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Sample records for plant clock system

  1. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  2. Controllable clock circuit design in PEM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunhua; Wang Peihua; Hu Tingting; Feng Baotong; Shuai Lei; Huang Huan; Wei Shujun; Li Ke; Zhao Jingwei; Wei Long

    2011-01-01

    A high-precision synchronized clock circuit design will be presented, which can supply steady, reliable and anti-jamming clock signal for the data acquirement (DAQ) system of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM). This circuit design is based on the Single-Chip Microcomputer and high-precision clock chip, and can achieve multiple controllable clock signals. The jamming between the clock signals can be reduced greatly with the differential transmission. Meanwhile, the adoption of CAN bus control in the clock circuit can prompt the clock signals to be transmitted or masked simultaneously when needed. (authors)

  3. Controllable clock circuit design in PEM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunhua; Wang Peilin; Hu Tingting; Feng Baotong; Shuai Lei; Huang Huan; Wei Shujun; Li Ke; Zhao Jingwei; Wei Long

    2010-01-01

    A high-precision synchronized clock circuit design will be presented, which can supply steady, reliable and anti-jamming clock signal for the data acquirement (DAQ) system of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM). This circuit design is based on the Single-Chip Microcomputer and high-precision clock chip, and can achieve multiple controllable clock signals. The jamming between the clock signals can be reduced greatly with the differential transmission. Meanwhile, the adoption of CAN bus control in the clock circuit can prompt the clock signals to be transmitted or masked simultaneously when needed. (authors)

  4. High Precision Clock Bias Prediction Model in Clock Synchronization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is a fundamental requirement for many services provided by a distributed system. Clock calibration through the time signal is the usual way to realize the synchronization among the clocks used in the distributed system. The interference to time signal transmission or equipment failures may bring about failure to synchronize the time. To solve this problem, a clock bias prediction module is paralleled in the clock calibration system. And for improving the precision of clock bias prediction, the first-order grey model with one variable (GM(1,1 model is proposed. In the traditional GM(1,1 model, the combination of parameters determined by least squares criterion is not optimal; therefore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize GM(1,1 model. At the same time, in order to avoid PSO getting stuck at local optimization and improve its efficiency, the mechanisms that double subgroups and nonlinear decreasing inertia weight are proposed. In order to test the precision of the improved model, we design clock calibration experiments, where time signal is transferred via radio and wired channel, respectively. The improved model is built on the basis of clock bias acquired in the experiments. The results show that the improved model is superior to other models both in precision and in stability. The precision of improved model increased by 66.4%~76.7%.

  5. Complementary approaches to understanding the plant circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur E. Akman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are oscillatory genetic networks that help organisms adapt to the 24-hour day/night cycle. The clock of the green alga Ostreococcus tauri is the simplest plant clock discovered so far. Its many advantages as an experimental system facilitate the testing of computational predictions. We present a model of the Ostreococcus clock in the stochastic process algebra Bio-PEPA and exploit its mapping to different analysis techniques, such as ordinary differential equations, stochastic simulation algorithms and model-checking. The small number of molecules reported for this system tests the limits of the continuous approximation underlying differential equations. We investigate the difference between continuous-deterministic and discrete-stochastic approaches. Stochastic simulation and model-checking allow us to formulate new hypotheses on the system behaviour, such as the presence of self-sustained oscillations in single cells under constant light conditions. We investigate how to model the timing of dawn and dusk in the context of model-checking, which we use to compute how the probability distributions of key biochemical species change over time. These show that the relative variation in expression level is smallest at the time of peak expression, making peak time an optimal experimental phase marker. Building on these analyses, we use approaches from evolutionary systems biology to investigate how changes in the rate of mRNA degradation impacts the phase of a key protein likely to affect fitness. We explore how robust this circadian clock is towards such potential mutational changes in its underlying biochemistry. Our work shows that multiple approaches lead to a more complete understanding of the clock.

  6. A VMEbus clock system for accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beechy, D.G.; McClure, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Because an accelerator has many systems which must operate with a high degree of synchronization, a clock signal is typically generated which carries timing information to the various accelerator components. This paper discusses two VMEbus modules designed to generate and receive this clock signal. Together they implement a clock system which can generate timing markers with 200 nanosecond resolution and can generate timing delays of over one hour with one microsecond resolution. The Clock Generator module contains both a time line generator programmed to produce clock events at specific times and eight programmable input channels to produce clock events when externally triggered. Additional clock events are generated directly from the VMEbus. Generators can be cascaded for added capability. The Clock Timer module receives the signal from the generator. It can be programmed to recognize specific clock events which act as triggers to the eight timing channels on the module. Each timing channel is programmed with a 32-bit delay value. The channels are clocked at 1 MHz. At the end of the delay period, a timer channel produces an output pulse and optionally can generate a bus interrupt

  7. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  8. The Fermilab D0 Master Clock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotolo, C.; Fachin, M.; Chappa, S.; Rauch, M.; Needles, C.; Dyer, A.

    1991-11-01

    The Clock System provides bunch crossing related timing signals to various detector subsystems. Accelerator synchronization and monitoring as well as timing signal generation and distribution are discussed. The system is built using three module types implemented in Eurostandard hardware with a VME communications interface. The first two types of modules are used to facilitate synchronization with the accelerator and to generate 23 timing signals that are programmable with one RF bucket (18.8 ns) resolution and 1 ns accuracy. Fifty-four of the third module type are used to distribute the timing signals and two synchronous 53 MHz and 106 MHz clocks to various detector subsystems. 6 refs., 5 figs

  9. The Importance of the Circadian Clock in Regulating Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle. The circadian clock mechanism and processes of metabolism controlled by the circadian rhythm were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis and in the crops potato and rice. However, the translation of molecular mechanisms obtained from studies of model plants to crop plants is still difficult. Crop plants have specific organs such as edible seed and tuber that increase the size or accumulate valuable metabolites by harvestable metabolic components. Human consumers are interested in the regulation and promotion of these agriculturally significant crops. Circadian clock manipulation may suggest various strategies for the increased productivity of food crops through using environmental signal or overcoming environmental stress.

  10. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, H.H.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse ''overtaking'' a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component v'01(T); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means no. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal v1(T) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal vn(T) and producing a modified change-of-state signal v'n(T) (N 1, . . . , n) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to v'01(T- theta n(T) with a cumulative phase shift theta n(T) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1 < or = n< n) receiving a modified change-of-state signal vn(T) from filter means no. N and, in response to receipt of such a signal above a predetermined threshold, producing a change-of-state signal vn+1

  11. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  12. The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sabrina E; Kay, Steve A

    2016-12-01

    The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of the clock, including the interplay with metabolism, hormone, and stress pathways in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana We outline the importance of this system in crop agricultural traits, highlighting the identification of natural alleles that alter the pace of the timekeeper. We report evidence supporting the understanding of the circadian clock as a master regulator of plant life, and we hypothesize on its relevant role in the adaptability to the environment and the impact on the fitness of most organisms. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Method of Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gun; Niu, Meng-jie; Chai, Yang-shun; Chen, Xin; Ren, Yan-qiu

    2017-04-01

    Time synchronization plays an important role in the spacecraft formation flight and constellation autonomous navigation, etc. For the application of clock synchronization in a network system, it is not always true that all the observed nodes in the network are interconnected, therefore, it is difficult to achieve the high-precision time synchronization of a network system in the condition that a certain node can only obtain the measurement information of clock from a single neighboring node, but cannot obtain it from other nodes. Aiming at this problem, a novel method of high-precision time synchronization in a network system is proposed. In this paper, each clock is regarded as a node in the network system, and based on the definition of different topological structures of a distributed system, the three control algorithms of time synchronization under the following three cases are designed: without a master clock (reference clock), with a master clock (reference clock), and with a fixed communication delay in the network system. And the validity of the designed clock synchronization protocol is proved by both stability analysis and numerical simulation.

  14. Sumoylation of the Plant Clock Transcription Factor CCA1 Suppresses DNA Binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, L.L.; Imrie, L.; Le Bihan, T.; van den Burg, H.A.; van Ooijen, G.

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the circadian clock regulates the expression of one-third of all transcripts and is crucial to virtually every aspect of metabolism and growth. We now establish sumoylation, a posttranslational protein modification, as a novel regulator of the key clock protein CCA1 in the model plant

  15. Master Clock and Time-Signal-Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert; Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Lauf, John

    2007-01-01

    A timing system comprising an electronic master clock and a subsystem for distributing time signals from the master clock to end users is undergoing development to satisfy anticipated timing requirements of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) for the next 20 to 30 years. This system has a modular, flexible, expandable architecture that is easier to operate and maintain than the present frequency and timing subsystem (FTS).

  16. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization validation methodology. [in computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight-crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating the clock synchronization system of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer. The design proof of the algorithm includes a theorem that defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of specific system parameters. Most of these parameters are deterministic. One crucial parameter is the upper bound on the clock read error, which is stochastic. The probability that this upper bound is exceeded is calculated from data obtained by the measurement of system parameters. This probability is then included in a detailed reliability analysis of the system.

  17. Reference clock parameters for digital communications systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschoff, P.

    1981-01-01

    The basic parameters relevant to the design of network timing systems describe the random and systematic time departures of the system elements, i.e., master (or reference) clocks, transmission links, and other clocks controlled over the links. The quantitative relations between these parameters were established and illustrated by means of numerical examples based on available measured data. The examples were limited to a simple PLL control system but the analysis can eventually be applied to more sophisticated systems at the cost of increased computational effort.

  18. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Shin, Kang G.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are compared and contrasted. These include the following: software synchronization algorithms, such as convergence-averaging, convergence-nonaveraging, and consistency algorithms, as well as probabilistic synchronization; hardware synchronization algorithms; and hybrid synchronization. The worst-case clock skews guaranteed by representative algorithms are compared, along with other important aspects such as time, message, and cost overhead imposed by the algorithms. More recent developments such as hardware-assisted software synchronization and algorithms for synchronizing large, partially connected distributed systems are especially emphasized.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Clock Recovery for Coherent Mode Division Multiplexed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    The impact of mode mixing and group delay spread on clock tone quality of a 6-mode 32 GBd NRZ-QPSK MDM system is investigated. Even for low group delay spread, strong coupling causes clock tone disappearance....

  20. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  1. Synchrony of plant cellular circadian clocks with heterogeneous properties under light/dark cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masaaki; Muranaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Shogo; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2017-03-22

    Individual cells in a plant can work independently as circadian clocks, and their properties are the basis of various circadian phenomena. The behaviour of individual cellular clocks in Lemna gibba was orderly under 24-h light/dark cycles despite their heterogeneous free-running periods (FRPs). Here, we reveal the entrainment habits of heterogeneous cellular clocks using non-24-h light/dark cycles (T-cycles). The cellular rhythms of AtCCA1::LUC under T = 16 h cycles showed heterogeneous entrainment that was associated with their heterogeneous FRPs. Under T = 12 h cycles, most cells showed rhythms having ~24-h periods. This suggested that the lower limit of entrainment to the light/dark cycles of heterogeneous cellular circadian clocks is set to a period longer than 12 h, which enables them to be synchronous under ~24-h daily cycles without being perturbed by short light/dark cycles. The entrainment habits of individual cellular clocks are likely to be the basis of the circadian behaviour of plant under the natural day-night cycle with noisy environmental fluctuations. We further suggest that modifications of EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) in individual cells deviate the entrainability to shorter T-cycles possibly by altering both the FRPs and light responsiveness.

  2. Hardware-assisted software clock synchronization for homogeneous distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, P.; Kandlur, Dilip D.; Shin, Kang G.

    1990-01-01

    A clock synchronization scheme that strikes a balance between hardware and software solutions is proposed. The proposed is a software algorithm that uses minimal additional hardware to achieve reasonably tight synchronization. Unlike other software solutions, the guaranteed worst-case skews can be made insensitive to the maximum variation of message transit delay in the system. The scheme is particularly suitable for large partially connected distributed systems with topologies that support simple point-to-point broadcast algorithms. Examples of such topologies include the hypercube and the mesh interconnection structures.

  3. Byzantine-fault tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A rapid Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol that self-stabilizes from any state, tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a linear convergence time with respect to the self-stabilization period. Upon self-stabilization, all good clocks proceed synchronously. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  4. Redox and the circadian clock in plant immunity: A balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Sargis; Dong, Xinnian

    2018-05-01

    Plants' reliance on sunlight for energy makes their light-driven circadian clock a critical regulator in balancing the energy needs for vital activities such as growth and defense. Recent studies show that the circadian clock acts as a strategic planner to prime active defense responses towards the morning or daytime when conditions, such as the opening of stomata required for photosynthesis, are favorable for attackers. Execution of the defense response, on the other hand, is determined according to the cellular redox state and is regulated in part by the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species upon pathogen challenge. The interplay between redox and the circadian clock further gates the onset of defense response to a specific time of the day to avoid conflict with growth-related activities. In this review, we focus on discussing the roles of the circadian clock as a robust overseer and the cellular redox as a dynamic executor of plant defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  6. Gauge systems and functions, hermitian operators and clocks as conjugate functions for the constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, Vladimir; Vergara, Jose David; Montesinos, Merced

    2011-01-01

    We work with gauge systems and using gauge invariant functions we study its quantum counterpart and we find if all these operators are self adjoint or not. Our study is divided in two cases, when we choose clock or clocks that its Poisson brackets with the set of constraints is one or it is different to one. We show some transition amplitudes.

  7. Systematic evaluation of a 171Yb optical clock by synchronous comparison between two lattice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Zhou, Min; Han, Chengyin; Li, Shangyan; Zhang, Shuang; Yao, Yuan; Li, Bo; Qiao, Hao; Ai, Di; Lou, Ge; Zhang, Mengya; Jiang, Yanyi; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng; Xu, Xinye

    2018-05-22

    Optical clocks are the most precise measurement devices. Here we experimentally characterize one such clock based on the 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 transition of neutral 171 Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice. Given that the systematic evaluation using an interleaved stabilization scheme is unable to avoid noise from the clock laser, synchronous comparisons against a second 171 Yb lattice system were implemented to accelerate the evaluation. The fractional instability of one clock falls below 4 × 10 -17 after an averaging over a time of 5,000 seconds. The systematic frequency shifts were corrected with a total uncertainty of 1.7 × 10 -16 . The lattice polarizability shift currently contributes the largest source. This work paves the way to measuring the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the primary Cs standard or against the International System of Units (SI) second.

  8. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  9. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Clock Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Clock Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS)....

  10. Circadian clocks of both plants and pollinators influence flower seeking behavior of the pollinator hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Myles P; Nguyen, LeAnn P; Horn, Erin K; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Imaizumi, Takato

    2018-02-12

    Most plant-pollinator interactions occur during specific periods during the day. To facilitate these interactions, many flowers are known to display their attractive qualities, such as scent emission and petal opening, in a daily rhythmic fashion. However, less is known about how the internal timing mechanisms (the circadian clocks) of plants and animals influence their daily interactions. We examine the role of the circadian clock in modulating the interaction between Petunia and one of its pollinators, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. We find that desynchronization of the Petunia circadian clock affects moth visitation preference for Petunia flowers. Similarly, moths with circadian time aligned to plants show stronger flower-foraging activities than moths that lack this alignment. Moth locomotor activity is circadian clock-regulated, although it is also strongly repressed by light. Moths show a time-dependent burst increase in flight activity during subjective night. In addition, moth antennal responsiveness to the floral scent compounds exhibits a 24-hour rhythm in both continuous light and dark conditions. This study highlights the importance of the circadian clocks in both plants and animals as a crucial factor in initiating specialized plant-pollinator relationships.

  11. Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eGuerriero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-hour day/night cycle.Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks.Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less studied.

  12. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  13. Carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana is a dynamic process controlled by the plants metabolic status and its circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Katharina; Thalmann, Matthias; Müller, Antonia; Jenny, Camilla; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant growth involves the coordinated distribution of carbon resources both towards structural components and towards storage compounds that assure a steady carbon supply over the complete diurnal cycle. We used 14CO2 labelling to track assimilated carbon in both source and sink tissues. Source tissues exhibit large variations in carbon allocation throughout the light period. The most prominent change was detected in partitioning towards starch, being low in the morning and more than double later in the day. Export into sink tissues showed reciprocal changes. Fewer and smaller changes in carbon allocation occurred in sink tissues where, in most respects, carbon was partitioned similarly, whether the sink leaf assimilated it through photosynthesis or imported it from source leaves. Mutants deficient in the production or remobilization of leaf starch exhibited major alterations in carbon allocation. Low-starch mutants that suffer from carbon starvation at night allocated much more carbon into neutral sugars and had higher rates of export than the wild type, partly because of the reduced allocation into starch, but also because of reduced allocation into structural components. Moreover, mutants deficient in the plant’s circadian system showed considerable changes in their carbon partitioning pattern suggesting control by the circadian clock. This work focusses on the temporal changes in the allocation and transport of photoassimilates within Arabidopsis rosettes, helping to fill a gap in our understanding of plant growth. Using short pulses of 14C-labelled carbon dioxide, we quantified how much carbon is used for growth and how much is stored as starch for use at night. In source leaves, partitioning is surprisingly dynamic during the day, even though photosynthesis is relatively constant, while in sink leaves, utilisation is more constant. Furthermore, by analysing metabolic mutants and clock mutants, and by manipulating the growth conditions, we show that

  14. Precise Receiver Clock Offset Estimations According to Each Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtan, Thayathip; Tirawanichakul, Pawit; Satirapod, Chalermchon

    2017-12-01

    Each GNSS constellation operates its own system times; namely, GPS system time (GPST), GLONASS system time (GLONASST), BeiDou system time (BDT) and Galileo system time (GST). They could be traced back to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) scale and are aligned to GPST. This paper estimates the receiver clock offsets to three timescales: GPST, GLONASST and BDT. The two measurement scenarios use two identical multi-GNSS geodetic receivers connected to the same geodetic antenna through a splitter. One receiver is driven by its internal oscillators and another receiver is connected to the external frequency oscillators, caesium frequency standard, kept as the Thailand standard time scale at the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) called UTC(NIMT). The three weeks data are observed at 30 seconds sample rate. The receiver clock offsets with respected to the three system time are estimated and analysed through the geodetic technique of static Precise Point Positioning (PPP) using a data processing software developed by Wuhan University - Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software. The estimated receiver clock offsets are around 32, 33 and 18 nanoseconds from GPST, GLONASST and BDT respectively. This experiment is initially stated that each timescale is inter-operated with GPST and further measurements on receiver internal delay has to be determined for clock comparisons especially the high accuracy clock at timing laboratories.

  15. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  16. Lego clocks: building a clock from parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Michael; Simons, Mirre J P; Merrow, Martha

    2008-06-01

    A new finding opens up speculation that the molecular mechanism of circadian clocks in Synechococcus elongatus is composed of multiple oscillator systems (Kitayama and colleagues, this issue, pp. 1513-1521), as has been described in many eukaryotic clock model systems. However, an alternative intepretation is that the pacemaker mechanism-as previously suggested-lies primarily in the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the clock protein KaiC.

  17. The design and test of VME clock distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heng; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao

    2011-01-01

    It describes the design of the VME Clock Distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system, including the function and the hardware structure of the module and the logic design of the FPGA on the module. After the building and debugging of the module, a series of tests have been made to check its function and stability. (authors)

  18. Electromagnetic synchronisation of clocks with finite separation in a rotating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.M.; Moses, H.E.; Rosenblum, A.; Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA

    1984-01-01

    For clocks on the vertices of a triangle, it is shown that clock synchronisation using electromagnetic signals between finitely spaced clocks in a rotating frame leads to the same synchronisation error as a closely spaced band of clocks along the same light path. In addition, the above result is generalised to n equally spaced clocks. (author)

  19. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-07-01

    An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N-H cycles. Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to 'anticipate' dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  20. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Methods Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N–H cycles. Key Results Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Conclusions Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to ‘anticipate’ dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. PMID:26070640

  1. Comments On Clock Models In Hybrid Automata And Hybrid Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ecaterina OLTEAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems have received a lot of attention in the past decade and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish mathematical framework that is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. This contribution is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid control systems with continuous-discrete interface and the importance of clock models is emphasized. Simple and relevant examples, some taken from the literature, accompany the presentation.

  2. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Clock Math — a System for Solving SLEs Exactly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Hladík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a GPU-accelerated hybrid system that solves ill-conditioned systems of linear equations exactly. Exactly means without rounding errors due to using integer arithmetics. First, we scale floating-point numbers up to integers, then we solve dozens of SLEs within different modular arithmetics and then we assemble sub-solutions back using the Chinese remainder theorem. This approach effectively bypasses current CPU floating-point limitations. The system is capable of solving Hilbert’s matrix without losing a single bit of precision, and with a significant speedup compared to existing CPU solvers.

  4. C-Lock: An online system to standardize the estimation of agricultural carbon sequestration credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Updegraff, Karen; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Capehart, William J. [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. St. Joseph Street, Rapid City, SD 57701-3995 (United States); Price, Maribeth [Department of Geology, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. St. Joseph Street, Rapid City, SD 57701-3995 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    C-Lock (patent pending) is a system that has been designed to produce standardized carbon emission reduction credits (CERCs) that minimize litigation risks to purchasers and maximize the potential value to agricultural producers. C-Lock provides a web-based user interface linking producer-supplied, verifiable, management data, a detailed regional-scale GIS, and a biogeochemical model (CENTURY). Output includes historical incremental carbon sequestration since 1990 and predictions of future sequestration, packaged to satisfy evolving regulatory standards. C-Lock incorporates a unique uncertainty analysis and a three-level verification system to produce certified CERCs for specific land parcels in a way that is reproducible, equitable, and regionally defensible. Using a South Dakota farm as an example, the authors show how, by avoiding reliance on field sampling, this system can minimize measurement and monitoring costs. It allows individual producers a high degree of control over contract design and marketing, thereby reducing transaction costs. The transparent, standardized, and auditable procedure produces CERCs of maximum value to those seeking emission offsets. (author)

  5. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  6. Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, R; Wyllie, K

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  7. Performance analysis of a complete adiabatic logic system driven by the proposed power clock generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanungo, Jitendra; Dasgupta, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the energy performance of a complete adiabatic circuit/system including the Power Clock Generator (PCG) at the 90 nm CMOS technology node. The energy performance in terms of the conversion efficiency of the PCG is extensively carried out under the variations of supply voltage, process corner and the driver transistor's width. We propose an energy-efficient singe cycle control circuit based on the two-stage comparator for the synchronous charge recovery sinusoidal power clock generator (PCG). The proposed PCG is used to drive the 4-bit adiabatic Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and their simulation results are compared with the adiabatic RCA driven by the reported PCG. We have also simulated the logically equivalent static CMOS RCA circuit to compare the energy saving of adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic circuits. In the clock frequency range from 25 MHz to 1GHz, the proposed PCG gives a maximum conversion efficiency of 56.48%. This research work shows how the design of an efficient PCG increases the energy saving of adiabatic logic. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Circadian Stress Regimes Affect the Circadian Clock and Cause Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Cell Death in Cytokinin-Deficient Arabidopsis Plants[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Silvia; Cortleven, Anne; Iven, Tim; Havaux, Michel; Schmülling, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock helps plants measure daylength and adapt to changes in the day-night rhythm. We found that changes in the light-dark regime triggered stress responses, eventually leading to cell death, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced cytokinin levels or defective cytokinin signaling. Prolonged light treatment followed by a dark period induced stress and cell death marker genes while reducing photosynthetic efficiency. This response, called circadian stress, is also characterized by altered expression of clock and clock output genes. In particular, this treatment strongly reduced the expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Intriguingly, similar changes in gene expression and cell death were observed in clock mutants lacking proper CCA1 and LHY function. Circadian stress caused strong changes in reactive oxygen species- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression. The activation of the JA pathway, involving the accumulation of JA metabolites, was crucial for the induction of cell death, since the cell death phenotype was strongly reduced in the jasmonate resistant1 mutant background. We propose that adaptation to circadian stress regimes requires a normal cytokinin status which, acting primarily through the AHK3 receptor, supports circadian clock function to guard against the detrimental effects of circadian stress. PMID:27354555

  9. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  10. The clock is ticking. Ageing of the circadian system: From physiology to cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzibasi-Tozzini, Eva; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Lucas-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24h rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components. It has been described about 10% of the genome is controlled by clock genes, with special relevance, due to its implications, to the cell cycle. Ageing is a deleterious process which affects all the organisms' structures including circadian system. The circadian system's ageing may produce a disorganisation among the circadian rhythms, arrhythmicity and, even, disconnection from the environment, resulting in a detrimental situation to the organism. In addition, some environmental conditions can produce circadian disruption, also called chronodisruption, which may produce many pathologies including accelerated ageing. Finally, some strategies to prevent, palliate or counteract chronodisruption effects have been proposed to enhance the circadian system, also called chronoenhancement. This review tries to gather recent advances in the chronobiology of the ageing process, including cell cycle, neurogenesis process and physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  12. Clock recovery PLL with gated PFD for NRZ ON-OFF Modulated Signals in a retinal implant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler, Christian; Aryan, Naser Pour; Rieger, Viola; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    A Clock Recovery Phase Locked Loop with Gated Phase Frequency Detector (GPLL) for NRZ ON-OFF Modulated Signals with low data transmission rates for an inductively powered subretinal implant system is presented. Low data transmission rate leads to a long absence of inductive powering in the system when zeros are transmitted. Consequently there is no possibility to extract any clock in these pauses, thus the digital circuitry can not work any more. Compared to a commonly used PLL for clock extraction, no certain amount of data transitions is needed. This is achieved by having two operating modes. In one mode the GPLL tracks the HF input signal. In the other, the GPLL is an adjustable oscillator oscillating at the last used frequency. The proposed GPLL is fabricated and measured using a 350 nm High Voltage CMOS technology.

  13. Photosynthetic Entrainment of the Circadian Clock Facilitates Plant Growth under Environmental Fluctuations: Perspectives from an Integrated Model of Phase Oscillator and Phloem Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ohara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants need to avoid carbon starvation and resultant growth inhibition under fluctuating light environments to ensure optimal growth and reproduction. As diel patterns of carbon metabolism are influenced by the circadian clock, appropriate regulation of the clock is essential for plants to properly manage their carbon resources. For proper adjustment of the circadian phase, higher plants utilize environmental signals such as light or temperature and metabolic signals such as photosynthetic products; the importance of the latter as phase regulators has been recently elucidated. A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is deficient in phase response to sugar has been shown, under fluctuating light conditions, to be unable to adjust starch turnover and to realize carbon homeostasis. Whereas, the effects of light entrainment on growth and survival of higher plants are well studied, the impact of phase regulation by sugar remains unknown. Here we show that endogenous sugar entrainment facilitates plant growth. We integrated two mathematical models, one describing the dynamics of carbon metabolism in A. thaliana source leaves and the other growth of sink tissues dependent on sucrose translocation from the source. The integrated model predicted that sugar-sensitive plants grow faster than sugar-insensitive plants under constant as well as changing photoperiod conditions. We found that sugar entrainment enables efficient carbon investment for growth by stabilizing sucrose supply to sink tissues. Our results highlight the importance of clock entrainment by both exogenous and endogenous signals for optimizing growth and increasing fitness.

  14. New around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department: a satisfaction survey among clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Shin, Cheong Il; Song, Su Jin; Cha, Won Cheol; Na, Dong Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinician satisfaction of a newly introduced around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department. Seventeen emergency physicians (8 board certified physicians, 9 residents) were invited to fill out a survey pertaining to the newly introduced radiology coverage system for the emergency department. The questionnaire included 10 questions covering three major topics. The first topic related to the around-the-clock radiology coverage by two full-time radiology residents. The second topic focused on the preliminary interpretations of radiology residents. The last topic included the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists. The answers to each question were assessed using a scoring system of 1 to 5. The mean satisfaction score of the around-the-clock radiology coverage system by the two full-time radiology residents was 4.6 (range 3-5). The mean score for the preliminary interpretation system by the radiology residents was 4.8 (range 4-5). The score for the reliability of the preliminary versus the final interpretation was 4.1 (range 4-5). Lastly, the mean score for the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists was 4.9 (range 4-5). The results of this study indicate a high satisfaction rating among clinicians' of the new around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department

  15. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  16. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  17. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous-whose rates are related by a non-constant function βsub(a)-is demonstrated. The cosmological character of βsub(a) is also discussed. (author)

  18. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  19. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Teschke

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.

  20. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  1. Design and implementation of fast bipolar clock drivers for CCD imaging systems in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Jayesh; Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Amarnath; Thaker, Ramkrishna

    2016-05-01

    Drive electronics for generating fast, bipolar clocks, which can drive capacitive loads of the order of 5-10nF are indispensable for present day Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Design of these high speed bipolar clocks is challenging because of the capacitive loads that have to be driven and a strict constraint on the rise and fall times. Designing drive electronics circuits for space applications becomes even more challenging due to limited number of available discrete devices, which can survive in the harsh radiation prone space environment. This paper presents the design, simulations and test results of a set of such high speed, bipolar clock drivers. The design has been tested under a thermal cycle of -15 deg C to +55 deg C under vacuum conditions and has been designed using radiation hardened components. The test results show that the design meets the stringent rise/fall time requirements of 50+/-10ns for Multiple Vertical CCD (VCCD) clocks and 20+/-5ns for Horizontal CCD (HCCD) clocks with sufficient design margins across full temperature range, with a pixel readout rate of 6.6MHz. The full design has been realized in flexi-rigid PCB with package volume of 140x160x50 mm3.

