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Sample records for planning parameters d90

  1. Provenance, planning and new parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Land is a fundamental factor of production - being more than simply an economic commodity - it is a complex concept invoking community, cultural, historical, psychological and political characteristics. Land use planning has developed as an important element of the land question as a means by which

  2. D90: The Strongest Contributor to Setting Time in Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William N; Bentz, Dale P; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence J

    2015-07-01

    The setting times of commercial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cements vary. It was hypothesized that much of this variation was caused by differences in particle size distribution. Two gram samples from 11 MTA-type cements were analyzed by laser diffraction to determine their particle size distributions characterized by their percentile equivalent diameters (the 10th percentile, the median, and the 90th percentile [d90], respectively). Setting time data were received from manufacturers who performed indentation setting time tests as specified by the standards relevant to dentistry, ISO 6786 (9 respondents) or ISO 9917.1 (1 respondent), or not divulged to the authors (1 respondent). In a parallel experiment, 6 samples of different size graded Portland cements were produced using the same cement clinker. The measurement of setting time for Portland cement pastes was performed using American Society for Testing and Materials C 191. Cumulative heat release was measured using isothermal calorimetry to assess the reactions occurring during the setting of these pastes. In all experiments, linear correlations were assessed between setting times, heat release, and the 3 particle size parameters. Particle size varied considerably among MTA cements. For MTA cements, d90 was the particle size characteristic showing the highest positive linear correlation with setting time (r = 0.538). For Portland cement, d90 gave an even higher linear correlation for the initial setting time (r = 0.804) and the final setting time (r = 0.873) and exhibited a strong negative linear correlation for cumulative heat release (r = 0.901). Smaller particle sizes result in faster setting times, with d90 (the largest particles) being most closely correlated with the setting times of the samples. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  4. On the role of modeling parameters in IMRT plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Michael; Scherrer, Alexander; Thieke, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The formulation of optimization problems in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning comprises the choice of various values such as function-specific parameters or constraint bounds. In current inverse planning programs that yield a single treatment plan for each optimization, it is often unclear how strongly these modeling parameters affect the resulting plan. This work investigates the mathematical concepts of elasticity and sensitivity to deal with this problem. An artificial planning case with a horse-shoe formed target with different opening angles surrounding a circular risk structure is studied. As evaluation functions the generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and the average underdosage below and average overdosage beyond certain dose thresholds are used. A single IMRT plan is calculated for an exemplary parameter configuration. The elasticity and sensitivity of each parameter are then calculated without re-optimization, and the results are numerically verified. The results show the following. (1) elasticity can quantify the influence of a modeling parameter on the optimization result in terms of how strongly the objective function value varies under modifications of the parameter value. It also can describe how strongly the geometry of the involved planning structures affects the optimization result. (2) Based on the current parameter settings and corresponding treatment plan, sensitivity analysis can predict the optimization result for modified parameter values without re-optimization, and it can estimate the value intervals in which such predictions are valid. In conclusion, elasticity and sensitivity can provide helpful tools in inverse IMRT planning to identify the most critical parameters of an individual planning problem and to modify their values in an appropriate way

  5. AI-guided parameter optimization in inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Kim, Jae Ho

    2003-01-01

    An artificial intelligence (AI)-guided inverse planning system was developed to optimize the combination of parameters in the objective function for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this system, the empirical knowledge of inverse planning was formulated with fuzzy if-then rules, which then guide the parameter modification based on the on-line calculated dose. Three kinds of parameters (weighting factor, dose specification, and dose prescription) were automatically modified using the fuzzy inference system (FIS). The performance of the AI-guided inverse planning system (AIGIPS) was examined using the simulated and clinical examples. Preliminary results indicate that the expected dose distribution was automatically achieved using the AI-guided inverse planning system, with the complicated compromising between different parameters accomplished by the fuzzy inference technique. The AIGIPS provides a highly promising method to replace the current trial-and-error approach

  6. Incorporating model parameter uncertainty into inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jun; Xing Lei

    2004-01-01

    Radiobiological treatment planning depends not only on the accuracy of the models describing the dose-response relation of different tumors and normal tissues but also on the accuracy of tissue specific radiobiological parameters in these models. Whereas the general formalism remains the same, different sets of model parameters lead to different solutions and thus critically determine the final plan. Here we describe an inverse planning formalism with inclusion of model parameter uncertainties. This is made possible by using a statistical analysis-based frameset developed by our group. In this formalism, the uncertainties of model parameters, such as the parameter a that describes tissue-specific effect in the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model, are expressed by probability density function and are included in the dose optimization process. We found that the final solution strongly depends on distribution functions of the model parameters. Considering that currently available models for computing biological effects of radiation are simplistic, and the clinical data used to derive the models are sparse and of questionable quality, the proposed technique provides us with an effective tool to minimize the effect caused by the uncertainties in a statistical sense. With the incorporation of the uncertainties, the technique has potential for us to maximally utilize the available radiobiology knowledge for better IMRT treatment

  7. Effects of spot parameters in pencil beam scanning treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2018-01-01

    Spot size σ (in air at isocenter), interspot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility. Our study could help as a guideline to make the trade-off between treatment quality and time in existing PBS centers and in future systems. We created plans for seven patients and a phantom, with different tumor sites and volumes, and compared the effect of small-, medium-, and large-spot widths (σ = 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and interspot distances (1σ, 1.5σ, and 1.75σ) on dose, spot charge, and treatment time. Moreover, we quantified how postplanning charge threshold cuts affect plan quality and the total number of spots to deliver, for different spot widths and interspot distances. We show the effect of a minimum charge (or MU) cutoff value for a given proton delivery system. Spot size had a strong influence on dose: larger spots resulted in more protons delivered outside the target region. We observed dose differences of 2-13 Gy (RBE) between 2.5 mm and 10 mm spots, where the amount of extra dose was due to dose penumbra around the target region. Interspot distance had little influence on dose quality for our patient group. Both parameters strongly influence spot charge in the plans and thus the possible impact of postplanning charge threshold cuts. If such charge thresholds are not included in the treatment planning system (TPS), it is important that the practitioner validates that a given combination of lower charge threshold, interspot spacing, and spot size does not result in a plan degradation. Low average spot charge occurs for small spots, small interspot

