.005% with mean repellency of 81.58 and 85.94 respectively. Similar observation was shown by 10% Azadirachta indica oil and Kinga with a mean repellency 85.79 and 80.53 respectively. Azadirachta indica oil was then reinforced by addition of Sweet basil oil and Lemon eucalyptus oil. A combination that provides complete protection and displayed mosquito paralysis was obtained. The developed formulation can replace Kinga® and alternative to Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract.

  8. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

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    Ramadan, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549. A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clove oils with concentrations of 31.19%, 79.15% and 82.71%, respectively. Strong antioxidant profiles of all the oils are revealed in vitro by DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that clove oil was similarly potent to the reference drug, doxorubicin in prostate, colon and lung cell lines. Thyme oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in breast and lung cell lines while juniper oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in all the tested cancer cell lines except prostate cancer. In conclusion, the essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants can be used as good candidates for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer as they possess significant anticancer activity.Los inhibidores de crecimiento de tumores usando extractos de plantas aromáticas están emergiendo con rapidez como nuevos e importantes medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer. La citotoxicidad y la acción anticancerígena in vitro de aceites esenciales de tomillo, enebro y clavo han sido evaluadas en cinco líneas celulares de cáncer humano (hígado HepG2, mama MCF-7, próstata PC3, colon HCT116 y pulmón A549. Los análisis de GC/MS mostraron que α-pineno, timol y eugenol son los principales componentes de los aceites egipcios de enebro, tomillo y clavo, con concentraciones de 31,19%, 79,15% y 82,71%, respectivamente. Se demuestra, mediante ensayos in vitro de blanqueo de DPPH y β-caroteno, el enérgico perfil antioxidante de todos los aceites. Los resultados

  9. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-09-19

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Muthee Gakuubi; Wagacha, John M.; Saifuddin F. Dossaji; Wycliffe Wanzala

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatogr...

  11. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods.

  12. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast against Bemisia tabaci G. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tia, Etienne V; Adima, Augustin A; Niamké, Sébastien L; Jean, Gnago A; Martin, Thibaud; Lozano, Paul; Menut, Chantal

    2011-08-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are nowadays considered as alternative insecticides to protect cultures from attack by insect pest. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the toxicity of the essential oils vapors of two aromatic plants (Lippia multiflora Mold. and Aframomum latifolium K. Schum) against Bemisia tabaci and to characterize their chemical composition. The highest fumigant toxicity against B. tabaci adults was observed with the L. multiflora oil: by exposure to 0.4 microL/L air, the lethal time inducing 90% mortality (LT90) was below 2 hours for this essential oil whereas it reached 15 h in the case of the A. latifolium oil. Both oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS on two capillary columns. The oil of L. multiflora contained a majority of oxygenated terpenoids mainly represented by the two acyclic components linalool (46.6%) and (E)-nerolidol (16.5%); the oil of A. latifolium was dominated by hydrocarbonated terpenoids among them beta-pinene (51.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (12.3%) were the two major components.

  13. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  14. Investigation of Natural Plant Aegle marmelos Essential Oil Bioactivity on Development and Toxicity of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncontrolled use of synthetic chemicals is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Methodology: In the present study, essential oil from leaves of Aegle marmelos was isolated by hydro-distillation and tested their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Results: The results showed that the essential oil of A. marmelos have fumigant toxicity, oviposition and developmental inhibitory activity against T. castaneum. The percentage mortality increased with increasing exposure time and concentration. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of A. marmelos essential oil at 48 h was 14.172 and 17.752 FL against larvae and adults of T. castaneum, respectively. The essential oil significantly reduced oviposition (F3,20 = 304.734 in adults and also reduced pupation (F3,20 = 137.442 and adult emergence (F3,20 = 225.619 in larvae when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration. The percent grains infection was reduced 83.66% at 60% of sub-lethal concentration of 24 h LC50. Fumigation of insect with sub-lethal concentration of A. marmelos essential oil inhibited AChE activity. Reduction in AChE activity was 81.48 and 54.32% of the control, after 24 h of fumigation with sub-lethal concentration. Conclusion: In conclusion, this essential oil probably induces toxicity in insect by inhibiting AChE activity.

  15. Potential of plant essential oils and their components in animal agriculture – in vitro studies on antibacterial mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corliss A. O'bryan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad field of agriculture is currently undergoing major changes in practices, with new catch phrases including organic and sustainable. Consumers are more aware than ever before of the food that they eat and they want food free of toxic chemicals, antibiotics and the like. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components has been recognized for several years. Recent research has demonstrated that many of these essential oils have beneficial effects for livestock, including reduction of foodborne pathogens in these animals. Essential oils as natural antimicrobials offer the opportunity to help maintain the safety of our food supply and minimize consumers’ concerns about consumption of synthetic chemicals. Numerous studies have been made into the mode of action of essential oils and the resulting elucidation of bacterial cell targets have contributed to new perspectives on countering antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of these bacteria. In this review, after a brief discussion of the uses essential oils in agriculture as antimicrobials, we give an overview of the current knowledge about the antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents as determined in vitro.

  16. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner.

  17. [Antibacterial activity of natural compounds - essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Majerová, Michaela; Šudomová, Miroslava; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-12-01

    Since the problem of bacterial resistance has become a serious problem worldwide, it was necessary to search for new active substances that can overcome the problem and enhance the treatment efficacy of bacterial infections. Numerous plant-derived essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activities. This review aimed to summarize the most promising essential oils that exhibited remarkable antibacterial activities against various bacterial infections, including staphylococcal infections, Helicobacter pylori infections, skin infections, tuberculosis infection and dental bacterial infection. The synergy effect of essential oils in combination with antibiotics, as well as their role in the treatment of bacterial infections have been discussed. Essential oils can be used as models for further studies in vivo and clinical trials.

  18. In vitro antibacterial effect of exotic plants essential oils on the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American foul brood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuselli, S. R.; Garcia de la Rosa, S. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Fritz, R.

    2010-07-01

    Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of exotic plants essential oils to potentially control Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foul brood disease (AFB) were determined. AFB represents one of the main plagues that affect the colonies of honeybees Apis mellifera L. with high negative impact on beekeepers worldwide. Essential oils tested were niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) from Myrtaceae, and citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) from Gramineae. The components of the essential oils were identified by SPME-GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the oils against P. larvae was determined by the broth micro dilution method. In vitro assays of M. viridiflora and C. nardus oils showed the inhibition of the bacterial strains at the lowest concentrations tested, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) mean value about 320 mg L{sup -}1 for both oils, respectively. This property could be attributed to the kind and percentage of the components of the oils. Terpinen-4-ol (29.09%), {alpha}-pinene (21.63%) and limonene (17.4%) were predominant in M. viridiflora, while limonene (24.74%), citronelal (24.61%) and geraniol (15.79%) were the bulk of C. nardus. The use of these essential oils contributes to the screening of alternative natural compounds to control AFB in the apiaries; toxicological risks and other undesirable effects would be avoided as resistance factors, developed by the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Advances in Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oil%植物精油抑菌活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林峰; 许明录; 朱红霞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, advances on antifungal activity and active ingredients of plant essential oil were summarized,which included 31 plant essential oils and 13 active ingredients. In addition,antifungal mechanisms of essential oil and active ingredients were analysed.%本文综述了国内外植物精油在农用抑菌活性及抑菌活性成分研究方面所取得的成果.阐述了具有农用抑菌活性的31种植物精油及其抑菌效果,并列举了植物精油中13种具有开发潜力的抑菌活性成分,简要分析了植物精油及其主要活性成分的作用机理.

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Séverine Derbré; Patricia Licznar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

  1. Effect of plant essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, with special focus on exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Olatunji, G; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-19

    Essential oils from thyme and cade have been shown to be effective acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) when tested over a 24h period. Data on the actual rate of knock-down achieved with these products is lacking and potentially important as essential oils are likely to display only short-term toxicity. When tested over periods of less than 24h, thyme essential oil killed D. gallinae relatively quickly and so may make for an effective acaricide even if the residual toxicity of this product is low. However, cade essential oil did not display such a high level of mite knock-down, suggesting it may hold less promise in D. gallinae management. Comparison of the results with those obtained elsewhere using alternative D. gallinae products further confirms the possibility that thyme essential may be useful in control of this pest. This might be especially true if thyme essential oil were employed as part of an integrated pest management approach.

  2. Investigation of The Effectiveness of Some Plant Compounds and Essential Oils of Corymbia Citriodora Against Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kürekci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of plant derived compounds and essential oils of Corymbia citriodora against selected Gram negative and Gram positive foodborne pathogens in broth dilution assay. The combination of compounds (cineole, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol; CTαT were further tested at three different concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for the killing effect against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in milk including whole fat and skim fat. CTαT showed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested at minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs from 0.125% to 1% in broth dilution assay. Linalool was also found to be antimicrobial at MICs between 0.25% and 2%, but not for Enterococcus casseliflavus. Further study carried out in milk showed that CTαT at concentrations of 0.4% and 0.8% significantly reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 under detection limit in skim milk, whereas it was only effective at 0.8% in whole fat milk. CTαT, on the other hand, shown to be less active towards L. monocytogenes as only significant effect was observed at 0.8% in skim milk. Taken together results of the present study indicate that plant derived compounds could be valuable alternatives to inactivate foodborne pathogens in milk.

  3. Influence of chemical and organic fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. plant

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    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to NPK fertilizer and different application techniques of MOG organic fertilizer in two regions of Iran (Piranshahr with cold Mediterranean climate and clay loam soil,  Maragheh with cool sub-humid temperate climate and sandy loam  soil. MOG is bio-organic fertilizer with plant origin and contains different natural enzymes and amino acids. In current study following treatments have been applied: NPK (a complete NPK 20-20-20, 90 kg fertilizer ha-1; MOG1 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing stage; MOG2 (foliar application of MOG organic fertilizer at early stage of flowering; MOG3 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage; MOG4 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage with foliar application at early stage of flowering. Results indicated that all MOG treatments overcome the chemical fertilizers in both locations. However, plants grown in Piranshahr were more responsive to MOG fertilizer treatments than those grown in Mragheh. Overall, it could be concluded that utilization of MOG fertilizer as both soil and foliar application (MOG4 may increase content and yield of essential oil, which could be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers.

  4. Allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contaminati...

  5. Allspice, cinnamon and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodbrone pathogens Escherichia coli Ol57:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination...

  6. Allspice, garlic and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactivate the foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils arc gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicatio...

  7. Allspice, garlic, and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactive the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils are gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf-life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicati...

  8. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  9. Novel Glycolipids Synthesized Using Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Quorum Sensing Inhibition and as Antibiofilm Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Mukherji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs form an important part of traditional medicine so their anti-microbial and, in the recent past, antiquorum sensing activity has been well studied. However it is likely that due to their hydrophobic nature and reduced solubility in aqueous environments full potential of their activity cannot be realized. hence it is only rational to formulate a process to make these molecules more polar in nature. The present paper reports synthesis of sophorolipids using 12 different essential oils as substrates, thus providing surfactant-like properties to these EOs. The synthesis protocol makes the use of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 as producer organism. The production process required 7 days of incubation at 28°C and 180 rpm. Preliminary characterization of the synthesized essential oil sophorolipids (EOSLs was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Additionally, essential oils that were incapable of mediating quorum sensing inhibition (QSI on their own became potent quorum sensing inhibitors upon conversion into their corresponding EOSLs. Antibiofilm potential of these EOSLs was also demonstrated using V. cholerae as test organism. Use of essential oils as substrates for glycolipid synthesis has not been attempted previously, and hence this is the first report.