  2. Biochemical Frequency Control by Synchronisation of Coupled Repressilators: An In Silico Study of Modules for Circadian Clock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Thomas; Schumann, Mathias; Bodenstein, Christian; Heiland, Ines; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of chronobiological systems emerges as a growing research field within bioinformatics focusing on various applications in medicine, agriculture, and material sciences. From a systems biological perspective, the question arises whether biological control systems for regulation of oscillatory signals and their technical counterparts utilise similar mechanisms. If so, modelling approaches and parameterisation adopted from building blocks can help to identify general components for frequency control in circadian clocks along with gaining insight into mechanisms of clock synchronisation to external stimuli like the daily rhythm of sunlight and darkness. Phase-locked loops could be an interesting candidate in this context. Both, biology and engineering, can benefit from a unified view resulting from systems modularisation. In a first experimental study, we analyse a model of coupled repressilators. We demonstrate its ability to synchronise clock signals in a monofrequential manner. Several oscillators initially deviate in phase difference and frequency with respect to explicit reaction and diffusion rates. Accordingly, the duration of the synchronisation process depends on dedicated reaction and diffusion parameters whose settings still lack to be sufficiently captured analytically. PMID:22046179

  3. Atomic clocks for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlstäubler, Tanja E.; Grosche, Gesine; Lisdat, Christian; Schmidt, Piet O.; Denker, Heiner

    2018-06-01

    We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10‑17, opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors. In this review, we introduce the concepts of optical atomic clocks and present the status of international clock development and comparison. Besides further improvement in stability and accuracy of today’s best clocks, a large effort is put into increasing the reliability and technological readiness for applications outside of specialized laboratories with compact, portable devices. With relative frequency uncertainties of 10‑18, comparisons of optical frequency standards are foreseen to contribute together with satellite and terrestrial data to the precise determination of fundamental height reference systems in geodesy with a resolution at the cm-level. The long-term stability of atomic standards will deliver excellent long-term height references for geodetic measurements and for the modelling and understanding of our Earth.

  4. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  5. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  6. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Ultrafast Phase Comparator for Phase-Locked Loop-Based Optoelectronic Clock Recovery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Agis, F.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Kurimura, S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report on a novel application of a chi((2)) nonlinear optical device as an ultrafast phase comparator, an essential element that allows an optoelectronic phase-locked loop to perform clock recovery of ultrahigh-speed optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signals. Particular interest...... is devoted to a quasi-phase-matching adhered-ridge-waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) device, which shows a sufficient high temporal resolution to resolve a 640 Gbits OTDM signal....

  9. Time without clocks - an attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpman, G.

    1978-01-01

    A definition of time intervals separating two states of systems of elementary particles and observers is attempted. The definition is founded on the notion of instant state of the system and uses no information connected with the use of a clock. Applying the definition to a classical clock and to a sample of unstable particles, results are obtained in agreement with experiment. However, if the system contains 'few' elementary particles, the properties of the time interval present some different features. (author)

  10. Program to make remote time measurement on the new precise clock system on totem

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    For my project at CERN, I worked in the TOTEM team with Michele Quinto and Francesco Cafagna as supervisors. Their team is currently working on an update on TOTEM that includes a module able to measure precisely the time of flight of particles emitted from the collision at CMS. With this additional data, TOTEM will be able to reconstruct precisely the point of the collision in CMS. The main problem posed for this new module is to provide a precise synchronized clock signal to both the TOTEM detectors situated 200 meters after and before CMS. In fact, due to some external parameters, as temperature, the length of the optical fiber guiding the clock signal can vary yielding thus a unwanted phase difference of the clock between the two detectors. The idea is to get rid of the noisy phase difference to make very precise time of flight measurement of the order of the picosecond. This is achieved by continuously measuring the phase difference and correcting the time measurements according to the current phase diffe...

  11. From two competing oscillators to one coupled-clock pacemaker cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of this century, debates regarding “what are the main control mechanisms that ignite the action potential (AP) in heart pacemaker cells” dominated the electrophysiology field. The original theory which prevailed for over 50 years had advocated that the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels (i.e., “M-clock”) is sufficient to ignite rhythmic APs. However, more recent experimental evidence in a variety of mammals has shown that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) acts as a “Ca2+-clock” rhythmically discharges diastolic local Ca2+ releases (LCRs) beneath the cell surface membrane. LCRs activate an inward current (likely that of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) that prompts the surface membrane “M-clock” to ignite an AP. Theoretical and experimental evidence has mounted to indicate that this clock “crosstalk” operates on a beat-to-beat basis and determines both the AP firing rate and rhythm. Our review is focused on the evolution of experimental definition and numerical modeling of the coupled-clock concept, on how mechanisms intrinsic to pacemaker cell determine both the heart rate and rhythm, and on future directions to develop further the coupled-clock pacemaker cell concept. PMID:25741284

  12. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the...

  13. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.; Manazir, R.; Rescori, R.; Harmon, D.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  14. Molecular cogs of the insect circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, Naoto; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2003-08-01

    During the last five years, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of circadian systems, mainly by molecular genetic studies using the mouse and fly. Extensive evidence has revealed that the core clock machinery involves "clock genes" and "clock proteins" functioning as molecular cogs. These participate in transcriptional/translational feedback loops and many homologous clock-components in the fruit fly Drosophila are also expressed in mammalian clock tissues with circadian rhythms. Thus, the mechanisms of the central clock seem to be conserved across animal kingdom. However, some recent studies imply that the present widely accepted molecular models of circadian clocks may not always be supported by the experimental evidence.

  15. Study on a High-frequency Multi-GNSS Real-time Precise Clock Estimation Algorithm and Application in GNSS Augment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GNSS satellite-based differential augment system is based on real-time orbit and clock augment message. The multi-GNSS real-time precise clock error estimation model is studied, and then the parameters estimated in traditional un-difference model are optimized and a high-efficient real-time clock simplified model is proposed and realized. The real-time orbit data processing based on PANDA is also analyzed. The results indicate that the real-time orbit radial accuracy of GPS, BeiDou MEO and Galileo is 1~5 cm, and the radial accuracy of the BeiDou GEO/IGSO satellite is about 10 cm. It is found that the optimized real-time clock simplified model is more efficient in one epoch than un-difference model and can be applied to high-frequency (such as 1 Hz updating of real-time clock augment message. The results show that the real-time clock error obtained by this model is absolute value and there is no constant bias. Based on the real-time orbit, the GPS real-time clock precision of the simplified model is about 0.24 ns, BeiDou GEO is about 0.50 ns, IGSO/MEO is about 0.22 ns and Galileo is about 0.32 ns. Using the multi-GNSS real-time data stream in GFZ, a multi-GNSS real-time augment prototype system is built and the real-time augment message is being broadcasted on the Internet. The real-time PPP centimeter-level service and meter-level navigation service based on pseudorange are realized based on this prototype system.

  16. Physiological links of circadian clock and biological clock of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles. With aging, circadian desynchrony occurs at the expense of peripheral metabolic pathologies and central neurodegenerative disorders with sleep symptoms, and genetic ablation of circadian genes in model organisms resembled the aging-related features. Notably, a number of studies have linked longevity nutrient sensing pathways in modulating circadian clocks. Therapeutic strategies that bridge the nutrient sensing pathways and circadian clock might be rational designs to defy aging.

  17. Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel, Georg...oeaw.ac.at Nikolaus Kerö Oregano Systems, Mohsgasse 1, 1030 Wien, Austria E-mail: nikolaus.keroe@oregano.at Abstract Clock synchronization ...is a service widely used in distributed networks to coordinate data acquisition and actions. As the requirement to achieve tighter synchronization

  18. Relativistic Ideal Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Bratek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...

  19. Impact of round-the-clock CSF Gram stain on empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, F; Prod'hom, G; Manuel, O; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    The impact of round-the-clock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain on overnight empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections was investigated. All consecutive overnight CSF Gram stains between 2006 and 2011 were included. The impact of a positive or a negative test on empirical therapy was evaluated and compared to other clinical and biological indications based on institutional guidelines. Bacterial CNS infection was documented in 51/241 suspected cases. Overnight CSF Gram stain was positive in 24/51. Upon validation, there were two false-positive and one false-negative results. The sensitivity and specificity were 41 and 99 %, respectively. All patients but one had other indications for empirical therapy than Gram stain alone. Upon obtaining the Gram result, empirical therapy was modified in 7/24, including the addition of an appropriate agent (1), addition of unnecessary agents (3) and simplification of unnecessary combination therapy (3/11). Among 74 cases with a negative CSF Gram stain and without formal indication for empirical therapy, antibiotics were withheld in only 29. Round-the-clock CSF Gram stain had a low impact on overnight empirical therapy for suspected CNS infections and was associated with several misinterpretation errors. Clinicians showed little confidence in CSF direct examination for simplifying or withholding therapy before definite microbiological results.

  20. Coordination of the maize transcriptome by a conserved circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmon Frank G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant circadian clock orchestrates 24-hour rhythms in internal physiological processes to coordinate these activities with daily and seasonal changes in the environment. The circadian clock has a profound impact on many aspects of plant growth and development, including biomass accumulation and flowering time. Despite recent advances in understanding the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the contribution of the circadian oscillator to important agronomic traits in Zea mays and other cereals remains poorly defined. To address this deficit, this study investigated the transcriptional landscape of the maize circadian system. Results Since transcriptional regulation is a fundamental aspect of circadian systems, genes exhibiting circadian expression were identified in the sequenced maize inbred B73. Of the over 13,000 transcripts examined, approximately 10 percent displayed circadian expression patterns. The majority of cycling genes had peak expression at subjective dawn and dusk, similar to other plant circadian systems. The maize circadian clock organized co-regulation of genes participating in fundamental physiological processes, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and phytohormone biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions Circadian regulation of the maize genome was widespread and key genes in several major metabolic pathways had circadian expression waveforms. The maize circadian clock coordinated transcription to be coincident with oncoming day or night, which was consistent with the circadian oscillator acting to prepare the plant for these major recurring environmental changes. These findings highlighted the multiple processes in maize plants under circadian regulation and, as a result, provided insight into the important contribution this regulatory system makes to agronomic traits in maize and potentially other C4 plant species.

  1. [Associations between chronotype, road accidents and polymorphisms in genes linked with biological clock and dopaminergic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranov, A O; Puchkova, A N; Slominsky, P A; Tupitsyna, T V; Dementiyenko, V V; Dorokhov, V B

    2017-01-01

    Public transport driving is a highly demanding activity requiring high skills and responsibility. Shift work, problems with regular sleep schedule negatively impact psychomotor reactions, cognitive functions and ability to react appropriately to the changing environment. For professional drivers all these factors may lead to the increased risk of a road accident. Individual differences in chronotype, cognitive and emotional control are partially genetically determined. Our study aimed to investigate the possible associations between chronotype parameters, traffic accident history and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genes: RORA (rs1159814), CLOCK (rs12649507), PER3 (rs2640909), NPSR1 (rs324981), NPAS2 (rs4851377), DRD3 (rs6280), SLC6A3 (rs6347), DBH (rs1611125). We have studied 303 professional bus drivers working on rolling shifts in the Moscow region who had a recorded history of road accidents. The studied group was genotyped on selected SNPs and has filled out two chronotype questionnaires: MCTQ and shortened SWPAQ (Putilov A.A, 2014). A mixed chronotype with high levels of morning and evening alertness prevailed in the group. A prominent social jetlag caused by shift work was found. For SNP in PER3 gene there was an association with morning activation. SNP in CLOCK gene was associated with social jetlag and the risk to cause a crash. Minor alleles of SNPs in NPSR1and SLC6A3 correlated with later chronotype and increased risk of a road accident. We suppose that these polymorphisms may be amongst the genetic factors connecting chronotype and road accident risk.

  2. Space experiments with high stability clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.

    1993-01-01

    Modern metrology depends increasingly on the accuracy and frequency stability of atomic clocks. Applications of such high-stability oscillators (or clocks) to experiments performed in space are described and estimates of the precision of these experiments are made in terms of clock performance. Methods using time-correlation to cancel localized disturbances in very long signal paths and a proposed space borne four station VLBI system are described. (TEC). 30 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  3. Orrery a story of mechanical solar systems, clocks, and English nobility

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2014-01-01

    To find the true story of the orrery, this book takes the reader to the vibrant, tumultous London of the 1600s. A mechanical model that shows the movements of the Moon and planets, the orrery takes its name from the Boyle family – the Earls of Orrery. Here is the fascinating story of the origins of this intricate device. Orreries are found everywhere. They appear in paintings, on the side of royal clocks, in stately home hallways, and of course, in museums all over the world. Scientific instruments to demonstrate the movements of the planets and predict their positions using measuring devices, they were devised largely by clockmakers, but many others played a role too and are given due credit. The story of the Boyles is not just relevant to a tiny corner of Ireland, but spans history. “Orrery” highlights the process of discovery and humankind’s universal fascination with the heavens, providing a fascinating example of the relationship between innovative thinking (invention) and precision enginee...

  4. The Implementation of E1 Clock Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ziyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clock transform and recovery is of significant importance in microwave TDM service, and it is always extracted from the E1 line data stream in most cases. However, intrinsically uncertain delay and jitter caused by packet transmission of E1 data information, may lead to the indexes of the data recovery clock exceed the clock performance template. Through analysis of the E1 clock indexes and measuring methods, this paper proposes a new clock recovery method. The method employs two buffers, the first RAM is used as a buffer to deduct excess information, and the second FIFO is used as a buffer to recovery the clock and data. The first buffer has a feedback from the second one, and is able to actively respond to changes in the data link and requests from the second one. The test results validate the effectiveness of the method, and the corresponding scheme is also valuable for the other communication systems.

  5. Methodologies for steering clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  6. Clocks and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRoberts, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A kinematic theory without precise definitions of the 'space' and 'time' used is an uninterpreted calculus. The definition of 'time' in special relativity is based on light propagation and the 'constant velocity of light' is a tautological consequence of the definition. When this definition is reified in a 'clock' the phenomenon of 'time dilation' occurs, in terms of the defined time, but is not reciprocal between moving systems; the postulate of relativity is not observed. The new definition of time is compatible with an ether theory without the relativity principle. The derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which requires both postulates, is purely formalistic and is not ontologically sound. (Auth.)

  7. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  8. Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Marouani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.

  9. Cosmic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    Two techniques based on astronomical observations have been developed which enable the age of the universe to be estimated, and an interdisciplinary field known as nuclear cosmochronology has allowed the ages of the earth and solar system to be determined

  10. Circadian clocks, epigenetics, and cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Selma; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between circadian rhythm and cancer has been suggested for more than a decade based on the observations that shift work and cancer incidence are linked. Accumulating evidence implicates the circadian clock in cancer survival and proliferation pathways. At the molecular level, multiple control mechanisms have been proposed to link circadian transcription and cell-cycle control to tumorigenesis.The circadian gating of the cell cycle and subsequent control of cell proliferation is an area of active investigation. Moreover, the circadian clock is a transcriptional system that is intricately regulated at the epigenetic level. Interestingly, the epigenetic landscape at the level of histone modifications, DNA methylation, and small regulatory RNAs are differentially controlled in cancer cells. This concept raises the possibility that epigenetic control is a common thread linking the clock with cancer, though little scientific evidence is known to date.This review focuses on the link between circadian clock and cancer, and speculates on the possible connections at the epigenetic level that could further link the circadian clock to tumor initiation or progression.

  11. The Use of Grafting to Study Systemic Signaling in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hiroki; Notaguchi, Michitaka

    2017-08-01

    Grafting has long been an important technique in agriculture. Nowadays, grafting is a widely used technique also to study systemic long-distance signaling in plants. Plants respond to their surrounding environment, and at that time many aspects of their physiology are regulated systemically; these start from local input signals and are followed by the transmission of information to the rest of the plant. For example, soil nutrient conditions, light/photoperiod, and biotic and abiotic stresses affect plants heterogeneously, and plants perceive such information in specific plant tissues or organs. Such environmental cues are crucial determinants of plant growth and development, and plants drastically change their morphology and physiology to adapt to various events in their life. Hitherto, intensive studies have been conducted to understand systemic signaling in plants, and grafting techniques have permitted advances in this field. The breakthrough technique of micrografting in Arabidopsis thaliana was established in 2002 and led to the development of molecular genetic tools in this field. Thereafter, various phenomena of systemic signaling have been identified at the molecular level, including nutrient fixation, flowering, circadian clock and defense against pathogens. The significance of grafting is that it can clarify the transmission of the stimulus and molecules. At present, many micro- and macromolecules have been identified as mobile signals, which are transported through plant vascular tissues to co-ordinate their physiology and development. In this review, we introduce the various grafting techniques that have been developed, we report on the recent advances in the field of plant systemic signaling where grafting techniques have been applied and provide insights for the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  13. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  15. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  16. Rigorously modeling self-stabilizing fault-tolerant circuits: An ultra-robust clocking scheme for systems-on-chip☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Danny; Függer, Matthias; Posch, Markus; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Lenzen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present the first implementation of a distributed clock generation scheme for Systems-on-Chip that recovers from an unbounded number of arbitrary transient faults despite a large number of arbitrary permanent faults. We devise self-stabilizing hardware building blocks and a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous state machine enabling metastability-free transitions of the algorithm's states. We provide a comprehensive modeling approach that permits to prove, given correctness of the constructed low-level building blocks, the high-level properties of the synchronization algorithm (which have been established in a more abstract model). We believe this approach to be of interest in its own right, since this is the first technique permitting to mathematically verify, at manageable complexity, high-level properties of a fault-prone system in terms of its very basic components. We evaluate a prototype implementation, which has been designed in VHDL, using the Petrify tool in conjunction with some extensions, and synthesized for an Altera Cyclone FPGA. PMID:26516290

  17. Rigorously modeling self-stabilizing fault-tolerant circuits: An ultra-robust clocking scheme for systems-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Danny; Függer, Matthias; Posch, Markus; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Lenzen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    We present the first implementation of a distributed clock generation scheme for Systems-on-Chip that recovers from an unbounded number of arbitrary transient faults despite a large number of arbitrary permanent faults. We devise self-stabilizing hardware building blocks and a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous state machine enabling metastability-free transitions of the algorithm's states. We provide a comprehensive modeling approach that permits to prove, given correctness of the constructed low-level building blocks, the high-level properties of the synchronization algorithm (which have been established in a more abstract model). We believe this approach to be of interest in its own right, since this is the first technique permitting to mathematically verify, at manageable complexity, high-level properties of a fault-prone system in terms of its very basic components. We evaluate a prototype implementation, which has been designed in VHDL, using the Petrify tool in conjunction with some extensions, and synthesized for an Altera Cyclone FPGA.

  18. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  20. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  1. Development of plant maintenance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Jinji; Ike, Masae; Nakayama, Kenji; Kato, Hisatomo

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is making active efforts for the continuing improvement of reliability and maintainability of operating nuclear power plants. As a part of these efforts, the company has developed new maintenance administration systems, diagnostic monitoring facilities for plant equipments, computer-aided expert systems, and remote-controlled machines for maintenance work. The maintenance administration systems provide efficient work plans and data acquisition capabilities for the management of personnel and equipments involved in nuclear power plant maintenance. The plant diagnostic facilities monitor and diagnose plant conditions for preventive maintenance, as well as enabling rapid countermeasures to be carried out should they be required. Expert systems utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology are also employed. The newly developed remote-controlled machines are useful tools for the maintenance inspection of equipment which can not be easily accessed. (author)

  2. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  3. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  4. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  5. Parasites, proteomes and systems: has Descartes' clock run out of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastling, J M; Armstrong, S D; Krishna, R; Xia, D

    2012-08-01

    Systems biology aims to integrate multiple biological data types such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across different levels of structure and scale; it represents an emerging paradigm in the scientific process which challenges the reductionism that has dominated biomedical research for hundreds of years. Systems biology will nevertheless only be successful if the technologies on which it is based are able to deliver the required type and quality of data. In this review we discuss how well positioned is proteomics to deliver the data necessary to support meaningful systems modelling in parasite biology. We summarise the current state of identification proteomics in parasites, but argue that a new generation of quantitative proteomics data is now needed to underpin effective systems modelling. We discuss the challenges faced to acquire more complete knowledge of protein post-translational modifications, protein turnover and protein-protein interactions in parasites. Finally we highlight the central role of proteome-informatics in ensuring that proteomics data is readily accessible to the user-community and can be translated and integrated with other relevant data types.

  6. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541

  7. Expression of clock genes /period/ and /timeless /in the central nervous system of the mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobelková, Alena; Závodská, Radka; Šauman, Ivo; Bazalová, Olga; Doležel, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2015), s. 104-116 ISSN 0748-7304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-32654J Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : circadian clock * activity rhythms * eclosion rhythm Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2015

  8. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  9. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  10. Pittendrigh: The Darwinian Clock-Watcher

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to our current understanding of how timing systems work in living organisms. .... to periodic factors in the geophysical environment. He postulated .... clocks against temperature, nutrition and light, while the latter needs maintenance of a stable.

  11. Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

  12. Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Thommen

    Full Text Available The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intriguing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks.

  13. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  14. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  15. Clock synchronization and dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Wong, Franco N C

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to defeat effects of dispersion of timing signals when synchronizing clocks. It is based on the recently proposed 'conveyor belt synchronization' scheme and on the quantum dispersion cancellation effect

  16. Basis of plant accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation describes in an introductory manner the accountability design approach which is used for the Model Plant in order to meet US safeguards requirements. The general requirements for the US national system are first presented. Next, the approach taken to meet each general requirement is described. This presentation introduces the general concepts and principles of the accountability system

  17. Plant operator performance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1989-01-01

    A plant operator performance evaluation system to analyze plant operation records during accident training and to identify and classify operator errors has been developed for the purpose of supporting realization of a training and education system for plant operators. A knowledge engineering technique was applied to evaluation of operator behavior by both even-based and symptom-based procedures, in various situations including event transition due to multiple failures or operational errors. The system classifies the identified errors as to their single and double types based on Swain's error classification and the error levels reflecting Rasmussen's cognitive level, and it also evaluates the effect of errors on plant state and then classifies error influence, using 'knowledge for phenomena and operations', as represented by frames. It has additional functions for analysis of error statistics and knowledge acquisition support of 'knowledge for operations'. The system was applied to a training analysis for a scram event in a BWR plant, and its error analysis function was confirmed to be effective by operational experts. (author)

  18. Diamond Electron-Spin Clocks For Space Navigation and Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision clocks are needed in a broad range of applications, including satellite communication, high-bandwidth wireless communication, computing systems, and...

  19. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  20. Plant operation state monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masanori; Babuchi, Katsumi; Arato, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The system of the present invention accurately monitors a plant operation state of a plant, such as a nuclear power plant and a thermal power plant by using high temperature water, based on water quality informations. That is, water quality informations for the objective portion by using an electrochemical water quality sensor disposed in the objective portion to be monitored in the plant are continuously extracted for a predetermined period of time. Water quality is evaluated based on the extracted information. Obtained results for water quality evaluation and predetermined reference values of the plant operation handling are compared. Necessary part among the results of the measurement is displayed or recorded. The predetermined period of time described above is a period that the water quality information reaches at least a predetermined value or a period that the predetermined value is estimated by the water quality information, and it is defined as a period capable of measuring the information for three months continuously. The measurement is preferably conducted continuously in a period up to each periodical inspection on about every one year. (I.S.)

  1. Systems approach identifies an organic nitrogen-responsive gene network that is regulated by the master clock control gene CCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Stokes, Trevor L; Thum, Karen; Xu, Xiaodong; Obertello, Mariana; Katari, Manpreet S; Tanurdzic, Milos; Dean, Alexis; Nero, Damion C; McClung, C Robertson; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2008-03-25

    Understanding how nutrients affect gene expression will help us to understand the mechanisms controlling plant growth and development as a function of nutrient availability. Nitrate has been shown to serve as a signal for the control of gene expression in Arabidopsis. There is also evidence, on a gene-by-gene basis, that downstream products of nitrogen (N) assimilation such as glutamate (Glu) or glutamine (Gln) might serve as signals of organic N status that in turn regulate gene expression. To identify genome-wide responses to such organic N signals, Arabidopsis seedlings were transiently treated with ammonium nitrate in the presence or absence of MSX, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, resulting in a block of Glu/Gln synthesis. Genes that responded to organic N were identified as those whose response to ammonium nitrate treatment was blocked in the presence of MSX. We showed that some genes previously identified to be regulated by nitrate are under the control of an organic N-metabolite. Using an integrated network model of molecular interactions, we uncovered a subnetwork regulated by organic N that included CCA1 and target genes involved in N-assimilation. We validated some of the predicted interactions and showed that regulation of the master clock control gene CCA1 by Glu or a Glu-derived metabolite in turn regulates the expression of key N-assimilatory genes. Phase response curve analysis shows that distinct N-metabolites can advance or delay the CCA1 phase. Regulation of CCA1 by organic N signals may represent a novel input mechanism for N-nutrients to affect plant circadian clock function.

  2. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The Period 3 and Clock genes are important components of the mammalian molecular circadian system. Studies have shown association between polymorphisms in these clock genes and circadian phenotypes in different populations. Nevertheless, differences in the pattern of allele frequency and genotyping distribution are systematically observed in studies with different ethnic groups. To investigate and compare the pattern of distribution in a sample of Asian and Caucasian populations living in Brazil, we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in CLOCK. The aim of this investigation was to search for clues about human evolutionary processes related to circadian rhythms. We selected 109 Asian and 135 Caucasian descendants. The frequencies of the shorter allele (4 repeats in the PER3 gene and the T allele in the CLOCK gene among Asians (0.86 and 0.84, respectively were significantly higher than among Caucasians (0.69 and 0.71, respectively. Our results directly confirmed the different distribution of these polymorphisms between the Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups. Given the genetic differences found between groups, two points became evident: first, ethnic variations may have implications for the interpretation of results in circadian rhythm association studies, and second, the question may be raised about which evolutionary conditions shaped these genetic clock variations.

  3. Towards Self-Clocked Gated OCDMA Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S.; Osadola, T.; Glesk, I.

    2013-02-01

    A novel incoherent OCDMA receiver with incorporated all-optical clock recovery for self-synchronization of a time gate for the multi access interferences (MAI) suppression and minimizing the effect of data time jitter in incoherent OCDMA system was successfully developed and demonstrated. The solution was implemented and tested in a multiuser environment in an out of the laboratory OCDMA testbed with two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding scheme and OC-48 (2.5 Gbp/s) data rate. The self-clocked all-optical time gate uses SOA-based fibre ring laser optical clock, recovered all-optically from the received OCDMA traffic to control its switching window for cleaning the autocorrelation peak from the surrounding MAI. A wider eye opening was achieved when the all-optically recovered clock from received data was used for synchronization if compared to a static approach with the RF clock being generated by a RF synthesizer. Clean eye diagram was also achieved when recovered clock is used to drive time gating.

  4. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  5. The Reliability of Clock Drawing Test Scoring Systems Modeled on the Normative Data in Healthy Aging and Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazancova, Adela Fendrych; Nikolai, Tomas; Stepankova, Hana; Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej

    2017-10-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a commonly used tool in clinical practice and research for cognitive screening among older adults. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the interrater reliability of three different CDT scoring systems (by Shulman et al., Babins et al., and Cohen et al.). We used a clock with a predrawn circle. The CDT was evaluated by three independent raters based on the normative data set of healthy older and very old adults and patients with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI; N = 438; aged 61-94). We confirmed a high interrater reliability measured by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs): Shulman ICC = .809, Babins ICC = .894, and Cohen ICC = .862, all p < .001. We found that age and education levels have a significant effect on CDT performance, yet there was no influence of gender. Finally, the scoring systems differentiated between naMCI and age- and education-matched controls: Shulman's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = .84, Cohen AUC = .71, all p < .001; and a slightly lower discriminative ability was shown by Babins: AUC = .65, p = .012.

  6. Photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko eShiga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Bünning’s observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean Phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. In insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. Based on molecular and neuronal studies in Drosophila melanogaster, photoperiodic changes have been reported for expression patterns of the circadian clock genes, subcellular distribution of clock proteins, fiber distribution, or the number of plausible clock neurons in different species. Photoperiod sets peaks of per or tim mRNA abundance at lights-off in Sarcophaga crassipalpis, Chymomyza costata and Protophormia terraenovae. Abundance of per and Clock mRNA changes by photoperiod in Pyrrhocoris apterus. Subcellular Per distribution in circadian clock neurons changes with photoperiod in P. terraenovae. Although photoperiodism is not known in Leucophaea maderae, under longer day length, more stomata and longer commissural fibers of circadian clock neurons have been found. These plastic changes in the circadian clock neurons could be an important constituent for photoperiodic clock mechanisms to integrate repetitive photoperiodic information and produce different outputs based on day length.