  8. Technical aspects of the integration of three-dimensional treatment planning dose parameters (GEC-ESTRO Working Group) into pre-implant planning for LDR gynecological interstitial brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, A; Gao, M; Nguyen, N P; Albuquerque, K

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the technical feasibility of pre-implant image-based treatment planning for LDR GYN interstitial brachytherapy(IB) based on the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. Initially, a virtual plan is generated based on the prescription dose and GEC-ESTRO defined OAR dose constraints with a pre-implant CT. After the actual implant, a regular diagnostic CT was obtained and fused with our pre-implant scan/initial treatment plan in our planning software. The Flexi-needle position changes, and treatment plan modifications were made if needed. Dose values were normalized to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (LQED 2 Gy) derived from the linear-quadratic model with alpha/beta of 3 for late responding tissues and alpha/beta of 10 for early responding tissues. D(90) to the CTV, which was gross tumor (GTV) at the time of brachytherapy with a margin to count for microscopic disease, was 84.7 +/- 4.9% of the prescribed dose. The OAR doses were evaluated by D(2cc) (EBRT+IB). Mean D(2cc) values (LQED(2Gy)) for the rectum, bladder, sigmoid, and small bowel were the following: 63.7 +/- 8.4 Gy, 61.2 +/- 6.9 Gy, 48.0 +/- 3.5 Gy, and 49.9 +/- 4.2 Gy. This study confirms the feasibility of applying the GEC-ESTRO recommended dose parameters in pre-implant CT-based treatment planning in GYN IB. In the process, this pre-implant technique also demonstrates a good approximation of the target volume dose coverage, and doses to the OARs.

  9. Effect of economic parameters on power generation expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilgen, Sueleyman Hakan; Hueseyin Erdem, Hasan; Cetin, Burhanettin; Volkan Akkaya, Ali; Dagdas, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The increasing consumption of electricity within time forces countries to build additional power plants. Because of technical and economic differences of the additional power plants, economic methodologies are used to determine the best technology for the additional capacity. The annual levelized cost method is used for this purpose, and the technology giving the minimum value for the additional load range is chosen. However, the economic parameters such as interest rate, construction escalation, fuel escalation, maintenance escalation and discount factor can affect the annual levelized cost considerably and change the economic range of the plants. Determining the values of the economical parameters in the future is very difficult, especially in developing countries. For this reason, the analysis of the changing rates of the mentioned values is of great importance for the planners of the additional capacity. In this study, the changing rates of the economic parameters that influence the annual levelized cost of the alternative power plant types are discussed. The alternative power plants considered for the electricity generation sector of Turkey and the economic parameters dominating each plant type are determined. It is clearly seen that the annual levelized cost for additional power plants varies with the economic parameters. The results show that the economic parameters variation has to be taken into consideration in electricity generation planning

  10. 125I Monotherapy Using D90 Implant Doses of 180 Gy or Greater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Johnny; Stone, Nelson N.; Lavaf, Amir; Dumane, Vishruta; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stock, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the oncologic results and toxicity profile of patients treated with 125 I implants using the dose delivered to 90% of the gland from the dose-volume histogram (D90) of greater than 144 Gy. Methods and Materials: From June 1995 to Feb 2005, a total of 643 patients were treated with 125 I monotherapy for T1-T2 prostate cancer with a D90 of 180 Gy or greater (median, 197 Gy; range, 180-267 Gy). Implantations were performed using a real-time ultrasound-guided seed-placement method and intraoperative dosimetry to optimize target coverage and homogeneity by using modified peripheral loading. We analyzed biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) of 435 patients who had a minimum 2-year prostate-specific antigen follow-up (median follow-up, 6.7 years; range, 2.0-11.1 years). Results: Five-year bDFS rates for the entire cohort using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions were 96.9% and 96.5%, respectively. Using the Phoenix definition, 5-year bDFS rates were 97.3% for low-risk patients and 92.8% for intermediate/high-risk patients. The positive biopsy rate was 4.1%. The freedom rate from Grade 2 or higher rectal bleeding at 5 years was 88.5%. Acute urinary retention occurred in 10.7%, more commonly in patients with high pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scores (p < 0.01). In patients who were potent before treatment, 73.4% remained potent at 5 years after implantation. Conclusions: Patients with a minimum D90 of 180 Gy had outstanding local control based on prostate-specific antigen control and biopsy data. Toxicity profiles, particularly for long-term urinary and sexual function, were excellent and showed that D90 doses of 180 Gy or greater performed using the technique described were feasible and tolerable

  11. Dosimetric Impact of Primary Planning Parameters in Dynamic Conformal Arc Technique for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonvile (United States); Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Anyang SAM Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    As one of the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) techniques, dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) is commonly adopted to efficiently deliver conformal doses. However, as the DCAT uses numerous beams at individual control points, the dosimetric errors generated from each beam can be accumulated and manifested. In SBRT, therefore, due to the high fractional dose within a few fractions to moving target, the determination of the applied plan parameters can be critical and the evaluation of dosimetric impact of planning parameters would play an important role in DCAT planning process. In this study, we systematically evaluated the dosimetric influence caused by the variable grid size and the angular increment in DCAT for lung SBRT. Dose variations with different parameters were estimated for spherical and elongated tumors on an anthropomorphic phantom. The systematic analysis of the generated dose variation would guide to determine appropriate plan parameters and to estimate the dose errors in planning process in a clinical perspective of DCAT. It was found that two plan parameters, grid size and angular increment, in DCAT could cause non-negligible dose uncertainty. Coarse grid size led patients to get unnecessary overdose. Coarse angular increment could make significantly inaccurate prediction of OAR dose, resulting in either over- or under- estimation depending on the location of OAR relative to the isocenter.