  10. Antimicrobial activity ofRosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols:An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fethi Benbelad; Abdelmounam Khadir; Mourad Bendahou; Fatima Zenati; Chafika Bellahsene; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potency ofRosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx) essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods:Antimicrobial activity ofR. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results:An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown byR. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of bothR. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis, andCandida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition ofR. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%), 1,8-cineole (17.4%), camphene (13.3%), andα-pinene (10.9%) were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate thatR. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids,R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  11. Novel glycolipids synthesized using plant essential oils and their application in quorum sensing inhibition and as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) form an important part of traditional medicine so their anti-microbial and, in the recent past, antiquorum sensing activity has been well studied. However it is likely that due to their hydrophobic nature and reduced solubility in aqueous environments full potential of their activity cannot be realized. hence it is only rational to formulate a process to make these molecules more polar in nature. The present paper reports synthesis of sophorolipids using 12 different essential oils as substrates, thus providing surfactant-like properties to these EOs. The synthesis protocol makes the use of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 as producer organism. The production process required 7 days of incubation at 28°C and 180 rpm. Preliminary characterization of the synthesized essential oil sophorolipids (EOSLs) was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, essential oils that were incapable of mediating quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) on their own became potent quorum sensing inhibitors upon conversion into their corresponding EOSLs. Antibiofilm potential of these EOSLs was also demonstrated using V. cholerae as test organism. Use of essential oils as substrates for glycolipid synthesis has not been attempted previously, and hence this is the first report.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, John M.; Dossaji, Saifuddin F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:27721831

  13. Effects of Some Plant Essential Oils Against Botrytis cinerea and Tetranychus urticae on Grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞU, Duygu MERMER; ZOBAR, Damla

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of grapes in the world in terms of the first-ranked Turkey as well as the appropriate climatic zone, has potential for rich gene and ancient viticulture culture. Grape growers, starting from production until it reaches the consumer is faced with various problems in the process. Plant protection faced in the vineyards of the manufacturers in terms of the most important causes of losses; Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola), Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator), Gray mold (Botrytis c...

  14. Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia Fontes; Costa, Adilson Vidal; Alves, Thammyres de Assis; Galter, Iasmini Nicoli; Pinheiro, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira, Alexandre Fontes; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Ramos; Fontes, Milene Miranda Praça

    2015-10-21

    The essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated on the germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and in acting on the cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. The main component found in the oil by analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detection was carvacrol (88.61% in area). At a concentration of 0.120% (w v(-1)), the oil and its chemotypes retarded or inhibited the germination and decreased root and aerial growth in monocot and dicot species used in the bioassays. In addition, all substances caused changes in the cell cycle of the meristematic cells of L. sativa, with chromosomal alterations occurring from the 0.015% (w v(-1)) concentration. The essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacrol, and thymol have potential for use as bioherbicides.

  15. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae): A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharififard, Mona; Safdari, Farhad; Siahpoush, Amir; Kassiri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa. Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013. Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5%) of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 μl/L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the concentration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment. Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity. PMID:28032105

  16. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-banded Cock-roach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae, A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa.Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous con­tact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013.Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5% of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 µl /L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the con­centration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment.Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity.

  17. Biological control of post-harvest diseases on apple by using plant essential oils and Trichoderma culture filtrates

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pure essential oils have been purified and chemically characterized from cinnamon, clove and black pepper. All these oils have antifungal properties and when applied to apple fruits in post harvest can efficiently control Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata or Penicillium expansum. In addition, application of these compounds or Trichoderma culture filtrate can induce systemic resistance mechanisms in apple fruit. This has been confirmed through phytoalexins and proteomic analysis. The accu...

  18. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ...

  20. Antiprotozoal Activity of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In the present scenario of protozoal infections, new drugs are urgently needed to treat and control infections such as malaria, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and intestinal infections, which affect millions of people each year. In this review, we are focusing on articles related to antiprotozoal essential oils extracted from plants that have been published during the last 20 years. The data analyzed indicate that essential oils could be promising antiprotozoal agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for the treatment of diseases caused by protozoa.

  1. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  2. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%.

  4. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon

    2003-05-01

    The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

  5. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plantTetrastigma from Sabah

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Amzad Hossain; Muhammad Dawood Shah; Charles Gnanaraj; Muhammad Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plantTetrastigma from Sabah.Methods: The dry powder leaves ofTetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.Results: The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil.Conclusions:The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves ofTetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.

  6. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  7. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J; Barry-Ryan, C; Bourke, P

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise the antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) for control of Listeria spp. and spoilage bacteria using food model media based on lettuce, meat and milk. The EOs evaluated were lemon balm, marjoram, oregano and thyme and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against Enterobacter spp., Listeria spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. using the agar dilution method and/or the absorbance based microplate assay. MICs were significantly lower in lettuce and beef media than in TSB. Listeria strains were more sensitive than spoilage bacteria, and oregano and thyme were the most active EOs. EO combinations were investigated using the checkerboard method and Oregano combined with thyme had additive effects against spoilage organisms. Combining lemon balm with thyme yielded additive activity against Listeria strains. The effect of simple sugars and pH on antimicrobial efficacy of oregano and thyme was assessed in a beef extract and tomato serum model media. EOs retained greater efficacy at pH 5 and 2.32% sugar, but sugar concentrations above 5% did not negatively impact EO efficacy. In addition to proven antimicrobial efficacy, careful selection and investigation of EOs appropriate to the sensory profile of foods and composition of the food system is required. This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as moderate levels of simple sugars.

  9. Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the herbs and spices plants that come from cinnamon family which contains high quality of essential oil. In this study, the essential oil from plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted using two methods which were steam distillation and Soxhlex extraction. Steam distillation produced high quality essential oil extraction using separatory funnel. Soxhlet extraction produced essential oil in crude form using rotary evaporator to purify the extracted product. Cinnamon essential oil contains high cinnamaldehyde content which is the main component in cinnamon. The percentage of cinnamaldehyde in essential oil from steam distillation was about 90% and 62-73% from Soxhlet extraction. Cinnamon essential oil has high antimicrobial properties which formed clear zone when tested with gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis s.p and a gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. It also showed antimicrobial properties with two unknown bacteria with unknown characteristics. Cinnamaldehyde contains high antibiotic quality since it is the main compound in cinnamon.

  10. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  11. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('Carolina Sapphire').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Ellis, Jane; Gray, Sandra; Lackey, Brett R; Murphy, Christine; Khan, Ikhlas A; Wedge, David E

    2013-02-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needle-twigs (NT) and wood-bark (WB) of 'Carolina Sapphire' [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: FC: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: alpha-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: alpha-pinene 40.7%, limonene 3.2% and umbellulone 2.9%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB, respectively, and were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2 against Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 microg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI = 0.88) and FC (BDI = 0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50 = 53.6 ppm), NT (LD50 = 55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50 = 44.6 ppm) essential oils.

  12. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Synergistic Properties of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Seven Mediterranean Aromatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maria; Bessa, Lucinda J; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Teixeira, António P S; Mendes, Ângelo; Martins da Costa, Paulo; Belo, Anabela D F

    2017-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus and from Mediterranean autochthonous aromatic plants - Thymus mastichina L., Mentha pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. nepeta, Cistus ladanifer L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter ssp. viscosa - were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and NMR spectroscopy. EOs were evaluated for antimicrobial properties against several bacterial strains, using diverse methods, namely, the agar disc-diffusion method, the microdilution method, the crystal violet assay and the Live/Dead staining for assessment of biofilm formation. Potential synergy was assessed by a checkerboard method. EOs of R. officinalis and C. ladanifer showed a predominance in monoterpene hydrocarbons (> 60%); EOs of C. nepeta, M. pulegium, T. mastichina, E. globulus and F. vulgare were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (62 - 96%) whereas EO of D. viscosa was mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54%). All EOs showed antimicrobial activity; M. pulegium and E. globulus generally had the strongest antimicrobial activity. EO of C. nepeta was the most promising in hampering the biofilm formation. The combinations D. viscosa/C. nepeta and E. globulus/T. mastichina were synergistic against Staphylococcus aureus. These results support the notion that EOs from the aromatic plants herein reported should be further explored as potential pharmaceuticals and/or food preservatives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists.

  14. An In Vitro Attempt for Controlling Severe Phytopathogens and Human Pathogens Using Essential Oils from Mediterranean Plants of Genus Schinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Hazem Salaheldin; Ghanney, Nadia; Mang, Stefania Mirela; Ferchichi, Ali; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-03-01

    Growing concerns about food safety and environmental protection enhanced the need for new and safe plant disease control strategies. The chemical composition of the three essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and leaves of Schinus molle, growing in Tunisia, was studied by GC and GC-MS. In all, 12 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of terpene compounds. α-Pinene, α-phellandrene, and D-limonene were the major constituents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of three EOs derived from plants of genus Schinus and extracted from leaves and fruits of S. terebinthifolius and leaves of S. molle. Both antifungal and antibacterial activities of the EOs were examined. The antifungal activity of the studied EOs was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with the systemic fungicide azoxystrobin used at 0.8 μL mL(-1). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against three strains of Gram-positive (G+ve) bacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis and Clavibacter michiganensis) and four strains of Gram-negative (G-ve) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola) compared with the synthetic antibiotic tetracycline at a concentration of 1600 μg mL(-1). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the studied EOs has been evaluated against the above microorganisms using the 96-well microplate method. Tested microorganisms exhibited different levels of sensitivity to each tested EO. All investigated EOs reduced the fungal mycelial growth when used at low concentrations from 250 to 1000 ppm and from 2000 to 8000 ppm against C. acutatum and B. cinerea, respectively. Higher concentrations of the same EOs exhibited a fungicidal effect against both mitosporic fungi. The EO extracted from leaves of S. terebinthifolius significantly inhibited the growth

  15. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, >17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant.

  16. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  17. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents.

  18. 四种植物挥发油对食用油脂抗氧化作用的研究%STUDY ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR KINDS OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OIL TO EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江琰; 陈训

    2006-01-01

    本文采用硫氰酸铁法,以没食子酸丙脂为对照,研究4种植物挥发油对食用植物油脂的抗氧化活性.结果表明,姜黄、生姜、木姜子、桔皮挥发油对黄豆油、芝麻油、油菜籽油、花生仁油等食用植物油脂均具有较强的抗氧化作用.%Antioxidative activities of some kinds of plant essential oil in the four kinds of edible vegetable oil, including soybean oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil and gingili oil, were investigated in comparison with GP by the thiocyanate method. Those plant essential oil are gained from curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel. The antioxidative activities of the essential oil of curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel in edible oil are quite strong.

  19. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali akbar ameri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of nitrogen for medicinal plants production, might increase flower dry matter, essential oil and extract yield and reduce cost of yield production. A two year (2005 and 2006 field study was conducted in Torogh region(36,10° N,59.33° E and 1300 m altitude of Mashhad, Iran, to observe the effects of different nitrogen and densities on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in a multi-harvested Marigold (Calendula officinalis. The levels of Nitrogen fertilizer (N were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and levels of density were 20, 40, 60 and 80 plant m-2. The combined analysis results revealed significant effects of N and density levels on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and NUE of Marigold. The highest dry flower production obtained by 150 kg ha-1 N and 80 plant m-2 plant population (102.86 g m-2. The higher flower dry matter production caused more essential oil and extract production in high nitrogen and density levels. Agronomic N-use efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N applied, physiological efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N absorbed and fertilizer N-recovery efficiency (kg N absorbed per kg N applied, expressed as % for marigold across treatments ranged from 6.8 to14.9, 12.3 to 33.6 and 55.5 to 77.6, respectively and all were greater for N application at 50 compared with150 kg N ha-1, and under high density than low density. The amount of essential oil and extract per 100g flower dry matter decreased during the flower harvesting period. The higher amount of essential oil and extract obtained at early flowering season. The essential oil and extract ranged from 0.22 to 0.12 (ml. per 100g flower dry matter and 2.74 to 2.13 (g per 100g flower dry matter respectively.

  20. Variations in Essential Oil Yield, Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. at Different Growth Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Mei; Pang, Yu-Xin; Yu, Fu-Lai; Chen, Ce; Liu, Li-Wei; Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Hu, Xuan

    2016-08-05

    Blumea balsamifera, also named Ainaxiang, is widely used as an ancient medicinal herb in tropical and subtropical Asia. It is rich in essential oils. In this work the essential oils of B. balsamifera from different plant organs and in different months were extracted, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that essential oil yield of young leaves was the highest (0.65 mL/100 g), followed by mature leaves (0.57 mL/100 g), and the oil yield was higher in October (0.47 mL/100 g) than other months. A total of 44 compounds were identified, representing 92.64%-96.71% of the oil. Eighteen common chemical components were found among the six plant organs, representing >80% of the oil constituents. l-borneol was the main ingredient in leaves, and its content was the highest in senescent leaves and in December. In the essential oils of young shoots and young stems, the main component was dimethoxydurene. Antioxidant activity was also determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The results indicated that the β-carotene bleaching activity was far stronger than the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and the young leaves and young shoots showed stronger antioxidant activity. Dimethoxydurene, β-caryophyllene, and α-caryophyllene play a positive role in good antioxidant activity, while β-eudesmol, phytol, and tetradecanal play a negative role. The antioxidant activity revealed in this study might help in developing this promising bioresource for use in the medicinal and cosmetic industries.