  7. Monitoring Systems for Hydropower Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaschin Pepa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issue in hydro power industry is to determine the necessary degree of automation in order to improve the operation security. Depending upon the complexity of the system (the power plant equipment the automation specialist will build a philosophy of control following some general principals of security and operation. Helped by the modern digital equipment, today is relative easy to design a complete monitoring and supervising system including all the subparts of a hydro aggregate. A series of sensors and transducers specific for each auxiliary installation of the turbine and generator will be provided, together with a PLC or an industrial PC that will run an application software for implementing the security and control algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to offer a general view of these issues, providing a view of designing an automation & control and security system for hydro power plants of small, medium and big power.

  8. Biological timing and the clock metaphor: oscillatory and hourglass mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, L; Meyer-Grahle, U; Ruoff, P

    2001-05-01

    Living organisms have developed a multitude of timing mechanisms--"biological clocks." Their mechanisms are based on either oscillations (oscillatory clocks) or unidirectional processes (hourglass clocks). Oscillatory clocks comprise circatidal, circalunidian, circadian, circalunar, and circannual oscillations--which keep time with environmental periodicities--as well as ultradian oscillations, ovarian cycles, and oscillations in development and in the brain, which keep time with biological timescales. These clocks mainly determine time points at specific phases of their oscillations. Hourglass clocks are predominantly found in development and aging and also in the brain. They determine time intervals (duration). More complex timing systems combine oscillatory and hourglass mechanisms, such as the case for cell cycle, sleep initiation, or brain clocks, whereas others combine external and internal periodicities (photoperiodism, seasonal reproduction). A definition of a biological clock may be derived from its control of functions external to its own processes and its use in determining temporal order (sequences of events) or durations. Biological and chemical oscillators are characterized by positive and negative feedback (or feedforward) mechanisms. During evolution, living organisms made use of the many existing oscillations for signal transmission, movement, and pump mechanisms, as well as for clocks. Some clocks, such as the circadian clock, that time with environmental periodicities are usually compensated (stabilized) against temperature, whereas other clocks, such as the cell cycle, that keep time with an organismic timescale are not compensated. This difference may be related to the predominance of negative feedback in the first class of clocks and a predominance of positive feedback (autocatalytic amplification) in the second class. The present knowledge of a compensated clock (the circadian oscillator) and an uncompensated clock (the cell cycle), as well

  9. A landscape simulation system for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Miki; Usami, Yoshiaki.

    1997-01-01

    As scenes of power plants give many influences to environments, the plants that harmonized with the environments are demanded. We developed a landscape simulation system for the plants by using computer graphics technologies. This system has functions to generate realistic images about plant buildings and environments. Since the system contains information of ridge lines in addition to usual terrain data, the terrain shapes are expressed more precisely. Because the system enables users to visualize plant construction plans, the advance evaluations of plant scenes become possible. We regard this system as useful for environmental assessment of power plants. (author)

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Virshup; Rajesh Narasimamurthy

    2017-01-01

    An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entr...

  11. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  12. Development of a remote monitoring and control system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) will be highly connected network enabled system and need to be monitored and controlled round the clock for high safety and availability. Using the network and web enabled tools, NPPs can be monitored remotely by operators at anytime from any place connected to the network via a general web browser. However, there are security and performance issues associated with such tools, as will be further discussed further. We developed a web-based Remote Monitoring and Control System (RMCS) that uses prevalent web technology. This work, as a preliminary study, performed the conceptual design of the web-based RMCS and developed the prototype

  13. Nuclear power plants documentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the amount of documents (type and quantity) necessary for the entire design of a NPP is very large, this implies that an overall and detailed identification, filling and retrieval system shall be implemented. This is even more applicable to the FINAL QUALITY DOCUMENTATION of the plant, as stipulated by IAEA Safety Codes and related guides. For such a purpose it was developed a DOCUMENTATION MANUAL, which describes in detail the before mentioned documentation system. Here we present the expected goals and results which we have to reach for Angra 2 and 3 Project. (author)

  14. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  15. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Malerba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity.

  16. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  17. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  18. ClockWork: a Real-Time Feasibility Analysis Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Mullender, Sape J.

    ClockWork shows that we can improve the flexibility and efficiency of real-time kernels. We do this by proposing methods for scheduling based on so-called Real-Time Transactions. ClockWork uses Real-Time Transactions which allow scheduling decisions to be taken by the system. A programmer does not

  19. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  20. Comparisons of mental clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A

    1978-02-01

    Subjects in three experiments were presented with pairs of clock times and were required to choose the one in which the hour and minute hand formed the smaller angle. In Experiments 1 and 2, the times were presented digitally, necessitating a transformation into symbolic representations from which the angular size difference could be inferred. The results revealed orderly symbolic distance effects so that comparison reaction time increased as the angular size difference decreased. Moreover, subjects generally reported using imagery to make the judgment, and subjects scoring high on test of imagery ability were faster than those scoring low on such tests. Experiment 3 added a direct perceptual condition in which subjects compared angles between pairs of hands on two drawn (analog) clocks, as well as a mixed condition involving one digital and one analog clock time. The results showed comparable distance effects for all conditions. In addition, reaction time increased from the perceptual, to the mixed, to the pure-digital condition. These results are consistent with predictions from an image-based dual-coding theory.

  1. The functional interplay between protein kinase CK2 and CCA1 transcriptional activity is essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Portolés

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are daily biological oscillations driven by an endogenous mechanism known as circadian clock. The protein kinase CK2 is one of the few clock components that is evolutionary conserved among different taxonomic groups. CK2 regulates the stability and nuclear localization of essential clock proteins in mammals, fungi, and insects. Two CK2 regulatory subunits, CKB3 and CKB4, have been also linked with the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian system. However, the biological relevance and the precise mechanisms of CK2 function within the plant clockwork are not known. By using ChIP and Double-ChIP experiments together with in vivo luminescence assays at different temperatures, we were able to identify a temperature-dependent function for CK2 modulating circadian period length. Our study uncovers a previously unpredicted mechanism for CK2 antagonizing the key clock regulator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1. CK2 activity does not alter protein accumulation or subcellular localization but interferes with CCA1 binding affinity to the promoters of the oscillator genes. High temperatures enhance the CCA1 binding activity, which is precisely counterbalanced by the CK2 opposing function. Altering this balance by over-expression, mutation, or pharmacological inhibition affects the temperature compensation profile, providing a mechanism by which plants regulate circadian period at changing temperatures. Therefore, our study establishes a new model demonstrating that two opposing and temperature-dependent activities (CCA1-CK2 are essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

  2. A precise clock distribution network for MRPC-based experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Cao, P.; Shang, L.; An, Q.

    2016-01-01

    In high energy physics experiments, the MRPC (Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors are widely used recently which can provide higher-resolution measurement for particle identification. However, the application of MRPC detectors leads to a series of challenges in electronics design with large number of front-end electronic channels, especially for distributing clock precisely. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a universal scheme of clock transmission network for MRPC-based experiments with advantages of both precise clock distribution and global command synchronization. For precise clock distributing, the clock network is designed into a tree architecture with two stages: the first one has a point-to-multipoint long range bidirectional distribution with optical channels and the second one has a fan-out structure with copper link inside readout crates. To guarantee the precision of clock frequency or phase, the r-PTP (reduced Precision Time Protocol) and the DDMTD (digital Dual Mixer Time Difference) methods are used for frequency synthesis, phase measurement and adjustment, which is implemented by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in real-time. In addition, to synchronize global command execution, based upon this clock distribution network, synchronous signals are coded with clock for transmission. With technique of encoding/decoding and clock data recovery, signals such as global triggers or system control commands, can be distributed to all front-end channels synchronously, which greatly simplifies the system design. The experimental results show that both the clock jitter (RMS) and the clock skew can be less than 100 ps.

  3. System dynamics in hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuksrud, Dag Birger

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimamurthy, Rajesh; Virshup, David M

    2017-01-01

    An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep-wake cycle, feeding-fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Virshup

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  7. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  8. ICF's Plant Compliance Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Government and private industrial facilities must manage wastes that are both radioactive and (chemically) hazardous. Until recently, these mixed wastes have been managed under rules established under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Low-Level Waste Policy At, and rules that derive from environmental legislation have not been applied. Both sets of rules now apply to mixed wastes, creating situations in which significant changes to waste steams must be made in order to bring them into compliance with environmental regulations. The first step in bringing waste streams into compliance is to determine their status with respect to the newly-applicable regulations. This process of compliance assessment is difficult because requirements to minimize human exposure to radiation can conflict with requirements of environmental regulations, many regulations are potentially applicable, the regulations are changing rapidly, and because waste streams designed to operate under AEA rules frequently cannot be easily modified to incorporate the additional regulations. Modern personal computer (PC) tools are being developed to help regulatory analysts manage the large amounts of information required to asses the compliance status of complex process plants. This paper presents the Plant Compliance Assessment System (PCAS), which performs this function by relating a database containing references to regulatory requirements to databases created to describe relevant aspects of the facility to be assessed

  9. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  10. Advanced liquid metal reactor plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.; Zizzo, D.; Carroll, D.

    1993-01-01

    The modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) power plant is controlled by an advanced state-of-the-art control system designed to facilitate plant operation, optimize availability, and protect plant investment. The control system features a high degree of automatic control and extensive amount of on-line diagnostics and operator aids. It can be built with today's control technology, and has the flexibility of adding new features that benefit plant operation and reduce O ampersand M costs as the technology matures

  11. Clock Synchronization for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Robles, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, more so generally than in other types of distributed systems, clock synchronization is crucial since by having this service available, several applications such as media access protocols, object tracking, or data fusion, would improve their performance. In this dissertation, we propose a set of algorithms to achieve…

  12. Prediction of GNSS satellite clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broederbauer, V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterisation and prediction of GNSS-satellite-clocks. A prerequisite to develop powerful algorithms for the prediction of clock-corrections is the thorough study of the behaviour of the different clock-types of the satellites. In this context the predicted part of the IGU-clock-corrections provided by the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the IGS was compared to the IGS-Rapid-clock solutions to determine reasonable estimates of the quality of already existing well performing predictions. For the shortest investigated interval (three hours) all ACs obtain almost the same accuracy of 0,1 to 0,4 ns. For longer intervals the individual predictions results start to diverge. Thus, for a 12-hours- interval the differences range from nearly 10 ns (GFZ, CODE) until up to some 'tens of ns'. Based on the estimated clock corrections provided via the IGS Rapid products a simple quadratic polynomial turns out to be sufficient to describe the time series of Rubidium-clocks. On the other hand Cesium-clocks show a periodical behaviour (revolution period) with an amplitude of up to 6 ns. A clear correlation between these amplitudes and the Sun elevation angle above the orbital planes can be demonstrated. The variability of the amplitudes is supposed to be caused by temperature-variations affecting the oscillator. To account for this periodical behaviour a quadratic polynomial with an additional sinus-term was finally chosen as prediction model both for the Cesium as well as for the Rubidium clocks. The three polynomial-parameters as well as amplitude and phase shift of the periodic term are estimated within a least-square-adjustment by means of program GNSS-VC/static. Input-data are time series of the observed part of the IGU clock corrections. With the estimated parameters clock-corrections are predicted for various durations. The mean error of the prediction of Rubidium-clock-corrections for an interval of six hours reaches up to 1,5 ns. For the 12-hours

  13. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  14. Nuclear plant data systems - some emerging directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.D.; Humphress, G.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in recent years in the nuclear power industry to accentuate the need for data systems to support information flow and decision making. Economic conditions resulting in rapid inflation and larger investments in new and existing plants and the need to plan further ahead are primary factors. Government policies concerning environmental control, as well as minimizing risk to the public through increased nuclear safety regulations on operating plants are additional factors. The impact of computer technology on plant data systems, evolution of corporate and plant infrastructures, future plant data, system designs and benefits, and decision making capabilities and data usage support are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  16. The role of biological clock in glucose homeostasis 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Chrościcki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the biological clock is based on a rhythmic expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes. As a result of their transcripto-translational associations, endogenous rhythms in the synthesis of key proteins of various physiological and metabolic processes are created. The major timekeeping mechanism for these rhythms exists in the central nervous system. The master circadian clock, localized in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, regulates multiple metabolic pathways, while feeding behavior and metabolite availability can in turn regulate the circadian clock. It is also suggested that in the brain there is a food entrainable oscillator (FEO or oscillators, resulting in activation of both food anticipatory activity and hormone secretion that control digestion processes. Moreover, most cells and tissues express autonomous clocks. Maintenance of the glucose homeostasis is particularly important for the proper function of the body, as this sugar is the main source of energy for the brain, retina, erythrocytes and skeletal muscles. Thus, glucose production and utilization are synchronized in time. The hypothalamic excited orexin neurons control energy balance of organism and modulate the glucose production and utilization. Deficiency of orexin action results in narcolepsy and weight gain, whereas glucose and amino acids can affect activity of the orexin cells. Large-scale genetic studies in rodents and humans provide evidence for the involvement of disrupted clock gene expression rhythms in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In general, the current lifestyle of the developed modern societies disturbs the action of biological clock

  17. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  18. A Light Clock Satisfying the Clock Hypothesis of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The design of the FMEL, a floor-mirrored Einstein-Langevin "light clock", is introduced. The clock provides a physically intuitive manner to calculate and visualize the time dilation effects for a spatially extended set of observers (an accelerated "frame") undergoing unidirectional acceleration or observers on a rotating cylinder of constant…

  19. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system.

  20. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae

    2011-01-01

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system

  1. Power plant cooling systems: trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A novel design for an intake and discharge system at the Belle River plant is described followed by a general discussion of water intake screens and porous dikes for screening fish and zooplankton. The intake system for the San Onofre PWR plant is described and the state regulations controlling the use of water for power plants is discussed. The use of sewage effluent as a source of cooling water is mentioned with reference to the Palo Verde plant. Progress in dry cooling and a new wet/dry tower due to be installed at the San Juan plant towards the end of this year, complete the survey

  2. Development of A Plant Navigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Tomihiko; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Kubota, Ryuji; Ikeda, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    A 'Plant Navigation System (PNS)' is under development to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators by automatically displaying the plant situation and plant operational procedures on a CRT screen when abnormalities occur. The operation procedures given in a symptom-oriented manual are expressed in a tree - type flowchart (modified PAD). The optimum operation procedure for an NPP is selected automatically using built-in diagnostic logics based on the current status of the NPP. Concerning the plant situation, the PNS displays important information only on the current status of the NPP. A prototype PNS system is being constructed. (authors)

  3. Dilatation effect of ''quantum clocks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The relativistic dilatation effect of the life-time of unstable microparticles combined with quantum symmetry of their description results in the ''quantum-dilatation'' dilemma. It is due to the classical character of the relativity theory which here reveals itself in the classical world-line of the clock necessary in order to deduce the dilatation effect from the Lorentz transformation. It is shown how to solve this dilemma, basing on the relation continuum C 4 . Two types of measurements of time intervals, the direct and indirect one, are analyzed. The former type corresponds to the external space-time continuum, where any direct measurement takes place, and the latter, to the internal relation continuum C 4 , where the internal structures of isolated micro-systems are sunk. (author)

  4. An optical clock to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Andrew D.

    2018-05-01

    Bringing next-generation atomic clocks out of the lab is not an easy task, but doing so will unlock many new possibilities. As a crucial first step, a portable atomic clock has now been deployed for relativistic geodesy measurements in the Alps.

  5. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  6. Application of radioisotope for radio-luminous watch and clock industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, Japan became No. 1 watch and clock production country in the world, and has produced 88 million watches and 59 million clocks in 1980. About 65% of them were exported. The production of radio-luminous watches and clocks in 1980 was estimated as 13 million and 11 million, respectively, and has increased by 40% as compared with the previous year. In Japan, the law concerning the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes and others is applied to radio-luminous watches and clocks, because radioactive substances are contained in luminous paint, and the production is regulated by the law as unsealed RI-using establishments. The permitted establishments engaging in radio-luminous watches and clocks are 3 luminous paint makers, 9 painting works and 35 watch and clock assembling plants. The RI utilized for radio-luminous watches and clocks is limited to Pm-147 at present, and 3788 Ci was used in 1980. About 70 years have elapsed since luminous paint was used for watches and clocks for the first time. The ISO instituted the international standard on radio-luminous paint for watches and clocks in 1975. The beta-ray emitted by Pm-147 is shielded perfectly by glasses and cases, and only the dose of brems-strahlung X-ray is the problem. The radiation control in radio-luminous watch and clock plants is described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  8. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 Inhibits Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an integral part of plant development, and the timing and progressing rate of senescence could substantially affect the yield and quality of crops. It has been known that a circadian rhythm synchronized with external environmental cues is critical for the optimal coordination of various physiological and metabolic processes. However, the reciprocal interactions between the circadian clock and leaf senescence in plants remain unknown. Here, through measuring the physiological and molecular senescence related markers of several circadian components mutants, we found that CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 inhibits leaf senescence. Further molecular and genetic studies revealed that CCA1 directly activates GLK2 and suppresses ORE1 expression to counteract leaf senescence. As plants age, the expression and periodic amplitude of CCA1 declines and thus weakens the inhibition of senescence. Our findings reveal an age-dependent circadian clock component of the process of leaf senescence.

  9. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Yoshii

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expressed in the circadian clock neurons and acts as a critical photoreceptor of Drosophila's clock, we aimed to test the role of CRY in magnetosensitivity of the circadian clock. In response to light, CRY causes slowing of the clock, ultimately leading to arrhythmic behavior. We expected that in the presence of applied magnetic fields, the impact of CRY on clock rhythmicity should be altered. Furthermore, according to the radical-pair hypothesis this response should be dependent on wavelength and on the field strength applied. We tested the effect of applied static magnetic fields on the circadian clock and found that flies exposed to these fields indeed showed enhanced slowing of clock rhythms. This effect was maximal at 300 muT, and reduced at both higher and lower field strengths. Clock response to magnetic fields was present in blue light, but absent under red-light illumination, which does not activate CRY. Furthermore, cry(b and cry(OUT mutants did not show any response, and flies overexpressing CRY in the clock neurons exhibited an enhanced response to the field. We conclude that Drosophila's circadian clock is sensitive to magnetic fields and that this sensitivity depends on light activation of CRY and on the applied field strength, consistent with the radical pair mechanism. CRY is widespread throughout biological systems and has been suggested as receptor for magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds. The present data establish the circadian clock of Drosophila as a model system

  10. Cellular Clocks : Coupled Circadian Dispatch and Cell Division Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrow, Martha; Roenneberg, Till

    2004-01-01

    Gating of cell division by the circadian clock is well known, yet its mechanism is little understood. Genetically tractable model systems have led to new hypotheses and questions concerning the coupling of these two cellular cycles.

  11. Clocks around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-11-01

    The S stars near the Galactic Centre and any pulsars that may be on similar orbits can be modelled in a unified way as clocks orbiting a black hole, and hence are potential probes of relativistic effects, including black hole spin. The high eccentricities of many S stars mean that relativistic effects peak strongly around pericentre; for example, orbit precession is not a smooth effect but almost a kick at pericentre. We argue that concentration around pericentre will be an advantage when analysing redshift or pulse-arrival data to measure relativistic effects, because cumulative precession will be drowned out by Newtonian perturbations from other mass in the Galactic Centre region. Wavelet decomposition may be a way to disentangle relativistic effects from Newton perturbations. Assuming a plausible model for Newtonian perturbations on S2, relativity appears to be strongest in a two-year interval around pericentre, in wavelet modes of time-scale ≈6 months.

  12. System for the analysis of plant chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Martin, D.; Peraza Gonzalez, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a computer system for the automation workers of recognition analysis and interpretation of plant chromosomes. This system permit to carry out the analysis in a more comfortable and faster way, using the image processing techniques

  13. Ecological implications of plants ability to tell the time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Hartwell, James; Hall, Anthony

    2009-06-01

    The circadian clock (the endogenous mechanism that anticipates diurnal cycles) acts as a central coordinator of plant activity. At the molecular and organism level, it regulates key traits for plant fitness, including seed germination, gas exchange, growth and flowering, among others. In this article, we explore current evidence on the effect of the clock for the scales of interest to ecologists. We begin by synthesizing available knowledge on the effect of the clock on biosphere-atmosphere interactions and observe that, at least in the systems where it has been tested, the clock regulates gas exchange from the leaf to the ecosystem level, and we discuss its implications for estimates of the carbon balance. Then, we analyse whether incorporating the action of the clock may help in elucidating the effects of climate change on plant distributions. Circadian rhythms are involved in regulating the range of temperatures a species can survive and affects plant interactions. Finally, we review the involvement of the clock in key phenological events, such as flowering time and seed germination. Because the clock may act as a common mechanism affecting many of the diverse branches of ecology, our ultimate goal is to stimulate further research into this pressing, yet unexplored, topic.

  14. Information management systems improve advanced plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Serafin, S.A.; Leckley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering tools are proving invaluable in both the design and operation of nuclear power plants. ABB Combustion Engineering's Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) features a computerized Information Management System (IMS) as an integral part of the design. The System 80+IMS represents the most powerful information management tool for Nuclear Power Plants commercially available today. Developed by Duke Power Company specifically for use by nuclear power plant owner operators, the IMS consists of appropriate hardware and software to manage and control information flow for all plant related work or tasks in a systematic, consistent, coordinated and informative manner. A significant feature of this IMS is that it is primarily based on plant data. The principal design tool, PASCE (Plant Application and Systems from Combustion Engineering), is comprised of intelligent databases that describe the design and from which accurate plant drawings are created. Additionally the IMS includes, at its hub, a relational database management system and an associated document management system. The data-based approach and applications associated with the IMS were developed, and have proven highly effective, for plant modifications, configuration management, and operations and maintenance applications at Duke Power Company's operating nuclear plants. This paper presents its major features and benefits. 4 refs

  15. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  16. The Circadian Clock-controlled Transcriptome of Developing Soybean Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of metabolic and physiological processes in plants are controlled by the circadian clock, which enables a plant to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Relatively little is known about circadian rhythms in developing seeds, which may be important for determining the extent and timing of nutrient storage in grain. Microarray expression profiling was used to identify genes expressed in developing soybean ( seeds that are controlled by the circadian clock. Genes with predicted functions in protein synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and photosynthesis totaling 1.8% of the mRNAs detected in seed were found to be expressed in a circadian rhythm. Known circadian and light-controlled promoter elements were identified as over-represented in the promoters of clock-controlled seed genes, with the over-represented elements varying according to the phase of circadian expression. A subset of circadian-regulated genes were found to be expressed in different phases in developing seeds with respect to leaves from the same plants, many of which have roles in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. These results help to characterize the genes and processes in seeds that may be regulated by the circadian clock, and provide some insight into organ-specific phasing of clock controlled gene expression.

  17. Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian; Denker, Heiner; Voigt, Christian; Timmen, Ludger; Rolland, Antoine; Baynes, Fred N.; Margolis, Helen S.; Zampaolo, Michel; Thoumany, Pierre; Pizzocaro, Marco; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Tampellini, Anna; Barbieri, Piero; Zucco, Massimo; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Clivati, Cecilia; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Optical atomic clocks, due to their unprecedented stability1-3 and uncertainty3-6, are already being used to test physical theories7,8 and herald a revision of the International System of Units9,10. However, to unlock their potential for cross-disciplinary applications such as relativistic geodesy11, a major challenge remains: their transformation from highly specialized instruments restricted to national metrology laboratories into flexible devices deployable in different locations12-14. Here, we report the first field measurement campaign with a transportable 87Sr optical lattice clock12. We use it to determine the gravity potential difference between the middle of a mountain and a location 90 km away, exploiting both local and remote clock comparisons to eliminate potential clock errors. A local comparison with a 171Yb lattice clock15 also serves as an important check on the international consistency of independently developed optical clocks. This campaign demonstrates the exciting prospects for transportable optical clocks.

  18. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Developments in power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    A number of cooling systems are used in the power plants. The condenser cooling water system is one of the most important cooling systems in the plant. The system comprises a number of equipment. Plants using sea water for cooling are designed for the very high corrosion effects due to sea water. Developments are taking place in the design, materials of construction as well as protection philosophies for the various equipment. Power optimisation of the cycle needs to be done in order to design an economical system. Environmental (Protection) Act places certain limitations on the effluents from the plant. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline the developing trends in the various equipment in the condenser cooling water systems used at the inland as well as coastal locations. (author). 5 refs., 6 refs

  20. Evidence for widespread dysregulation of circadian clock progression in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod Shilts

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous daily rhythms in mammalian physiology are guided by progression of the circadian clock. In mice, systemic disruption of the clock can promote tumor growth. In vitro, multiple oncogenes can disrupt the clock. However, due to the difficulties of studying circadian rhythms in solid tissues in humans, whether the clock is disrupted within human tumors has remained unknown. We sought to determine the state of the circadian clock in human cancer using publicly available transcriptome data. We developed a method, called the clock correlation distance (CCD, to infer circadian clock progression in a group of samples based on the co-expression of 12 clock genes. Our method can be applied to modestly sized datasets in which samples are not labeled with time of day and coverage of the circadian cycle is incomplete. We used the method to define a signature of clock gene co-expression in healthy mouse organs, then validated the signature in healthy human tissues. By then comparing human tumor and non-tumor samples from twenty datasets of a range of cancer types, we discovered that clock gene co-expression in tumors is consistently perturbed. Subsequent analysis of data from clock gene knockouts in mice suggested that perturbed clock gene co-expression in human cancer is not caused solely by the inactivation of clock genes. Furthermore, focusing on lung cancer, we found that human lung tumors showed systematic changes in expression in a large set of genes previously inferred to be rhythmic in healthy lung. Our findings suggest that clock progression is dysregulated in many solid human cancers and that this dysregulation could have broad effects on circadian physiology within tumors. In addition, our approach opens the door to using publicly available data to infer circadian clock progression in a multitude of human phenotypes.

  1. Molecular clock in neutral protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Claus O

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent observation in molecular evolution is that amino-acid substitution rates show an index of dispersion (that is, ratio of variance to mean substantially larger than one. This observation has been termed the overdispersed molecular clock. On the basis of in silico protein-evolution experiments, Bastolla and coworkers recently proposed an explanation for this observation: Proteins drift in neutral space, and can temporarily get trapped in regions of substantially reduced neutrality. In these regions, substitution rates are suppressed, which results in an overall substitution process that is not Poissonian. However, the simulation method of Bastolla et al. is representative only for cases in which the product of mutation rate μ and population size Ne is small. How the substitution process behaves when μNe is large is not known. Results Here, I study the behavior of the molecular clock in in silico protein evolution as a function of mutation rate and population size. I find that the index of dispersion decays with increasing μNe, and approaches 1 for large μNe . This observation can be explained with the selective pressure for mutational robustness, which is effective when μNe is large. This pressure keeps the population out of low-neutrality traps, and thus steadies the ticking of the molecular clock. Conclusions The molecular clock in neutral protein evolution can fall into two distinct regimes, a strongly overdispersed one for small μNe, and a mostly Poissonian one for large μNe. The former is relevant for the majority of organisms in the plant and animal kingdom, and the latter may be relevant for RNA viruses.

  2. Plant risk status information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Ellison, B.C.; Glynn, J.C.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIMS) is a PC program that presents information about a nuclear power plant's design, its operation, its technical specifications, and the results of the plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in a logically and easily accessible format. PRISIMS provides its user with unique information for integrating safety concerns into day-to-day operational decisions and/or long-range management planning

  3. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  4. EDGAR, a new plant radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Q.M.; Da Costa Vieira, D.

    2004-01-01

    The EDGAR system is a new radiation monitoring system for nuclear power plant, reprocessing plant and nuclear research reactor for radioactive contamination, gamma and neutron field monitoring. Developed by French Atomic Energy Agency, this system provides not only complete functions of standard RMS, also allows spectroscopy level detection of alpha and beta particles based on a patented collimator unit. A complete computerized approach has been taken allowing full installation control in a single PC based display and communication unit. (author)

  5. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...