  12. Pre-segmented 2-Step IMRT with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation – a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Meyer, Jürgen; Flentje, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Modern intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) mostly uses iterative optimisation methods. The integration of machine parameters into the optimisation process of step and shoot leaf positions has been shown to be successful. For IMRT segmentation algorithms based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of the planning target volumes (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR), the potential of such procedures has not yet been fully explored. In this work, 2-Step IMRT was combined with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation (DMPO-Raysearch Laboratories, Sweden) to investigate this potential. In a planning study DMPO on a commercial planning system was compared with manual primary 2-Step IMRT segment generation followed by DMPO optimisation. 15 clinical cases and the ESTRO Quasimodo phantom were employed. Both the same number of optimisation steps and the same set of objective values were used. The plans were compared with a clinical DMPO reference plan and a traditional IMRT plan based on fluence optimisation and consequent segmentation. The composite objective value (the weighted sum of quadratic deviations of the objective values and the related points in the dose volume histogram) was used as a measure for the plan quality. Additionally, a more extended set of parameters was used for the breast cases to compare the plans. The plans with segments pre-defined with 2-Step IMRT were slightly superior to DMPO alone in the majority of cases. The composite objective value tended to be even lower for a smaller number of segments. The total number of monitor units was slightly higher than for the DMPO-plans. Traditional IMRT fluence optimisation with subsequent segmentation could not compete. 2-Step IMRT segmentation is suitable as starting point for further DMPO optimisation and, in general, results in less complex plans which are equal or superior to plans generated by DMPO alone

  13. Patient performance–based plan parameter optimization for prostate cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yuan Jie; Lee, Suk, E-mail: sukmp@korea.ac.kr; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of treatment-planning parameters on the quality of treatment plans in tomotherapy and to find the optimized planning parameter combinations when treating patients with prostate cancer under different performances. A total of 3 patients with prostate cancer with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or 3 were included in this study. For each patient, 27 treatment plans were created using a combination of planning parameters (field width of 1, 2.5, and 5 cm; pitch of 0.172, 0.287, and 0.43; and modulation factor of 1.8, 3, and 3.5). Then, plans were analyzed using several dosimetrical indices: the prescription isodose to target volume (PITV) ratio, homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), target coverage index (TCI), modified dose HI (MHI), conformity number (CN), and quality factor (QF). Furthermore, dose-volume histogram of critical structures and critical organ scoring index (COSI) were used to analyze organs at risk (OAR) sparing. Interestingly, treatment plans with a field width of 1 cm showed more favorable results than others in the planning target volume (PTV) and OAR indices. However, the treatment time of the 1-cm field width was 3 times longer than that of plans with a field width of 5 cm. There was no substantial decrease in treatment time when the pitch was increased from 0.172 to 0.43, but the PTV indices were slightly compromised. As expected, field width had the most significant influence on all of the indices including PTV, OAR, and treatment time. For the patients with good performance who can tolerate a longer treatment time, we suggest a field width of 1 cm, pitch of 0.172, and modulation factor of 1.8; for the patients with poor performance status, field width of 5 cm, pitch of 0.287, and a modulation factor of 3.5 should be considered.

  14. A multicriteria framework with voxel-dependent parameters for radiotherapy treatment plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Uribe-Sanchez, Andres F.; Li, Nan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a new mathematical framework for radiotherapy treatment optimization with voxel-dependent optimization parameters. Methods: In the treatment plan optimization problem for radiotherapy, a clinically acceptable plan is usually generated by an optimization process with weighting factors or reference doses adjusted for a set of the objective functions associated to the organs. Recent discoveries indicate that adjusting parameters associated with each voxel may lead to better plan quality. However, it is still unclear regarding the mathematical reasons behind it. Furthermore, questions about the objective function selection and parameter adjustment to assure Pareto optimality as well as the relationship between the optimal solutions obtained from the organ-based and voxel-based models remain unanswered. To answer these questions, the authors establish in this work a new mathematical framework equipped with two theorems. Results: The new framework clarifies the different consequences of adjusting organ-dependent and voxel-dependent parameters for the treatment plan optimization of radiation therapy, as well as the impact of using different objective functions on plan qualities and Pareto surfaces. The main discoveries are threefold: (1) While in the organ-based model the selection of the objective function has an impact on the quality of the optimized plans, this is no longer an issue for the voxel-based model since the Pareto surface is independent of the objective function selection and the entire Pareto surface could be generated as long as the objective function satisfies certain mathematical conditions; (2) All Pareto solutions generated by the organ-based model with different objective functions are parts of a unique Pareto surface generated by the voxel-based model with any appropriate objective function; (3) A much larger Pareto surface is explored by adjusting voxel-dependent parameters than by adjusting organ-dependent parameters, possibly

  15. Investigating the robustness of ion beam therapy treatment plans to uncertainties in biological treatment parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Fossati, P; Haberer, T; Mairani, A; Patera, V

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in determining clinically used relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for ion beam therapy carry the risk of absolute and relative misestimations of RBE-weighted doses for clinical scenarios. This study assesses the consequences of hypothetical misestimations of input parameters to the RBE modelling for carbon ion treatment plans by a variational approach. The impact of the variations on resulting cell survival and RBE values is evaluated as a function of the remaining ion range. In addition, the sensitivity to misestimations in RBE modelling is compared for single fields and two opposed fields using differing optimization criteria. It is demonstrated for single treatment fields that moderate variations (up to +/-50\\%) of representative nominal input parameters for four tumours result mainly in a misestimation of the RBE-weighted dose in the planning target volume (PTV) by a constant factor and only smaller RBE-weighted dose gradients. Ensuring a more uniform radiation quality in the PTV...