  1. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  2. Essential Oil Repellents- A short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V GEETHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the most important of insects in terms of public health importance which transmit a number of diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Japanese B encephalitis, filariasis and malaria, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control and personal protection from mosquito bites are currently the most important measures to prevent these diseases. Essential oils from plants have been recognized as important natural resources of insecticides because some are selective, biodegrade to non-toxic products and have few effects on non-target organisms and environment. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of mono - terpenes and sesquiterpenes. In some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Azadirchata indica, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita for control of vector- borne disease

  3. Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is of priority in rural. Tanzania where whole plants are currently used as repellents against malaria vectors. ... plant materials do degrade upon exposure to bright sunlight and high temperatures. Volatility of the essential oils has been ...

  4. A blend of essential plant oils used as an additive to alter silage fermentation or used as a feed additive for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Williams, P; Schmidt, R J; Hu, W

    2008-12-01

    A blend of essential plant oils was evaluated for its effects on silage fermentation and animal performance. In the first experiment, the blend of essential oils was mixed with freshly chopped whole-plant corn to achieve a concentration of 0, 40, or 80 mg of active product per kilogram of fresh forage weight. Whole-plant corn was also mixed with a buffered propionic acid-based product at 0.2% of fresh forage weight. The blend of essential oils did not affect the populations of yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, or enterobacteria; the fermentation end products; or the aerobic stability of the corn silage. Addition of the buffered propionic acid additive moderately reduced the production of acids during fermentation and resulted in a small reduction in the numbers of yeasts after ensiling, but did not affect aerobic stability. In a second experiment, 30 Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 26 multiparous) averaging 118 +/- 70 d in milk and producing 38 +/- 16 kg of milk/d were fed a total mixed ration, once daily, that consisted of (on a DM basis) 25% corn silage, 15% alfalfa silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 50% concentrate. One-half of the cows were fed a blend of essential oils that was mixed directly into their total mixed ration to provide 1.2 g/cow per d for 9 wk. Cows fed the essential oils ate 1.9 kg more dry matter/d and produced 2.7 kg more 3.5% fat-corrected milk/d than did cows fed the control diet. The percentages of milk fat and protein, the somatic cell count numbers, and the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by treatment. Feed efficiency, change in body weight, and change in body condition scoring were also similar between treatments. After 12 h of incubation, the addition of a moderate dose and a high dose of essential oils to in vitro ruminal fermentations had no effect on the concentration of total VFA compared with the control treatment. However, they decreased the molar proportions of acetic, butyric, and valeric acids and increased

  5. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  6. Essential oils in broiler nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung-woo

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the poss

  7. Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K

    Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare.

  8. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.

  9. Novel Glycolipids Synthesized Using Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Quorum Sensing Inhibition and as Antibiofilm Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchira Mukherji; Asmita Prabhune

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) form an important part of traditional medicine so their anti-microbial and, in the recent past, antiquorum sensing activity has been well studied. However it is likely that due to their hydrophobic nature and reduced solubility in aqueous environments full potential of their activity cannot be realized. hence it is only rational to formulate a process to make these molecules more polar in nature. The present paper reports synthesis of sophorolipids using 12 different esse...

  10. Applications of plant essential oils in meat preservation%植物精油在肉类保藏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杰; 王银桂

    2016-01-01

    Meats and meat products were easily corrupted during storage, transportation and con⁃sumption for the high water activity and abundant nutrition. So it is very important to study meat preser⁃vation. Plant essential oil used in meat preservation had been reported because of its antibacterial activi⁃ty. But the domestic study was very few. Therefore, the application of plant essential oil in meat preser⁃vation was summarized. It was expected to provide theoretical supports for developing plant essential oil as preservative in meat preservation.%肉及肉制品由于其营养丰富、水分活度高在贮藏运输和消费过程中易发生腐败变质,因此研究肉品的保鲜具有重要意义。植物精油由于其抗菌等活性在肉品保藏中的应用已有报道,但国内研究还较少,因此就植物精油在肉品保藏中的应用进行综述,以期为植物精油作为肉品保藏的保鲜剂或保鲜材料的开发提供理论依据。

  11. 植物精油生物活性作用机理研究进展%Advances in Mechanism of Biological Activities of Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建烟; 李永裕; 吴少华

    2012-01-01

    Plant essential oils have multifold biological activities,have been widely used in medical care,food industry, cosmetic,agricultural fields and etc. In this paper,the mechanism of several biological activities of plant essential oils have been summarized,such as antibacterial,anticancer.antineoplastic.antioxidative,delaying senile,preventing and curing cardiovascular diseases,antiviral,anti-inflammatory and many other biological activities. Then,some research emphases and breakthroughs of plant essential oils in the future have been proposed.%植物精油具有多种生物活性,被广泛应用于医疗保健、食品工业、化妆品、农业等多个领域.本文综述植物精油抗菌、抗癌、抑制肿瘤细胞生长、抗氧化、延缓衰老、防治心血管疾病、抗病毒、消炎等多种生物活性的作用机理,并展望植物精油今后研究的重点及突破方向.

  12. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils and Hexane Extracts of Two Turkish Spice Plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. Against Foodborne Microorganisms

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    Bülent Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistillated essential oils and hexane extracts of two spice plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. C. erythraeum oil is rich in aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols and acids and (E-2-decenal (26.1%, (E-2-decen-1-ol (15.7%, (E-2-dodecenal (13.2% and decanal (7.8% were the predominant components. However, ethyl palmitate (16.4%, 2-decenoic acid (14.1% and (E-2-dodecenal (5.2% were the major components of the hexane extract of C. erythraeum. E. tenuifolia oil contained mainly methyl eugenol (53.0%, p-cymene (17.0% and α-phellandrene (13.2%. The hexane extract displayed a different chemical composition, and n-tricosane (75.0% and n-pentacosane (7.6% were found to be the major compounds. The oils showed antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms and they were more active against the tested fungal species as compared with bacteria. The growths of important food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also inhibited by the oils. However, hexane extract of C. erythraeum was showed weak antibacterial activity against limited number of tested bacteria. The current results showed that the essential oils of C. erythraeumand E. tenuifolia can be used in food preservation.

  14. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

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    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  15. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  16. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

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    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%).

  17. Efficacies of nisin A and nisin V semipurified preparations alone and in combination with plant essential oils for controlling Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Daly, Karen; O'Connor, Paula M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2015-04-01

    The food-borne pathogenic bacterium Listeria is known for relatively low morbidity and high mortality rates, reaching up to 25 to 30%. Listeria is a hardy organism, and its control in foods represents a significant challenge. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the bacteriocin nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of semipurified preparations (SPP) containing either nisin A or an enhanced bioengineered derivative, nisin V, alone and in combination with low concentrations of the essential oils thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, to control Listeria monocytogenes in both laboratory media and model food systems. Combinations of nisin V-containing SPP (25 μg/ml) with thymol (0.02%), carvacrol (0.02%), or cinnamaldehyde (0.02%) produced a significantly longer lag phase than any of the essential oil-nisin A combinations. In addition, the log reduction in cell counts achieved by the nisin V-carvacrol or nisin V-cinnamaldehyde combinations was twice that of the equivalent nisin A-essential oil treatment. Significantly, this enhanced activity was validated in model food systems against L. monocytogenes strains of food origin. We conclude that the fermentate form of nisin V in combination with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde offers significant advantages as a novel, natural, and effective means to enhance food safety by inhibiting food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes.

  18. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

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    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  19. 植物精油在食品保鲜中的研究进展%Research progress of the food preservation by plant essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿鑫; 江琳琳; 朱娜; 潘磊庆; 屠康

    2012-01-01

    Plant essential oils are important secondary metabolites of plant.It is composed by the simple compounds which have relatively small molecular weight and a certain aroma.Plant essential oils are used more and more widely as a natural fresh keeping agent in the field of food preservation with a variety of biological activity.This article introduced its application in fruits preservation,vegetables,meat and meat products,fish products,dairy products and so on.The problems of essential oils applied in the field of food preservation were summarized.The future development trends and application prospects of essential oils were forecasted.The article provided a basis for future research and application.%植物精油是重要的植物次生代谢产物,由分子量相对较小的简单化合物组成,具有一定芳香气味。由于植物精油具有多种生物活性,作为一种天然保鲜剂在食品保鲜领域的应用越来越广泛。本文介绍了其在水果、蔬菜、肉及肉制品、鱼类产品、乳制品等保鲜领域的应用,并探讨了植物精油在食品保鲜方面存在的问题,并对其发展方向和应用前景作了展望,为植物精油的进一步开发研究及应用提供了依据。

  20. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton

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    Pandey Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vitex negundo completely inhibited the growth of test bacteria. Furthermore MIC & MBC values of C. ambrosioides oil were least for Erw. herbicola (0.25 & 2.0 μl/ml and Ps. putida (0.12 & 1.0 μl/ml respectively than other 7 oils as well as Agromycin and Streptomycin drugs used in current study. GC and GC-MS analysis of Chenopodium oil revealed presence of 125 major and minor compounds, out of them, 14 compounds were recognized. The findings concluded that Chenopodium oil may be regarded as safe antibacterial agent for the management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

  1. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Askual Girmay; Samuel Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia.Methods:the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure.Results:The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control.Conclusions:This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future.

  2. Inhibitory Activities and Application of Four Plant Essential Oils%4种植物精油的抑菌活性及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓业成; 宁蕾

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory activities of four plant essential oils against eleven animal pathogenic bacteria and environmental mould were determined using broth dilution method and gaseous fumigation. The results showed that The MICs of oils from Litsea mollis , Citrus reticulata, Erigeron acer and Ageratum cony-zoides to the tested animal pathogenic bacteria were 0. 062 5Z~0. 5,0. 125~1 >2~4 and 0- 062 5~0. 125 mL/L,respectively. The inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis,C. reticulata and E. acer were high, and that of A. coNryzoides oil was relatively low. At a dose of 16 μ.L per utensil,the four plant essential oils had inhibition against environmental mould,and the inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis and C. reticulata were higher than that of another two oils. The oils of L, mollis and C. reticulata also had inhibitory effect on mould growth of bread at 27 °C and RH 80%. By studying the formulation of mouth-wash of plant essential oil,the optimum proportion of all components in the mouthwash was confirmed, and the mouthwash of L. mollis essential oil prepared. The removing rate of mouth bacteria by the new mouthwash reached 39. 96% , which was similar to the removing rate by commercial mouthwash and met the demand of industrial product. The principal compounds of four plant essential oils were also identified using GC/MS technique.%采用液体培养基稀释法测定4种植物精油对11种动物病原细菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC),山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油、飞蓬精油和胜红蓟精油的MIC分别为0.062 5~0.5、0.125~1、2~4和0.062 5~0.125mL/L;山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油和胜红蓟精油对供试病原细菌的抑菌活性好,飞蓬精油的抑菌活性相对较差.采用气态熏蒸法测定4种植物精油对环境常见霉菌的抑菌效果,当精油剂量为16μL/皿时,4种植物精油对环境霉菌有抑制作用,山苍子精油和南丰蜜橘精油的抑制效果较好(此2种精油在27℃下对面包霉变

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Satureja hortensis As a Potent Medical Plant Using Traditional Hydrodistillation

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    M. Mohammadhosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-distilled essential oils, which were obtained from the fresh aerial parts of Satureja hortensis were analyzed by means of GC and CC/MS instruments. The plant was collected during the flowering stage from Foroomad Mountains, Semnan Province, and heart of Iran. Twenty compounds were identified in the different samples analyzed, representing 100% of the total oil contents. In terms of general categories, monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the chemical profile of the oils with γ-terpinene (27.4%, carvacrol (23.7%, p-cymene (11.1%, α-terpinene (10.2%, α-pinene (5.1% and myrcene (5.1% as the main constituent components. The other constituents were found to be α-thujene (3.9%, β-pinene (3.0%, sylvestrene (3.0%, α-phellandrene (1.2% and (--terpinen-4-ol (1.0%.