  6. Toward A Neutral Mercury Optical Lattice Clock: Determination of the Magic Wavelength for the Ultraviolet clock Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sinda

    2012-01-01

    A lattice clock combines the advantages of ion and neutral atom based clocks, namely the recoil and first order Doppler free spectroscopy allowed by the Lamb-Dicke regime. This lattice light field shifts the energy levels of the clock transition. However a wavelength can be found where the light-shift of the clock states cancelled to first order. In this thesis, we present the latest advances in optical lattice clock with mercury atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the current performances of different optical clock are currently under development, we focus on the concept of optical lattice clock and the features of the mercury that make him an excellent candidate for the realization of an optical lattice clock achievement the uncertainty of the level of 10 -17 . The second part is devoted to the characterization of the mercury MOT, using a sensitive detection system, which allowed us to evaluate the temperature of different isotopes present in the MOT and have a good evidence of sub-Doppler cooling for the fermionic isotopes. The third part of this these, present the experimental aspects of the implementation and the development of the laser source required for trapping mercury atoms operating near the predicted magic wavelength. Finally, we report on the Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of the 1S0 →3 P0 clock transition in the 199 Hg atoms confined in lattice trap. With use of the ultra-stable laser system, linked to LNE-SYRTE primary frequency reference, we have determined the center frequency of the transition for a range of lattice wavelengths and different lattice depths. Analyzing these measurement, we have carried out the first experimental determination of the magic wavelength, which is the crucial step towards achieving a highly accurate frequency standard using mercury. (author)

  7. Communications interface for plant monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.L.; Morgan, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the communications interface for an intelligent color graphic system which PSE and G developed as part of a plant monitoring system. The intelligent graphic system is designed to off-load traditional host functions such as dynamic graphic updates, keyboard handling and alarm display. The distributed system's data and synchronization problems and their solutions are discussed

  8. A bunch clock for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A bunch clock timing module has been developed for use by Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The module provides bunch pattern and timing information that can be used to trigger beamline data collection equipment. The module is fully integrated into the control system software (EPICS) which automatically loads it with the storage ring fill pattern at injection time. Fast timing outputs (1 ns FWHM) for each stored bunch are generated using the storage ring low-level rf and revolution clock as input references. Fiber-optic-based transmitters and receivers are used to transmit a 352-MHz low-level rf reference to distributed bunch clock modules. The bunch clock module is a single-width VME module and may be installed in a VME crate located near beamline instrumentation. A prototype has been in use on the SRI CAT beamline for over a year. The design and integration into the control system timing software along with measured performance results are presented

  9. Preinspection of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The general plans of the systems affecting the safety of the nuclear power plants are accepted by the Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP) on the basis of the preinspection of the systems. This is the prerequisite of the preinspection of the structures and components belonging to these systems. Exceptionally, when separately agreed, the IRP may perform the preinspection of a separate structure or component, although the preinspection documentation of the whole system, e.g. the nuclear heat generating system, has not been accepted. This guide applies to the nuclear power plant systems that have been defined to be preinspected in the classification document accepted by the IRP

  10. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  11. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  12. Micro Mercury Ion Clock (MMIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate micro clock based on trapped Hg ions with more than 10x size reduction and power; Fractional frequency stability at parts per 1014 level, adequate for...

  13. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  14. Clock error models for simulation and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meditch, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    Mathematical models for the simulation and estimation of errors in precision oscillators used as time references in satellite navigation systems are developed. The results, based on all currently known oscillator error sources, are directly implementable on a digital computer. The simulation formulation is sufficiently flexible to allow for the inclusion or exclusion of individual error sources as desired. The estimation algorithms, following from Kalman filter theory, provide directly for the error analysis of clock errors in both filtering and prediction

  15. Individual plant care in cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nørremark, Michael; Nielsen, Henning; Blackmore, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Individual plant care cropping systems, embodied in precision farming, may lead to new opportunities in agricultural crop management. The objective of the project was to provide high accuracy seed position mapping of a field of sugar beet. An RTK GPS was retrofitted on to a precision seeder to map the seeds as they were planted. The average error between the seed map and the actual plant map was about 32 mm to 59 mm. The results showed that the overall accuracy of the estimated plant position...

  16. Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Piester, D.; Rost, M.; Fujieda, M.; Feldmann, T.; Bauch, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the global network of institutions engaged with the realization of International Atomic Time (TAI), atomic clocks and time scales are compared by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and by employing telecommunication satellites for two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT). The frequencies of the state-of-the-art primary caesium fountain clocks can be compared at the level of 10−15 (relative, 1 day averaging) and time scales can be synchronized...

  17. Promises in intelligent plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The control system is the brain of a power plant. The traditional goal of control systems has been productivity. However, in nuclear power plants the potential for disaster requires safety to be the dominant concern, and the worldwide political climate demands trustworthiness for nuclear power plants. To keep nuclear generation as a viable option for power in the future, trust is the essential critical goal which encompasses all others. In most of today's nuclear plants the control system is a hybrid of analog, digital, and human components that focuses on productivity and operates under the protective umbrella of an independent engineered safety system. Operation of the plant is complex, and frequent challenges to the safety system occur which impact on their trustworthiness. Advances in nuclear reactor design, computer sciences, and control theory, and in related technological areas such as electronics and communications as well as in data storage, retrieval, display, and analysis have opened a promise for control systems with more acceptable human brain-like capabilities to pursue the required goals. This paper elaborates on the promise of futuristic nuclear power plants with intelligent control systems and addresses design requirements and implementation approaches

  18. Clock generation and distribution for the 130-nm Itanium$^{R}$ 2 processor with 6-MB on-die L3 cache

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, S; Limaye, R D

    2004-01-01

    The clock generation and distribution system for the 130-nm Itanium 2 processor operates at 1.5 GHz with a skew of 24 ps. The Itanium 2 processor features 6 MB of on-die L3 cache and has a die size of 374 mm/sup 2/. Fuse-based clock de-skew enables post-silicon clock optimization to gain higher frequency. This paper describes the clock generation, global clock distribution, local clocking, and the clock skew optimization feature.

  19. Plant introduction system applying virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Yasusuke; Tanaka, Kazuo; Kimura, Katsumi; Nakakosi, Tetsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    We developed the prototype of the introduction system for nuclear power plant applying 3D-CAD data and the virtual reality (V.R) technologies. For the purpose of the public acceptance (PA), the use of the V.R technologies, such as CG stereographic, will be interesting for the public. Also, it is very important to introduce the components of the plant in detail, which will become easy by using the 3D-CAD data of the nuclear plant. We made a prototype system for introducing the main portion of the nuclear power plant, such as main control room, containment vessel or turbine building, applying CG stereographic by plant 3D data and artificial voice guidance for the explanations. We have exhibited this system in two local festivals at the plant sites. It has been efficient for creating plant scene by using 3D-CAD from the viewpoint of cost, and stereographic has been much attractive to the resident. The detail scenario must be investigated from the viewpoint of PA effect. Also the performance of the graphics workstation should be increased to promote the quality of the CG movie. But we think that this system will have much effective by its novelty and flexibility. (author)

  20. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  1. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu

    2000-01-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  2. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Ju; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-05-19

    The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5' splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress

  3. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5′ splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock

  4. Expert systems to assist plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Mori, Nobuyuki; Wada, Norio

    1985-01-01

    Large-scale real-time process control systems, such as those for electric power dispatching, large thermal and nuclear power stations, steel mill plants and manufacturing automation systems, need expert systems to assist operator's decision. The expert systems newly developed to fulfill the requirement are founded on OKBS (object oriented knowledge based system). OKBS provides various object types: fuzzy logic type, production rule type, frame type, state transition type, abstract data type and input/output transformation type. (author)

  5. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  6. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  7. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  8. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  9. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  10. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  11. Plant computer system in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shinji; Fukuchi, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, centrally concentrated monitoring system has been adopted, and in central control rooms, large quantity of information and operational equipments concentrate, therefore, those become the important place of communication between plants and operators. Further recently, due to the increase of the unit capacity, the strengthening of safety, the problems of man-machine interface and so on, it has become important to concentrate information, to automate machinery and equipment and to simplify them for improving the operational environment, reliability and so on. On the relation of nuclear power stations and computer system, to which attention has been paid recently as the man-machine interface, the example in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. is shown. No.2 plant in the Tsuruga Power Station is a PWR plant with 1160 MWe output, which is a home built standardized plant, accordingly the computer system adopted here is explained. The fundamental concept of the central control board, the process computer system, the design policy, basic system configuration, reliability and maintenance, CRT display, and the computer system for No.1 BWR 357 MW plant are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  13. Diagnostic system for combine cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yujiro; Nomura, Masumi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ito, Ryoji; Kita, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    We developed the Diagnostic System for Combined Cycle Power Plant which enables inexperienced operators as well as experienced operators to cope with abnormal conditions of Combined Cycle Power Plant. The features of this system are the Estimate of Emergency Level for Operation and the Prediction of Subsequent Abnormality, adding to the Diagnosis of Cause and the Operation Guidance. Moreover in this system, Diagnosis of Cause was improved by using our original method and support screens can be displayed for educational means in normal condition as well. (Authors)

  14. Titan's methane clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of the 12C/13C and D/H isotopic ratios in Titan's methane show intriguing differences from the values recorded in the giant planets. This implies that either (1) the atmosphere was differently endowed with material at the time of formation, or (2) evolutionary processes are at work in the moon's atmosphere - or some combination of the two. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Instrument (GCMS) found 12CH4/13CH4 = 82 +/- 1 (Niemann et al. 2005), some 7% lower than the giant planets' value of 88 +/- 7 (Sada et al. 1996), which closely matches the terrestrial inorganic standard of 89. The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has previously reported 12CH4/13CH4 of 77 +/-3 based on nadir sounding, which we now revise upwards to 80 +/- 4 based on more accurate limb sounding. The CIRS and GCMS results are therefore in agreement about an overall enrichment in 13CH4 of ~10%. The value of D/H in Titan's CH4 has long been controversial: historical measurements have ranged from about 8-15 x 10-5 (e.g. Coustenis et al. 1989, Coustenis et al. 2003). A recent measurement based on CIRS limb data by Bezard et al. (2007) puts the D/H in CH4 at (13 +/- 1) x 10-5, very much greater than in Jupiter and Saturn, ~2 x 10-5 (Mahaffy et al. 1998, Fletcher et al. 2009). To add complexity, the 12C/13C and D/H vary among molecules in Titan atmosphere, typically showing enhancement in D but depletion in 13C in the daughter species (H2, C2H2, C2H6), relative to the photochemical progenitor, methane. Jennings et al. (2009) have sought to interpret the variance in carbon isotopes as a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE), whilst an explanation for the D/H in all molecules remains elusive (Cordier et al. 2008). In this presentation we argue that evolution of isotopic ratios in Titan's methane over time forms a ticking 'clock', somewhat analogous to isotopic ratios in geochronology. Under plausible assumptions about the initial values and subsequent replenishment, various

  15. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  16. A diagnosis system for plant operation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundheimer, S.; Lorenzetti, J.; Lamana, C.

    1990-01-01

    The present article describes a diagnosis system for abnormal power plant events. The design is modular and uses a shell written in C languaje and a knowledge basis that can be changed easily. At present the system works with a reduced knowledge for primary and secondery leacks. The mitigation procedure is being written with the help of operation staff

  17. Programmed system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, Pierre.

    1980-06-01

    The progress in the field of microprocessors and large scale integration circuits, have incited to introduce this new technologies into nuclear power plant protection system. The hardware and software design principles are briefly listed; then, a quad-redundant protection system for 1300 MWe PWR, developed in France is described [fr

  18. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelhausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus N.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples of au...

  19. The application of plant information system on third Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wangtian

    2005-01-01

    Plant overall control has been applied in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, which enhances the security of plant operation, but it is not enough to improve the technical administration level. In order to integrate the overall information and to improve the technical administration level more. Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant applies the plant information system. This thesis introduces the application of plant information system in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and the effect to the plant after the system is carried into execution, in addition, it does more analysis and exceptions for application of plant information system in the future. (authors)

  20. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  1. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.

    1989-06-01

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  2. Supervisory monitoring system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Turkcan, E.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of a power plant is one of the essential tasks during operation and the computer-based implementations are nowadays seemingly quite mature. However, presently these are still not satisfactory enough to meet the high standards to the licensing requirements and they are mostly not truly integrated to the plant's design-based monitoring system. This is basically due to the robustness problem as the majority of the methods are not robust enough for the monitoring of the safety parameter set in a plant or intelligent supervision. Therefore, a supervisory monitoring system (SMS) in a plant is necessary to supervise the monitoring tasks: determining the objectives to be obtained and finding the means to support them. SMS deals with the changing plant status and the coordination of the information flow among the monitoring subunits. By means of these robustness and consistency in monitoring is achieved. The paper will give the guidelines of knowledge and data management techniques in a framework of robust comprehensive and coordinated monitoring which is presented as supervisory monitoring. Such a high level monitoring serves for consistent and immediate actions in fault situations while this particularly has vital importance in preventing imminent severe accidents next to the issues of recognition of the monitoring procedures for licensing and enhanced plant safety. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  3. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  4. Remote inspection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, M.; Doi, A.; Harima, T.

    1977-01-01

    A remote inspection system for nuclear power plants was constructed based on an analysis of inspections performed by an operator on patrol. This system consists of an operator's console and a remote station. The remote station, equipped with five kinds of sensors, is steered along the inspection route by a photoelectric guiding system or may be manually controlled from an operator's console in a main control room. Signals for control and inspection data are multiplexed and transmitted through a coaxial cable

  5. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  6. SEPI an expert system for plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, M.; Corleto, P.; Landeyro, P.

    1988-01-01

    The availability and suitability of technological information is of great importance in every kind of design task, especially when safety and reliability considerations are involved. In this paper an ''expert system for plant design'' (SEPI), is presented, together with its first application to nuclear back-end plants. This system is available on ENEA computer network. It is thought to be used both to collect know-how developed in the field and to assist unskilled designers during selection, evaluation and dimensioning tasks. It attemps to reproduce the normal way of ''reasoning'' and acting, and provides some graphic facilities

  7. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  8. Minimal tool set for a prokaryotic circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelling, Nicolas M; Lehmann, Robert; Chaudhury, Paushali; Beck, Christian; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Axmann, Ilka M; Wiegard, Anika

    2017-07-21

    Circadian clocks are found in organisms of almost all domains including photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, whereby large diversity exists within the protein components involved. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian rhythms are driven by a unique KaiABC protein clock, which is embedded in a network of input and output factors. Homologous proteins to the KaiABC clock have been observed in Bacteria and Archaea, where evidence for circadian behavior in these domains is accumulating. However, interaction and function of non-cyanobacterial Kai-proteins as well as homologous input and output components remain mainly unclear. Using a universal BLAST analyses, we identified putative KaiC-based timing systems in organisms outside as well as variations within Cyanobacteria. A systematic analyses of publicly available microarray data elucidated interesting variations in circadian gene expression between different cyanobacterial strains, which might be correlated to the diversity of genome encoded clock components. Based on statistical analyses of co-occurrences of the clock components homologous to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we propose putative networks of reduced and fully functional clock systems. Further, we studied KaiC sequence conservation to determine functionally important regions of diverged KaiC homologs. Biochemical characterization of exemplary cyanobacterial KaiC proteins as well as homologs from two thermophilic Archaea demonstrated that kinase activity is always present. However, a KaiA-mediated phosphorylation is only detectable in KaiC1 orthologs. Our analysis of 11,264 genomes clearly demonstrates that components of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian clock are present in Bacteria and Archaea. However, all components are less abundant in other organisms than Cyanobacteria and KaiA, Pex, LdpA, and CdpA are only present in the latter. Thus, only reduced KaiBC-based or even simpler, solely KaiC-based timing systems

  9. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H.

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host–parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host–parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  10. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  11. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  12. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants

  13. MTL-Model Checking of One-Clock Parametric Timed Automata is Undecidable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Quaas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parametric timed automata extend timed automata (Alur and Dill, 1991 in that they allow the specification of parametric bounds on the clock values. Since their introduction in 1993 by Alur, Henzinger, and Vardi, it is known that the emptiness problem for parametric timed automata with one clock is decidable, whereas it is undecidable if the automaton uses three or more parametric clocks. The problem is open for parametric timed automata with two parametric clocks. Metric temporal logic, MTL for short, is a widely used specification language for real-time systems. MTL-model checking of timed automata is decidable, no matter how many clocks are used in the timed automaton. In this paper, we prove that MTL-model checking for parametric timed automata is undecidable, even if the automaton uses only one clock and one parameter and is deterministic.

  14. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  15. Experience on a BWR plant diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, A.; Kawai, K.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to watch plant dynamics and equipment condition for avoiding a big transient or avoiding damage to a system by equipment failure. After the TMI accident the necessity of a diagnosis system has been recognized and such development activities have become of primary importance in many organizations. A diagnosis system has two kinds of function. One is the early detection of an anomaly before detection by a conventional instrumentation system. The other is appropriate instruction after alarm or scram has occurred. The authors have been developing the former system by a noise analysis technique and a feasibility study has been undertaken in recent years as a joint research programme of several electric power companies and the Toshiba Corporation. A prototype diagnosis system has been installed on a BWR plant in Japan. This diagnosis system concerns reactor core, jet pumps and three main control systems. Many data from normal operation have been accumulated using this system and a variation pattern of normal noise data is clarified. On this basis, anomally detection criteria have been determined using statistical decision theory. It is confirmed that this system performance is satisfactory, and that the system will be of great use for surveillance of core and control systems without artificial disturbances. (author)

  16. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  17. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tai eChen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analogue electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  18. Control system upgrades support better plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, A.; Storey, H.; Basso, R.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper (second in the series, see [1]) provides insight on how nuclear plants can achieve better efficiencies and reduced operations and maintenance (O and M) costs through focused control system upgrades. An understanding of this relationship is necessary to properly assess the economics of plant refurbishment decisions. Traditional economic feasibility assessment methods such as benefit cost analysis (BCA), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratios (B/C), or payback analysis are often performed without full consideration of project alternatives, quantified benefits, and life cycle costing. Consideration must be given to not only capital cost and project risk, but also to the potential economic benefits of new technology and added functionality offered by plant upgrades. Recent experience shows that if upgrades are focused on priority objectives, and are effectively implemented, they can deliver significant payback over the life of the plant, sometimes orders of magnitude higher than their initial capital cost. The following discussion explores some of the key issues and rationale behind upgrade decisions and their impact on improved plant efficiency and reduced O and M costs. A subsequent paper will explain how the justification for these improvements can be captured in an economic analysis and feasibility study to support strategic decision-making in a plant refurbishment context. (author)

  19. Optimal control systems in hydro power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babunski, Darko L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research done in this work is focused on obtaining the optimal models of hydro turbine including auxiliary equipment, analysis of governors for hydro power plants and analysis and design of optimal control laws that can be easily applicable in real hydro power plants. The methodology of the research and realization of the set goals consist of the following steps: scope of the models of hydro turbine, and their modification using experimental data; verification of analyzed models and comparison of advantages and disadvantages of analyzed models, with proposal of turbine model for design of control low; analysis of proportional-integral-derivative control with fixed parameters and gain scheduling and nonlinear control; analysis of dynamic characteristics of turbine model including control and comparison of parameters of simulated system with experimental data; design of optimal control of hydro power plant considering proposed cost function and verification of optimal control law with load rejection measured data. The hydro power plant models, including model of power grid are simulated in case of island ing and restoration after breakup and load rejection with consideration of real loading and unloading of hydro power plant. Finally, simulations provide optimal values of control parameters, stability boundaries and results easily applicable to real hydro power plants. (author)

  20. Expert system for nuclear power plant feedwater system diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, R.; Kinoshita, Y.; Sato, T.; Yokota, Y.; Yokota, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Expert System for Nuclear Power Plant Feedwater System Diagnosis has been developed to assist maintenance engineers in nuclear power plants. This system adopts the latest process computer TOSBAC G8050 and the expert system developing tool TDES2, and has a large scale knowledge base which consists of the expert knowledge and experience of engineers in many fields. The man-machine system, which has been developed exclusively for diagnosis, improves the man-machine interface and realizes the graphic displays of diagnostic process and path, stores diagnostic results and searches past reference

  1. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A network of (autonomic) clock outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Perreau-Lenz, S.; Buijs, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each of which is dependent on the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A major question is still how these individual oscillators are organized into a biological clock

  3. A network of (autonomic) clock outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Perreau-Lenz, S.; Buijs, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each dependent on the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A major question is still how these individual oscillators are organized into a biological clock that

  4. Light and the human circadian clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas; Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Allebrandt, Karla V

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock can only reliably fulfil its function if it is stably entrained. Most clocks use the light-dark cycle as environmental signal (zeitgeber) for this active synchronisation. How we think about clock function and entrainment has been strongly influenced by the early concepts of the

  5. Low-power, miniature {sup 171}Yb ion clock using an ultra-small vacuum package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Schwindt, P. D. D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Partner, H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Prestage, J. D.; Kellogg, J. R.; Yu, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2012-12-17

    We report a demonstration of a very small microwave atomic clock using the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of the trapped {sup 171}Yb ions inside a miniature, completely sealed-off 3 cm{sup 3} ion-trap vacuum package. In the ion clock system, all of the components are highly miniaturized with low power consumption except the 369 nm optical pumping laser still under development for miniaturization. The entire clock, including the control electronics, consumes <300 mW. The fractional frequency instability of the miniature Yb{sup +} clock reaches the 10{sup -14} range after a few days of integration.

  6. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E. [ABB Combuions Engineering Nuclear Systems (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  8. Relativistic theory for syntonization of clocks in the vicinity of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Petit, G.

    1995-01-01

    A well known prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity states that two ideal clocks that move with a relative velocity, and are submitted to different gravitational fields will, in general, be observed to run at different rates. Similarly the rate of a clock with respect to the coordinate time of some spacetime reference system is dependent on the velocity of the clock in that reference system and on the gravitational fields it is submitted to. For the syntonization of clocks and the realization of coordinate times (like TAI) this rate shift has to be taken into account at an accuracy level which should be below the frequency stability of the clocks in question, i.e. all terms that are larger than the instability of the clocks should be corrected for. We present a theory for the calculation of the relativistic rate shift for clocks in the vicinity of the Earth, including all terms larger than one part in 10(exp 18). This, together with previous work on clock synchronization (Petit & Wolf 1993, 1994), amounts to a complete relativistic theory for the realization of coordinate time scales at picosecond synchronization and 10(exp -18) syntonization accuracy, which should be sufficient to accommodate future developments in time transfer and clock technology.

  9. Radiation control system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapisovsky, V.; Kosa, M.; Melichar, Z.; Moravek, J.; Jancik, O.

    1977-01-01

    The SYRAK system is being developed for in-service radiation control of the V-1 nuclear power plant. Its basic components are an EC 1010 computer, a CAMAC system and communication means. The in-service release of radionuclides is measured by fuel can failure detection, by monitoring rare gases in the coolant, by gamma spectrometric coolant monitoring and by iodine isotopes monitoring in stack disposal. (O.K.)

  10. HARDWARE ENVIRONMENT FACTOR FOR CONTROL SIGNAL TRANSFER TO A PLANT IN THE SYNTHESIS PROBLEM OF DISCRETE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Nuyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to revise certain provisions of the existing theory of discrete systems in the organization of hardware environment control signal transmission to a technical plant. It is known that the formation of a digital signal in discrete control problem of continuous plant is carried out by microcontroller or micro-computer and is represented by a parallel code, which dimension is determined by the hardware used. The parallel code for a digital clock cycle of the designed system is transmitted to the terminal device of a technical continuous plant, where the digital-to-analog conversion takes place. This kind of control signal transmission to the technical plant asserts its implementation by means of parallel buses. It is known that the length of a parallel bus is limited to an amount not exceeding half a meter due to the existing interference environment with modern standards of length. Thus, if the placement of the control signal and control plant is such that their connecting bus length exceeds more than half a meter, there is the inevitable transition from the parallel control signal to an allotted serial. The paper deals with the system factors arising in the transition from the parallel control signal to the serial by modern interfaces. Provisions of the paper are illustrated by an example. This paper is intended for system analytics and channel specialists. The resulting algorithm is applicable for control of plants (electric drive, in particular in the large industrial factories.

  11. Design and simulation of a plant control system for a GCFR demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a 300 MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. Plant models and simulations are being developed to generate information necessary to further define control system requirements for subsequent plant design iterations

  12. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  13. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation monitor system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bingzhe; Guo Shusheng

    1990-12-01

    The system has 8 kinds of radiation monitors and 2 stage microcomputers designed for processing the data from each monitor, storaging the information, printing out and displaying on the colour CRT. The function of the system includes high-value alarm, warm alarm and failure alarm, so called t hree-level alarms . Two functions of the alarms are the threshold alarm and the tendency alarm, so that this system is an intelligency system. This system has high reliability and very wide range when LOCA accident takes place. It is aseismic and immune to industrial interference. The system can meet IEC-761-1 standard and is of nuclear safety 3rd class. Also the following monitors were designed: 133 Xe monitor, 131 I monitor, low-level liquid monitor and high radiation γ area monitor. The system can meet the requirements of nuclear power plants

  15. A Scalable, Timing-Safe, Network-on-Chip Architecture with an Integrated Clock Distribution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Growing system sizes together with increasing performance variability are making globally synchronous operation hard to realize. Mesochronous clocking constitutes a possible solution to the problems faced. The most fundamental of problems faced when communicating between mesochronously clocked re...... is based purely on local observations. It is demonstrated with a 90 nm CMOS standard cell network-on-chip design which implements completely timing-safe, global communication in a modular system......Growing system sizes together with increasing performance variability are making globally synchronous operation hard to realize. Mesochronous clocking constitutes a possible solution to the problems faced. The most fundamental of problems faced when communicating between mesochronously clocked...... regions concerns the possibility of data corruption caused by metastability. This paper presents an integrated communication and mesochronous clocking strategy, which avoids timing related errors while maintaining a globally synchronous system perspective. The architecture is scalable as timing integrity...

  16. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  17. Circadian clock, cell cycle and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Özbayer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a few rhythms of our daily lives that we are under the influence. One of them is characterized by predictable changes over a 24-hour timescale called circadian clock. This cellular clock is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the anterior hypothalamus. The clock consist of an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop compose of four genes/proteins; BMAL1, Clock, Cyrptochrome, and Period. BMAL 1 and Clock are transcriptional factors and Period and Cyrptochrome are their targets. Period and Cyrptochrome dimerize in the cytoplasm to enter the nucleus where they inhibit Clock/BMAL activity.It has been demonstrate that circadian clock plays an important role cellular proliferation, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, checkpoints, apoptosis and cancer.

  18. New design system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Masataka; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Ikuzo; Tokumasu, Shinji.

    1980-01-01

    As for the machine and equipment layout and the piping design for nuclear power plants, the multilateral coordination and study on such factors as functions, installation, radiation exposure and maintenance are required, and the high reliability is demanded. On the other hand, the quantity of things handled is enormous, therefore it is difficult to satisfy completely the above described requirements and to make plant planning which is completely free from the mutual interference of machines, equipments and pipings by the ordinary design with drawings only. Thereupon, the following new device was adopted to the design method for the purposes of improving the quality and shortening the construction period. Namely at the time of designing new plants, the rationalization of plant planning method was attempted by introducing color composite drawings and the technique of model engineering, at the same time, the newly developed design system for pipings was applied with a computer, thus the large accomplishment was able to be obtained regarding the improvement of reliability and others by making the check-up of the propriety. The design procedures of layout and piping, the layout design and general coordination in nuclear power stations with models and color composite drawings and the design system are explained. (Kako, I.)

  19. CANDU 9 operator plant display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, R.; Webster, A.; MacBeth, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet evolving client and regulatory needs, AECL has adopted an evolutionary approach to the design of the CANDU 9 control centre. That is, the design incorporates feedback from existing stations, reflects the growing diversity in the roles and responsibilities of the operating staff, and reduces costs associated with plant capital and operations, maintenance and administration (OM and A), through the appropriate introduction of new technologies. Underlying this approach is a refined engineering design process that cost-effectively integrates operational feedback and human factors engineering to define the operating staff information and information presentation requirements. Based on this approach, the CANDU 9 control centre will provide utility operating staff with the means to achieve improved operations and reduced OM and A costs. One of the design features that will contribute to the improved operational capabilities of the control centre is a new Plant Display System (PDS) that is separate from the digital control system. The PDS will be used to implement non-safety panel, and console video display systems within the CANDU 9 main control room (MCR). This paper presents a detailed description of the CANDU 9 Plant Display System and features that provide increased operational capabilities. (author)

  20. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  1. Integrated monitoring of wind plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Qiu, Tong

    2008-03-01

    Wind power is a renewable source of energy that is quickly gaining acceptance by many. Advanced sensor technologies have currently focused solely on improving wind turbine rotor aerodynamics and increasing of the efficiency of the blade design and concentration. Alternatively, potential improvements in wind plant efficiency may be realized through reduction of reactionary losses of kinetic energy to the structural and substructural systems supporting the turbine mechanics. Investigation of the complete dynamic structural response of the wind plant is proposed using a large-scale, high-rate wireless sensor network. The wireless network enables sensors to be placed across the sizable structure, including the rotating blades, without consideration of cabling issues and the economic burden associated with large spools of measurement cables. A large array of multi-axis accelerometers is utilized to evaluate the modal properties of the system as well as individual members and would enable long-term structural condition monitoring of the wind turbine as well. Additionally, environmental parameters, including wind speed, temperature, and humidity, are wirelessly collected for correlation. Such a wireless system could be integrated with electrical monitoring sensors and actuators and incorporated into a remote multi-turbine centralized plant monitoring and control system.

  2. Reliable control system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tetsuo; Miyazaki, Shiro

    1980-01-01

    The System 1100 for nuclear power plants is the measuring and control system which utilizes the features of the System 1100 for electric power market in addition to the results of nuclear instrumentation with EBS-ZN series, and it has the following features. The maintenance and inspection in operation are easy. The construction of control loops is made flexibly by the combination of modules. The construction of multi-variable control system using mainly feed forward control is easy. Such functions as the automatic switching of control modes can be included. The switching of manual and automatic operations is easy, and if some trouble occurred in a module, the manual operation can be made. The aseismatic ability is improved by rigid structure cubicles. Nonflammable materials are used for wires, multi-core cables, paints and printed boards. The anti-noise characteristics are improved, and the reliability is high. The policy of developing the System 1100 for nuclear power plants, the type approval tests on modules and units and the type approval test on the system are described. The items of the system type approval test were standard performance test, earthquake test, noise isolation test, temperature and humidity test, and drift test. The aseismatic cubicle showed good endurance in its vibration test. (Kako, I.)