  16. Studying influence of two effective parameters on network losses in transmission expansion planning using DCGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalilzadeh, S.; Mahdavi, M.; Hadadian, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power network planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Its task is to minimize the network construction and operational cost, while meeting imposed technical, economic and reliability constraints. Up till now, various methods have been proposed for solution of the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But, in all of them, the effect of two important parameters i.e., inflation rate and load growth factor on network losses has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, STNEP is being studied considering the effect of inflation rate and load growth factor on the network losses in a transmission network with different voltage levels using a decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on the Garver's six-bus network. The results evaluation reveals that the inflation rate and load growth factor have important effect on the network losses and subsequent network arrangement. In addition, considering the effect of two above-mentioned parameters (inflation rate and load growth factor) in expansion planning of transmission networks with various line voltage levels is caused that the total expansion cost of the network (expansion costs and the operational cost) is calculated more exactly and therefore the network satisfies the requirements of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers

  17. Computed tomography imaging parameters for inhomogeneity correction in radiation treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra J Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media (such as a patient' body with the help of tissue characterization based on computed tomography (CT number. However, CT number depends on the type of scanner, tube voltage, field of view (FOV, reconstruction algorithm including artifact reduction and processing filters. The impact of these parameters on CT to electron density (ED conversion had been subject of investigation for treatment planning in various clinical situations. This is usually performed with a tissue characterization phantom with various density plugs acquired with different tube voltages (kilovoltage peak, FOV reconstruction and different scanners to generate CT number to ED tables. This article provides an overview of inhomogeneity correction in the context of CT scanning and a new evaluation tool, difference volume dose-volume histogram (DVH, dV-DVH. It has been concluded that scanner and CT parameters are important for tissue characterizations, but changes in ED are minimal and only pronounced for higher density materials. For lungs, changes in CT number are minimal among scanners and CT parameters. Dosimetric differences for lung and prostate cases are usually insignificant (<2% in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and < 5% for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with CT parameters. It could be concluded that CT number variability is dependent on acquisition parameters, but its dosimetric impact is pronounced only in high-density media and possibly in IMRT. In view of such small dosimetric changes in low-density medium, the acquisition of additional CT data for financially difficult clinics and countries may not be warranted.

  18. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.

    1982-08-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities. There were four distinct efforts involved in this task. These were as follows: show the effect on a material balance verification of using two variables measurement methods in some strata; perform additional calculations for the reference facility described in STR-89; modify the INSPECT computer programs to be used as an after-inspection analysis tool, as well as a preinspection planning tool; provide written comments and explantations of text and graphs of the first draft of STR-89, Safeguards Considerations for Mixed-Oxide Fuel Element Fabrication Facilities, by W. Bahm, T. Shea, and D. Tolchenkov, System Studies Section, IAEA

  19. SU-F-P-64: The Impact of Plan Complexity Parameters On the Plan Quality and Deliverability of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Xie, C [The 1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of complexity indices on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and to determine the most significant parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Methods: A multi-dimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to study the correlations between VMAT parameters of complexity, quality and deliverability, as well as their contribution weights with 32 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients and 31 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. Results: The MU per arc (MU/Arc) and MU per control point (MU/CP) of NPC were 337.8±25.2 and 3.7±0.3, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of prostate cancer patients (MU/Arc : 506.9±95.4, MU/CP : 5.6±1.1). The plan complexity indices indicated that two-arc VMAT plans were more complex than one-arc VMAT plans. Plan quality comparison confirmed that one-arc VMAT plans had a high quality than two-arc VMAT plans. CCA results implied that plan complexity parameters were highly correlated with plan quality with the first two canonical correlations of 0.96, 0.88 (both p<0.001) and significantly correlated with deliverability with the first canonical correlation of 0.79 (p<0.001), plan quality and deliverability was also correlated with the first canonical correlation of 0.71 (p=0.02). Complexity parameters of MU/CP, segment area (SA) per CP, percent of MU/CP less 3 and planning target volume (PTV) were weighted heavily in correlation with plan quality and deliveability . Similar results obtained from individual NPC and prostate CCA analysis. Conclusion: Relationship between complexity, quality, and deliverability parameters were investigated with CCA. MU, SA related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effect on the plan quality and deliverability. The presented correlation among different quantified parameters could be used to improve the plan quality and the efficiency

  20. Effect of Planned Early Recommended Ambulation Technique on Selected Post caesarean Biophysiological Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti V. Dube

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caesarean section has been a part of human culture since ancient times. It has been used effectively throughout the 20th century and among the major abdominal surgeries, it is the most common, oldest worldwide surgery performed in obstetrics. Despite the life saving advantages, there are several adverse consequences of caesarean delivery for a woman and to her household. The rate and risk of these complications increases due to the increasing incidence mainly in countries like India. The role of nurse midwife is to act in the best interest of patient and newborn and make the patient independent in carrying out the activities of daily living as soon as possible. This can lead to a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also it can indirectly help in reducing the complications associated with prolonged bed rest and can improve the maternal newborn bonding. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of planned early ambulation on selected biophysiological health parameters of post caesarean patients. Material and Methods: The study included total 500 study subjects, 250 in experimental and 250 in control group. Quasi experimental approach with multiple time series design was adopted for the study. The experimental group was given an early planned recommended ambulation technique starting from the day of surgery. This consisted of deep breathing exercise, cough exercise, leg exercise and early mobilization. Over and above, the routine general health care was given by the doctors and nurses. The control group received only by routine general care by doctors and nurses and mobilization on third post operative day as per strategy adopted by the hospital. The deep breathing exercises, coughing exercises and leg exercises were not given routinely and hence were not given to the control group. Post caesarean biophysiological parameters chart was used to assess the selected parameters for first five post operative