  4. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

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    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  5. Eucalyptus oleosa Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Oils from Different Plant Parts (Stems, Leaves, Flowers and Fruits

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    Mohamed Larbi Khouja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (stems, adult leaves, immature flowers and fruits of Eucalyptus oleosa were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their chemical composition. According to GC-FID and GC-MS, the principal compound of the stem, immature flowers and the fruit oils was 1,8-cineole, representing 31.5%, 47.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Spathulenol (16.1% and γ-eudesmol (15.0% were the two principal compounds of adult leaves oil. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the oils of the four parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. In the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate assay, the most active part was the adult leaves, with a IC50 value 13.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, followed by stems (IC50 = 43.5 ± 1.4 mg/L. The essential oils showed a better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant antifungal activity also was observed against yeast-like fungi. A strong correlations between oxygenated monoterpenes and antimicrobial activity (especially 1,8-cineole were noted (R2 = 0.99, 0.97 and 0.79 for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively.

  6. Time-dependent antibacterial effects of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide in teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Sahebi, Safoora; Gholami, Ahmad; Delroba, Alireza; Kiani, Amin; Iraji, Aida; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2016-02-01

    In the present in vitro study, we investigated the time-related antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide ([Ca[OH]2 ) to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from root canals. A new strain of E. faecalis (Enterococcus spp. AGH04) was isolated from a previously root-filled tooth with persistent apical periodontitis. The 16S rRNA sequence was analyzed and deposited in GeneBank under accession number KF465681. A total of 108 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with this bacterial strain and treated with Aloe vera essential oil, Z. multiflora essential oil, and Ca(OH)2 for 1, 7, and 14 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the oils. The percentage reduction from initial c.f.u./mL counts were calculated and analyzed. Carvacrol, thymol, and linalool were the main constituents of both essential oils. The c.f.u./mL count reductions significantly increased for all three medicaments when the contact time was extended. A statistically-significant difference was observed between the medicaments after 1 and 7 days, but there was no significant difference after 14 days. Both medicinal herbs showed equal antimicrobial efficiency against E. faecalis, comparable to Ca(OH)2 for the prolonged contact time of 14 days. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information.

  8. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

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    de Boer Hugo J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

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    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  10. A comparison of eight plant essential oils against microorganisms%八种植物精油体外抑菌效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国林; 张忠; 毕阳; 刘瑶瑶; 邓惠文

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils was extracted by steam distillation from eight plants ( Cinnamomum cassia, Syzygium aromaticum, Thymus vulgaris,Cuminum cyminum, Angelica sinensis,Zanthoxylum bungeanumm, Piper longum L, Amomum tsaoko) .The agar well diffusion technique was applied to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracts from eight plants against four fungi(A.alternate, T.roseum,P.expansum,A. flavus) and four bacteria( 6. subtilis,P. fluorescence, S.aureus, E.coli) .The result showed that cinnamon essential oil displayed the strongest antimicrobial activity both on T. roseum and E. colli which inhibitory rate ( IR) reached 95.56% and 86.79% respectively.AII of these essential oils had antifungal activity on P.expansum,A.flavus,B.subtilis,P.fluorescence and E.coli.The A.tsao-ko essential oil also showed strong antibacterial activity against four bacteria and the IR reached about 80%.It was concluded that antimicrobial activity among these plant essential oils had difference, C.cassia essential oil possess the strongest antifungal activity, but as a novel antibacterial agent, A. tsao- ko essential oil deserve to further study.%采用水蒸馏方法提取肉桂、丁香、百里香、孜然、当归、花椒、荜拔和草果精油,应用琼脂平板打孔法测定了八种植物精油对 Alternaria alternate,Trichothecium roseum,Penicillium expansum,Aspergillus flavus四种真菌和Bacillus subtilis,Pseudomonas fluorescence,Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli四种腐败细菌的体外抑菌活性.结果表明:肉桂精油对供试真菌和细菌均有显著的抑制效果,真菌中对T.roseum的作用最强,抑菌率达到95.56%,细菌中对E.colli的抑制作用最强,抑菌率为86.79%.八种精油对P.expansum,A.flavus,B.subtilis,P.fluorescence和E.coli均有抑菌活性,在供试细菌中,草果精油对四种细菌的抑制作用仅次于肉桂精油,抑制率达到80%左右.结论:八种植物精油都具有抑菌活性,但存在差异,其中

  11. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  12. Review on Extraction Technologies of Essential Oil from Plants%植物精油提取技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天明

    2016-01-01

    精油提取技术对精油品质以及植物原料的综合利用都具有重要的影响。本文综述了从实验室到工业化精油生产中常用的8类提取技术及其最新研究进展:共水蒸馏,水蒸气蒸馏,同时蒸馏萃取,压榨法,超临界流体萃取,亚临界水萃取,无溶剂微波萃取和即时控制降压提取法,并指出了这些提取技术的优缺点及精油提取产业的一些发展趋势。%Extraction technologies have great importance to the quality of essential oil and full utilization of plant materials.8 kinds of essential oil extraction technologies which were frequently used in the lab or in the industry were summarized , including hydro distillation , steam distillation , simultaneous distillation extraction , cold pressing , supercritical CO2 extraction, subcritical water extraction , solvent-free microwave extraction and instant controlled pressure drop extraction.Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies were given as well as several tendencies in the extraction of essential oil .

  13. Research development of the new extraction techniques of plant essential oil%植物精油提取新技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡基智; 林杰

    2012-01-01

    The chemical separation technology research is unceasingly researched,the extraction of essential oils has been further development,a lot of new extraction techniques and methods appeared.The extraction of essential oils,including the supercritical CO_2,extraction,continuous subcritical extraction,microwave extraction, microcapsule aqueous two-phase extraction,ultrasonic extraction,molecular distillation,was introduced,and the development prospect of plant essential oil extraction technology was put forward.%随着化工分离技术研究的不断深入,植物精油的提取技术也得到了进一步发展,出现了很多新的提取技术和方法。介绍了植物精油的提取技术,包括超临界CO~2萃取、连续亚临界萃取、微波萃取、微胶囊双水相萃取、超声波萃取、分子蒸馏、酶法提取等方法,对这些技术进行了分析,同时展望了植物精油提取技术的发展前景。

  14. Antimicrobial and physico-chemical effects of essential oils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... extracted from local plants Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. and Pimenta racemosa ... Based on the MICs determined, essential oils were added to fermented milk and ... and preservatives are applied to reach this purpose.

  15. 天然植物精油提取方法研究进展%Research Progress of Natural Plant Essential Oil Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 张献忠; 高宏建; 尹洁; 叶兴乾

    2012-01-01

    Plant essential oils are formed by secondary metabolites of aromatic plants.They are valuable natural products and are used as raw materials in many fields,including spices,cosmetics,industries,pharmaceutical and agriculture as they have many biological activities.There are several methods for extracting essential oils.This paper introduced the extraction methods of plant essential oil and the principles.Meanwhile,advantages and disadvantages,application scope,and research progress of these methods were summarized.%植物精油是一类天然植物次生代谢物,由于其具有增香、杀菌、抗病毒和抗氧化等生物活性,在香料、化妆品、食品工业、制药、医疗及农业害虫等方面得到了广泛应用。植物精油的提取方法多种多样,且不同用途的精油产品需要用不同的提取方法来生产。就植物精油传统提取方法及新兴提取方法进行综述,并且总结了这些方法的原理、优缺点以及适用范围,对未来植物精油提取方法的发展进行展望。

  16. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  17. ESSENTIAL OIL OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Juraeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into component composition of raw calendula’s essential oil. The study was conducted by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry method under the following conditions: column - CP-Wax58FFAPCB24,5 mmx 250mm x0,20 mmnominal, the mobile-phase-He (helium, speed-column mobile phase-1.0 ml /min, volume sample injection-5mkl; resolutions(5:1, in the Split, high-boiling chamber -220 ◦C, detector temperature 275◦C; Aux-200 ◦ C, column temperature 70C◦ gradually increased from 10◦C / min to 250◦C, maintained to the end of analysis temperature regime(250◦Cfor 5min.In the course of the research the following substances were indentified - 1H cyclopropazulen-0, 981%, α-amorphous-1, 926%, γ-cadinene-11, 598%, 1H-cyclopropazulen 4-oldecahydro-1-0.825% viridiflorol-2, 029%, β-cubeb -3.809%, T-1 muurololnaftalenol-8.522%.In addition, it was ascertained that in different parts of the world calendula’s essential oils differ from each other in qualitative composition and quantitative components.

  18. Research on the effects of the ‘Dance of the Spiral’ methodology upon the physiological parameters of plants and the essential oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doncho Krastev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “The Dance of the Spiral” is the original methodology consisting of physical exercises that based on ancient health and longevity practices. A research has been done in which this methodology has been applied to plants. Eight plants were chosen including common yarrow, wood violet, dandelion, common chicory, shepherd’s purse, cranesbill, broadleaf plantain and snowdrop, each of them grows the best in one of the eight directions. The planting was performed in eight directions, since each exercise supposedly has an effect on the state of health. Two circles were empirically defined – the Spiral and the Antispiral. Further clinical trials with 20 volunteers suffered from neurological, gastro-intestinal, cardio-vascular, and articular conditions and diseases, who stayed consecutively in the Antispiral and Spiral plant circles for 6 min in each circle were performed based on their subjective assessment of their state of health and their experience after their being stayed in the Antispiral and Spiral circles as a relaxing effect (the Antispiral circle and a stimulating effect (the Spiral circle. The research involves the composition of essential oil extracts by 1H NMR, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as the spectral analysis by the methods of NES and DNES of water extracts from the common plant (Achillea millefolium from the control group growing in its natural habitat and from the plants grown correspondingly in the Spiral and Antispiral circles. The result in the sample of common yarrow from the Spiral circle is an increase of the average energy of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules. The result in the sample of common yarrow from the Antispiral circle is a decrease of the average energy of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules. The essential oil composition of the samples planted in the Spiral and Antispiral circles is not identical in the quantitative and qualitative composition regarding the 83

  19. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent.

  20. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Moazeni; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Ali Akbar Hoseini; Amir Mootabi Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica) essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions: The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

  1. 三种植物精油抑菌效果的研究%Study on Antimicrobial Activity of the Three Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 余雄; 阿依古丽; 龙宣杞; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The antibacterial activities of lavender, rose and grape seed plant essential oils with different concentrations are studied in this paper. [ Method] Essential oils antibacterial activities were investigated by disc diffusion assay method . [ Result] Any concentration of lavender oil and rose oil could inhibit all bacterial species tested in our study, 3 % of lavender oil and rose oil showed the highest antibacterial activity, and activities of grape seed oil were relatively less than those of the others. The antibacterial activity on bacterial species tested in our study of 3% lavender essential oil were Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus subtilis > Staphylicoccus albus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 3% of rose oil essential oil were Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pertosaceus > Staphylococcus aureus > Staphylicoccus albus > Lnctobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Bacillus subtilis. [Conclusion]The study proved that 3% lavender oil and rose oils had strong antibacterial activities to the bacteria mentioned above and they can be used as natural antibacterial agents.%[目的]研究不同浓度的新疆薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种的抑菌效果.[方法]采用滤纸片扩散法.[结果]不同浓度的薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种具有一定的抑菌活性.3%的薰衣草和玫瑰精油对供试菌抑菌效果最好,其中3%薰衣草精油对7种供试菌种抑菌5种菌的活性强度为:金黄色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌,3%玫瑰精油为:粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌>金黄色葡萄球菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>枯草芽孢杆菌.葡萄籽精油的抑菌效果相对其它两种精油较弱.[结论]薰衣草和玫瑰精油对上述细菌具有较强的抑菌效果,可作为天然抑菌剂.

  2. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Boonruad, Thidarat; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Mulla, Mir S

    2006-06-01

    Diethyl methyl benzamide, or deet, a commercial plant-based repellent (Repel Care), and essential ils from 3 species of plants (finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes), steam distillated and formulated as insect repellents, were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand. Field trials were conducted against wild mosquitoes in Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi Province, and in the Thap Lan National Park Headquarters, Nadee District, Pranchinburi Province; anthroophilic black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Forestry Fire Control Station in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chomthong district, Chiang Mai Province; and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in the Khao Yai National Park, Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The 3 experimental plant-based essential oil formulations as well as Repel Care and deet provided complete protection from mosquito landing and biting for up to 9 h (duration of the experiment). Similar results were obtained with the 5 products against black flies, providing 100% protection for 9 h but 96-82% protection after 10 and 11 h posttreatment. The 5 repellent products also provided 100% protection against land leeches for at least 8 h. Thi is the 1st report of repellency of plant-based repellents against black flies and land leeches in Thailand. The identification and availability of inexpensive sources of plant-based oils, i.e., finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes providing long-lasting repellency against blood-sucking organisms are promising leads into commercial production of relatively safe and effective repellents.