  3. Qinshan plant display system: experience to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, L.; Jiangdong, Y.; Weili, C.; Haidong, W.; Wangtian, L.; Lockwood, R.; Doucet, R.; Trask, D.; Judd, R.

    2004-01-01

    The two CANDU 6 units operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation (TQNPC) include, as part of a control centre upgrade, a new plant display system (PDS). The PDS provides plant operators with new display and monitoring functionality designed to compliment the DCC capability. It includes new overview and trend displays (e.g., critical safety parameter monitor and user-defined trends), and enhanced annunciation based on AECL's Computerized Alarm Message List System (CAMLS) including an alarm interrogation capability. This paper presents a review of operating experience gained since the PDS was commissioned more than three years ago. It includes feedback provided by control room operators and trainers, PDS maintainers, and AECL development and support staff. It also includes an overview of improvements implemented since the PDS and suggestions for the future enhancements. (author)

  4. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  5. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  6. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1

  7. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  8. Feedwater control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Hideo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable switching operation for feedwater systems in a short time and with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of the fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater system during manual operation. Constitution: In a BWR type nuclear power plant having a plurality of feedwater systems to a nuclear reactor, a feedwater control system is constituted with a reactor water level controller, a M/A switcher for switching either of automatic flow rate demand signals or manual flow rate set signals from the reactor level controller to apply flow rate demand signals for each of the feedwater systems, a calculation device for calculating the flow rate set signals in the feedwater systems during manual operation and an adder for subtracting the flow rate set signals in the manual feedwater system calculated in the calculating device from the automatic flow rate demand signals for the feedwater systems during automatic operation. This enables rapid switching for the feedwater systems with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater systems during manual operation and compensating the effects in upon manual and automatic switching by the M/A switcher. (Seki, T.)

  9. Mammalian clock output mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Yi, Chun-Xia; Cailotto, Cathy; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals many behaviours (e.g. sleep-wake, feeding) as well as physiological (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure) and endocrine (e.g. plasma corticosterone concentration) events display a 24 h rhythmicity. These 24 h rhythms are induced by a timing system that is composed of central and

  10. Animal clocks: when science meets nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J

    2013-08-22

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of the system as a whole. For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. The seven papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B take on this challenge, reviewing the influences of moonlight, latitudinal clines, evolutionary history, social interactions, specialized temporal niches, annual variation and recently appreciated post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms. The papers emphasize that the complexity and diversity of the natural world represent a powerful experimental resource.

  11. Hanle Detection for Optical Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard.

  12. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav

    2011-10-31

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.

  15. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  16. Speed control: cogs and gears that drive the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangzhong; Sehgal, Amita

    2012-09-01

    In most organisms, an intrinsic circadian (~24-h) timekeeping system drives rhythms of physiology and behavior. Within cells that contain a circadian clock, specific transcriptional activators and repressors reciprocally regulate each other to generate a basic molecular oscillator. A mismatch of the period generated by this oscillator with the external environment creates circadian disruption, which can have adverse effects on neural function. Although several clock genes have been extensively characterized, a fundamental question remains: how do these genes work together to generate a ~24-h period? Period-altering mutations in clock genes can affect any of multiple regulated steps in the molecular oscillator. In this review, we examine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to setting the pace of the circadian oscillator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  18. Detecting a Multi-Homed Device Using Clock Skew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    15]. The TCP timestamp value is determined by a virtual “timestamp clock” that is based on the frequency of operation of the device’s system clock...received [16]. Figure 8. TCP Timestamp Options Field. Source: [16]. The value of the timestamp comes from a virtual internal clock that is known as...Testing 18 One of the Raspberry Pis had an added USB 2.0 Gigabit LAN adapter that was used as its second connection to the network. The connections for

  19. Molecular Cogs: Interplay between Circadian Clock and Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Jonathan; Montellier, Emilie; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    The cell cycle and the circadian clock operate as biological oscillators whose timed functions are tightly regulated. Accumulating evidence illustrates the presence of molecular links between these two oscillators. This mutual interplay utilizes various coupling mechanisms, such as the use of common regulators. The connection between these two cyclic systems has unique interest in the context of aberrant cell proliferation since both of these oscillators are frequently misregulated in cancer cells. Further studies will provide deeper understanding of the detailed molecular connections between the cell cycle and the circadian clock and may also serve as a basis for the design of innovative therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Entanglement of quantum clocks through gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Ruiz, Esteban; Giacomini, Flaminia; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-03-21

    In general relativity, the picture of space-time assigns an ideal clock to each world line. Being ideal, gravitational effects due to these clocks are ignored and the flow of time according to one clock is not affected by the presence of clocks along nearby world lines. However, if time is defined operationally, as a pointer position of a physical clock that obeys the principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics, such a picture is, at most, a convenient fiction. Specifically, we show that the general relativistic mass-energy equivalence implies gravitational interaction between the clocks, whereas the quantum mechanical superposition of energy eigenstates leads to a nonfixed metric background. Based only on the assumption that both principles hold in this situation, we show that the clocks necessarily get entangled through time dilation effect, which eventually leads to a loss of coherence of a single clock. Hence, the time as measured by a single clock is not well defined. However, the general relativistic notion of time is recovered in the classical limit of clocks.

  1. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  2. A colourful clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester C van Diepen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN. The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4. The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV, blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.

  3. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  4. System identification of the Arabidopsis plant circadian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mathias; Somers, David E.; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system generates an endogenous oscillatory rhythm that governs the daily activities of organisms in nature. It offers adaptive advantages to organisms through a coordination of their biological functions with the optimal time of day. In this paper, a model of the circadian system in the plant Arabidopsis (species thaliana) is built by using system identification techniques. Prior knowledge about the physical interactions of the genes and the proteins in the plant circadian system is incorporated in the model building exercise. The model is built by using primarily experimentally-verified direct interactions between the genes and the proteins with the available data on mRNA and protein abundances from the circadian system. Our analysis reveals a great performance of the model in predicting the dynamics of the plant circadian system through the effect of diverse internal and external perturbations (gene knockouts and day-length changes). Furthermore, we found that the circadian oscillatory rhythm is robust and does not vary much with the biochemical parameters except those of a light-sensitive protein P and a transcription factor TOC1. In other words, the circadian rhythmic profile is largely a consequence of the network's architecture rather than its particular parameters. Our work suggests that the current experimental knowledge of the gene-to-protein interactions in the plant Arabidopsis, without considering any additional hypothetical interactions, seems to suffice for system-level modeling of the circadian system of this plant and to present an exemplary platform for the control of network dynamics in complex living organisms.

  5. Building and application of the plant condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the stable operation of nuclear power plants, we developed the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. This system has adopted the heat balance model based on the actual plant data to find the symptoms of the disorder of the equipment by heat balance changes in the turbine system. (author)

  6. Development and application of the plant condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the stable operation of nuclear power plants, we developed the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. In this system, it is a significant feature to adopt the sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data to find the symptoms of anomalies in the turbine system from heat balance changes. (author)

  7. Field Guide to Plant Model Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Caren; Bowman, John L.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    For the past several decades, advances in plant development, physiology, cell biology, and genetics have relied heavily on the model (or reference) plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis resembles other plants, including crop plants, in many but by no means all respects. Study of Arabidopsis alone provides little information on the evolutionary history of plants, evolutionary differences between species, plants that survive in different environments, or plants that access nutrients and photo...

  8. Clock genes in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Laage; Bouzinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Data demonstrate that abnormal regulation of the circadian system can result in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, immune dysfunction, increased risk for cancer, reproductive complications, etc. It is highly individual among depressed patients and may be expressed as a phase...... in the brain and liver: expression of Per2 is sensitive to stress and changes in Bmal1 mostly associated with depressive behavior. The Per1 expression is sustainable in maintaining the circadian rhythm. A normalization of the expression patterns is likely to be essential for the recovery from the pathological...... state. Depression is a high prevalent disorder. The number of incidents is rising due to changes in lifestyle. The symptomatology is inconsistent and it is difficult to agree on one hypothesis. The disturbances of the 24 h circadian rhythm may be a factor in the development of major depressive disorder...

  9. Design of the Fully Digitalized SOE System in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Yong, Keum; Geun Ok, Park; Heui Youn, Park; Gui Sook, Jang

    2006-01-01

    With the spread of the digital technologies, the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems including the Sequence of Events (SOE) system in the nuclear power plants gradually follow these general trends. This paper discusses the methods for calculating SOE events' occurrence time in each of the non-safety systems and the safety systems. This paper presents the structure of a fully digitalized SOE system in the I and C systems and takes the important design elements of the SOE systems into consideration, including the time resolution, time protocol, and the properties of the data communication networks in the non-safety systems and the safety systems. The feature of the SOE system is that the processing of the SOE events' occurrence time is distributed in their individual systems except for the safety systems processed in a gateway. The commercial data communication networks adopting TCP/IP are used in the non-safety systems and the safety systems use the deterministic data communication networks in order to produce their output within restricted time. Under the two different data communications networks, the methods for establishing the SOE events' occurrence time which are classified into a safety grade and a non-safety grade are applied here. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time keeping among the time servers and the clients in the non-safety systems. When the SOE events occur, the clients record the time information from their own local clocks. The safety systems are designed to precisely calculate the SOE events' occurrence time. The equation defined as a function of a transmission time, a transmission waiting time and an arrival time to a gateway is presented here. This paper analyzed the time errors of the SOE events in non-safety systems by using NTP through an experimental environment. In the case of the safety systems, the principle for the calculation of the SOE events' occurrence time is explained by an example. (authors)

  10. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  11. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  12. Clock gene modulates roles of OXTR and AVPR1b genes in prosociality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Ci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR and oxytocin receptor (OXTR genes have been demonstrated to contribute to prosocial behavior. Recent research has focused on the manner by which these simple receptor genes influence prosociality, particularly with regard to the AVP system, which is modulated by the clock gene. The clock gene is responsible for regulating the human biological clock, affecting sleep, emotion and behavior. The current study examined in detail whether the influences of the OXTR and AVPR1b genes on prosociality are dependent on the clock gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study assessed interactions between the clock gene (rs1801260, rs6832769 and the OXTR (rs1042778, rs237887 and AVPR1b (rs28373064 genes in association with individual differences in prosociality in healthy male Chinese subjects (n = 436. The Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R was used to assess prosociality. Participants carrying both the GG/GA variant of AVPR1b rs28373064 and the AA variant of clock rs6832769 showed the highest scores on the Emotional PTM. Carriers of both the T allele of OXTR rs1042778 and the C allele of clock rs1801260 showed the lowest total PTM scores compared with the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The observed interaction effects provide converging evidence that the clock gene and OXT/AVP systems are intertwined and contribute to human prosociality.

  13. Clock gene modulates roles of OXTR and AVPR1b genes in prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Haipeng; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    The arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes have been demonstrated to contribute to prosocial behavior. Recent research has focused on the manner by which these simple receptor genes influence prosociality, particularly with regard to the AVP system, which is modulated by the clock gene. The clock gene is responsible for regulating the human biological clock, affecting sleep, emotion and behavior. The current study examined in detail whether the influences of the OXTR and AVPR1b genes on prosociality are dependent on the clock gene. This study assessed interactions between the clock gene (rs1801260, rs6832769) and the OXTR (rs1042778, rs237887) and AVPR1b (rs28373064) genes in association with individual differences in prosociality in healthy male Chinese subjects (n = 436). The Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R) was used to assess prosociality. Participants carrying both the GG/GA variant of AVPR1b rs28373064 and the AA variant of clock rs6832769 showed the highest scores on the Emotional PTM. Carriers of both the T allele of OXTR rs1042778 and the C allele of clock rs1801260 showed the lowest total PTM scores compared with the other groups. The observed interaction effects provide converging evidence that the clock gene and OXT/AVP systems are intertwined and contribute to human prosociality.

  14. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  15. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  16. Safety regulation KTA 3901: Communication systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The regulation applies to communication systems in stationary nuclear power plants with at least one power plant unit, i.e. alarm systems, staff locator systems, communicators, and systems for external communication. The regulation determines the type and extent of staff communication systems as well as the demands to be made on layout, installation, operating systems, and testing of communication systems for nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  17. The hypothalamic clock and its control of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Yi, Chun-Xia; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The everyday life of mammals, including humans, exhibits many behavioral, physiological and endocrine oscillations. The major timekeeping mechanism for these rhythms is contained in the central nervous system (CNS). The output of the CNS clock not only controls daily rhythms in sleep/wake (or

  18. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  19. The Square Light Clock and Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J. Ronald; Amiri, Farhang

    2012-01-01

    A thought experiment that includes a square light clock is similar to the traditional vertical light beam and mirror clock, except it is made up of four mirrors placed at a 45[degree] angle at each corner of a square of length L[subscript 0], shown in Fig. 1. Here we have shown the events as measured in the rest frame of the square light clock. By…

  20. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  1. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development of...

  2. Clock drawing as a screen for impaired driving in aging and dementia: is it worth the time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kevin J; Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Ott, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Clock drawing is recommended by medical and transportation authorities as a screening test for unsafe drivers. The objective of the present study was to assess the usefulness of different clock drawing systems as screening measures of driving performance in 122 healthy and cognitively impaired older drivers. Clock drawing was measured using four different scoring systems. Driving outcomes included global ratings of safety and the error rate on a standardized on-road test. Findings revealed that clock drawing was significantly correlated with the driving score on the road test for each of the scoring systems. However, receiver operator curve analyses showed limited clinical utility for clock drawing as a screening instrument for impaired on-road driving performance with the area under the curve ranging from 0.53 to 0.61. Results from this study indicate that clock drawing has limited utility as a solitary screening measure of on-road driving, even when considering a variety of scoring approaches.

  3. NOKIA - nuclear power plant monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The monitoring system is described developed specially for the LOVIISA-1 and -2 nuclear power plants with two WWER-440 units. The multiprocessor system of the WWER-440 contains 3 identical main computers. The in core instrumentation is based on stationary self-powered neutron detectors and on thermocouples for measuring the coolant temperature. The system has equipment for the automatic control of the insulation resistance of the self-powered detectors. It is also equipped with a wide range of standard and special programmes. The standard programmes permit the recording of analog and digital data at different frequencies depending on the pre-set requirements. These data are processed and form data files which are accessible from all programmes. The heart of the special programme is a code for the determination of the power distribution in the core of the WWER-440 reactor. The main part of the programme is the algorithm for computing measured neutron fluxes derived from the signals of the self-powered detectors and the algorithm for deriving the global distribution of the neutron flux in the core. The computed power distribution is used for the determination of instantaneous thermal loads and the distribution of burnup in the core. The production programme of the FINNATOM company for nuclear power plants is listed. (B.S.)

  4. Nuclear reactor plants and control systems therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, G.A.; de Hex, M.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor plant is described comprising at least two hydraulically separated but thermally interconnected heat conveying circuits, of which one is the reactor circuit filled with a non-water medium and the other one is the water-steam-circuit equipped with a steam generator, a feed water conduit controlled by a valve and a steam turbine, and a control system mainly influenced by the pressure drop caused in said feed water conduit and its control valve and having a value of at least 10 bars at full load

  5. Asco 2044 nuclear power plant: management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pellejero, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity and involvement in safety related matters, Nuclear Power Plants have highly reliable management organisations where safety is top priority. To achieve this, there are many elements specific to this type of organisation that are available and which are integrated within a Management System that comprises the necessary measures to ensure and adequate level of safety in the facility, in such a way that it promotes continual improvement, a strengthening of the safety culture and good results in this field. (Author).

  6. Field Guide to Plant Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caren; Bowman, John L; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-10-06

    For the past several decades, advances in plant development, physiology, cell biology, and genetics have relied heavily on the model (or reference) plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis resembles other plants, including crop plants, in many but by no means all respects. Study of Arabidopsis alone provides little information on the evolutionary history of plants, evolutionary differences between species, plants that survive in different environments, or plants that access nutrients and photosynthesize differently. Empowered by the availability of large-scale sequencing and new technologies for investigating gene function, many new plant models are being proposed and studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    2000-01-01

    Chemistry control in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant has a close relationship with radiation field buildup, fuel reliability, integrity of plant components and materials, performance of the water treatment systems and radioactive waste generation. Chemistry management in BWR plants has become more important in order to maintain and enhance plant reliability. Adequate chemistry control and management are also essential to establish, maintain, and enhance plant availability. For these reasons, we have developed the advanced chemistry management system for nuclear power plants in order to effectively collect and evaluate a large number of plant operating and chemistry data. (author)

  8. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  9. An integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Shimokawa, H.; Matsushima, H.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility in the nuclear field of the Government, utilities and manufactures has increased in the past years due to the need of stable operation and great reliability of nuclear power plants. The need to improve the reliability is not only for the new plants but also for those now running. So, several measures have been taken to improve reliability. In particular, the plant manufactures have developed a reliability management system for each phase (planning, construction, maintenance and operation) and these have been integrated as a unified system. This integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants contains information about plant performance, failures and incidents which have occurred in the plants. (author)

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant System Requirements Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Listed

    2008-01-01

    System Requirements Manual for the NGNP Project. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6; EPAct), which was signed into law by President George W. Bush in August 2005, required the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a project to be known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. According to the EPAct, the NGNP Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant (to be referred to herein as the NGNP) that (1) includes a nuclear reactor based on the research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems initiative, and (2) shall be used to generate electricity, to produce hydrogen, or to both generate electricity and produce hydrogen. The NGNP Project supports both the national need to develop safe, clean, economical nuclear energy and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), which has the goal of establishing greenhouse-gas-free technologies for the production of hydrogen. The DOE has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the reactor concept to be used for the NGNP because it is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high-enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The EPAct also names the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the DOE's lead national laboratory for nuclear energy research, as the site for the prototype NGNP

  11. Circadian Clock Dysfunction and Psychiatric Disease: Could Fruit Flies have a Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Mauro Agostino; Sandrelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system leads to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here, we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e., a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes, which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions, and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease.

  12. Circadian clock dysfunction and psychiatric disease: could fruit flies have a say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Agostino Zordan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system lead to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e. a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease.

  13. Nuclear power plant information management system 'NUPIMAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Saruyama, I.; Kurokawa, Y.; Kayano, M.; Katto, S.

    1980-01-01

    NUPIMAS is an interactive computer graphic system used for the design of pipings of nuclear power plant and the production of their drawings. Data on piping, duct, cable tray, equipment and building are stored in the computer and the following conversational-mode design works are performed online by means of graphic display, plotter and others: (1) Piping route study and interference check. (2) Modification of piping route and specifications. (3) Semi-automatic design of low-temperature piping supports. As the result of these design works the following drawings and lists are produced and interactively refined by computer: (1) Composite drawings. (2) Piping assembly drawings and shop drawings. (3) Bill of material. (4) Welding procedure instruction. (5) Duct route drawings (Isometric and 3-plane views). (6) Shop and assembly drawings of supports, etc. This system is already in practical use, obtaining good results. (author)

  14. The Arabidopsis sickle mutant exhibits altered circadian clock responses to cool tempatures and tempature-dependent alternative splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate and respond to daily changes in ambient temperature. Mechanisms establishing the timing of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana through temperature entrainment remain unclear. Also incompletely understood is the temperature compensation mechanism ...

  15. Plant automation and CRT display system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekiguchi, S.; Sukai, K.; Watanabe, N.; Yamasaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of plant operation is greatly improved by utilizing selected data for display in real-time on the screens of 12 color CRTs in the Central Control Room and voice information. The load on operators is reduced by automated operation of plant equipment and an operation guide. Information from the power station is transmitted to an off-site location via an optical fiber data way which makes it possible to display in real-time the same CRT screens displayed in the Central Control Room

  16. Usage of hybrid solar collector system in drying technologies of medical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čiplienė, Aušra; Novošinskas, Henrikas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevičius, Egidijus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar radiation energy utilization in drying technologies. • Accumulation of solar radiation energy. • The system comprising two different solar collector types. • Preparation of the drying agent by employing solar radiation energy around the clock. • The energy resources saving technology for medicinal plants’ raw material processing and drying. - Abstract: In the temperate climate zone under natural conditions, medicinal plants drying up to 8–12% moisture content and preparation of the quality medicinal plant’s raw material are complicated tasks. In many cases drying process of medicinal plants raw material, particularly rich in volatile compounds, needs the optimal drying temperatures of 30–45 °C and relative humidity not higher than 50–60%. In Lithuania, located in the northern part of the temperate climate zone, in summer the average temperature of ambient air is 16.1 ± 0.5 °C, and relative humidity is 77.3 ± 1.8%. In order to improve the sorption properties of ambient air, it is heated up to the admissible drying temperature. The experimental dryer was developed comprising two different solar collectors: the air type solar collector with area 12 m 2 for direct heating of the drying agent and the flat-plate type solar collector (8 m 2 ) for accumulation of converted heat energy. The research of motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca L.) drying was carried out in the dryer. It was determined that by combining operation of two different solar collectors, the solar radiation energy for drying agent’s heating could be used continuously around the clock by employing the accumulated energy, in order to compensate the solar irradiance variability and to ensure stability of the drying process. In the daytime the air-type solar collector at an airflow equal to 367 m 3 h −1 , i.e. at comparative flow of the drying agent per ton of dried medicinal plant raw material – 2450 m 3 h −1 , heats the air up to 30 °C when the solar

  17. Improvement on reliability of control system in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, S.; Mizumoto, T.; Hirose, Y.; Kashiwai, J.; Takami, I.; Shono, M.; Roji, Y.; Kizaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies made of Japanese PWR operating experiences have revealed that failures in the control system are the primary causes of unscheduled shutdowns. An attempt has, therefore, been made to improve the reliability of the control system in order to raise the plant reliability. The following are the procedures applied to solve the issue; study of operating experiences, fault tree analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Improvement measures are developed for the control system whose failure threatens to cause the plant trip during the plant life. These systems are the main feedwater control system, rod control system, pressurizer control system and main steam control system in the primary control system. As a result, the plant unavailability is expected to be reduced significantly by applying the improvements. The improvements are applied to the plants under construction and the operating plants in co-operation with utilities and vendors. (author)

  18. Plant control system upgrades in the context of industry trends towards plant life-extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Basso, R.; Hepburn, A.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic CANDU nuclear plants were brought online between 1972 and 1986. Over the next decade, most of these stations will be nearing the end of their designed operating life. Effort has traditionally been placed on ensuring that the existing installed plant control system equipment could operate reliably until the end of this design life. Until recently, little attention has been given to plant control system upgrades or replacements to meet the expected requirement for 30+ years of additional plant operation following potential plant refurbishments. Industry developments are changing this thinking. The combination of expected increases in electricity demand (and prices), and the many recent successful turnaround stories of U.S. nuclear power plants has resulted in new interest in plant life improvement and plant life extension programs. Plant control system upgrade decisions are now being driven by the need to replace or upgrade these systems to support plant life extension. This article is the first of several that investigate aspects of plant control system upgrades or replacement, specifically in the context of the CANDU station digital control computers (DCCs). It sets the context for the discussion in the subsequent articles by providing a brief review of industry trends favouring plant refurbishment, by outlining the basic issues of aging and obsolescence of control system equipment, by establishing the need for upgrades and replacements, and by introducing some of the basic challenges to be addressed by the industry as it moves forward. (author)

  19. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  20. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  1. The clock paradox as a cosmological problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.Y.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the clock paradox is discussed within the framework of the general theory of relativity. It is shown that in general the aging asymmetry exists. It is also argued that the clock paradox, according to Mach's principle, is essentially a cosmological problem. (author)

  2. Could Atomic clocks be affected by neutrinos?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanafi, Hanaa

    2016-01-01

    An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard in order to derive a time standard since time is the reciprocal of frequency. If the electronic transition frequencies are in an "optical region", we are talking in this case about optical atomic clocks. If they are in an "microwave region" these atomic clocks are made of the metallic element cesium so they are called Cesium atomic clocks. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known despite the different perturbations that can affect them, a lot of researches were made in this domain to show how the transitions can be different for different type of perturbations..Since atomic clocks are very sensitive devices, based on coherent states (A coherent state tends to loose coherence after interacting). One question can arise (from a lot of questions) which is why cosmic neutrinos are not affecting these clocks? The answer to this question requir...

  3. Fast Clock Recovery for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit extracts clock signal from random non-return-to-zero data stream, locking onto clock within one bit period at 1-gigabitper-second data rate. Circuit used for synchronization in opticalfiber communications. Derives speed from very short response time of gallium arsenide metal/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET's).

  4. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  5. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko

    1991-01-01

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  6. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    Breeding gain in symbiotic nuclear power plant system consisting of both thermal and fast breeder reactors depends on the characteristics and the ratio of thermal and fast reactors. The composition of the symbiotic power plant systems was determined for equilibrium and plutonium deficient systems. According to natural uranium utilization, symbiotic power plant systems are not less efficient than the systems containing only fast breeders. Depleted uranium can be applied in both types of systems. Reprocessing demands of the symbiotic power plant sytems were determined. (V.N.) 23 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Processing of visually presented clock times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, P; Park, D C

    1980-11-01

    The encoding and representation of visually presented clock times was investigated in three experiments utilizing a comparative judgment task. Experiment 1 explored the effects of comparing times presented in different formats (clock face, digit, or word), and Experiment 2 examined angular distance effects created by varying positions of the hands on clock faces. In Experiment 3, encoding and processing differences between clock faces and digitally presented times were directly measured. Same/different reactions to digitally presented times were faster than to times presented on a clock face, and this format effect was found to be a result of differences in processing that occurred after encoding. Angular separation also had a limited effect on processing. The findings are interpreted within the framework of theories that refer to the importance of representational codes. The applicability to the data of Bank's semantic-coding theory, Paivio's dual-coding theory, and the levels-of-processing view of memory are discussed.

  8. Preparation of plant and system design description documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This standard prescribes the purpose, scope, organization, and content of plant design requirements (PDR) documents and system design descriptions (SDDs), to provide a unified approach to their preparation and use by a project as the principal means to establish the plant design requirements and to establish, describe, and control the individual system designs from conception and throughout the lifetime of the plant. The Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Requirements Document should be considered for LWR plants

  9. Noise-Induced Synchronization among Sub-RF CMOS Analog Oscillators for Skew-Free Clock Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Hirose, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    We present on-chip oscillator arrays synchronized by random noises, aiming at skew-free clock distribution on synchronous digital systems. Nakao et al. recently reported that independent neural oscillators can be synchronized by applying temporal random impulses to the oscillators [1], [2]. We regard neural oscillators as independent clock sources on LSIs; i. e., clock sources are distributed on LSIs, and they are forced to synchronize through the use of random noises. We designed neuron-based clock generators operating at sub-RF region (CMOS implementation with 0.25-μm CMOS parameters. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that i) the clock generators are certainly synchronized by pseudo-random noises and ii) clock generators exhibited phase-locked oscillations even if they had small device mismatches.

  10. Using a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    and expand, new analytical frameworks and tools are needed to identify factors influencing performance of services and systems in specific contexts, and to guide interventions. In this paper we apply a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance, using Uganda as a case study...... factors, influenced by basic operational and financial concerns, inter-institutional relations and public sector policies. Overall, there was a fairly close match between the plant health system attributes and plant clinic performance, suggesting that the framework can help explain system functioning....... A comparative study of plant clinics was carried out between July 2010 and September 2011 in the 12 districts where plant clinics were operating at that time. The framework enabled us to organise multiple issues and identify key features that affected the plant clinics. Clinic performance was, among other...

  11. Association between circadian clock genes and diapause incidence in Drosophila triauraria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause is an adaptive response triggered by seasonal photoperiodicity to overcome unfavorable seasons. The photoperiodic clock is a system that controls seasonal physiological processes, but our knowledge about its physiological mechanisms and genetic architecture remains incomplete. The circadian clock is another system that controls daily rhythmic physiological phenomena. It has been argued that there is a connection between the two clocks. To examine the genetic connection between them, we analyzed the associations of five circadian clock genes (period, timeless, Clock, cycle and cryptochrome with the occurrence of diapause in Drosophila triauraria, which shows a robust reproductive diapause with clear photoperiodicity. Non-diapause strains found in low latitudes were compared in genetic crosses with the diapause strain, in which the diapause trait is clearly dominant. Single nucleotide polymorphism and deletion analyses of the five circadian clock genes in backcross progeny revealed that allelic differences in timeless and cryptochrome between the strains were additively associated with the differences in the incidence of diapause. This suggests that there is a molecular link between certain circadian clock genes and the occurrence of diapause.