  1. Development of a neuro-fuzzy technique for automated parameter optimization of inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieler, Florian; Yan, Hui; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Parameter optimization in the process of inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is mainly conducted by human planners in order to create a plan with the desired dose distribution. To automate this tedious process, an artificial intelligence (AI) guided system was developed and examined. The AI system can automatically accomplish the optimization process based on prior knowledge operated by several fuzzy inference systems (FIS). Prior knowledge, which was collected from human planners during their routine trial-and-error process of inverse planning, has first to be 'translated' to a set of 'if-then rules' for driving the FISs. To minimize subjective error which could be costly during this knowledge acquisition process, it is necessary to find a quantitative method to automatically accomplish this task. A well-developed machine learning technique, based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was introduced in this study. Based on this approach, prior knowledge of a fuzzy inference system can be quickly collected from observation data (clinically used constraints). The learning capability and the accuracy of such a system were analyzed by generating multiple FIS from data collected from an AI system with known settings and rules. Multiple analyses showed good agreements of FIS and ANFIS according to rules (error of the output values of ANFIS based on the training data from FIS of 7.77 ± 0.02%) and membership functions (3.9%), thus suggesting that the 'behavior' of an FIS can be propagated to another, based on this process. The initial experimental results on a clinical case showed that ANFIS is an effective way to build FIS from practical data, and analysis of ANFIS and FIS with clinical cases showed good planning results provided by ANFIS. OAR volumes encompassed by characteristic percentages of isodoses were reduced by a mean of between 0 and 28%. The study demonstrated a feasible way

  2. Development of a neuro-fuzzy technique for automated parameter optimization of inverse treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenz Frederik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parameter optimization in the process of inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is mainly conducted by human planners in order to create a plan with the desired dose distribution. To automate this tedious process, an artificial intelligence (AI guided system was developed and examined. Methods The AI system can automatically accomplish the optimization process based on prior knowledge operated by several fuzzy inference systems (FIS. Prior knowledge, which was collected from human planners during their routine trial-and-error process of inverse planning, has first to be "translated" to a set of "if-then rules" for driving the FISs. To minimize subjective error which could be costly during this knowledge acquisition process, it is necessary to find a quantitative method to automatically accomplish this task. A well-developed machine learning technique, based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, was introduced in this study. Based on this approach, prior knowledge of a fuzzy inference system can be quickly collected from observation data (clinically used constraints. The learning capability and the accuracy of such a system were analyzed by generating multiple FIS from data collected from an AI system with known settings and rules. Results Multiple analyses showed good agreements of FIS and ANFIS according to rules (error of the output values of ANFIS based on the training data from FIS of 7.77 ± 0.02% and membership functions (3.9%, thus suggesting that the "behavior" of an FIS can be propagated to another, based on this process. The initial experimental results on a clinical case showed that ANFIS is an effective way to build FIS from practical data, and analysis of ANFIS and FIS with clinical cases showed good planning results provided by ANFIS. OAR volumes encompassed by characteristic percentages of isodoses were reduced by a mean of between 0 and 28%. Conclusion The

  3. Inverse planning in the age of digital LINACs: station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen a number of technical and clinical advances which give rise to a need for innovations in dose optimization and delivery strategies. Technically, a new generation of digital linac has become available which offers features such as programmable motion between station parameters and high dose-rate Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams. Current inverse planning methods are designed for traditional machines and cannot accommodate these features of new generation linacs without compromising either dose conformality and/or delivery efficiency. Furthermore, SBRT is becoming increasingly important, which elevates the need for more efficient delivery, improved dose distribution. Here we will give an overview of our recent work in SPORT designed to harness the digital linacs and highlight the essential components of SPORT. We will summarize the pros and cons of traditional beamlet-based optimization (BBO) and direct aperture optimization (DAO) and introduce a new type of algorithm, compressed sensing (CS)-based inverse planning, that is capable of automatically removing the redundant segments during optimization and providing a plan with high deliverability in the presence of a large number of station control points (potentially non-coplanar, non-isocentric, and even multi-isocenters). We show that CS-approach takes the interplay between planning and delivery into account and allows us to balance the dose optimality and delivery efficiency in a controlled way and, providing a viable framework to address various unmet demands of the new generation linacs. A few specific implementation strategies of SPORT in the forms of fixed-gantry and rotational arc delivery are also presented.

  4. Inverse planning in the age of digital LINACs: station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-01-01

    The last few years have seen a number of technical and clinical advances which give rise to a need for innovations in dose optimization and delivery strategies. Technically, a new generation of digital linac has become available which offers features such as programmable motion between station parameters and high dose-rate Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams. Current inverse planning methods are designed for traditional machines and cannot accommodate these features of new generation linacs without compromising either dose conformality and/or delivery efficiency. Furthermore, SBRT is becoming increasingly important, which elevates the need for more efficient delivery, improved dose distribution. Here we will give an overview of our recent work in SPORT designed to harness the digital linacs and highlight the essential components of SPORT. We will summarize the pros and cons of traditional beamlet-based optimization (BBO) and direct aperture optimization (DAO) and introduce a new type of algorithm, compressed sensing (CS)-based inverse planning, that is capable of automatically removing the redundant segments during optimization and providing a plan with high deliverability in the presence of a large number of station control points (potentially non-coplanar, non-isocentric, and even multi-isocenters). We show that CS-approach takes the interplay between planning and delivery into account and allows us to balance the dose optimality and delivery efficiency in a controlled way and, providing a viable framework to address various unmet demands of the new generation linacs. A few specific implementation strategies of SPORT in the forms of fixed-gantry and rotational arc delivery are also presented.

  5. Multidimensional correlation among plan complexity, quality and deliverability parameters for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanxiao; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Han, Ce; Zheng, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yongqiang; Gong, Changfei; Xie, Congying; Jin, Xiance

    2018-03-01

    A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. The average MU and MU per control point (MU/CP) for two-arc VMAT plans were 702.6 ± 55.7 and 3.9 ± 0.3 versus 504.6 ± 99.2 and 5.6 ± 1.1 for one-arc VMAT plans, respectively. The individual volume-based 3D gamma passing rates of clinical target volume (γCTV) and planning target volume (γPTV) for NPC and prostate cancer patients were 85.7% ± 9.0% vs 92.6% ± 7.8%, and 88.0% ± 7.6% vs 91.2% ± 7.7%, respectively. Plan complexity parameters of NPC patients were correlated with plan quality (P = 0.047) and individual volume-based 3D gamma indices γ(IV) (P = 0.01), in which, MU/CP and segment area (SA) per control point (SA/CP) were weighted highly in correlation with γ(IV) , and SA/CP, percentage of CPs with SA plan quality with coefficients of 0.98, 0.68 and -0.99, respectively. Further verification with one-arc VMAT plans demonstrated similar results. In conclusion, MU, SA-related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effects on the plan quality and deliverability.