  3. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  4. Monoterpenes in essential oils. Biosynthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Tavera, H

    1999-01-01

    Monoterpenes are compounds found in the essential oils extracted from many plants, including fruits, vegetables, spices and herbs. These compounds contribute to the flavor and aroma of plant from which they are extracted. Monoterpenes are acyclic, monocyclic, or bicyclic C30 compounds synthesized by monoterpene synthases using geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) as substrate. GPP is also the precursor in the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), two important compounds in cell metabolism of animals, plants and yeast. Monoterpene cyclases produce cyclic monoterpenes through a multistep mechanism involving a universal intermediate, a terpinyl cation which can be transformed to several compounds. Experimental studies, using animal cancer models, have demonstrated that some monoterpenes possess anticarcinogenic properties, acting at different cellular and molecular levels. From these discoveries it seems clear that monoterpenes could be considered as effective, nontoxic dietary antitumorigenic agents that hold promise as a novel class of anticancer drugs.

  5. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes of essential oils extracted from three spontaneous plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolé, I H N; Guelbeogo, W M; Nébié, R; Costantini, C; Sagnon, N; Kabore, Z I; Traoré, S A

    2003-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of three spontaneous plants naturally growing in Burkina Faso, i.e. Cymbopogon proximus, Lippia multiflora and Ocimum canum, exhibited larvicidal activity by the WHO standard protocol against 3rd and 4th instar F1-larvae of field-collected mosquitoes vectors of human disease, namely Aedes aegypti and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, An. arabiensis and An. gambiae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae s.l. larvae ranged between 53.5-258.5 ppm and 61.9-301.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 estimates ranged 74.8-334.8 ppm for Ae. aegypti, and 121.6-582.9 ppm for An. gambiae s.l. Ovicidal activity against eggs of An. gambiae s.l. was also demonstrated. The LC50 values for An. gambiae s.l. eggs ranged between 17.1-188.7 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 33.5-488 ppm. Lippia multiflora showed the highest activity against An. gambiae s.l. eggs and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas no difference was found among C. proximus and L. multiflora in their activity against An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Of the three plants, essential oils from O. canum had the lowest activity against both eggs and larvae. Eggs were more susceptible than larvae. Ae. aegypti larvae were more susceptible than larvae of An. gambiae s.l.

  6. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne;

    2013-01-01

    in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot......, tillering, panicles/plant and the grain yield by 25-55 % of the irrigated rice. In addition, the brown spot severity was reduced by 36-42 For the upland rice, the treatments led to similar results with the grain yield increase of 54-137 % and 20-80 % reduction in the brown spot severity. From our results...

  7. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Ferrari, Federico; Giannakou, Ioannis; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2010-07-14

    Eight essential oils (EOs) as well as 13 single terpenes were studied for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , for three immersion periods (24, 48, and 96 h). The EOs were isolated from eight Greek Lamiaceae species: Melissa officinalis , Sideritis clandestina , Origanum dictamnus , Ocimum basilicum , Mentha pulegium , Origanum vulgare , Vitex agnus castus , and Salvia officinalis . The EOs nematicidal activity was correlated to their chemical composition as well as to the pure terpenes' activity tested individually. Clear dose and time response relationships were established. The EOs of O. vulgare, O. dictamnus, M. pulegium, and M. officinalis exhibited high nematicidal activity against M. incognita, and the EC(50) values (96 h) were calculated at 1.55, 1.72, 3.15, and 6.15 muL/mL, respectively. The activity of the nematicidal terpenes was found to decrease in the order l-carvone, pulegone, trans-anethole, geraniol, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, and the respective EC(50) values (24 h) were calculated in the range of 115-392 mug/mL. Terpenes tested individually were more active than as components in EO, implementing antagonistic action.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rim Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.

  10. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants Estudo preliminar das propriedades moluscicidas e larvicidas de alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes de plantas medicinais

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Aristides M.; Lima, Edeltrudes de O.; Evandro L. de Souza; Margareth de F. F. M. Diniz; Sônia Pereira Leite; Aline L. Xavier; Medeiros,Isac A. de

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward...

  11. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  12. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  13. First report on Meloidogyne chitwoodi hatching inhibition activity of essential oils and essential oils fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Jorge; Sena, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Maleita, Carla; Abrantes, Isabel; Bennett, Richard; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo,Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia root-knot nematode (CRKN), Meloidogyne chitwoodi, is an EPPO A2 type quarantine pest since 1998. This nematode causes severe damage in economically important crops such as potato and tomato, making agricultural products unacceptable for the fresh market and food processing. Commonly used nematicidal synthetic chemicals are often environmentally unsafe. Essential oils (EOs) may constitute safer alternatives against RKN. EOs, isolated from 56 plant samples, ...

  14. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  15. Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ayşe Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Özçelik, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%.

  16. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  17. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  18. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  19. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbaszadegan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO, (ii to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and chlorhexidine (CHX, (iii to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%. All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms.

  20. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ρ-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure

  1. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  2. 植物精油在食品保鲜中的应用研究%Research Progress in Preservative Effect of Plant Essential Oil on Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟丽; 包怡红

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is a big problem of industry .We often add preservative in food to prevent food spoilage and extend shelf life .Essential oils as an important source of natural preservative ,form inhibitory atmosphere a‐round food in direct contact or fumigation way .In this paper ,antibacterial activity ,the effects and possible mecha‐nisms of plant essential oils involved in the preservation of food are discussed ,which is expected to provide a theo‐retical reference for the development of natural food preservatives .%食品保鲜是食品工业所面临的一大难题,为了防止食品腐败变质,延长食品货架期,常常在食品中添加保鲜剂。植物精油作为天然源保鲜剂的重要来源,是一种挥发性较好的保鲜剂,以直接接触或熏蒸的方式在食物周围形成抑菌氛围,从而达到防腐保鲜。主要阐述了植物精油的抑菌活性、抑菌机理及其在食品保鲜中的应用,为食品天然源保鲜剂的开发和应用提供参考。

  3. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

    OpenAIRE

    Babar Ali; Naser Ali Al-Wabel; Saiba Shams; Aftab Ahamad; Shah Alam Khan; Firoz Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of es...

  4. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo, Patrícia Maria; YANO, Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  5. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  6. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  7. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future.

  8. Transformation of the limonene synthase gene into peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and preliminary studies on the essential oil profiles of single transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyanski, S; May, R A; Loskutov, A; Ball, T M; Sink, K C

    1999-08-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated and direct gene transfer into protoplasts using PEG were both successfully used to produce stable, transformed peppermint plants (Mentha×piperita L. cultivar Black Mitcham) with the limonene synthase gene. Stem internode explants found to possess a high level of organogenesis through adventitious shoot formation were subjected to Agrobacterium tumefaciens disarmed strain GV3101 (pMP90). Following the development of an efficient protoplast-to-plant cycle from stem-isolated protoplasts, they were used in direct gene transformations. In both cases the binary vector pGA643 carrying the nptII/GUS genes, both driven by the CaMV35S promoter, was used in preliminary plant-transformation studies. Later, GUS was replaced with the limonene synthase gene. Kanamycin was used as a selective agent in all transformation experiments to obtain both transformed protoplast-derived calli as well as putative transgenic shoots regenerated from internode explants. Both types of transformation resulted in transgenic plants which were detected using PCR and confirmed by Southern-blot hybridizations. Southern analysis revealed that the method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is superior to the direct DNA uptake into protoplasts with regard to the stability of the insert during the transformation event. Single transgenic plants were grown to 10% flowering in a greenhouse and the plants derived both by the Agrobacterium and the protoplast-derived methods were generally observed to have essential oil profiles characterized by a high-menthone, low-menthol, high-menthofuran and -pulegone content in comparison to a typical mid-west peppermint. Limonene varied only slightly, around 1.2%, in transgenic plants produced by both methods.

  9. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  10. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found.

  11. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  12. The effect of essential plant oils on mineral composition of egg mass and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert HERKEĽ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to analyze the dietary effect of pumpkin and flaxseed oils on mineral composition of egg mass and blood parameters of laying hens. At 38 weeks of age, Lohmann Brown Lite hens were housed in three-floor cages, divided into three dietary groups (C-control, E1-pumpkin oil (3%, E2-flaxseed oil (3%. There were housed six hens in one cage. A total 18 hens were monitored. In the control group hens were fed with standard complete feed mixture for laying hens and in the experimental groups by feed mixtures with supplementation of pumpkin or flaxseed oils. Vitamin E was added into feed mixture in the experimental groups. The experiment lasted 52 days. Twelve eggs from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. As regards the mineral composition of eggs, only concentrations of calcium after both oil supplementations and zinc after flaxseed oil supplementation in diet were significantly (P0.05 influence on enzymatic and protein profile.

  13. Possibility for use essential oils in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry with special emphasis on oregano oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Nedeljković-Trailović Jelena; Trailović Saša; Ivanović Saša; Milovanović Mirjana; Krnjaić Dejan

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the latest studies on possible applications of oregano essential oil in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. The first part of the paper deals with the definition of essential oils, possibilities for their extraction from plants, possibilities for their application in human and veterinary medicine, the interest of a science in essential oils, and, essential oils classification based on their use in human and veterinary medi...

  14. Comparative efficacy of plant-derived essential oils for managing ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their corresponding mass spectral characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer

    2011-10-01

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) pose a significant challenge to producers of ornamental nursery stock. Conventional insecticides are commonly used for management purposes, but plant-derived essential oils also may discourage ambrosia beetles from initiating attacks. To identify promising commercially available products, field-based efficacy trials were conducted in Ohio in 2009 and 2010 with the following products: Armorex (Soil Technologies), Cinnacure (Proguard, Inc.), EcoTrol (EcoSMART Technologies, Inc.), and Veggie Pharm (Pharm Solutions, Inc.). Potted Magnolia virginiana L. were first injected with 75 ml of 5% ethanol to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure on experimental trees. Mixtures of each product (10% in water) and a water control were applied until runoff and attacks occurring under field conditions were quantified at 1, 4, 7, and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Ambrosia beetle attacks generally increased over time but at differing rates depending on the particular treatment. In 2009, Armorex and Veggie Pharm were associated with the lowest cumulative attacks 14 DAT. In 2010, Armorex and Cinnacure were associated with the fewest attacks 14 DAT. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize the volatile compounds associated with each product. Allyl isothiocyanate, a compound with known repellent and insecticidal properties, was unique and predominant in Armorex. These experiments identified commercially available botanicals containing plant essential oils with activity against ambrosia beetles, along with demonstrating the usefulness of ethanol-injection to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure under field conditions. Characterizing the constituents of efficacious botanically based products could also lead to the development of improved botanical insecticides.

  15. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Najafian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Also and in lavender maximum linalool percentage (19.2% was obtained in full flowering, and minimum linalool percentage (0.2% was shown in the other time. Also the concentration of β – pinene (2.1%, δ-3-carene (1.5%, β – phellandrene (6.6%, Camphor(10.6%, Cryptone (0.8%, α- terpineol (2.3% and Linalool acetate (1.2% were higher than befor flowering stage. Therefore the harvesting time have a great importance in the production of essential oil and influenced on the quantity and quality of essential oil. As consequence, the best harvesting time in both medicinal plants was obtained in full flowering stage.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  17. Potential of Plant Essential Oils and Their Components in Animal Agriculture – in vitro Studies on Antibacterial Mode of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Corliss A. O'bryan; Pendleton, Sean J.; Crandall, Philip G.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The broad field of agriculture is currently undergoing major changes in practices, with new catch phrases including organic and sustainable. Consumers are more aware than ever before of the food that they eat and they want food free of toxic chemicals, antibiotics and the like. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components has been recognized for several years. Recent research has demonstrated that many of these essential oils have beneficial effects for livestock, includi...

  18. Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Ben Hadj; Sghaier, R M; Guesmi, F; Kaabi, B; Mejri, M; Attia, H; Laouini, D; Smaali, I

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we tested 10 essential oils (EOs) extracted from 10 plants issued from Sned region (Tunisia) to evaluate both their leishmanicidal effects against Leishmania major and L. infantum, and their cytotoxicity against murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, TIB-71). The antioxidant activity was also monitored by the DDPH method, while the chemical composition of active EO was assessed by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the EOs obtained from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis (rich on monoterpenoids, especially linalool at 17.62% and camphor at 13.82%) is significantly active against both L. major and L. infantum, whereas Ruta chalepensis EO (rich on 2-undecanone at 84.28%) is only active against L. infantum. Both oil extracts showed low cytotoxicity towards murine macrophages. The characteristic ratios (IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. infantum and IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. major) were, respectively, 2.7 and 1.57 for T. hirtus sp. algeriensis, and 1.34 and 0.19 for R. chalepensis. However, when measuring the antioxidant effects (DDPH method), the two latter EOs presented a moderate 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging effects compared to EOs from Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus halepensis, Pituranthos tortuosus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tetraclinis articulata or to BHT.