  12. Development of 3D VR plant digital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Ryu, Joong W.; Kang, Myung G.; Kim, H. Y.; Cho, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Park, J. W.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are many ongoing efforts to shorten the plant refueling and maintenance outage durations, and it is expected to become more active as the time goes on. Improved training and education system are required for the personnel to perform efficient inspection on time. This work is focused on establishing virtual Nuclear Power Plant system which will help train the personnel to understand the system characteristics of the plant by creating navigation enabled 3D plant mockups. Furthermore, this project is aimed at constructing information management system over the whole plant area, by integrating safety related data and combining it with web based GUI technology, to make search and management activities easy. This project spans three years. The forst year was spent in 3D mockup modeling of most part of the plant, and prototyping the web based VR plant digital information system. Plant environment, buildings, reactor structure, steam generator, pressurizer, fuel assemblies, pressurizer safety valve, main steamline safety valve, reactor coolant system, main steamline system, auxiliary and main coolant supply system were modeled into 3D mockups. Control functions such as magnification, rotation, movement, transparency, location detection, cross-cut view, full screen toggle and screen capture were implemented to facilitate manipulation of and navigation through the VR mockups. It is expected that the VR plant will serve as an effective support system for power plant regulation and inspection

  13. Design of comprehensive plant information system considering maintenance indicators in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Akio

    2013-01-01

    A safety of a nuclear power plant must be ensured and maintained through its entire plant life. For this plant life cycle safety (PLCS), a comprehensive plant information system, in which an each maintenance record of the plant is taken into consideration, is of importance. In this paper, a development of a plant chart, which is a part of the information system, has been developed based on a defense-in-depth concept that is one of the most important concept to ensure the plant safety. In the chart, an updated probability of loss of a component or function is used as a maintenance indicator and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method is applied to quantify the plant status in the chart. (author)

  14. A study on expert system applications for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Nam Seog; Dong, In Sook; Choi, In Seon

    1987-12-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear power plants such as expert systems is rapidly emerging. expert systems can contribute significantly to the availability and the improved operation and safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of the project is to develop an expert system in a selected application area in the nuclear power plants. This project will last for 3 years. The first year's tasks are: - Information collection and literature survey on expert systems. - Analysis of several applicable areas for applying AI technologies to the nuclear power plants. - Conceptual design of a few selected domains. - Selection of hardware and software tools for the development of the expert system

  15. Towards a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eMine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are closely associated with microorganisms including pathogens and mutualists that influence plant fitness. Molecular genetic approaches have uncovered a number of signaling components from both plants and microbes and their mode of actions. However, signaling pathways are highly interconnected and influenced by diverse sets of environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to have systems views in order to understand the true nature of plant-microbe interactions. Indeed, systems biology approaches have revealed previously overlooked or misinterpreted properties of the plant immune signaling network. Experimental reconstruction of biological networks using exhaustive combinatorial mutants is particularly powerful to elucidate network structure and properties and relationships among network components. Recent advances in metagenomics of microbial communities associated with plants further point to the importance of systems approaches and open a research area of microbial community reconstruction. In this review, we highlight the importance of a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions, with a special emphasis on reconstruction strategies.

  16. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  17. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverno, M; Pothier, H; Xian, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Grosbois, J De; Bosnich, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  18. Optimal planting systems for cut gladiolus and stock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different planting systems, videlicet (viz. flat, ridge, and raised bed system on growth, yield and quality of gladiolus and stock. Corms of ‘Rose Supreme’ and ‘White Prosperity’ gladiolus and seedlings of ‘Cheerful White’, ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’ stock were planted on different planting systems in individual experiments for each species. Gladiolus had similar good quality production irrespective of planting systems with numerical superiority of ridge planting, which produced longer stems with higher stem fresh weight, but delayed corm sprouting by ca. 1 d compared to raised bed or flat planting system. Among cultivars, ‘Rose Supreme’ produced higher number of florets per spike, taller stems with longer spikes, higher fresh weight of stems and higher number of cormels than ‘White Prosperity’. Stock plants grown on flat beds produced stems with greater stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of stems compared to ridge or raised bed planting systems. Plants grown on ridges produced the highest stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, total leaf chlorophyll contents, and number of flowers per spike. ‘Cheerful White’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ performed best by producing good quality stems in shorter period compared to ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’. In summary, gladiolus should be grown on ridges, while stock may be planted on flat beds for higher yields of better quality flowers.

  19. Sophistication and integration of plant engineering CAD-CAE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Hanyu, Masaharu; Ota, Yoshimi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro.

    1995-01-01

    In respective departments in charge of basic planning, design, manufacture, inspection and construction of nuclear power plants, by the positive utilization of CAD/CAE system, efficient workings have been advanced. This time, the plant integrated CAE system wich heightens the function of these individual systems, and can make workings efficient and advanced by unifying and integrating them was developed. This system is composed of the newly developed application system and the data base system which enables the unified management of engineering data and high speed data conversion in addition to the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning. On the basis of the rich experience and the proposal of improvement of designers by the application of the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning to actual machines, the automation, speed increase and the visualization of input and output by graphical user interface (GUI) in the processing of respective applications were made feasible. As the advancement of plant CAE system, scenic engineering system, integrated layout CAE system, electric instrumentation design CAE system and construction planning CAE system are described. As for the integration of plant CAE systems, the integrated engineering data base, the combination of plant CAE systems, and the operation management in the dispersed environment of networks are reported. At present, Hitachi Ltd. exerts efforts for the construction of atomic energy product in formation integrated management system as the second stage of integration. (K.I.)

  20. Engineering Plant Immunity via CRISPR/Cas13a System

    KAUST Repository

    Aljedaani, Fatimah R.

    2018-01-01

    systems function as an adaptive immune system to provide bacteria with resistance against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Interestingly, CRISPR/Cas9 system was shown to interfere with eukaryotic DNA viruses and confer resistance against plant DNA

  1. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  2. Backfitting of the nuclear plant V1 power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeta, C.; Rubek, J.; Stirsky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with some aspects of implementation of modifications into the Czechoslovak nuclear plant V1 control system as called for on the basis of experience gained during the first period of the plant operation. Brief description of the plant power control system and its main functions is given. Some deficiencies in the system performance during abnormal conditions are outlined and measures taken to overcome them are presented. (author)

  3. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  4. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Akira; Bass, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of an internal temporal clockwork that coordinates behavior and metabolism according to the rising and setting of the sun was first revealed in flies and plants. However, in the past decade, a molecular transcription-translation feedback loop with similar properties has also been identified in mammals. In mammals, this transcriptional oscillator programs 24-hour cycles in sleep, activity and feeding within the master pacemaker neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. More recent studies have shown that the core transcription mechanism is also present in other locations within the brain, in addition to many peripheral tissues. Processes ranging from glucose transport to gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, adipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are controlled through overlapping transcription networks that are tied to the clock and are thus time sensitive. Because disruption of tissue timing occurs when food intake, activity and sleep are altered, understanding how these many tissue clocks are synchronized to tick at the same time each day, and determining how each tissue 'senses time' set by these molecular clocks might open new insight into human disease, including disorders of sleep, circadian disruption, diabetes and obesity.

  5. Multi-variable systems in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.B.; Howell, J.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear power plant are complex multi-variable dynamically interactive systems which employ many facets of systems and control theory in their analysis and design. Whole plant mathematical models must be developed and validated and in addition to their obvious role in control system synthesis and design, they are also widely used for operational constraint and plant malfunction analysis. The need for and scope of an integrated power plant control system is discussed and, as a specific example, the design of an integrated feedwater regulator is reviewed. The multi-variable frequency response analysis employed in the design is described in detail. (author)

  6. The Clock gene clone and its circadian rhythms in Pelteobagrus vachelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Shao, Ting

    2015-05-01

    The Clock gene, a key molecule in circadian systems, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. We isolated a 936-bp partial cDNA sequence of the Clock gene ( Pva-clock) from the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli that exhibited high identity with Clock genes of other species of fish and animals (65%-88%). The putative domains included a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and two period-ARNT-single-minded (PAS) domains, which were also similar to those in other species of fish and animals. Pva-Clock was primarily expressed in the brain, and was detected in all of the peripheral tissues sampled. Additionally, the pattern of Pva-Clock expression over a 24-h period exhibited a circadian rhythm in the brain, liver and intestine, with the acrophase at zeitgeber time 21:35, 23:00, and 23:23, respectively. Our results provide insight into the function of the molecular Clock of P. vachelli.

  7. Discrete gene replication events drive coupling between the cell cycle and circadian clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Bosman, Mark; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Lubensky, David K

    2016-04-12

    Many organisms possess both a cell cycle to control DNA replication and a circadian clock to anticipate changes between day and night. In some cases, these two rhythmic systems are known to be coupled by specific, cross-regulatory interactions. Here, we use mathematical modeling to show that, additionally, the cell cycle generically influences circadian clocks in a nonspecific fashion: The regular, discrete jumps in gene-copy number arising from DNA replication during the cell cycle cause a periodic driving of the circadian clock, which can dramatically alter its behavior and impair its function. A clock built on negative transcriptional feedback either phase-locks to the cell cycle, so that the clock period tracks the cell division time, or exhibits erratic behavior. We argue that the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has evolved two features that protect its clock from such disturbances, both of which are needed to fully insulate it from the cell cycle and give it its observed robustness: a phosphorylation-based protein modification oscillator, together with its accompanying push-pull read-out circuit that responds primarily to the ratios of different phosphoform concentrations, makes the clock less susceptible to perturbations in protein synthesis; the presence of multiple, asynchronously replicating copies of the same chromosome diminishes the effect of replicating any single copy of a gene.

  8. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene...... expression in the neocortex is dependent on the SCN. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that products of the canonical clock gene Per2 are located in perikarya throughout all areas of the neocortex. These findings show that local circadian oscillators driven by the SCN reside within...... neurons of the neocortex....

  9. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  10. Plant-wide integrated equipment monitoring and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, C.N.; Hunter, T.A.; Chiang, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant equipment monitoring system monitors plant equipment and reports deteriorating equipment conditions. The more advanced equipment monitoring systems can also provide information for understanding the symptoms and diagnosing the root cause of a problem. Maximizing the equipment availability and minimizing or eliminating consequential damages are the ultimate goals of equipment monitoring systems. GE Integrated Equipment Monitoring System (GEIEMS) is designed as an integrated intelligent monitoring and analysis system for plant-wide application for BWR plants. This approach reduces system maintenance efforts and equipment monitoring costs and provides information for integrated planning. This paper describes GEIEMS and how the current system is being upgraded to meet General Electric's vision for plant-wide decision support. (author)

  11. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Victoria Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  12. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  13. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Tai, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Fuel handling system of nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulstich, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel handing system for nuclear reactor plants comprising a reactor vessel having an openable top and removable cover for refueling and containing therein, submerged in coolant water substantially filling the reactor vessel, a fuel core including a multiplicity of fuel bundles formed of groups of sealed tube elements enclosing fissionable fuel assembled into units. It comprises a fuel bundle handing platform moveable over the open top of the reactor vessel; a fuel bundle handing mast extendable downward from the platform with a lower end projecting into the open top reactor vessel to the fuel core submerged in water; a grapple head mounted on the lower end of the mast provided with grappling hook means for attaching to and transporting fuel bundles into and out from the fuel core; and a camera with a prismatic viewing head surrounded by a radioactive resisting quartz cylinder and enclosed within the grapple head which is provided with at least three windows with at least two windows provided with an angled surface for aiming the camera prismatic viewing head in different directions and thereby viewing the fuel bundles of the fuel core from different perspectives, and having a cable connecting the camera with a viewing monitor located above the reactor vessel for observing the fuel bundles of the fuel core and for enabling aiming of the camera prismatic viewing head through the windows by an operator

  15. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  16. Evaluating the Autonomy of the Drosophila Circadian Clock in Dissociated Neuronal Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy. Expression patterns of the transcriptional reporter show that CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC)-mediated transcription is constantly active in dissociated clock neurons. In contrast, the expression profile of the post-transcriptional reporter indicates that PERIOD (PER) protein levels fluctuate and ~10% of cells display rhythms in PER levels with periods in the circadian range. Nevertheless, PER and TIM are enriched in the cytoplasm and no periodic PER nuclear accumulation was observed. These results suggest that repression of CLK/CYC-mediated transcription by nuclear PER is impaired, and thus the negative feedback loop of the molecular clock is incomplete in isolated clock neurons. We further demonstrate that, by pharmacological assays using the non-amidated form of neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), which could be specifically secreted from larval LNvs and adult s-LNvs, downstream events of the PDF signaling are partly impaired in dissociated larval clock neurons. Although non-amidated PDF is likely to be less active than the amidated one, these results point out the possibility that alteration in PDF downstream signaling may play a role in dampening of molecular rhythms in isolated clock neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that Drosophila clocks are weak oscillators that need to be in the intact circadian

  17. Evaluating the Autonomy of the Drosophila Circadian Clock in Dissociated Neuronal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Sabado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy. Expression patterns of the transcriptional reporter show that CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC-mediated transcription is constantly active in dissociated clock neurons. In contrast, the expression profile of the post-transcriptional reporter indicates that PERIOD (PER protein levels fluctuate and ~10% of cells display rhythms in PER levels with periods in the circadian range. Nevertheless, PER and TIM are enriched in the cytoplasm and no periodic PER nuclear accumulation was observed. These results suggest that repression of CLK/CYC-mediated transcription by nuclear PER is impaired, and thus the negative feedback loop of the molecular clock is incomplete in isolated clock neurons. We further demonstrate that, by pharmacological assays using the non-amidated form of neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF, which could be specifically secreted from larval LNvs and adult s-LNvs, downstream events of the PDF signaling are partly impaired in dissociated larval clock neurons. Although non-amidated PDF is likely to be less active than the amidated one, these results point out the possibility that alteration in PDF downstream signaling may play a role in dampening of molecular rhythms in isolated clock neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that Drosophila clocks are weak oscillators that need to be in the

  18. Relative clock verifies endogenous bursts of human dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Temporal bursts are widely observed in many human-activated systems, which may result from both endogenous mechanisms like the highest-priority-first protocol and exogenous factors like the seasonality of activities. To distinguish the effects from different mechanisms is thus of theoretical significance. This letter reports a new timing method by using a relative clock, namely the time length between two consecutive events of an agent is counted as the number of other agents' events appeared during this interval. We propose a model, in which agents act either in a constant rate or with a power-law inter-event time distribution, and the global activity either keeps unchanged or varies periodically vs. time. Our analysis shows that the bursts caused by the heterogeneity of global activity can be eliminated by setting the relative clock, yet the bursts from real individual behaviors still exist. We perform extensive experiments on four large-scale systems, the search engine by AOL, a social bookmarking system —Delicious, a short-message communication network, and a microblogging system —Twitter. Seasonality of global activity is observed, yet the bursts cannot be eliminated by using the relative clock.

  19. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  20. Regulation of circadian clock transcriptional output by CLOCK:BMAL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Alexandra J.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock relies on the transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 to coordinate the rhythmic expression of 15% of the transcriptome and control the daily regulation of biological functions. The recent characterization of CLOCK:BMAL1 cistrome revealed that although CLOCK:BMAL1 binds synchronously to all of its target genes, its transcriptional output is highly heterogeneous. By performing a meta-analysis of several independent genome-wide datasets, we found that the binding of other transcription factors at CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers likely contribute to the heterogeneity of CLOCK:BMAL1 transcriptional output. While CLOCK:BMAL1 rhythmic DNA binding promotes rhythmic nucleosome removal, it is not sufficient to generate transcriptionally active enhancers as assessed by H3K27ac signal, RNA Polymerase II recruitment, and eRNA expression. Instead, the transcriptional activity of CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers appears to rely on the activity of ubiquitously expressed transcription factors, and not tissue-specific transcription factors, recruited at nearby binding sites. The contribution of other transcription factors is exemplified by how fasting, which effects several transcription factors but not CLOCK:BMAL1, either decreases or increases the amplitude of many rhythmically expressed CLOCK:BMAL1 target genes. Together, our analysis suggests that CLOCK:BMAL1 promotes a transcriptionally permissive chromatin landscape that primes its target genes for transcription activation rather than directly activating transcription, and provides a new framework to explain how environmental or pathological conditions can reprogram the rhythmic expression of clock-controlled genes. PMID:29300726

  1. Clock Drawing in Spatial Neglect: A Comprehensive Analysis of Clock Perimeter, Placement, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Clock drawings produced by right-brain-damaged (RBD) individuals with spatial neglect often contain an abundance of empty space on the left while numbers and hands are placed on the right. However, the clock perimeter is rarely compromised in neglect patients’ drawings. By analyzing clock drawings produced by 71 RBD and 40 healthy adults, this study investigated whether the geometric characteristics of the clock perimeter reveal novel insights to understanding spatial neglect. Neglect participants drew smaller clocks than either healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. While healthy participants’ clock perimeter was close to circular, RBD participants drew radially extended ellipses. The mechanisms for these phenomena were investigated by examining the relation between clock-drawing characteristics and performance on six subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT). The findings indicated that the clock shape was independent of any BIT subtest or the drawing placement on the test sheet and that the clock size was significantly predicted by one BIT subtest: the poorer the figure and shape copying, the smaller the clock perimeter. Further analyses revealed that in all participants, clocks decreased in size as they were placed farther from the center of the paper. However, even when neglect participants placed their clocks towards the center of the page, they were smaller than those produced by healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. These results suggest a neglect-specific reduction in the subjectively available workspace for graphic production from memory, consistent with the hypothesis that neglect patients are impaired in the ability to enlarge the attentional aperture. PMID:22390278

  2. Transcripts from the Circadian Clock: Telling Time and Season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brand (Karl)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe all know it when we wake mere moments before an alarm clock is scheduled to wake us: our body clock made the alarm clock redundant. This phenomenon is driven by an endogenous timer known as the biological, or circadian clock. Each revolution of the Earth about its own axis produces

  3. Experimental investigation and digital compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Olivera, Julio Cesar R. F.; Ribeiro, Vittor Bedotti

    2011-01-01

    For asynchronous sampled systems such as Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, (PDM-QPSK), phase and frequency of the sampling clock is typically not synchronized to the data symbols. Therefore, timing adjustment, so called clock recovery and interpolation, must be perf...

  4. Clock-distribution with instantaneous synchronisation for 160 Gbit/s optical time-domain multiplexed packet transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Agis, F.; Calabretta, N.; Albores Mejia, A.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, a clock-distribution method for ultra-high-speed optical time-domain multiplexed systems data packets that provides instantaneous synchronization, fast locking/unlocking times, and a highly stable bursty clock, enabling error-free operation of 160

  5. Optimization of control area ventilation systems for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, T.; Nakahara, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power plant has been required to reduce the cost for the purpose of making the low-cost energy since several years ago in Japan. The Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system in the nuclear power plant has been also required to reduce its cost. On the other hand the ventilation system should add the improvable function according to the advanced plant design. In response to these different requirements, the ventilation criteria and the design of the ventilation system have been evaluated and optimized in Japanese PWR Plant design. This paper presents the findings of the authors' study

  6. Retrofit of safety and control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, J.T.; Fassett, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The modularity, compactness, compatibility, and licensability of the microcontrol system make it a cost-effective approach to obtain the benefits of digital control technology in the retrofit of nuclear power plants. Retrofit of individual loops or complete systems can be scheduled to meet the operational needs of the plant. The existing racks, panels, and cable systems can be utilized to the maximum extent to minimize the installed cost. Future expansion to total plant control or plant management is supported by the network communication module or gateway. The microcontrol module provides benefits now in improved operation, and future benefits in planned, controlled upgrading

  7. On Multiple AER Handshaking Channels Over High-Speed Bit-Serial Bidirectional LVDS Links With Flow-Control and Clock-Correction on Commercial FPGAs for Scalable Neuromorphic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Amirreza; Jablonski, Miroslaw; Iakymchuk, Taras; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Rosado, Alfredo; Plana, Luis A; Temple, Steve; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Furber, Steve B; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2017-10-01

    Address event representation (AER) is a widely employed asynchronous technique for interchanging "neural spikes" between different hardware elements in neuromorphic systems. Each neuron or cell in a chip or a system is assigned an address (or ID), which is typically communicated through a high-speed digital bus, thus time-multiplexing a high number of neural connections. Conventional AER links use parallel physical wires together with a pair of handshaking signals (request and acknowledge). In this paper, we present a fully serial implementation using bidirectional SATA connectors with a pair of low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) wires for each direction. The proposed implementation can multiplex a number of conventional parallel AER links for each physical LVDS connection. It uses flow control, clock correction, and byte alignment techniques to transmit 32-bit address events reliably over multiplexed serial connections. The setup has been tested using commercial Spartan6 FPGAs attaining a maximum event transmission speed of 75 Meps (Mega events per second) for 32-bit events at a line rate of 3.0 Gbps. Full HDL codes (vhdl/verilog) and example demonstration codes for the SpiNNaker platform will be made available.

  8. Cell-permeable Circadian Clock Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl

    2002-01-01

    .... These 'biological clocks' are important to human physiology. For example, psychiatric and medical studies have shown that circadian rhythmicity is involved in some forms of depressive illness, 'jet lag', drug tolerance/efficacy, memory, and insomnia...

  9. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    "The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks" presents historical views and mathematical models of mechanical watches and clocks. Although now over six hundred years old, mechanical watches and clocks are still popular luxury items that fascinate many people around the world. However few have examined the theory of how they work as presented in this book. The illustrations and computer animations are unique and have never been published before. It will be of significant interest to researchers in mechanical engineering, watchmakers and clockmakers, as well as people who have an engineering background and are interested in mechanical watches and clocks. It will also inspire people in other fields of science and technology, such as mechanical engineering and electronics engineering, to advance their designs. Professor Ruxu Du works at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Assistant Professor Longhan Xie works at the South China University of Technology, China.

  11. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  12. Piezoelectric Non Linear Nanomechanical Temperature and Acceleration Insensitive Clocks (PENNTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    relationship between the resonator Q and flicker noise when TED is largely mitigated , we measured a total of 25 resonators (11 full-anchor and 14...during this effort demonstrated the first fully integrated oven control system to mitigate the temperature effect on the reference clock. It showed...Reduction in AlN CMRs by Prolonged RF Excitation ............................................................ 13 2.6 Impact of Damping on Flicker

  13. Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Sub Lee; Sung-Gaun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control system was developed. The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the numbe...

  14. A GPS Satellite Clock Offset Prediction Method Based on Fitting Clock Offset Rates Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fuhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a satellite atomic clock offset prediction method based on fitting and modeling clock offset rates data. This method builds quadratic model or linear model combined with periodic terms to fit the time series of clock offset rates, and computes the model coefficients of trend with the best estimation. The clock offset precisely estimated at the initial prediction epoch is directly adopted to calculate the model coefficient of constant. The clock offsets in the rapid ephemeris (IGR provided by IGS are used as modeling data sets to perform certain experiments for different types of GPS satellite clocks. The results show that the clock prediction accuracies of the proposed method for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h achieve 0.43, 0.58, 0.90 and 1.47 ns respectively, which outperform the traditional prediction method based on fitting original clock offsets by 69.3%, 61.8%, 50.5% and 37.2%. Compared with the IGU real-time clock products provided by IGS, the prediction accuracies of the new method have improved about 15.7%, 23.7%, 27.4% and 34.4% respectively.

  15. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam-cycle/cogeneration lead plant. Plant Protection and Instrumentation System design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Plant Protection and Instrumentation System provides plant safety system sense and command features, actuation of plant safety system execute features, preventive features which maintain safety system integrity, and safety-related instrumentation which monitors the plant and its safety systems. The primary function of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation system is to sense plant process variables to detect abnormal plant conditions and to provide input to actuation devices directly controlling equipment required to mitigate the consequences of design basis events to protect the public health and safety. The secondary functions of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation System are to provide plant preventive features, sybsystems that monitor plant safety systems status, subsystems that monitor the plant under normal operating and accident conditions, safety-related controls which allow control of reactor shutdown and cooling from a remote shutdown area

  16. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  17. Reduced Kalman Filters for Clock Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's work ontimescales based on Kalman filters that act upon the clock comparisons. The natural Kalman timescale algorithm tends to optimize long-term timescale stability at the expense of short-term stability. By subjecting each post-measurement error covariance matrix to a non-transparent reduction operation, one obtains corrected clocks with improved short-term stability and little sacrifice of long-term stability.

  18. Optimalisasi Kinerja (Internet Protocol) Ip Clock Pada Jaringan Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Saputra, Apipi

    2016-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi GSM (Global System for Mobile), BTS (Base Transceiver Station) merupakan jantung dari sebuah cell site layanan telekomunikasi. BTS merupakan perangkat pemancar dan penerima yang menangani akses radio dan berinteraksi langsung dengan Mobile Station (MS) melalui air interface. Sebuah optimasi kinerja ip clock pada base transceiver station (BTS) metode untuk sinkronisasi jaringan untuk jam global yang berasal dari jam GPS diakuisisi oleh sejumlah BTS. IP clock didistribusi...

  19. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The Chemistry Basics When we ask students or precollege teacher groups about the reduction and oxidation reactions that are occurring, they invariably answer that the magnesium metal is being oxidized and the copper metal is being reduced. This response is important because we use it to impress upon students and workshop participants the importance of looking carefully at the system before giving what might seem like an obvious answer. The copper cannot be reduced because there is no copper ion in solution, and transition metals cannot be reduced to anions. Given what is actually in solution, participants can conclude that hydrogen ion can be reduced to molecular hydrogen (in orange juice) or that hydrogen in the water molecule is being reduced to molecular hydrogen (in hard tap water). In distilled water, the clock does not run because the internal resistance of the solution is too high, thus forcing the current to be very small. The reactions of interest are given as eqs 1-3: oxidation: Mg -> Mg2+ + 2e- Eo = 2.37 vs. SHE (1) reduction 2H+ + 2e- -> H2 Eo = 0.00 vs. SHE (2) (acid solution) reduction (water) 2H2O + 2e- -> H2 + 2OH- Eo = -0.8277 vs. SHE (3) where Eo = the voltage under standard conditions and SHE = standard hydrogen electrode. At standard conditions, under zero load (all activities equal to one and 298 K) the cell voltage should theoretically be 2.37 V in acid (pH = 1) and about 1.54 V in neutral solution, either of which is enough to allow the clock to run. It is important to remember the IUPAC convention for electrochemical cells: that voltage of the cell equals voltage of the cathodic half-cell minus voltage of the anodic half-cell. In this case, Eo = 0.00 V - (-2.37 V) = 2.37 V The standard free energy calculation is straightforward in each case (eq 4), DeltaGo = -nFEo in which n = number of moles of electrons transferred, as dictated by the stoichiometry of the reaction (in all

  20. Software V ampersand V methods for digital plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hung-Jun; Han, Jai-Bok; Chun, Chong-Son; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kern-Joong.

    1997-01-01

    Careful thought must be given to software design in the development of digital based systems that play a critical role in the successful operation of nuclear power plants. To evaluate the software verification and validation methods as well as to verify its system performance capabilities for the upgrade instrumentation and control system in the Korean future nuclear power plants, the prototype Digital Plant, Protection System (DPPS) based on the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has been constructed. The system design description and features are briefly presented, and the software design and software verification and validation methods are focused. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillard, X.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr 87 using the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr 87 atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10 -15 and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10 -15 level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr 88 by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10 -14 . (author)

  2. Robotized production systems observed in modern plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverina, A. N.

    1985-09-01

    Robots, robotized lines and sectors are no longer innovations in shops at automotive plants. The widespread robotization of automobile assembly operations is described in general terms. Robot use for machining operation is also discussed.

  3. Millstone nuclear power plant emergency system assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    U.S.NRC determined an obligation to build a nuclear power plant emergency response organization for both on-site and off-site. Millstone Nuclear Power Plants have 3 nuclear reactors and 2 of 3 still in commercial operation. Reactor unit 1, BWR type has been permanently shut down in 1998, while the two others, units 2 and 3 obtain the extended operating license respectively until 2035 and 2045. As a nuclear installation has the high potential radiological impact, Millstone nuclear power plant emergency response organization must establish both on-site or off-site. Emergency response organization that is formed must involve several state agencies, both state agencies and municipality. They have specific duties and functions in a state of emergency, so that protective measures can be undertaken in accordance with the community that has been planned. Meanwhile, NRC conduct their own independent assessment of nuclear power plant emergencies. (author)

  4. The assisting system for uranium enrichment plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    We have been developing an operation assisting system, partially supported by AI system, for uranium enrichment plant. The AI system is a proto-type system aiming a final one which can be applied to any future large uranium enrichment plant and also not only to specific operational area but also to complex and multi-phenomenon operational area. An existing AI system, for example facility diagnostic system that utilizes the result of CCT analysis as knowledge base, has weakness in flexibility and potentiality. To build AI system, we have developed the most suitable knowledge representations using deep knowledge for each facility or operation of uranium enrichment plant. This paper describes our AI proto-type system adopting several knowledge representations that can represent an uranium enrichment plant's operation with deep knowledge. (author)

  5. Redefining plant systems biology: from cell to ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Dicke, M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Molenaar, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Struik, P.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists typically restrict systems biology to cellular levels. By contrast, ecologists define biological systems as communities of interacting individuals at different trophic levels that process energy, nutrient and information flows. Modern plant breeding needs to increase

  6. Production Planning and Planting Pattern Scheduling Information System for Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitadiar, Tanhella Zein; Farikhin; Surarso, Bayu

    2018-02-01

    This paper present the production of planning and planting pattern scheduling faced by horticulture farmer using two methods. Fuzzy time series method use to predict demand on based on sales amount, while linear programming is used to assist horticulture farmers in making production planning decisions and determining the schedule of cropping patterns in accordance with demand predictions of the fuzzy time series method, variable use in this paper is size of areas, production advantage, amount of seeds and age of the plants. This research result production planning and planting patterns scheduling information system with the output is recommendations planting schedule, harvest schedule and the number of seeds will be plant.