  6. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments : a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat-Eggen, P.E.; van Heijst, A.W.M.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study

  7. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.; Harms, N.L.

    1981-02-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities at low-enriched uranium (LEU) conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. This report presents the results and conclusions of those analyses. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at LEU conversion and fuel fabrication facilities must take into account a variety of practical problems and constraints. One of the key concerns is the problem of flow verification, especially product verification. The objective of this report is to help put the problem of flow verification in perspective by presenting the results of some specific calculations of inspection effort and probability of detection for various product measurement strategies. In order to provide quantitative information about the advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies, eight specific cases were examined

  8. Sample size planning for composite reliability coefficients: accuracy in parameter estimation via narrow confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Leann; Kelley, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Composite measures play an important role in psychology and related disciplines. Composite measures almost always have error. Correspondingly, it is important to understand the reliability of the scores from any particular composite measure. However, the point estimates of the reliability of composite measures are fallible and thus all such point estimates should be accompanied by a confidence interval. When confidence intervals are wide, there is much uncertainty in the population value of the reliability coefficient. Given the importance of reporting confidence intervals for estimates of reliability, coupled with the undesirability of wide confidence intervals, we develop methods that allow researchers to plan sample size in order to obtain narrow confidence intervals for population reliability coefficients. We first discuss composite reliability coefficients and then provide a discussion on confidence interval formation for the corresponding population value. Using the accuracy in parameter estimation approach, we develop two methods to obtain accurate estimates of reliability by planning sample size. The first method provides a way to plan sample size so that the expected confidence interval width for the population reliability coefficient is sufficiently narrow. The second method ensures that the confidence interval width will be sufficiently narrow with some desired degree of assurance (e.g., 99% assurance that the 95% confidence interval for the population reliability coefficient will be less than W units wide). The effectiveness of our methods was verified with Monte Carlo simulation studies. We demonstrate how to easily implement the methods with easy-to-use and freely available software. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Planning ahead for asteroid and comet hazard mitigation, phase 1: parameter space exploration and scenario modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, R Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.

  10. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments: a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat-Eggen, P Ella; van Heijst, Anne; Hornikx, Maarten; Kohlrausch, Armin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters. This study shows that 38% of the surveyed students are disturbed by background noise in an open-plan study environment. Students are mostly disturbed by speech when performing complex cognitive tasks like studying for an exam, reading and writing. Significant but weak correlations were found between the room acoustic parameters and noise disturbance of students. Practitioner Summary: A field study was conducted to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. More than one third of the students was disturbed by noise. An interaction effect was found for task type, source type and room acoustic parameters.

  11. THE REGULARITY OF INFLUENCE OF TRAFFIC PARAMETERS ON THE PROBABILITY OF REALISATION OF PLANNED PASSENGER TRANSFER AT TRANSFER NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Samchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of traffic parameters that ensure the minimum value of the transfer waiting time for passengers. On the basis of experimental studies results, a regression equation to determine the probability of realisation of the planned transfer between a pair of vehicles was proposed. Using the identified regression equation, the transfer waiting time can be assessed for any headway exceeding 7,5 min.

  12. Improving CT quality with optimized image parameters for radiation treatment planning and delivery guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Pei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: CT image quality can be improved with the IQE protocols created in this study, to provide better soft tissue contrast, which would be beneficial for use in radiation therapy, e.g., for planning data acquisition or for IGRT for hypo-fractionated treatments.

  13. Probabilistic prosumer node modeling for estimating planning parameters in distribution networks with renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, Robert John; Ekstrom, Jussi; Lehtonen, Matti

    With the increase in distributed generation, the demand-only nature of many secondary substation nodes in medium voltage networks is becoming a mix of temporally varying consumption and generation with significant stochastic components. Traditional planning, however, has often assumed that the ma...

  14. Effects of cognitive impairment on prosodic parameters of speech production planning in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Looze, Céline; Moreau, Noémie; Renié, Laurent; Kelly, Finnian; Ghio, Alain; Rico, Audrey; Audoin, Bertrand; Viallet, François; Pelletier, Jean; Petrone, Caterina

    2017-05-24

    Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS. A total of 45 subjects, that is 22 healthy controls (HC) and 23 patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS, underwent neuropsychological tests probing specific cognitive processes involved in speech production planning. All subjects also performed a read speech task, in which they had to read isolated sentences manipulated as for phonological length. Results show that the speech of MS patients with CI is mainly affected at the temporal level (articulation and speech rate, pause duration). Regression analyses further indicate that rate measures are correlated with working memory scores. In addition, linear discriminant analysis shows the ROC AUC of identifying MS patients with CI is 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.73). Our findings indicate that prosodic planning is deficient in patients with MS-CI and that the scope of planning depends on patients' cognitive abilities. We discuss how speech-based approaches could be used as an ecological method for the assessment and monitoring of CI in MS. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Role of the parameters involved in the plan optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose and radiobiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widesott, L; Strigari, L; Pressello, M C; Landoni, V; Benassi, M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role and the weight of the parameters involved in the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) method, for prostate and head-and-neck plans. We systematically varied the parameters (gEUD max and weight) involved in the gEUD-based optimization of rectal wall and parotid glands. We found that the proper value of weight factor, still guaranteeing planning treatment volumes coverage, produced similar organs at risks dose-volume (DV) histograms for different gEUD max with fixed a = 1. Most of all, we formulated a simple relation that links the reference gEUD max and the associated weight factor. As secondary objective, we evaluated plans obtained with the gEUD-based optimization and ones based on DV criteria, using the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. gEUD criteria seemed to improve sparing of rectum and parotid glands with respect to DV-based optimization: the mean dose, the V 40 and V 50 values to the rectal wall were decreased of about 10%, the mean dose to parotids decreased of about 20-30%. But more than the OARs sparing, we underlined the halving of the OARs optimization time with the implementation of the gEUD-based cost function. Using NTCP models we enhanced differences between the two optimization criteria for parotid glands, but no for rectum wall