  19. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  20. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

  1. 14种植物精油对茶尺蠖行为的影响%Effect of 14 Plant Essential Oils on the Behavior of Ectropis obliqua (Prout)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正群; 孙晓玲; 罗宗秀; 高宇; 边磊; 辛肇军; 蔡晓明; 陈宗懋

    2014-01-01

    To study the repellency, oviposition deterrence and antifeeding effect of 14 plant essential oils against Ectropis obliqua (Prout) and to explore essential oils as the behavior-modifying stimuli of E. obliqua “push-pull”strategy in tea plantations. Behavioral bioassays were conducted to test the repellent and oviposition deterrence activity of 14 different essential oils on adults of E. obliqua, and the antifeeding activities of plant essential oils against the 3rd-instar larvae were investigated by leaf disc choice bioassays. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum oil, Rosmarinus officinalis oil, Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil, Cuminum cyminum oil and Pelargonium graveolens oil displayed strongest repellency against the female and male adults of E. obliqua, and R. officinalis oil and P. graveolens oil also have deterred oviposition for female E. obliqua. Under three tested concentrations of essential oil, C. cyminum oil, O. basilicum oil and Agastache rugosa oil showed strong antifeeding activities to E. obliqua larvae. The antifeedant rates of essential oils increased differently, and the growth rates of E. obliqua larvae decreased with the increase of concentration of essential oils. The results demonstrated that among those 14 plant essential oils, R. officinalis oil, O. basilicum oil, C. cyminum oil and P. graveolens oil showed the remarkable behavior regulating functions on E. obliqua, with the potential to be developed as the components of the „push-pull‟strategy for control of this pest.%为获得能够应用于茶园茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua“推-拉”策略的行为调节剂,在室内测定了茶尺蠖成虫对14种植物精油的趋性反应,及植物精油对茶尺蠖雌虫产卵行为的干扰作用,并采用叶碟法测定了植物精油对茶尺蠖幼虫的拒食作用。结果表明,罗勒、迷迭香、肉桂、茴香及天竺葵5种植物精油对茶尺蠖成虫表现出一定的驱避活性,并且迷迭香油和天竺葵油还

  2. Behavioral Response of 23 Plant Essential oils to Bactrocera dorsalis%23种植物精油对橘小实蝇的行为反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰英; 骆焱平; 卢远倩; 黄丹; 符悦冠; 刘奎

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-three plant essential oils were extracted by supercritical CO2, and the behavioral response to Bactrocera dorsalis were tested using Y-tube olfactometer. The result showed that female adult exhibited significant attractive response to the fruit essential oil of Psidium guajava, Clausena lansium Syzygium and the leaf essential oil of samarangense in 5 min and at a concertration of 0.5%; and showed significant repellent response to the leaf essential oil of Musa paradisiaca, flower essential oil of Swietenia macrophylla and leaf essential oil of Psidium guajava in 5 min.%通过超临界C02萃取技术萃取23种植物精油,并使用Y型嗅觉仪测试了23种植物精油对橘小实蝇雌虫的行为反应.结果表明,当精油质量浓度为0.5%时,在5 min内,番石榴果精油、黄皮果皮精油、莲雾叶精油对橘小实蝇雌成虫有明显的引诱效果;香蕉叶精油、大叶桃花心木精油、番石榴叶精油对橘小实蝇雌成虫有明显的驱避效果.

  3. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology.

  4. Habitat-related variation in composition of the essential oil of Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčetić, Mirjana; Kovačević, Nada; Lakušić, Dmitar; Lakušić, Branislava

    2017-03-01

    Plant specialised metabolites like essential oils are highly variable depending on genetic and various ecological factors. The aim of the present work was to characterise essential oils of the species Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae) in various organs on the individual and populational levels. Geographical variability and the impact of climate and soil type on essential oil composition were also investigated. Individually sampled essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits of plants from seven populations were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The investigated populations showed high interpopulational and especially intrapopulational variability of essential oil composition. In regard to the variability of essential oils, different chemotypes were defined. The essential oils of S. rigidum roots represented a falcarinol chemotype, oils of aerial parts constituted an α-pinene or α-pinene/sabinene chemotype and fruit essential oils can be characterised as belonging to a complex sabinene/α-pinene/β-phellandrene/falcarinol/germacrene B chemotype. At the species level, analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) showed that the plant part exerted the strongest influence on the composition of essential oils. Climate had a high impact on composition of the essential oils of roots, aerial parts and fruits, while influence of the substrate was less pronounced. The variations in main compounds of essential oils based on climate or substrate were complex and specific to the plant part.

  5. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  6. Using essential oils in professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S

    1998-10-01

    As the use of aromatherapy within a health care setting has grown so rapidly in recent years, and will continue to do so, the need for suitable training has become apparent. No health service can afford the risk of having staff who are inadequately trained in the practice of aromatherapy using essential oils incorrectly on those in a state of ill-health, especially if the essential oils used are not to a standard suitable for therapeutic use. Training to an acceptable level in aromatic therapy is essential for safety and effectiveness. Knowledge of the nature and make-up of essential oils, their effect on the body and the emotions, and how, when, and where to apply them is imperative in order for them to be beneficial to a patient's health. Contraindications to certain oils, patients, or treatment have also to be thoroughly understood, and the dosage employed is related to some extent to the standard of training undertaken.

  7. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ARTEMISIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    E-mail: nigasfaw@gmail.com ; nigistasfaw@hotmail.com. ESSENTIAL OIL ... strongly aromatic annual to perennial herb endemic to Ethiopia. .... The area percentage was obtained electronically from the GC-FID response without the use.

  8. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  9. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  10. Oil from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  11. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina, on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gharirvand Eskandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillation water method. Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured at 25 ± 2° C in N.N.N culturemedium, then in Schneider and next were cultured in RPMI- 1640. afterward, using MTT (Methyl Thiazole Tetrazolium, the IC50 (Inhibitory Concentrations 50% for extracts, essence and Glucantime were determined. The results using Tukey and t-test were analyzed and were presented by software SPSS16. MTT assay were repeated. 3 times for each sample. Results: IC50 for alfalfa leaf extract and essential oil of black alfalfa and Glucantime against L. major promastigotes was determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours, 240, 130 and 69 micrograms per ml, and 801, 340 and 190 micrograms per ml, also 26, 19 and 11 micrograms per ml , respectively. There was a significant differences between the IC50 plant extract and essential oil and Glucantime after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion: Alcoholic extracts and essential oil the plant had significant anti leishmaniasis effects in vitro. In this way, it can be considered as an anti-leishmaniasis among the herbs.

  12. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  13. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  14. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  15. Effect of essential oils on Penicillim digitatum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERJON MAMOCI,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium digitatum (green mould is one of the main pathogens of citrus fruits causing great losses during storage. Different technologies and methods are used to maintain the quality of stored citrus fruits and reduce the losses caused by green mould. Application of fungicides in pre- and postharvest is the main method to reduce losses from this pathogen. Nowadays, application of synthetic fungicides is becoming debatable because of the residues in final product and the development of resistant strains of the pathogen due to their continuous application. Natural products, such as essential oils could be used as an alternative to these fungicides aiming at partial or total replacement without having any of the above mentioned problems. In this study, different commercial essential oils from Albanian medicinal plants were tested for their activity in volatile phase against P. digitatum. Under in vitro experiments the essential oils were used at 0.28g/L air, to test the inhibition of mycelial growth. Under in vivo experiments the essential oils were used at 0.52g/L air to test the incidence and diameter of the lesion on artificially inoculated orange fruits. In vitro experiments demonstrated that essential oils of Thymus spp., Origanum vulgare and Satureja montana inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen after seven days at 24°C (total inhibition, while Salvia officinalis, Laurus nobilis and Juniperus communis oils promoted the growth of the fungus compared to control. The activity of all essential oils was fungistatic. In in vivo conditions, the tested oils of Thymus spp., O. vulgare, S. montana did not show inhibitory activity. However, other methods of application (contact, better oil volatization or higher doses are needed to determine their inhibitory activity. A chemical characterization of oils is also necessary to correlate it with the activity.

  16. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  17. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search.

  18. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babar; Ali; Naser; Ali; Al-Wabel; Saiba; Shams; Aftab; Ahamad; Shah; Alam; Khan; Firoz; Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubM ed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  20. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  1. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  2. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Research into plant essential oils have also gained momentum due to their fumigant .... 1 based on their chemical structures in which they are classified. The GC-MS ... It is also well known as a preservative in food, drugs and ...

  3. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    input costs were based on the current market price available in Zaria Area Council, Kaduna. State. .... Emerging vapour from the packed bed of plant of material containing the volatile essential oil is led to .... Return On Equity. Annual Cash ...

  4. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  5. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  6. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  7. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera of  Lamiaceae family. Several species of this genus are perfumed and wealthy in essential oils. Some of them are used in industry, pharmacy and aromatherapy. They have shown different biological effects such as antibacterial and antioxidant activity. For the present study, Salvia verticillata L. was collected from Shahrestanak, Mazandaran, Iran. Hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of this plant was obtained with a Clevenger type  apparatus  and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was investigated against HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines by MTT test. 59 components were characterized from the oil with trans-caryophyllene (24.40%, β-phellandrene (9.08%, α-humulene (8.61%, bicyclogermacrene (6.32%, spathulenol (5.89% and β-pinene (5.00% as the major constituents. These compounds represented 97.67% of the essential oil and included monoterpenes (34.83% and sesquiterpens (61.84%. The results of the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the essential oil of S. verticillata showed higher cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell line.

  9. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  10. Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2012-11-14

    In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol α, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols α and λ and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

  11. Analysis report of bio-resonance technique adaptability screening of natural plant essential oil for alopecia areata%斑秃患者对27种植物精油适应性检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正琴; 潘钰蔚; 刘倩; 张怀亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find the most adaptive natural plant essential oil for alopecia areata patients. Methods Meridian bio-resonance technique was adopted to screening adapted essential oil for alopecia areata patients through meridian points with MED Model, and control with standard samples. Results The adaptation percentage of 27 kind natural plant essential oil to 33 alopecia areata patients is 9.09%~27.27%, average 16.56%. Each kind of the essential oil had its corresponding adaptive patients. The top ten showed a good adaptability were sage, clove, fennel, lemon, fragrant cananga, tea plant, basil,rose,eucalyptus, angerine. Conclusion The detection with meridian bio-resonance technique screening 33 alopecia areata patients through meridian points with MED Model showed that some kinds of the natural plant essential oil have good adaptability to alopecia areata patients.%目的 寻找适宜于斑秃患者的最佳植物精油品种.方法 27种植物精油纯品,采用生物共振技术,对33例斑秃患者进行检测,统计适应性.结果27种植物精油对33例斑秃的适应百分率为9.09%~27.27%,平均为16.56%.所有的植物精油均有适应的患者,排列在前10位的植物精油分别是:鼠尾草、丁香、茴香、柠檬、依兰、茶树、罗勒、玫瑰、尤加利、红桔.结论 斑秃患者对部分植物精油的适应性较好.

  12. Analysis of plant growth-promoting effects of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from Mentha piperita rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Valeria Santoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint. Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present.

  13. Analysis of Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains Isolated from Mentha piperita Rhizosphere and Effects of Their Volatile Organic Compounds on Essential Oil Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Maricel V; Bogino, Pablo C; Nocelli, Natalia; Cappellari, Lorena Del Rosario; Giordano, Walter F; Banchio, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint). Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs) were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25, SJ48) induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25, SJ48, and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present.

  14. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial......, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and p-cymene were most abundant For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk...

  15. Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi-field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of

  16. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC...

  17. Can matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) be more simplified? Application of solventless MSPD sample preparation method for GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of plant essential oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and shows the analytical capabilities of a new variant of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with the solventless blending step in the chromatographic analysis of plant volatiles. The obtained results prove that the use of a solvent is redundant as the sorption ability of the octadecyl brush is sufficient for quantitative retention of volatiles from 9 plants differing in their essential oil composition. The extraction efficiency of the proposed simplified MSPD method is equivalent to the efficiency of the commonly applied variant of MSPD with the organic dispersing liquid and pressurized liquid extraction, which is a much more complex, technically advanced and highly efficient technique of plant extraction. The equivalency of these methods is confirmed by the variance analysis. The proposed solventless MSPD method is precise, accurate, and reproducible. The recovery of essential oil components estimated by the MSPD method exceeds 98%, which is satisfactory for analytical purposes.