  7. Plant Systems Biology at the Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc; Pingault, Lise; Zogli, Prince; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of plant biology is increasingly being built upon studies using 'omics and system biology approaches performed at the level of the entire plant, organ, or tissue. Although these approaches open new avenues to better understand plant biology, they suffer from the cellular complexity of the analyzed sample. Recent methodological advances now allow plant scientists to overcome this limitation and enable biological analyses of single-cells or single-cell-types. Coupled with the development of bioinformatics and functional genomics resources, these studies provide opportunities for high-resolution systems analyses of plant phenomena. In this review, we describe the recent advances, current challenges, and future directions in exploring the biology of single-cells and single-cell-types to enhance our understanding of plant biology as a system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photovoltaic plants in the electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzio, L.; Vigotti, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article provides a 1998 updated picture of Italy's and the world's photovoltaic market in terms of produced modules and total installed capacity, as well as market growth forecasts up to 2010. After a short description of the state-of-the-art of cell and module manufacturing, ana analysis of the cost of producing a photovoltaic kW is reported for different plant types: stand-alone plants with energy storage batteries, plants connected to low low voltage networks or intended for supporting medium voltage networks, hybrid plants with diesel sets. The article is concluded by illustrating ENEL's (Electric Power Production Company) engagement in the field of photovoltaic solar energy as regards theoretical studies, research and testing of new technologies, and installing plants; over nearly twenty years of activity, ENEL has designed and built a few hundreds of photovoltaic plants for a total capacity of about 4.000 kW, and is currently in the process of setting up a further 370 kW [it

  9. Computer system for nuclear power plant parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Klobuchar, M.

    1990-01-01

    The computer system for efficient, cheap and simple presentation of data on the screen of the personal computer is described. The display is in alphanumerical or graphical form. The system can be used for the man-machine interface in the process monitoring system of the nuclear power plant. It represents the third level of the new process computer system of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. (author)

  10. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  11. Clock domain crossing modules for OCP-style read/write interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Sparsø, Jens

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed, configurable, and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules, that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. One module (called OCPio) supports a single word read-write interface and the other module (called OCPburst) supports a four word burst read-write interface......-style read-write transaction interfaces. An OCP interface typically has control signals related to both the master issuing a read or write request and the slave producing a response. If all these control signals are passed across the clock domain boundary and synchronized it may add significant latency...

  12. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  13. Plant dynamics studies towards design of plant protection system for PFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K., E-mail: natesan@igcar.gov.in [Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kasinathan, N.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P. [Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of various design basis events in a fast breeder reactor towards design of plant protection system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant dynamic modeling of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selection of optimum set of plant parameters for considering best plant availability. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe (1250 MWt) liquid sodium cooled pool type reactor currently under construction in India. For a safe and efficient operation of the plant, it is necessary that the reactor is protected from all the transients that may occur in the plant. In order to accomplish this, adequate number of SCRAM parameters is required in the plant protection system with reliable instrumentation. For identifying the SCRAM parameters, the neutronic and thermal hydraulic responses of the plant for various possible events need to be established. Towards this, a one dimensional plant dynamics code DYANA-P has been developed with thermal hydraulic models for reactor core, hot and cold pools, intermediate heat exchangers, pipelines, steam generator, primary sodium circuits and secondary sodium circuits. The code also incorporates neutron kinetics and reactivity feedback models. By a comprehensive plant dynamics study an optimum list of SCRAM parameters and the maximum permissible response time for various instruments used for deriving them have been arrived at.

  14. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

  15. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities.

  16. Altered Rhythm of Adrenal Clock Genes, StAR and Serum Corticosterone in VIP Receptor 2-Deficient Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    oscillator based on a group of clock genes and their protein products. Mice lacking the VPAC2 receptor display disrupted circadian rhythm of physiology and behaviour, and therefore, we using real-time RT-PCR quantified (1) the mRNAs for the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 in the adrenal gland and SCN, (2......RNA expression and serum corticosterone concentration. Double immunohistochemistry showed that the PER1 protein and StAR were co-localised in the same steroidogenic cells. Circulating corticosterone plays a role in the circadian timing system and the misaligned corticosterone rhythm in the VPAC2 receptor......The circadian time-keeping system consists of clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and in peripheral organs including an adrenal clock linked to the rhythmic corticosteroid production by regulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Clock cells contain an autonomous molecular...

  17. TURNING BACK THE CLOCK: INFERRING THE HISTORY OF THE EIGHT O'CLOCK ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Rudnick, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Rieke, Marcia J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Rigby, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results from an optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic study of the ultraviolet-luminous z = 2.73 galaxy, the 8 o'clock arc. Due to gravitational lensing, this galaxy is magnified by a factor of μ > 10, allowing in-depth measurements which are usually unfeasible at such redshifts. In the optical spectra, we measured the systemic redshift of the galaxy, z = 2.7322± 0.0012, using stellar photospheric lines. This differs from the redshift of absorption lines in the interstellar medium, z = 2.7302 ± 0.0006, implying gas outflows on the order of 160 km s -1 . With H- and K-band NIR spectra, we have measured nebular emission lines of Hα, Hβ, Hγ, [N II], and [O III], which have a redshift z = 2.7333 ± 0.0001, consistent with the derived systemic redshift. From the Balmer decrement, we measured the dust extinction in this galaxy to be A 5500 = 1.17 ± 36 mag. Correcting the Hα line flux for dust extinction as well as the assumed lensing factor, we measure a star formation rate (SFR) of ∼270 M sun yr -1 , which is higher than ∼85% of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. Using combinations of all detected emission lines, we find that the 8 o'clock arc has a gas-phase metallicity of ∼0.8 Z sun , showing that enrichment at high redshift is not rare, even in blue, star-forming galaxies. Studying spectra from two of the arc components separately, we find that one component dominates both the dust extinction and SFR, although the metallicities between the two components are similar. We derive the mass via stellar population modeling, and find that the arc has a total stellar mass of ∼4.2 x 10 11 M sun , which falls on the mass-metallicity relation at z ∼ 2. Finally, we estimate the total gas mass, and find it to be only ∼12% of the stellar mass, implying that the 8 o'clock arc is likely nearing the end of a starburst.

  18. Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.M., E-mail: arey@jilau1.colorado.edu [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorshkov, A.V. [Joint Quantum Institute, NIST and University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kraus, C.V. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Martin, M.J. [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bishof, M.; Swallows, M.D.; Zhang, X.; Benko, C.; Ye, J. [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Lemke, N.D.; Ludlow, A.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. It is shown that a general solution can be obtained by using the so called Truncated Wigner Approximation which is applied in our case in the context of an open quantum system. We use the developed framework to model the density shift and decay of the fringes observed during Ramsey spectroscopy in the JILA {sup 87}Sr and NIST {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clocks. The developed framework opens a suitable path for dealing with a variety of strongly-correlated and driven open-quantum spin systems. -- Highlights: •Derived a theoretical framework that describes many-body effects in a lattice clock. •Validated the analysis with recent experimental measurements. •Demonstrated the importance of beyond mean field corrections in the dynamics.

  19. The vascular plants: open system of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Alice; Fambrini, Marco; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom. One of the foundations of their success relies on the plant-pollinator relationship, essentially unique to angiosperms that pushed large speciation in both plants and insects and on the presence of the carpel, the structure devoted to seed enclosure. A seed represents the main organ preserving the genetic information of a plant; during embryogenesis, the primary axis of development is established by two groups of pluripotent cells: the shoot apical meristem (SAM), responsible for gene rating all aboveground organs, and the root apical meristem (RAM), responsible for producing all underground organs. During postembryonic shoot development, axillary meristem (AM) initiation and outgrowth are responsible for producing all secondary axes of growth including inflorescence branches or flowers. The production of AMs is tightly linked to the production of leaves and their separation from SAM. As leaf primordia are formed on the flanks of the SAM, a region between the apex and the developing organ is established and referred to as boundary zone. Interaction between hormones and the gene network in the boundary zone is fundamental for AM initiation. AMs only develop at the adaxial base of the leaf; thus, AM initiation is also strictly associated with leaf polarity. AMs

  20. Distributed control system for CANDU 9 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harber, J.E.; Kattan, M.K.; Macbeth, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Canadian designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have been world leaders in electrical power generation. The CANDU 9 project is AECL's next reactor design. The CANDU 9 plant monitoring, annunciation, and control functions are implemented in two evolutionary systems; the distributed control system (DCS) and the plant display system (PDS). The CDS implements most of the plant control functions in a single hardware platform. The DCS communicates with the PDS to provide the main operator interface and annunciation capabilities of the previous control computer designs along with human interface enhancements required in a modern control system. (author)

  1. Influence of in-plant air pollution control measures on power plant and system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurten, H.

    1990-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuels causes the emission of air pollutants which have harmful environmental impact. Consequently many nations have in the last few years established regulations for air pollution control and have initiated the development and deployment of air pollution control systems in power plants. The paper describes the methods used for reducing particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions, their application as backfit systems and in new plants, the power plant capacity equipped with such systems in the Federal Republic of Germany and abroad and the additional investment and operating costs incurred. It is to be anticipated that advanced power plant designs will produce lower pollutant emissions and less waste at enhanced efficiency levels. A comparison with power generation in nuclear power plants completes the first part of the paper. This paper covers the impact of the above-mentioned air pollution control measures on unit commitment in daily operation

  2. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  3. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    In equilibrium symbiotic power plant system containing both thermal reactors and fast breeders, excess plutonium produced by the fast breeders is used to enrich the fuel of the thermal reactors. In plutonium deficient symbiotic power plant system plutonium is supplied both by thermal plants and fast breeders. Mathematical models were constructed and different equations solved to characterize the fuel utilization of both systems if they contain only a single thermal type and a single fast type reactor. The more plutonium is produced in the system, the higher output ratio of thermal to fast reactors is achieved in equilibrium symbiotic power plant system. Mathematical equations were derived to calculate the doubling time and the breeding gain of the equilibrium symbiotic system. (V.N.) 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  5. Clocking In Time to Gate Memory Processes: The Circadian Clock Is Part of the Ins and Outs of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rawashdeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval are processes known to be modulated by the circadian (circa: about; dies: day system. The circadian regulation of memory performance is evolutionarily conserved, independent of the type and complexity of the learning paradigm tested, and not specific to crepuscular, nocturnal, or diurnal organisms. In mammals, long-term memory (LTM formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA/protein kinase C (PKC/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB signaling. These memory-essential signaling components cycle rhythmically in the hippocampus across the day and night and are clearly molded by an intricate interplay between the circadian system and memory. Important components of the circadian timing mechanism and its plasticity are members of the Period clock gene family (Per1, Per2. Interestingly, Per1 is rhythmically expressed in mouse hippocampus. Observations suggest important and largely unexplored roles of the clock gene protein PER1 in synaptic plasticity and in the daytime-dependent modulation of learning and memory. Here, we review the latest findings on the role of the clock gene Period 1 (Per1 as a candidate molecular and mechanistic blueprint for gating the daytime dependency of memory processing.

  6. Engineering Plant Immunity via CRISPR/Cas13a System

    KAUST Repository

    Aljedaani, Fatimah R.

    2018-05-01

    Viral diseases constitute a major threat to the agricultural production and food security throughout the world. Plants cope with the invading viruses by triggering immune responses and small RNA interference (RNAi) systems. In prokaryotes, CRISPR/Cas systems function as an adaptive immune system to provide bacteria with resistance against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Interestingly, CRISPR/Cas9 system was shown to interfere with eukaryotic DNA viruses and confer resistance against plant DNA viruses. The majority of the plant viruses have RNA genomes. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the newly discovered CRISPR/Cas13a immune system, that targets and cleaves single stranded RNA (ssRNA) in prokaryotes, to provide resistance against RNA viruses in plants. Here, I employ the CRISPR/Cas13a system for molecular interference against Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), a plant RNA virus. The results of this study established the CRISPR/Cas13a as a molecular interference machinery against RNA viruses in plants. Specifically, my data show that the CRISPR/Cas13a machinery is able to interfere with and degrade the TuMV (TuMV-GFP) RNA genome. In conclusion, these data indicate that the CRISPR/Cas13 systems can be employed for engineering interference and durable resistance against RNA viruses in diverse plant species.

  7. Process control and monitoring system: Thermal Power Plant Gacko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremovic, Dragan; Skoko, Maksim; Gjokanovic, Zdravko

    2004-01-01

    DCS Ovation system, manufactured by Westinghouse, USA, is described in this paper. Emphasize on concept of realization and basic characteristic in Thermal Power Plant Gacko is given in this paper. The most important, noticed by now, comparative effects and performances of new monitoring and control system according to classical monitoring and control system of 300 MW units Thermal Power Plant Gacko in Gacko, are given in the conclusion. (Author)

  8. Development of nuclear power plants database system, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Fumio; Ichikawa, Michio

    1984-06-01

    A nuclear power plant data base system has been developed. The data base involves a large amount of safety design informations for nuclear power plants on operating and planning stage in Japan. The informations, if necessary, can be searched for at high speed by use of this system. The present report is an user's guide for access to the informations utilizing display unit of the JAERI computer network system. (author)

  9. Automatic acoustic and vibration monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothmatyas, Istvan; Illenyi, Andras; Kiss, Jozsef; Komaromi, Tibor; Nagy, Istvan; Olchvary, Geza

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system for nuclear power plant monitoring is described. Acoustic and vibration diagnostics can be applied to monitor various reactor components and auxiliary equipment including primary circuit machinery, leak detection, integrity of reactor vessel, loose parts monitoring. A noise diagnostic system has been developed for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, to supervise the vibration state of primary circuit machinery. An automatic data acquisition and processing system is described for digitalizing and analysing diagnostic signals. (R.P.) 3 figs

  10. Operational experience with the Sizewell B integrated plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladner, J.E.J.; Alexander, N.C.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Westinghouse Integrated System for Centralised Operation (WISCO) is the primary plant control system at the Sizewell B Power Station. It comprises three subsystems; the High Integrity Control System (HICS), the Process Control System (PCS) and the Distributed Computer system (DCS). The HICS performs the control and data acquisition of nuclear safety significant plant systems. The PCS uses redundant data processing unit pairs. The workstations and servers of the DCS communicate with each other over a standard ethernet. The maintenance requirements for every plant system are covered by a Maintenance Strategy Report. The breakdown of these reports is listed. The WISCO system has performed exceptionally well. Due to the diagnostic information presented by the HICS, problems could normally be resolved within 24 hours. There have been some 200 outstanding modifications to the system. The procedure of modification is briefly described. (A.K.)

  11. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  12. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  13. Computerized information system of the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holik, V.

    1986-01-01

    The computer-based information system for the Mochovce nuclear power plant has a hierarchic structure which incorporates SM 1804 microcomputers and SM 1420 minicomputers. With regard to operation it is divided into two levels: the information system at the level of power plant units and the information system t the level of the whole power plant. The information system of a unit provides the collection of information on the technological equipment of each unit for the operative control of the unit and documentation on unit operation. Each unit has its own independent computer information system. The actual nucleus of each unit information system consists of two computer complexes based on SM 1420 twin computers, mutually substitutional. The power plant level information system provides the processing and output of information for personnel in the central control room of the power plant and for other managerial staff. It uses preprocessed information from the unit information systems and direct information from non-unit installations and from dosimetric control rooms of the power plant units. This information system is also based on a computer complex with two SM 1420 computers. (Z.M.)

  14. Application of fatigue monitoring system in PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Lei

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue failure is one form of equipment failure of nuclear power plant, influencing equipment lifetime and lifetime extension. Fatigue monitoring system can track real thermal transient at fatigue sensitive components, establish a basis for fatigue analyses based on realistic operating loads, identify unexpected operational transients, optimize the plant behavior by improved operating modes, provide supporting data for lifetime management, enhance security of plant and reduce economical loss. Fatigue monitoring system has been applied in many plants and is required to be applied in Generation-III nuclear power plant. It is necessary to develop the fatigue monitoring system with independent intellectual property rights and improve the competitiveness of domestic Generation-III nuclear power technology. (author)

  15. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  16. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Behaviour of transuranic radionuclides in soils, plants and soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.N.; Mistry, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reviews the investigations undertaken to elucidate the physicochemical, edaphic and physiological aspects of the behaviour of long-lived transuranic radionuclides 239 Pu and 241 Am in typical Indian soils and soil-plant systems. 23 refs

  18. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Diagnostic and monitoring systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehling, H.J.; Jax, P.; Streicher, V.

    1987-01-01

    Monitoring systems are important for the availability of nuclear power plants. A survey is given about such systems designed and constructed by the Kraftwerk Union AG Erlangen (Federal Republic of Germany) in order to assure the mechanical integrity of reactor cooling systems. Three monitoring systems based on microprocessors are presented: KUES (acoustic detection of loose parts), SUES (vibration), and FAMOS (fatigue)

  20. Safety classification of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Safety Classification principles used for the systems, structures and components of a nuclear power plant are detailed in the guide. For classification, the nuclear power plant is divided into structural and operational units called systems. Every structure and component under control is included into some system. The Safety Classes are 1, 2 and 3 and the Class EYT (non-nuclear). Instructions how to assign each system, structure and component to an appropriate safety class are given in the guide. The guide applies to new nuclear power plants and to the safety classification of systems, structures and components designed for the refitting of old nuclear power plants. The classification principles and procedures applying to the classification document are also given

  1. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed

  2. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  3. Ventilation-air conditioner system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a ventilation-air conditioner system which enables, upon occurrence of accidents in a nuclear power plant, continuous operation for other adjacent nuclear power plants with no effect of accidents. Air supply system and exhaust system are operated during usual operaiton. If loss of coolants accidents should occur in an adjacent nuclear power plants, operation is switched from ventilation operaiton to the operation of re-cycling system based on an AND logic of three signals, that is, a pressure HIGH signal for the reactor container, a water level LOW signal for the reactor and a radioactivity signal of the ventilation-air conditioner sytem on the side of air supply in the nuclear power plant. Thus, nuclear reactor buildings of the nuclear power plant are from the external atmosphere. Therefore, the radioactivity HIGH signal for switching to the emergency air conditioner system of the nuclear power plant is not actuated due to the loss of coolant accidents in the adjacent nuclear power plant. In addition, since the atmospheric temperature in the nuclear reactor building can be maintained by a cooling device disposed to the recycling system, reactor shutdown can be prevented. (I.S.)

  4. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs

  5. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  6. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  7. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Lucas; Andrew Groover; Raffael Lichtenberger; Kaori Furuta; Shri-Ram Yadav; Yka Helariutta; Xin-Qiang He; Hiroo Fukuda; Julie Kang; Siobhan M. Brady; John W. Patrick; John Sperry; Akiko Yoshida; Ana-Flor Lopez-Millan; Michael A. Grusak; Pradeep Kachroo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made...

  8. Bolted Flanged Connection for Critical Plant/Piping Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Anatoly

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of Bolted Flanged Connection with bolts and gasket manufactured on a basis of advanced Shape Memory Alloys is examined. Presented approach combined with inverse flexion flange design of plant/piping joint reveals a significant increase of internal pressure under conditions of a variety of operating temperatures relating to critical plant/piping systems. (author)

  9. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort

  10. Guidelines for multipurpose data systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This TECDOC is intended to provide guidance on implementing a system to provide the staff and management of a nuclear power plant with data and information specific to the plant, to assist in making decisions concerning plant operation and maintenance. The guidelines do not deal with issues relating to software and hardware for database management owing to the rapid evolution in these technologies. It will be up to individual utilities to select a suitable technology to meet their data system needs. The guidelines are intended to help a utility with operating plants and/or plants under construction to implement a system which best suits its needs for the compilation of plant specific data. The plant specific data will in turn help in generating quantitative and qualitative results and insights to support decision making for optimized plant operation and maintenance. The guidelines are supplemented by examples of the data systems in use at the utilities that contributed to the preparation of the document Figs and tabs

  11. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

  12. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  13. Trojan Horse Strategy for Non-invasive Interference of Clock Gene in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Laura; Perrigault, Mickael; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marcel, Anjara; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene. To test the efficacy of the method, the Clock gene, a central gene of the circadian clock, was targeted for knockout. Results demonstrated specific and systemic efficiency of the Trojan horse strategy in reducing Clock mRNA abundance. Consequences of Clock disruption were observed in Clock-related genes (Bmal, Tim1, Per, Cry1, Cry2, Rev.-erb, and Ror) and triploid oysters were more sensitive than diploid to the interference. This non-invasive approach shows an involvement of the circadian clock in oyster bioaccumulation of toxins produced by the harmful alga Alexandrium minutum.

  14. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  15. Fiber optic lighting system for plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. George, Dennis R.; Feddes, John J. R.

    1991-02-01

    Dennis St. George John Feddes (Dept. of Agricultural Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton AB Canada T6G 2Hl) A prototype light collection and transmission device was developed and evaluated for the potential of irradiating plants grown in an opague growth chamber. Results indicated that the device transmitted light with a photon flux of 130 1amol/s/m2 (4000-7000 nm) to the bottom of the growth chamber when direct solar radiation was 800 W/m2 (300-2500 nm) outside. The overall collection and transmission efficiency for photosynthetically active radiation is 19. 2. A growth trial with plants indicated that artificial lighting is required during cloudy periods. 1.

  16. Feedwater system in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tadayuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To improve the control property of a steam turbine for a feedwater pump and plant operation characteristics where water is supplied at a low rate. Structure: In a nuclear power plant where feedwater pumps of the reactor are driven by a steam turbine, the main feedwater duct on the discharge side of the feedwater pumps is provided with a cut-off valve and is connected parallel with a bypass duct having a pressure compensated flow control valve. With this arrangement, at the time when the rate of feedwater is high the cut-off valve is open so that water supplied from the feedwater pumps driven by the steam turbine is supplied through the main feedwater duct to the reactor while in case when the rate of feedwater is low the flow control valve is opened to let the water be supplied through the bypass duct. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  18. KKS:The new power plant characterisation system in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Bohr, E.; Wildberg, D.

    1982-01-01

    These use of the new power plant characterisation system (KKS) in power plant operation is discussed. KKS intends to ensure reliable characterisation of plant components. It must be read, interpreted, communicated directly or by telephone and written down. An analysis under the aspects of information psychology and ergonomy has shown that the findings of ergonomy and information psychology have hardly been considerd in the design of KKS. The conclusions of this analysis are investigated with regard to their consequences for KKS application in power plant operation. Possibilities of improvement are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  19. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  20. A model of guarded recursion with clock synchronisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2015-01-01

    productivity to be captured in types. The calculus uses clocks representing time streams and clock quantifiers which allow limited and controlled elimination of modalities. The calculus has since been extended to dependent types by Møgelberg. Both works give denotational semantics but no rewrite semantics....... In previous versions of this calculus, different clocks represented separate time streams and clock synchronisation was prohibited. In this paper we show that allowing clock synchronisation is safe by constructing a new model of guarded recursion and clocks. This result will greatly simplify the type theory...... by removing freshness restrictions from typing rules, and is a necessary step towards defining rewrite semantics, and ultimately implementing the calculus....

  1. Monoterpenes Support Systemic Acquired Resistance within and between Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlmeier, Marlies; Ghirardo, Andrea; Wenig, Marion; Knappe, Claudia; Koch, Kerstin; Georgii, Elisabeth; Dey, Sanjukta; Parker, Jane E; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Vlot, A Corina

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the role of volatile organic compounds in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a salicylic acid (SA)-associated, broad-spectrum immune response in systemic, healthy tissues of locally infected plants. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR-related emissions of wild-type and non-SAR-signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA- and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 ( AZI1 ) gene and three of its paralogs. Pinene-induced resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signaling and on AZI1 Arabidopsis geranylgeranyl reductase1 mutants with reduced monoterpene biosynthesis were SAR-defective but mounted normal local resistance and methyl salicylate-induced defense responses, suggesting that monoterpenes act in parallel with SA The volatile emissions from SAR signal-emitting plants induced defense in neighboring plants, and this was associated with the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene in the emissions of the "sender" plants. Our data suggest that monoterpenes, particularly pinenes, promote SAR, acting through ROS and AZI1 , and likely function as infochemicals in plant-to-plant signaling, thus allowing defense signal propagation between neighboring plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Adapting a reactor safety assessment system for specific plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, T.L.; Cordes, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the University of Maryland (UofM) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in the NRC Operations center. RSAS is designed to help the Reactor Safety Team monitor and project core status during an emergency at a licensed nuclear power plant. Analysis uses a hierarchical plant model based on equipment availability and automatically input parametric plant information. There are 3 families of designs of pressurized water reactors and 75 plants using modified versions of the basic design. In order to make an RSAS model for each power plant, a generic model for a given plant type is used with differences being specified by plant specific files. Graphical displays of this knowledge are flexible enough to handle any plant configuration. A variety of tools have been implemented to make it easy to modify a design to fit a given plant while minimizing chance for error. 3 refs., 4 figs

  3. An automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using machine learning-based plant segmentation and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Unseok; Chang, Sungyul; Putra, Gian Anantrio; Kim, Hyoungseok; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A high-throughput plant phenotyping system automatically observes and grows many plant samples. Many plant sample images are acquired by the system to determine the characteristics of the plants (populations). Stable image acquisition and processing is very important to accurately determine the characteristics. However, hardware for acquiring plant images rapidly and stably, while minimizing plant stress, is lacking. Moreover, most software cannot adequately handle large-scale plant imaging. To address these problems, we developed a new, automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using simple and robust hardware, and an automated plant-imaging-analysis pipeline consisting of machine-learning-based plant segmentation. Our hardware acquires images reliably and quickly and minimizes plant stress. Furthermore, the images are processed automatically. In particular, large-scale plant-image datasets can be segmented precisely using a classifier developed using a superpixel-based machine-learning algorithm (Random Forest), and variations in plant parameters (such as area) over time can be assessed using the segmented images. We performed comparative evaluations to identify an appropriate learning algorithm for our proposed system, and tested three robust learning algorithms. We developed not only an automatic analysis pipeline but also a convenient means of plant-growth analysis that provides a learning data interface and visualization of plant growth trends. Thus, our system allows end-users such as plant biologists to analyze plant growth via large-scale plant image data easily.

  4. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  5. System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the Topical report for Task 6.0, Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The report describes work by Westinghouse and the subcontractor, Gilbert/Commonwealth, in the fulfillment of completing Task 6.0. A conceptual design for critical and noncritical components of the gas fired combustion turbine system was completed. The conceptual design included specifications for the flange to flange gas turbine, power plant components, and balance of plant equipment. The ATS engine used in the conceptual design is an advanced 300 MW class combustion turbine incorporating many design features and technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals. Design features of power plant equipment and balance of plant equipment are described. Performance parameters for these components are explained. A site arrangement and electrical single line diagrams were drafted for the conceptual plant. ATS advanced features include design refinements in the compressor, inlet casing and scroll, combustion system, airfoil cooling, secondary flow systems, rotor and exhaust diffuser. These improved features, integrated with prudent selection of power plant and balance of plant equipment, have provided the conceptual design of a system that meets or exceeds ATS program emissions, performance, reliability-availability-maintainability, and cost goals

  6. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  7. Integration of the ITER diagnostic plant systems with CODAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simrock, S.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Hansalia, C.; Klotz, W.D.; Makijarvi, P.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Yonekawa, I.; Walker, C.; Wallander, A.; Walsh, M.; Winter, A.

    2011-01-01

    ITER requires extensive diagnostic systems in order to meet the requirements for machine operation, protection, plasma control and physics studies. The realization of these systems is a major challenge not only because of the harsh environment and the nuclear requirements but also with respect to Instrumentation and Control (I and C) of all the 59 diagnostics plants. The Plant Systems I and C are mostly 'in-kind', i.e. procured by the seven ITER Domestic Agencies (DAs), while the Central I and C Systems are 'in-fund', i.e. procured by ITER Organization (IO). Standardization of Plant Systems I and C is of primary importance and has been one of the highest priority tasks of CODAC. The standards are published in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) which will be followed to ensure a homogeneous design, guarantee high availability and simplify maintenance and support future upgrades. Most important for a successful commissioning and operation of the ITER facility are the concepts of interfacing the diagnostics plant systems with CODAC and the standards for instrumentation and control which must be followed all contributing parties. In this paper, we will elaborate on the concepts of interfacing the diagnostics plant systems with CODAC and the standards that must be followed for the design.

  8. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  9. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  10. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  11. Biofouling of power-plant service systems by Corbicula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.L.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.; Hayes, P.F.