  16. Impact of Multileaf Collimator Configuration Parameters on the Dosimetric Accuracy of 6-MV Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nick; Perrin, David; Newhauser, Wayne; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected configuration parameters that govern multileaf collimator (MLC) transmission and rounded leaf offset in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Pinnacle 3 , Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA) on the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculation. The MLC leaf transmission factor was modified based on measurements made with ionization chambers. The table of parameters containing rounded-leaf-end offset values was modified by measuring the radiation field edge as a function of leaf bank position with an ionization chamber in a scanning water-tank dosimetry system and comparing the locations to those predicted by the TPS. The modified parameter values were validated by performing IMRT quality assurance (QA) measurements on 19 gantry-static IMRT plans. Planar dose measurements were performed with radiographic film and a diode array (MapCHECK2) and compared to TPS calculated dose distributions using default and modified configuration parameters. Based on measurements, the leaf transmission factor was changed from a default value of 0.001 to 0.005. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in a small but statistically significant worsening of IMRT QA gamma-index passing rate, which revealed that the overall dosimetric accuracy of the TPS depends on multiple configuration parameters in a manner that is coupled and not intuitive because of the commissioning protocol used in our clinic. The rounded leaf offset table had little room for improvement, with the average difference between the default and modified offset values being -0.2 ± 0.7 mm. While our results depend on the current clinical protocols, treatment unit and TPS used, the methodology used in this study is generally applicable. Different clinics could potentially obtain different results and improve their dosimetric accuracy using our approach.

  17. Impact of multileaf collimator configuration parameters on the dosimetric accuracy of 6-MV Intensity-Modulated radiation therapy treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected configuration parameters that govern multileaf collimator (MLC transmission and rounded leaf offset in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA on the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT dose calculation. The MLC leaf transmission factor was modified based on measurements made with ionization chambers. The table of parameters containing rounded-leaf-end offset values was modified by measuring the radiation field edge as a function of leaf bank position with an ionization chamber in a scanning water-tank dosimetry system and comparing the locations to those predicted by the TPS. The modified parameter values were validated by performing IMRT quality assurance (QA measurements on 19 gantry-static IMRT plans. Planar dose measurements were performed with radiographic film and a diode array (MapCHECK2 and compared to TPS calculated dose distributions using default and modified configuration parameters. Based on measurements, the leaf transmission factor was changed from a default value of 0.001 to 0.005. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in a small but statistically significant worsening of IMRT QA gamma-index passing rate, which revealed that the overall dosimetric accuracy of the TPS depends on multiple configuration parameters in a manner that is coupled and not intuitive because of the commissioning protocol used in our clinic. The rounded leaf offset table had little room for improvement, with the average difference between the default and modified offset values being −0.2 ± 0.7 mm. While our results depend on the current clinical protocols, treatment unit and TPS used, the methodology used in this study is generally applicable. Different clinics could potentially obtain different results and improve their dosimetric accuracy using our approach.

  18. Comparative studies on permanent prostate brachytherapy: pre-plan and real-time transrectal ultrasound guided iodine-125 seed implants at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalolo, L.T.

    2013-06-01

    This research was carried out to investigate and compare the real-time and pre-plan implant at the Radiotherapy Department of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Prowess Panther 4.5 treatment planning system and variseed 7.2 software were used for pre-plan and real-time implant respectively. The study was conducted for eighty three (83) patients treated for prostate cancer through real-time implant brachytherapy between september, 2008 to April, 2013. Thirty one patients (31) patients whose ultrasound images were available were selected for the pre-plan study. The slices of ultrasound images were re-drawn on transparent A-4 sheets and later on scanned, contoured and registered in the treatment planning system (prowess 4.5). After planning, the volume to be implanted, total number of needles, seeds and the total activity of the source were displayed. Comparison was done withe the pre-plan and real-time implant. In both cases the variation was below 5% as recommended in dosimetry. About 30% - 40% of the imported seeds were left un-used due to over-estimation of seeds ordered from the manufacturer (BARD Company-USA). Hence this work (pre-plan) aims to solve this problem. The comparison for dosimetric parameters was assessed for prostate, urethra and rectum as (V 95%, V 100%, V 150%, D90Gy, D90%), (D90Gy, D90%, D30Gy, D30% ) and (V 100%, D30Gy and D30%) respectively and the variation were within the limit of ± 5%. Comparison of dosimetric values for this work were done with other institutions, like Karolinska university hospital, Sweden, The institute of Curie/ hospital Cochin Group Paris-France and European recommendations. The values reported at Korle - Bu teaching hospital (this work) were in good agreement with the international guidelines. (au)

  19. Planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements at the gear speed reducer on the basis of the parameter technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Letić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of the computer methods at project managing in the part of the planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements with the fit (assembly block of the gear speed reducer is significant and at present irreplaceable engineering task if it has been realized by the modern parameter technology. There are multifunction uses of this organized group of activities, beginning from the quick changeability of elements still in the phase of designing and constructing, thanks to the characteristics of their associativity, still to the wide basis of standard elements that are incorporated in the very program package. Meanwhile, these activities are not simple, so their realization has to be planned from the stand - point of time, resource and cost of realization. For the very designing and constructing was used AutoCAD Mechanical, and for the design managing Microsoft Project.