  18. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vieira Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.

  19. Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norajit, Krittika; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2007-08-23

    Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and gamma-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Chaerophyllum temulum (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Jelena G; Stojanović, Gordana S; Radojković, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition on the essential oil obtained from fresh roots, stems, inflorescences and fruits of Chaerophyllum temulum. In all samples, except the roots, the most dominant components were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. (Z)-Falcarinol was the principal constituent of the root essential oils (61.7% at the flowering stage and 62.3% at the fruiting stage). The blossom oil was dominated by (Z,E)-α-famesene (23.4%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.0%) and germacrene D-4-ol (9%), whereas the oil from the fruit had germacrene D-4-ol (27.6%) as its main compound, accompanied by (Z,E)-α-famesene (13.4%). Germacrene D was the most abundant component of the stem essential oil (38.4% at the flowering stage and 32.5% at the fruiting stage). The obtained results show that the qualitative composition of the oil depends on the part of the plant which is analyzed, while the quantitative composition of the main components depends on the growing stage of the plant.

  1. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Hernández-Lambraño; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm. Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively. Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects. Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  2. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca(Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Hernández-Lambrao; Karina; Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus; Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils(EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon iiardus,Cymbopogon Jlexuosus and Cvrnbopogon marlinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae,common pests in the oil palm.Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa(Lepidoptera:I.imacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm~3 and 0.002-8 μL/g,respectively.Results:All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae.Cymbopogon marlinii oil was llie most active againsl both pest insect species,although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic;repellent IR535 on both insects.Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  3. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  4. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  5. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils from Cedrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-07-03

    Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.

  6. Comparative analysis of mosqito (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedes aegypti Liston) responses to the insecticide Temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from Piper betle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance development is a problem where insecticides are heavily used. Evaluation of a plant extracted oil compound as a 'green pesticide' was compared to treatments with Temephos. Evaluations on two insect populations either Wild strain (WS), or a susceptible laboratory strain (LS),...

  7. Ultrasound pretreatment as an alternative to improve essential oils extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Michelon Dalla Nora

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are substances originated from plants in general. These compounds are well known to have a high biological activity, specially the antioxidant and antimicrobial. Several extraction techniques are employed to obtain these substances. However, the majority of these techniques require a long extraction time. In this sense, innovative and alternative extraction techniques, such as ultrasound, have recently been the target of studies. In view of the small amount of publications using ultrasonic pretreatment, this review aimed to congregate current relevant information on ultrasound-assisted extraction of essential oils. In this sense, theoretical aspects, such as the main factors that influence the performance of this technique as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of ultrasound as an environmental friendly alternative technique to improve the extraction of essential oil in comparison to traditional methods, are shown. Considering the available studies in the literature on essential oil extraction using ultrasonic pretreatment, low frequencies ranged from 20 to 50kWz and times ranged from 20 to 40min were used. The use of ultrasonic pretreatment represents a time reduction to near 70% in relation to the conventional hydrodistillation. Also, these conditions enabled a growth in the extraction of bioactive compounds and consequently improving the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils.

  8. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate.

  9. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  10. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  11. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Five Zingiberaceae Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Orapin Kerdchoechuen; Natta Laohakunjit; Krittika Norajit

    2007-01-01

    Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, gala...

  13. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  14. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Jaberi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The major components of the essential oil of T. daenensis were thymol (39.91%, carvacrol (29.93%, linalool (5.55%, caryophyllene (3.5% and geraniol (3.09%, whereas the major components of the essential oil of T. lancifolius were: carvacrol (25.55%, thymol (20.79%, linalool (16.8%, α-terpineol (6.34%, borneol (4.00%, caryophyllene (3.98%, p-cymene (3.38% and cis-linalool oxide (3.21%. Linalool was reported as another major component in T. lancifolius

  15. Study on essential oils from the leaves of two Vietnamese plants: Jasminum subtriplinerve C.L. Blume and Vitex quinata (Lour) F.N. Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Do N; Thang, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Lawal, Oladipupo A

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil constituents of the leaves of Jasminum subtriplinerve (Oleaceae) and Vitex quinata (Verbanaceae) cultivated in Vietnam were analysed by gas chromatography--flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The main constituents identified in J. subtriplinerve were mainly oxygenated monoterpenes represented by linalool (44.2%), α-terpineol (15.5%), geraniol (19.4%) and cis-linalool oxide (8.8%). The quantitative significant components of V. quinata were terpene hydrocarbons comprising of β-pinene (30.1%), β-caryophyllene (26.9%) and β-elemene (7.4%). The chemical compositions of the essential oils are being reported for the first time.

  16. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  17. Antifungal Characteristics of Plant Essential Oils on Wood Stain%植物精油对木材变色菌的抑菌特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨; 常建民; 王鹏起; 韩丽; 孙薇

    2014-01-01

    In this study,14 kinds of essential oils'antifungal activities and concentration against 3 common wood-staining fungis, Trichoderma spp.,Ophiostoma perfectum and Aspergillus niger with 2 mediums cultural medium and wood.The results showed 5%of cinnamon oil,5%of myrtlewood oil and 10%of noble-fir oil A showed great antifungal activity to 3 staining fungis,and the activity became stronger when the concentration was higher.Which showed the application potentials and business foregrounds of 3 oils stated above as the new wood preservative.%采用培养基和木块2种介质研究14种植物精油对常见木材变色真菌(木霉菌、长喙壳菌、黑曲霉菌)的抑菌效力和作用浓度。结果表明:5%肉桂精油、5%俄勒冈香桃木精油以及10%壮丽冷杉木精油A同时对3种变色菌表现出较强的抑制活性,且随精油浓度的增加而增强。同时显示出这3种植物精油作为新型木材保护制剂的应用潜力和商业前景。

  18. Chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment ofleishmaniasis. Due to a few safe drugs and the side effects caused by available chemotherapy, some new drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis are requested.  The genus Pulicaria (Asteraceae is represented in the flora of Iran by five species. Phytochemical studies on Pulicaria species have revealed some flavonoids and terpenoids with leishmanicidal activity. In the present investigation chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil have been studied. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was obtained by Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by GC/MS. Antileishmanil activity was assessed against promastigoes of Leishmania major. Results:The major components from P. gnaphalodes essential oil have been reported to be geraniol, 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, α-pinene, chrystanthenone, α-terpineol and filifolone. The alcohol monoterpenes with contribution of 25.04% constituted the major portion of the essential oil, while hydrocarbon monoterpenes and hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes with contribution of 7.08% and 2.38%, respectively occupied the next rates.In the present experiment the essential oil of P. gnaphalodes progressively inhibited Leishmania major growth in concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 50 µL/mL (parasite culture in 24 h. The essential oil at 50 µL/mL eliminated the promastigotes at the beginning of treatment. It showed antileishmanial activity in concentration of 1.06 µL/mL and destroyed all parasits in 24 h.  Conclusion: Pulicaria gnaphalodes antileishmanial activity, could suggest the species and constituents as possible lead structures for antileishmanial drug discovery.

  19. Growth regulating properties of isoprene and isoprenoid-based essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell P; Shukla, Mukund R; Sherif, Sherif M; Brown, Paula B; Saxena, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils have growth regulating properties comparable to the well-documented methyl jasmonate and may be involved in localized and/or airborne plant communication. Aromatic plants employ large amounts of resources to produce essential oils. Some essential oils are known to contain compounds with plant growth regulating activities. However, the potential capacity of essential oils as airborne molecules able to modulate plant growth/development has remained uninvestigated. Here, we demonstrate that essential oils from eight taxonomically diverse plants applied in their airborne state inhibited auxin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum hypocotyls and Avena sativa coleoptiles. This response was also observed using five monoterpenes commonly found in essential oils as well as isoprene, the basic building block of terpenes. Upon transfer to ambient conditions, A. sativa coleoptiles resumed elongation, demonstrating an antagonistic relationship rather than toxicity. Inclusion of essential oils, monoterpenes, or isoprene into the headspace of culture vessels induced abnormal cellular growth along hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. These responses were also elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA); however, where methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth essential oils did not. Gene expression studies in A. thaliana also demonstrated differences between the MeJA and isoprenoid responses. This series of experiments clearly demonstrate that essential oils and their isoprenoid components interact with endogenous plant growth regulators when applied directly or as volatile components in the headspace. The similarities between isoprenoid and MeJA responses suggest that they may act in plant defence signalling. While further studies are needed to determine the ecological and evolutionary significance, the results of this study and the specialized anatomy associated with aromatic plants suggest that essential oils may act as airborne signalling molecules.

  20. Evaluation of antifungal activity of Pittosporum undulatum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Rosane Tamara da Silva; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Felicio,Roberto Carlos; Felicio,Joana D'Arc

    2011-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins as a result of fungal attack can occur before, after and during the harvest and storage operations on agricultural crops and food commodities. Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi and the importance of Aspergillus flavus, the main producer of aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oil from Pittosporum undulatum against A. flavus. The essential oils were obtained from P....

  1. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This ...

  2. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Variability of essential oil content of Mentha L. taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Neugebauerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of genus Mentha L. can be described like herbs with many possibilities to use in industry and pharmacology. The most important product is essential oil. For commercially cultivating of species Mentha L. is variability of essential oil content very important characteristic. Variability of essential oil yield of twelve different taxa were monitored for four years. Essential oils were obtained via hydro-distillation and expressed as ml/kg. The highest variability of essential oil content during monitored period showed sample Pulegium vulgare and the lowest variability of essential oil content showed Mentha spicata.

  4. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  5. Can essential oils be used as novel drench treatments for the eggs and juveniles of the pest snail Cornu aspersum in potted plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural trade is an important pathway for the introduction and spread of invasive gastropods because potted plants are essentially portable microhabitats, which protect snails and slugs, especially buried eggs and juveniles, from desiccation and molluscicides. The identification of a drenc...

  6. Analysis of Potential Application of Subcritical Water Extraction Technology in Plant Essential Oil Extraction%亚临界水萃取技术在植物精油提取中的应用潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应丽亚; 苏平

    2011-01-01

    植物天然精油含有多种活性成分,在医药、食品、烟用、化妆品等行业有着广泛的应用。亚临界水萃取技术作为一种新型的绿色萃取技术,越来越受到国内外研究者的关注,将其应用于植物精油的提取,对精油品质的提升具有重要意义。文中介绍了亚临界水萃取技术的原理、影响萃取效果的因素以及在植物精油萃取中的应用,对亚临界水在植物精油提取方面的应用进行了潜力分析和应用展望。%Essential oils from natural plants contain a variety of bioactive ingredients, which are widely used in medicine, food, tobacco and cosmetic industries. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology, a new type of green extraction technology, is getting more and more attention. Its application in the extraction of plant essential oil is of great importance for improving the quality of the essential oils. This paper introduces the principle of the research progress, the recent application and research on the plant essential oil extraction of SWE. Finally, its potential application and development prospect in this field are also explored.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O

    2010-01-01

    The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, H; Uğraş, S; Dülger, H; Bayram, I; Tuncer, I; Oztürk, G; Oztürk, A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl(4) administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that FEO has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Five Zingiberaceae Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orapin Kerdchoechuen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe., galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw., turmeric (Curcuma longa L., kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt. and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall. was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and γ-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes, with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL.

  10. Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

    1992-12-01

    The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected.

  11. Dynamic accumulation of sesquiterpenes in essential oil of Pogostemon cablin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenes Essential oil produced by patchouli was one of the most important naturally occurring base materials used in the perfume industry, containing various sesquiterpenes. Three different parts (leaves, stems and roots of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth., Lamiaceae, were profiled in relation to different maturation phases in this paper, evaluating the variations in content of the major sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. Twelve sesquiterpenes were analyzed by GC-MS throughout the maturity of P. cablin. Patchouli alcohol (37.54%-51.02% in leaves, 28.24%-41.96% in stems and 14.55%-35.12% in roots was the major sesquiterpene during the maturation of the plant. The average content of several other sesquiterpenes (α-bulnesene, α-guaiene, seychellene, β-humulene and caryophyllene were higher than 3% among leaves, stems and roots. The content of essential oil, patchouli alcohol, α-bulnesene and several other compounds were highly accumulated at 210 days of maturation after cultivation of P. cablin. Thus, this period was the best moment to exploit the maximum level of these high value-added compounds in P. cablin. Furthermore, our results indicated that the essential oil extracted from leaves of P. cablin has the highest potential to be used in the perfume industry.