    1983-08-01

    Corbicula sp. foul the service water systems at nuclear power plants because the environment within these systems is compatible with the ecological requirements of the species. To reduce Corbicula fouling, components of service water systems and operating procedures that enhance the potential for fouling need to be identified. Factors important in mediating biofouling of service water systems appear to be screening potential, minimum and maximum velocities and the operational procedures employed during power plant biofoulant control and downtime. These conclusions are based on the results of a categorical model we used to correlate information from power plants with that on Corbicula life history. Power plant parameters in the model include temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, screen and strainer size, maximum and minimum velocities, and elements of the biofouling control procedures. Parameters for Corbicula include tolerances to temperature, dissolved oxygen, biofouling control chemicals, velocity preferences, and optimal temperatures for each life stage and behavior. 13 references, 5 figures

  12. Application of 3-dimensional CAD modeling system in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Minoru; Saito, Shunji; Nobuhiro, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    Until now, the preliminary work for mutual components in nuclear plant were readied by using plastic models. Recently with the development of computer graphic techniques, we can display the components on the graphics terminal, better than with use of plastic model and actual plants. The computer model can be handled, both telescopically and microscopically. A computer technique called 3-dimensional CAD modeling system was used as the preliminary work and design system. Through application of this system, database for nuclear plants was completed in arrangement step. The data can be used for piping design, stress analysis, shop production, testing and site construction, in all steps. In addition, the data can be used for various planning works, even after starting operation of plant. This paper describes the outline of the 3-dimensional CAD modeling system. (author)

  13. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project

  14. Dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock: theoretical anti-jitter network and controlled chaos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M Fathallah-Shaykh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic clocks exhibit undesirable jitter or time variations in periodic signals. The circadian clocks of humans, some animals, and plants consist of oscillating molecular networks with peak-to-peak time of approximately 24 hours. Clockwork orange (CWO is a transcriptional repressor of Drosophila direct target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Theory and data from a model of the Drosophila circadian clock support the idea that CWO controls anti-jitter negative circuits that stabilize peak-to-peak time in light-dark cycles (LD. The orbit is confined to chaotic attractors in both LD and dark cycles and is almost periodic in LD; furthermore, CWO diminishes the Euclidean dimension of the chaotic attractor in LD. Light resets the clock each day by restricting each molecular peak to the proximity of a prescribed time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The theoretical results suggest that chaos plays a central role in the dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock and that a single molecule, CWO, may sense jitter and repress it by its negative loops.

  15. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  16. Organelle-localized potassium transport systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-15

    Some intracellular organelles found in eukaryotes such as plants have arisen through the endocytotic engulfment of prokaryotic cells. This accounts for the presence of plant membrane intrinsic proteins that have homologs in prokaryotic cells. Other organelles, such as those of the endomembrane system, are thought to have evolved through infolding of the plasma membrane. Acquisition of intracellular components (organelles) in the cells supplied additional functions for survival in various natural environments. The organelles are surrounded by biological membranes, which contain membrane-embedded K(+) transport systems allowing K(+) to move across the membrane. K(+) transport systems in plant organelles act coordinately with the plasma membrane intrinsic K(+) transport systems to maintain cytosolic K(+) concentrations. Since it is sometimes difficult to perform direct studies of organellar membrane proteins in plant cells, heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli has been used to elucidate the function of plant vacuole K(+) channels and other membrane transporters. The vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells; it has an important task in the K(+) homeostasis of the cytoplasm. The initial electrophysiological measurements of K(+) transport have categorized three classes of plant vacuolar cation channels, and since then molecular cloning approaches have led to the isolation of genes for a number of K(+) transport systems. Plants contain chloroplasts, derived from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. A novel K(+) transport system has been isolated from cyanobacteria, which may add to our understanding of K(+) flux across the thylakoid membrane and the inner membrane of the chloroplast. This chapter will provide an overview of recent findings regarding plant organellar K(+) transport proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains the following technical specifications of section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis: TS 3.3 Instrumentation; TS 3.4 Reactor Coolant System; TS 3.5 Emergency Core Cooling System; TS 3.6 Containment Systems; TS 3.7 Plant Systems; TS 3.8 Electrical Power Systems; TS 3.9 Refueling Operations; TS 4.0 Design Features; TS 5.0 Administrative Controls. Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases is also included. It contains the following: TS B2.0 Safety Limits Bases; TS B3.0 LCO Applicability Bases; TS B3.1 Reactivity Control Bases; TS B3.2 Power Distribution Bases

  18. Ventilation systems and components of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The most important radiation and nuclear safety requirements for the design and manufacture of nuclear power plant ventilation systems and components are presented in the guide. Also the regulatory activities of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) as regards the ventilation systems and components are explained. Documents and data which shall be submitted to STUK during the various phases of the regulatory procedure relating to the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the nuclear power plants are presented. (13 refs.)

  19. Topics for application of expert systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, S.A.; Aydin, F.

    1992-01-01

    Expert systems are an innovative form of computer software which offer to enhance productivity and improve operations of nuclear power plants. A survey and assessment of opportunities for application of this technology at Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.'s (Con Edison) Indian Point 2 nuclear power plant was conducted. Eleven topics for expert systems are discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Distributed computer control systems in future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.; Watkins, L.M.

    1978-09-01

    Good operating experience with computer control in CANDU reactors over the last decade justifies a broadening of the role of digital electronic and computer related technologies in future plants. Functions of electronic systems in the total plant context are reappraised to help evolve an appropriate match between technology and future applications. The systems research, development and demonstration program at CRNL is described, focusing on the projects pertinent to the real-time data acquisition and process control requirements. (author)

  1. Production of lysosomal enzymes in plant-based expression systems

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to the production of enzymatically active recombinant human and animal lysosomal enzymes involving construction and expression of recombinant expression constructs comprising coding sequences of human or animal lysosomal enzymes in a plant expression system. The plant expression system provides for post-translational modification and processing to produce a recombinant gene product exhibiting enzymatic activity. The invention is demonstrated by working examples in which ...

  2. Use of passive systems to improve plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.

    2000-01-01

    In a deregulated future, a utility's strength will depend on its ability to be cost competitive in the marketplace. However, the competitive advantage of nuclear power will depend on each owner's ability to reduce Operating and Maintenance (O and M) costs without sacrificing nuclear safety. The use of passive systems (i.e., systems without any moving parts) can reduce plant O and M costs while increasing safety in nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Information system for IAEA inspectors at a centrifuge enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.L.; Tape, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    An information system has been developed to aid International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Plant in the US. This system is designed to provide the inspectors with data storage, data analysis, and data evaluation and decision capabilities with minimal impact on the plant operations. The techniques and methodologies developed for this specific case are described with discussion of their general applicability to IAEA inspections at all types of facilities. 7 refs

  4. System 80+ integrated design of a complete plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Stamm, S.L.; Fox, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, ABB-Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power (ABB-CENP) and elements of Duke Power Company [now Duke Engineering ampersand Services (DE ampersand S)] joined forces under the aegis of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program to develop, with the sponsoring utilities, the design requirements for the next generation of nuclear power plants. With support from the US Department of Energy, ABB-CENP and DE ampersand S again teamed up the following year to initiate a project to design and license the System 80+ standard plant design, an advanced pressurized water reactor that meets these utility requirements. A distinguishing feature of the System 80+ standard design is that it is an essentially complete plant, predesigned and prelicensed to ensure rapid and economical construction. This is in stark contrast to typical prior conduct, where the reactor vendor offered only the nuclear steam supply system and the plant was built on a design-as-you-go basis with constant pressure to release individual elements of the plant design for construction or procurement as soon as possible. Now, however, the design process can be integrated over the total plant, ensuring that the goals set for ALWRs can be met. This integrated design process is manifested in several ways: (1) broad-based participation during the design process by involving designers, analysts, suppliers, constructors, and operators; (2) use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as a design tool to aid in evaluating design features on a total-plant basis; (3) application of human factors engineering methods to a total plant distributed control system to improve the human-machine interface in the design; and (4) use of computer-aided design to enhance assessment of interactions and impacts of all aspects of the total plant. Each of these aspects of integrated plant design is discussed in this paper

  5. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  6. Nuclear power plant personnel training process management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona Vazquez, Orison; Venegas Bernal, Maria del Carmen; Armeteros Lopez, Ana L.

    1996-01-01

    The system in charge the management of the training process personnel from a nuclear power plant was designed taking into account all the requirements stated in the training guide for nuclear power plant personnel and their evaluation, which were prepared by the IAEA in 1995 in order to implement the SAT in the training programs for nuclear plant personnel. In the preparations of formats and elements that shape the system, account has been taken of the views expressed in such a guide, in some other bibliography that was consulted, and in the authors own opinion mainly with regard to those issues which the guide does not go deeper into

  7. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-01-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  8. An intelligent tutoring system for a power plant simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifi, H.; Seifi, A.R. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran). Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Electrical Engineers

    2002-07-28

    An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is proposed for a power plant simulator. With a well designed ITS, the need for an instructor is minimized and the operator may readily and efficiently take, in real-time, the control of simulator with appropriate messages he(she) gets from the tutoring system. Using SIMULINK and based on object oriented programming (OOP) and C programming language, a fossil-fuelled power plant simulator with an ITS is proposed. Promising results are demonstrated for a typical power plant.

  9. Tele-maintenance 'intelligent' system for technical plants result management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concetti, Massimo; Cuccioletta, Roberto; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mercuri, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    The management of technical plant for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants distributed in the territory are considered (i.e. the more and more frequent case of outsourced plants maintenance by specialized companies), granted quality and cost results are required (i.e. the case of some rather innovative contract solutions) and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative (i.e. electro-mechanical plants). In order to efficiently achieve the above aims an 'intelligent' maintenance-management system for the distant monitoring and controlling by a remote control center has been developed. The so-called GrAMS (granted availability management system) system is conceived to give to organizations involved in technical-industrial plants management the possibility to tend to a 'well-known availability' and 'zero-failures' management. In particular, this study deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety level of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.), and with the involvement of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Part of the research dealing with the tele-maintenance intelligent system has been financed by the Italian High Institute for Safety (ISPESL) and led to the development of a pre-industrial prototype whose realization and testing is here described

  10. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  11. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement. This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  12. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the period of analysis. Each segment of a pie chart represents a selected part of the day (eg: a two- or three-hour period) or a day of the week. The first and last segments in the day or week are then adjacent, ensuring that there is no artificial break... clocks We have also used crime clocks to map the proportion of crimes that occur during normal police working hours (07:00 to 16:00, Monday to Friday, in the case of the Johannesburg Area), against those that occur outside these hours. 3. Target...

  13. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  14. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladage, L.

    2001-01-01

    Plant operations management systems, being IT application systems, provide integral support of the business processes making up plant operations management. The use of plant operations management systems improves mutually interdependent factors, such as high economic performance, high availability, and maximum safety. Since its commissioning in 1988, the Emsland nuclear power station (KKE) has been run with the IBFS plant operations management system. The work flow management system (WfMS), a module of IBFS, is described as an example of job order processing. IBFS-WfMS is to optimize all processes, thus cutting costs and ensuring that processes are run and documented reliably. Assessing the savings effect achieved through the use of IBFS-WfMS clearly reveals the savings in work/time achieved by the system. These savings are quoted as approx. 4 minutes and DM 10, respectively, per working step, which corresponds to several dozens of manyears or several million DM per annum in the KKE plant under consideration. This result can be extrapolated to other plants. (orig.) [de

  15. <=ryptochromes and Biological Clocks -36 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing from cyanobacteria to humans to plants, and this high degree of ... ing them. The innate or free-running period of circardian rhythms (mea- sured in a ..... neutral radical to the catalytically competent FADH form. The enzyme then dissociates ...

  16. Application of expert system to nuclear power plant operation and guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Takada, Y.

    1990-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant, it is important that an expert system supplies useful information to the operator to meet the increasing demand for high-level plant operation. It is difficult to build a user-friendly expert system that supplies useful information in real time using existing general-purpose expert system shells. Therefore a domain-specific expert system shell with a useful knowledge representation for problem-solving in nuclear power plant operation was selected. The Plant Table (P/T) representation format was developed for description of a production system for nuclear power plant operation knowledge. The P/T consists of plant condition representation designed to process multiple inputs and single output. A large number of operation inputs for several plant conditions are divided into 'timing conditions', 'preconditions' and 'completion conditions' to facilitate knowledge-base build-up. An expert system for a Nuclear Power Plant Operation and Guidance System utilizing the P/T was developed to assist automatic plant operation and surveillance test operation. In these systems, automatic plant operation signals to the plant equipment and operation guidance messages to the operators are both output based on the processing and assessment of plant operation conditions by the P/T. A surveillance test procedure guide for major safety-related systems, such as those for emergency core cooling systems, is displayed on a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and test results are printed out. The expert system for a Nuclear Power Plant Operation and Guidance System has already been successfully applied to Japanese BWR plants

  17. Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V.K.; Shugam, R.A.; Ol'shevsky, Yu.N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants may be classified into those using computers for data acquisition only, those using computers for data acquisition and data processing, and those using computers for process control. In the present paper a brief review is given of the functions the systems above mentioned perform, their applications in different nuclear power plants, and some of their characteristics. The trend towards hierarchic systems using control computers with reserves already becomes clear when consideration is made of the control systems applied in the Canadian nuclear power plants that pertain to the first ones equipped with process computers. The control system being now under development for the large Soviet reactors of WWER type will also be based on the use of control computers. That part of the system concerned with controlling the reactor assembly is described in detail

  18. Architectural design proposal for real time clock for wireless microcontroller unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Muhammad Nor Azwan Mohd; Nizam Mohyar, Shaiful

    2017-11-01

    In this project, we are developing an Intellectual properties (IP) which is a dedicated real-time clock (RTC) system for a wireless microcontroller. This IP is developed using Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL) and being simulated using Quartus II and Synopsys software. This RTC will be used in microcontroller system to provide precise time and date which can be used for various applications. It plays a very important role in the real-time systems like digital clock, attendance system, digital camera and more.

  19. Architectural design proposal for real time clock for wireless microcontroller unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Alias Muhammad Nor Azwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project, we are developing an Intellectual properties (IP which is a dedicated real-time clock (RTC system for a wireless microcontroller. This IP is developed using Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL and being simulated using Quartus II and Synopsys software. This RTC will be used in microcontroller system to provide precise time and date which can be used for various applications. It plays a very important role in the real-time systems like digital clock, attendance system, digital camera and more.

  20. Bioelectric potentials in the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    A detailed study of the electric potentials in the soil-plant system was performed. It was found that the electric potential depends on the plant species and the soil properties. A theoretical interpretation of the obtained data was given. All the plants, independently from their species and their state, always had a negative electric potential relative to the soil. The electric potential of the herbaceous plants largely depended on the leaf area. In some plants, such as burdock ( Arctium lappa) and hogweed ( Heracleum sosnowskyi), the absolute values of the negative electric potential exceeded 100 mV. The electric potential was clearly differentiated by the plant organs: in the flowers, it was lower than in the leaves; in the leaves, it was usually lower than in the leaf rosettes and stems. The electric potentials displayed seasonal dynamics. As a rule, the higher the soil water content, the lower the electric potential of the plants. However, an inverse relationship was observed for dandelions ( Taraxacum officinale). It can be supposed that the electric potential between the soil and the plant characterizes the vital energy of the plant.

  1. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N.; Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  2. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, N. [Licenciatura en Fisica, Universidad Distrital, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well. (author)

  3. Nuclear plant engineering work and integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Y.; Obata, T.; Tanaka, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Application of computers to the design, engineering, manufacturing and construction works of nuclear power plants has greatly contributed to improvement of productivity and reliability in the nuclear power plants constructed by Mitsubishi Nuclear Group for more than ten years. However, in most cases, those systems have been developed separately and utilized independently in different computer software and hardware environments and have not been fully utilized to achieve high efficiency and reliability. In order to drastically increase the productivity and efficiency, development of NUclear power plant engineering Work and INtegrated manaGement System (NUWINGS) started in 1987 to unify and integrate various conventional and developing systems using the state-of-the-art computer technology. The NUWINGS is almost completed and is now applied to actual plant construction. (author)

  4. B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System Description; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This document describes the CVCS system components which include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) coupled with an Operator Interface Unit (OIU) and application software. This document also includes an Alarm Index specifying the setpoints and technical basis for system analog and digital alarms

  5. Sea water pumping-up power plant system combined with nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Tanaka, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to find a site suitable to construction for a sea water pumping-up power plant at a place relatively near the electric power consumption area. Then, a nuclear power plant is set at the sea bottom or the land portion of a sea shore near the power consumption area. A cavity is excavated underground or at the bottom of the sea in the vicinity of the power plant to form a lower pond, and the bottom of the sea, as an upper pond and the lower pond are connected by a water pressure pipe and a water discharge pipe. A pump water turbine is disposed therebetween, to which electric power generator is connected. In addition, an ordinary or emergency cooling facility in the nuclear power plant is constituted such that sea water in the cavity is supplied by a sea water pump. Accordingly, the sea water pumping-up plant system in combination with the nuclear power plant is constituted with no injuring from salts to animals and plants on land in the suburbs of a large city. The cost for facilities for supplying power from a remote power plant to large city areas and power loss are decreased and stable electric power can be supplied. (N.H.)

  6. Novel transcriptional networks regulated by CLOCK in human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Miles R; Berto, Stefano; Liu, Yuxiang; Werthmann, Gordon; Douglas, Connor; Usui, Noriyoshi; Gleason, Kelly; Tamminga, Carol A; Takahashi, Joseph S; Konopka, Genevieve

    2017-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying human brain evolution are not fully understood; however, previous work suggested that expression of the transcription factor CLOCK in the human cortex might be relevant to human cognition and disease. In this study, we investigated this novel transcriptional role for CLOCK in human neurons by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing for endogenous CLOCK in adult neocortices and RNA sequencing following CLOCK knockdown in differentiated human neurons in vitro. These data suggested that CLOCK regulates the expression of genes involved in neuronal migration, and a functional assay showed that CLOCK knockdown increased neuronal migratory distance. Furthermore, dysregulation of CLOCK disrupts coexpressed networks of genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, and the expression of these networks is driven by hub genes with human-specific patterns of expression. These data support a role for CLOCK-regulated transcriptional cascades involved in human brain evolution and function. © 2017 Fontenot et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Expert System For Diagnosis Pest And Disease In Fruit Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Satrio; Lukas, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    This paper discussed the development of an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases on fruit plants. Rule base method was used to store the knowledge from experts and literatures. Control technique using backward chain and started from the symptoms to get conclusions about the pests and diseases that occur. Development of the system has been performed using software Corvid Exsys developed by Exsys company. Results showed that the development of this expert system can be used to assist users in identifying the type of pests and diseases on fruit plants. Further development and possibility of using internet for this system are proposed.

  8. ETGAR - Information system for abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baram, J.; Nagar, M.; Pultorak, G.

    1975-01-01

    The need for extensive information on systems and components arises early in the planning stage of a nuclear power plant. This information is equally necessary during the building of the plant and during the licensing process. Another type of information helps preventive maintenance during the operating life of the plant. In the case of abnormal occurrences additional information on their possible consequences and on possible ways of handling them, is essential. To cover these four needs, the ETGAR system, which at present covers mostly PWR and BWR type nuclear power plants, collects and evaluates information on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. The information is coded, using a three-level coding scheme for systems and components, and put on magnetic tape. A search program enables the retrieval of any pertinent information from the data base. The sources for the ETGAR data base are reports on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. Most of them are USAEC dockets, originated at U.S.A. power plants. The relevant documents are accessible through a standard query run for ETGAR in the INIS data base which is maintained by the INIS centre in Israel. This query retrieves every two weeks all the documents which come under the ETGAR scope and these are handed as microfiches to the ETGAR evaluators after each INIS run. The evaluation and coding of the documents, the ETGAR coding scheme and the computer programs are described. (B.G.)

  9. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  10. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains five technical specification bases that are part of Appendix 16 A of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS B3.3 Instrumentation Bases; TS B3.4 RCS Bases; TS B3.5 ECCS Bases; TS B3.6 Containment Systems Bases; and TS B3.7 Plant Systems Bases

  12. Development of Tokai reprocessing plant maintenance support system (TORMASS) in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Tomita, Tsuneo; Sakai, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance work of many equipments such as mechanical, electrical and instrumentations installed in Tokai reprocessing plant has been performed more then 10,000 times per year and about 90% of maintenances were preventive work. For the maintenance management, optimization of maintenance information is required. Therefore, Tokai Reprocessing Plant Maintenance Support System (TORMASS) was developed from 1985 to 1992 as the aim of construction for suitable maintenance management system. About 24,000 equipments of specifications and about 261,000 maintenance detail were registered in this system. TORMASS has been used for the repair, inspection and replacement of equipment since 1992. (author)

  13. ChemAND - a system health monitor for plant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Mitchel, G.R.; Tosello, G.; Balakrishnan, P.V.; McKay, G.; Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Dundar, Y.; Bergeron, M.; Laporte, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Groupe Chimie, Centrale Nucleaire Gentilly-2, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that the plant's system health be continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a System Health Monitor called ChemAND for CANDU plant chemistry. ChemAND, a Chemistry ANalysis and Diagnostic system, monitors key chemistry parameters in the heat transport system, moderator-cover gas, annulus gas, and the steam cycle during full-power operation. These parameters can be used as inputs to models that calculate the effect of current plant operating conditions on the present and future health of the system. Chemistry data from each of the systems are extracted on a regular basis from the plant's Historical Data Server and are sorted according to function, e.g., indicators for condenser in-leakage, air in-leakage, heavy water leakage into the annulus gas, fuel failure, etc. Each parameter is conveniently displayed and is trended along with its alarm limits. ChemAND currently includes two analytical models developed for the balance-of-plant. The first model, ChemSolv, calculates crevice chemistry conditions in the steam generator (SG) from either the SG blowdown chemistry conditions or from a simulated condenser leak. This information can be used by plant staff to evaluate the susceptibility of the SG tubes to crevice corrosion. ChemSolv also calculates chemistry conditions throughout the steam-cycle system as determined by the transport of volatile species such as ammonia, hydrazine, morpholine, and oxygen. The second model, SLUDGE, calculates the deposit loading and distribution in the SG as a function of time, based on concentrations of corrosion product in the final feedwater for both normal and start-up conditions. Operations personnel can use this information to predict where to inspect and when to clean. (author)

  14. ChemAND - a system health monitor for plant chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Mitchell, G.R.; Tosello, G.; Balakrishnan, P.V.; McKay, G.; Thompson, M.; Dundar, Y.; Bergeron, M.; Laporte, R.

    2001-01-01

    Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display-it requires that the plant's system health be continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a System Health Monitor called ChemAND for CANDU plant chemistry. ChemAND, a Chemistry ANalysis and Diagnostic system, monitors key chemistry parameters in the heat transport system, moderator-cover gas, annulus gas, and the steam cycle during full-power operation. These parameters can be used as inputs to models that calculate the effect of current plant operating conditions on the present and future health of the system. Chemistry data from each of the systems are extracted on a regular basis from the plant's Historical Data Server and are sorted according to function, e.g., indicators for condenser in-leakage, air in-leakage, heavy water leakage into the annulus gas, fuel failure, etc. Each parameter is conveniently displayed and is trended along with its alarm limits. ChemAND currently includes two analytical models developed for the balance-of-plant. The first model, ChemSolv, calculates crevice chemistry conditions in the steam generator (SG) from either the SG blowdown chemistry conditions or from a simulated condenser leak. This information can be used by plant staff to evaluate the susceptibility of the SG tubes to crevice corrosion. ChemSolv also calculates chemistry conditions throughout the steam cycle system, as determined by the transport of volatile species such as ammonia, hydrazine, morpholine, and oxygen. The second model, SLUDGE, calculates the deposit loading and distribution in the SG as a function of time, based on concentrations of corrosion product in the final feedwater for both normal and start-up conditions. Operations personnel can use this information to predict where to inspect and when to clean. (author)

  15. ChemAND - a system health monitor for plant chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Mitchel, G.R.; Tosello, G.; Balakrishnan, P.V.; McKay, G.; Thompson, M.; Dundar, Y.; Bergeron, M.; Laporte, R.

    2001-03-01

    Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that the plant's system health be continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a System Health Monitor called ChemAND for CANDU plant chemistry. ChemAND, a Chemistry ANalysis and Diagnostic system, monitors key chemistry parameters in the heat transport system, moderator-cover gas, annulus gas, and the steam cycle during full-power operation. These parameters can be used as inputs to models that calculate the effect of current plant operating conditions on the present and future health of the system. Chemistry data from each of the systems are extracted on a regular basis from the plant's Historical Data Server and are sorted according to function, e.g., indicators for condenser in-leakage, air in-leakage, heavy water leakage into the annulus gas, fuel failure, etc. Each parameter is conveniently displayed and is trended along with its alarm limits. ChemAND currently includes two analytical models developed for the balance-of-plant. The first model, ChemSolv, calculates crevice chemistry conditions in the steam generator (SG) from either the SG blowdown chemistry conditions or from a simulated condenser leak. This information can be used by plant staff to evaluate the susceptibility of the SG tubes to crevice corrosion. ChemSolv also calculates chemistry conditions throughout the steam-cycle system as determined by the transport of volatile species such as ammonia, hydrazine, morpholine, and oxygen. The second model, SLUDGE, calculates the deposit loading and distribution in the SG as a function of time, based on concentrations of corrosion product in the final feedwater for both normal and start-up conditions. Operations personnel can use this information to predict where to inspect and when to clean. (author)

  16. Upgrading instrumentation and control systems for plant safety and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Prehler, H.J.; Schramm, W.

    1997-01-01

    Upgrading the electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems has become increasingly more important in the past few years for nuclear power plants currently in operation. As the requirements to be met in terms of plant safety and availability have become more stringent in the past few years, Western plants built in the sixties and seventies have been the subject of manifold backfitting and upgrading measures in the past. In the meantime, however, various nuclear power plants are facing much more thorough upgrading phases because of the difficulties in obtaining spare parts for older equipment systems. As digital technology has become widespread in many areas because of its advantages, and as applications are continuously expanding, conventional equipment and systems are losing more and more ground as a consequence of decreasing demand. Merely because of the pronounced decline in demand for conventional electronic components it is possible for equipment manufacturers to guarantee spare parts deliveries for older systems only for specific future periods of time. In addition, one-off manufacture entails high costs in purchases of spare parts. As a consequence of current thinking more and more focusing on availability and economy, upgrading of electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems is becoming a more and more topical question, for older plants even to ensure completion of full service life. (orig.) [de

  17. Information service system in the power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yukio; Mizuno, Hiromi; Shoda, Kohei; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the intelligent productivity in offices, the introduction of PC-LAN system by the initiative of users has been advanced. In this example, by connecting many personal computers, the information service system that possesses the information on the business of power stations in common was constructed, and intelligent productivity was improved. This information service system is that in which all users are the sponsor as the users and the offerer of information are united, therefore, high conscience level is required for individual users, and the attentive device for the easiness of use was exercised so as to always maintain newest information. The background of introducing this system is explained. The information systems in power stations are the system related to operation control, preventive maintenance and so on and the system for helping the routine works of personnel. The main functions are the offer of the operational data of power stations, the offer of the information on the expected visitors to the PR hall of nuclear power stations, electronic information exchange and so on. The constitution and the features of the system are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Logic verification system for power plant sequence diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Teshima, Toshiaki; Kan, Ken-ichi; Utsunomiya, Mitsugu.

    1994-01-01

    A logic verification system for sequence diagrams of power plants has been developed. The system's main function is to verify correctness of the logic realized by sequence diagrams for power plant control systems. The verification is based on a symbolic comparison of the logic of the sequence diagrams with the logic of the corresponding IBDs (interlock Block Diagrams) in combination with reference to design knowledge. The developed system points out the sub-circuit which is responsible for any existing mismatches between the IBD logic and the logic realized by the sequence diagrams. Applications to the verification of actual sequence diagrams of power plants confirmed that the developed system is practical and effective. (author)

  19. Development of a Configurable Growth Chamber with a Computer Vision System to Study Circadian Rhythm in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Egea-Cortines

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is the result of an endogenous morphogenetic program that integrates environmental signals. The so-called circadian clock is a set of genes that integrates environmental inputs into an internal pacing system that gates growth and other outputs. Study of circadian growth responses requires high sampling rates to detect changes in growth and avoid aliasing. We have developed a flexible configurable growth chamber comprising a computer vision system that allows sampling rates ranging between one image per 30 s to hours/days. The vision system has a controlled illumination system, which allows the user to set up different configurations. The illumination system used emits a combination of wavelengths ensuring the optimal growth of species under analysis. In order to obtain high contrast of captured images, the capture system is composed of two CCD cameras, for day and night periods. Depending on the sample type, a flexible image processing software calculates different parameters based on geometric calculations. As a proof of concept we tested the system in three different plant tissues, growth of petunia- and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus flowers and of cladodes from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica. We found that petunia flowers grow at a steady pace and display a strong growth increase in the early morning, whereas Opuntia cladode growth turned out not to follow a circadian growth pattern under the growth conditions imposed. Furthermore we were able to identify a decoupling of increase in area and length indicating that two independent growth processes are responsible for the final size and shape of the cladode.

  20. A validation methodology for fault-tolerant clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. C.; Butler, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating an experimental implementation of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) clock synchronization algorithm. The design proof of the algorithm defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of theoretical upper bounds on certain system parameters. The quantile to which each parameter must be estimated is determined by a combinatorial analysis of the system reliability. The parameters are measured by direct and indirect means, and upper bounds are estimated. A nonparametric method based on an asymptotic property of the tail of a distribution is used to estimate the upper bound of a critical system parameter. Although the proof process is very costly, it is extremely valuable when validating the crucial synchronization subsystem.