  12. Histochemistry, content and chemical composition of essential oil in different organs of Alpinia zerumbet

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    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia zerumbet is a medicinal plant from Asian origin used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, which effect is attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the major component of the essential oil. The objective of this work was to identify the essential oil secretory structures in the leaf, flower, root and rhizome of this plant, and analyze the content and the chemical composition of the oil in the different organs of the plant. Sections were subjected to histochemical test with Nadi reagent for in situ localization of secretion. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified in CG-EM/FID. The histochemical test was positive for terpenoids, confirming the presence of essential oil stored in secretory structures named oils cells present in all analyzed organs. The higher essential oil content was found on the leaf (0.30%, while the petal and the rhizome presented content of 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. It was not possible to determine essential oil content of the root due to the low amount of biomass produced. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil in the different plant organs, but the major constituent in all of them was the terpinen-4-ol, followed by 1,8 cineol in the leaf and by the α-terpineol in the flower and rhizome.

  13. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined. Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7% than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequently from well water (38.2% than chlorinated supplies (23.0%. A. hydrophilia was the most dominant species isolated from different kinds of samples (13.4%. Whereas A. sobria and A. caviae were isolated in much lower rates 4.7 and 2.1% respectively. There was significant association between the isolation of Aeromonas species from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water. All isolated strains were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. The data reported in this study indicates that the distributions of virulence factors, that regulate the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, are different in clinical and enviromental samples. Aeromonas isolates exhibited multi-drug resistanc amoxicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics against Aeromonas species isolated in this study were ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime. Essential oils have been tested for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Clove, Olive and Peppermint oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all strains used in this study, showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.00±0.8 to 14.82±0.41 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for selected oils ranged from 12.8 to 25.6 mg mL-1. Treatment of mice with essential oil for 15 days led to enhance antibody levels in all treated groups and significant clearance of A. hydrophilia from animals. The treated animals had

  14. Antibacterial activity of rosemary, caraway and fennel essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski Paweł; Giedrys-Kalemba Stefania; Mizielińska Małgorzata; Bartkowiak Artur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, interest in essential oils used in natural medicine, has been increasing. Essential oils are still being tested for their potential uses as an alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious diseases.

  15. Antibacterial activity of rosemary, caraway and fennel essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiatkowski Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, interest in essential oils used in natural medicine, has been increasing. Essential oils are still being tested for their potential uses as an alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious diseases.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LACPREENE

    2012-08-12

    Aug 12, 2012 ... The chemical composition of C. ladanifer essential oil was characterized by high ... Analysis of essential oils was carried out by GC–MS using a .... with literature shows important qualitative and quantita- tive differences in ...

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of the extract, fractions and essential oils from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial efficacy of the extract, fractions and essential oils from the leaves of ... by maceration with methanol followed by a mild liquid/liquid fractionation process. ... Keywords: Antimicrobial efficacy, essential oil, extracts, Eugenia uniflora, ...

  18. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils has been studied in cancer patients to help with symptom relief. Read about how massage or inhalation of essential oils have reduced symptoms in cancer patients in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of haplophyllum tuberculatum juss. essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil of Haplophyllum tuberculatum was prepared by hydrodistillation of the fresh flowering aerial parts of the plant collected from Saudi Arabia. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty seven compounds, accounting for 96.4 % of the oil composition were identified. The ...

  20. Medfly Responses to Natural Essential Oils: Electroantennography and Long-Range Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary metabolites emitted from plants and natural essential oils are suspected to attract males of the Mediterranean fruit fly to their calling sites. We investigated the differential attractiveness of six essential oils that have either been shown to have aromatherapy effects and/or that differ...

  1. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestil

  2. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  3. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  4. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  5. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  6. Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene g...

  7. Evaluation of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oils of Seseli rigidum Waldst. & Kit. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Lada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of genus Seseli are known for their beneficial biological activities and could present novel targets in the development of safe and effective preparations of plant products. The objective was to test the essential oils of different parts of Seseli rigidum from two natural habitats for potential genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities against H202-induced DNA damage in human whole blood cells in vitro, by the comet assay. The essential oil analysis showed a high falcarinol content in oil from the root, while oils of the fruit and aerial parts contained α-pinene as the main compound. Genotoxicity was not detected at any of the concentrations of the essential oils from the three parts of the plant from localities I and II. Although the antioxidant activity (established by the FRAP and DPPH tests of the investigated oils was low, all oils demonstrated a strong antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced damage post-treatment, when the oils were applied after the oxidant. Based on the lack of pretreatment activity and the post-treatment reduction in DNA damage, the antigenotoxic effect of S. rigidum essential oils was probably based on the stimulation of DNA repair mechanisms. Environmental conditions did not affect the antigenotoxic properties of the oils. In conclusion, our results revealed the antigenotoxic properties of S. rigidum essential oils and appropriate and safe doses with beneficial effects under the described conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173034, 173021

  8. Deodarone Isomers in Cedrus atlantica Essential Oils and Tar Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Anne Marie; Bighelli, Ange; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Satrani, Badr; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Deodarone [2,2,6-trimethyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-tetrahydro-4-pyrone] is a sesquiterpene tetrahydro-γ-pyrone related to bisabolene and atlantone, first isolated from Cedrus deodora essential oil. With respect to the stereochemistry of the asymmetric carbons C4 and C8, two diastereoisomers may be distinguished. Identification and quantification of both diastereoisomers in wood and tar oils from C. atlantica has been achieved using 13C NMR spectroscopy, in combination with GC (polar column). The contents of (4R,8R)- and (4R,8S)-deodarone varied between 1.1-2.8% and 1.0-3.0%, respectively.

  9. Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi; Nussinovitch, Amos

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

  10. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis and Peppermint (Mentha piperita Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L. and peppermint (M. piperita L. cultivars grown in Kumaon region were evaluated for essential oil content and composition at different stages of crop growth. In men­thol mint cultivars viz., ‘Kosi’, ‘Saksham’, ‘Himalaya’, and ‘Kalka’, the essential oil content was found to vary from 0.3% - 1.2%, 0.42% - 1.1%, 0.38% - 1.0% and 0.26% - 1.2%, at different days after transplanting (DAT respectively, while in cultivars ‘Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’ of peppermint, it varied from 0.28% - 0.6%, 0.19% - 0.55% and 0.17% - 0.37%, respectively at different DAT. The menthol content in all the menthol mint cultivars reached higher values at 120 and 150 DAT. In case of peppermint cultivars viz., Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’, menthol content varied from 32.92% - 39.65%, 34.29% - 42.83% and 22.56% - 32.77%, respectively during the crop growth.

  11. Application of Raman spectroscopy for direct analysis of Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemski, Maciej; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Drączkowski, Piotr; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Kurach, Łukasz; Kocjan, Ryszard; Dresler, Sławomir

    2017-11-01

    Carlina genus plants e.g. Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka have been still used in folk medicine of many European countries and its biological activity is mostly associated with root essential oils. In the present paper, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was applied for the first time for evaluation of essential oil distribution in root of C. acnthifolia subsp. utzka and identification of root structures containing the essential oil. Furthermore, RS technique was applied to assess chemical stability of oil during drying of plant material or distillation process. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil. The identity of compounds was confirmed using Raman, ATR-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Carlina oxide was found to be the main component of the oil (98.96% ± 0.15). The spectroscopic study showed the high stability of essential oil and Raman distribution analysis indicated that the oil reservoirs were localized mostly in the structures of outer layer of the root while the inner part showed nearly no signal assigned to the oil. Raman spectroscopy technique enabled rapid, non-destructive direct analysis of plant material with minimal sample preparation and allowed straightforward, unambiguous identification of the essential oil in the sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

  13. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  14. Essential oil constituents of Chimonanthus fragrans flowers population of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsam H.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimonanthus fragrans Lindle (Calycanthaceae is an aromatic plant which little information has been reported so far on the composition of its essential oil.  In this study the essential oil of flower of this plant was obtained by hydrodistillation  and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty nine components were identified corresponding to ca. 98.12 % of the total components of the essential oil with 0.12 % yield. The major components were elemol (20.06%, caryophyllene (9.51%, elemene (8.65%, bicyclogermacrene (8.15%, elemene (7.2%, germacrene-D (5.65%, transocimene (5.5%, sabinene (3.65%, linalool (2.6%, caryophyllene oxide (2.3%, and cadinene (1.95%. Comparison of the data of this study with other data including recent report by HS-SPME-GC-MS showed quantitative and qualitative differences due to geographical, agricultural, and technical factors. 

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  16. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  18. 几种植物精油对桔青霉菌的抑菌活性测定%The Measurement of Inhibition of Several Plant Essential Oils on Penicillium Citrinum Thom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理坤; 王春; 马冠华

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous inhibition method was used to measure the inhibition activity of 7 kinds of plant essential oil on Penicillium citrinum Thom.,including citronella oil,turpentine,eucalyptus oil,coral ginger oil,peppermint oil,blue and white pepper oil,rosemary oil. The results showed that turpentine and citronella oil had the best inhibition effect,where the volume fraction of 1μL/mL can completely inhibit the growth of Penicilliumcitrinum Thom. The effects of eucalyptus oil and coral ginger oil were weaker,the Penicilliumcitrinum Thom. could be cleared under the volume fraction of 2 to 4μL/mL. Peppermint oil, blue and white pepper oil were followed,small amount of Penicilliumcitrinum Thom. were still grew while the volume frac-tion at 4μL/mL. The inhibition effect of rosemary oil was the worst,larger Penicilliumcitrinum Thom. were alive while the volume fraction at 4μL/mL.%采用气相抑菌法测定了香茅油、松节油、桉叶油、珊瑚姜油、椒样薄荷油、青花椒油和迷迭香油7种植物精油对桔青霉菌(penicilliumcitrinum Thom.)的抑制效果。结果表明,松节油和香茅油抑菌效果最好,在体积比浓度为1μL/mL时可完全抑制桔青霉菌生长,桉叶油和珊瑚姜油效果次之,分别在2和4μL/mL时完全抑制桔青霉菌生长,椒样薄荷油和花椒油效果较差,在4μL/mL时仍有少量霉菌生长,而迷迭香油在4μL/mL时仍有较多菌落生长。

  19. Potential of essential oils for the control of brown eye spot in coffee plants Potencial de óleos essenciais no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to assess the in vitro effect of essential oils extracted from cinnamon, citronella, lemon grass, India clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the conidia germination and on mycelial growth of Cercospora coffeicola, and their efficacy to control the brown eye spot in coffee seedlings (cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in a greenhouse, as well as their effects on the initial germination and infection events by scanning electron microscopy. All essential oils promoted the inhibition of conidia germination with increasing concentrations. India clove, cinnamon, neem, thyme and lemon grass oils inhibited the mycelial growth of C. coffeicola. The cinnamon and citronella oils were the most promising for brown eye spot control in all cultivars. In scanning electron microscopy, the cinnamon and citronella oils reduced germination and mycelial development of C. coffeicola in vivo, eight and 16 hours after inoculation, promoting, in some cases, the leakage of the cellular content. Essential oils of cinnamon and citronella reduced the incidence and severity of brown eye spot, in addition to presenting direct toxicity to the pathogen.Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais extraídos de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de conídios e no crescimento micelial de Cercospora coffeicola, a eficácia destes óleos no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro em mudas das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e seus efeitos sobre os eventos iniciais de germinação e infecção do patógeno in vivo por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Todos os óleos essenciais inibiram a germinação dos conídios com o aumento das concentrações. Os óleos de cravo-da-índia, canela, nim, tomilho e capim-limão inibiram o crescimento micelial de C. coffeicola. Os

  20. Essential oil and extract of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

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    Zeković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different methods of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil isolation, steam distillation and extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction were investigated. After the determination of essential oil content in the investigated drug and in dry extract (using steam distillation, qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained essential oils, determined by TLC and GC-MS methods, were compared. The content of linalool was higher (52.4% in essential oil obtained by coriander steam distillation than that in essential oil separeted from dry extract (42.8%, and, on the other hand, content of geranyl-acetate was lower (4.6% and 11.7%, respectively.