  20. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  1. Dosimetric parameters of enhanced dynamic wedge for treatment planning and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, Dennis D.; Lee, Wing Lok; Gaffney, David K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) is an intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique in which one collimating jaw sweeps across the field to define a desired wedge dose distribution while dose rate is modified according to jaw position. This tool enables discrete or continuous wedge angles from zero to sixty degrees for field widths from three cm to 30 cm in the direction of the wedge, and up to 40 cm perpendicular to the wedge direction. Additionally, asymmetric wedge fields not centered on the line through isocenter can be created for applications such as tangential breast irradiation. The unique range of field shapes and wedge angles introduce a new set of dosimetric challenges to be resolved before routine clinical use of EDW, and especially require that a simple set of independent dose calculation and verification techniques be developed to check computerized treatment planning results. Using terminology in common use in treatment planning, this work defines the effective wedge factor vs. field width and wedge angle, evaluates the depth dose vs. open field values, defines primary intensity functions from which specific dynamic wedges can be calculated in treatment planning systems, and describes the technique for independent calculation of Monitor Units for EDW fields. Materials and Methods: Using 6- and 18-MV beams from a CI2100C, EDW beam profiles were measured in water phantom for depths from near-surface to 30 cm for the full range of field widths and wedge angles using a linear detector array of 25 energy-compensated diodes. Asymmetric wedge field profiles were likewise measured. Depth doses were measured in water phantom using an ionization chamber sequentially positioned to depths of 30 cm. Effective wedge factors for the full range of field widths and wedge angles were measured using an ionization chamber in water-equivalent plastic at a depth of 10 cm on central axis. Dose profiles were calculated by computer as the summation of a series

  2. The influence of the dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter on dosimetry with IPSA optimisation for HDR prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ryan L.; Millar, Jeremy L.; Panettieri, Vanessa; Mason, Natasha; Lancaster, Craig; Francih, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how the dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter, applied to inverse planning by simulated annealing (IPSA) optimisation limits large dwell times from occurring in each catheter and to characterise the effect on the resulting dosimetry for prostate high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment plans. An unconstrained IPSA optimised treatment plan, using the Oncentra Brachytherapy treatment planning system (version 4.3, Nucletron an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden), was generated for 20 consecutive HDR prostate brachytherapy patients, with the DTDC set to zero. Successive constrained optimisation plans were also created for each patient by increasing the DTDC parameter by 0.2, up to a maximum value of 1.0. We defined a “plan modulation index”, to characterise the change of dwell time modulation as the DTDC parameter was increased. We calculated the dose volume histogram indices for the PTV (D90, V100, V150, V200%) and urethra (D10%) to characterise the effect on the resulting dosimetry. The average PTV D90% decreases as the DTDC is applied, on average by only 1.5 %, for a DTDC = 0.4. The measures of high dose regions in the PTV, V150 and V200%, increase on average by less than 5 and 2 % respectively. The net effect of DTDC on the modulation of dwell times has been characterised by the introduction of the plan modulation index. DTDC applied during IPSA optimisation of HDR prostate brachytherapy plans reduce the occurrence of large isolated dwell times within individual catheters. The mechanism by which DTDC works has been described and its effect on the modulation of dwell times has been characterised. The authors recommend using a DTDC parameter no greater than 0.4 to obtain a plan with dwell time modulation comparable to a geometric optimised plan. This yielded on average a 1.5 % decrease in PTV coverage and an acceptable increase in V150%, without compromising the urethral dose.

  3. Radiation doses in mammography as planning parameters for premature breast cancer tracking programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Ferreira, Rubemar de.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation doses are the main parameters applied to the evaluation of mammographic radiological impact. This study, for a sample of 407 women, were analyzed, through the thermoluminescent dosimetry, radiation doses in the surface of skin and glandular absorbed doses for cranio-caudal view. The results show the presence of a large dose range to the same mammographic procedure, which, analyzed enclosed with 585 facilities, suggest be necessary the standardization of the mammographic technique. From that results, with the additive model, the excess of breast cancer (radioinduced) and lifetime loss risk, for age groups between 30 and 70 years were estimated. Is demonstrated that the benefits from dedicated mammography, overcome the relationship among the epidemiological aspects of breast cancer and ionizing radiation as an harmful agent, which may show an important correlation for large exposed populations, point out the importance of the continuous risk and benefit evaluation to the new technologies introduced. (author). 86 refs., 40 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Energy planning of a hospital using Mathematical Programming and Monte Carlo simulation for dealing with uncertainty in the economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Florios, Kostas; Vlachou, Dimitra

    2010-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Mathematical Programming is the traditional tool for energy planning at the national or regional level aiming at cost minimization subject to specific technological, political and demand satisfaction constraints. The liberalization of the energy market along with the ongoing technical progress increased the level of competition and forced energy consumers, even at the unit level, to make their choices among a large number of alternative or complementary energy technologies, fuels and/or suppliers. In the present work we develop a modelling framework for energy planning in units of the tertiary sector giving special emphasis to model reduction and to the uncertainty of the economic parameters. In the given case study, the energy rehabilitation of a hospital in Athens is examined and the installation of a cogeneration, absorption and compression unit is examined for the supply of the electricity, heating and cooling load. The basic innovation of the given energy model lies in the uncertainty modelling through the combined use of Mathematical Programming (namely, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, MILP) and Monte Carlo simulation that permits the risk management for the most volatile parameters of the objective function such as the fuel costs and the interest rate. The results come in the form of probability distributions that provide fruitful information to the decision maker. The effect of model reduction through appropriate data compression of the load data is also addressed.

  5. Combined parameters estimation for 131I dosimetry treatment planning in Hyperthyroidism using 2D and 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, HCQ Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" >López Díaz, Adlín; Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, HCQ Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" >San Pedro, Aley Palau; Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, HCQ Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba))" >Martín Escuela, Juan Miguel; Reynosa Montejo, Reysel; Torres Aroche, Leonel Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Optimization and verification of Specific Patient Treatment Planning with unsealed sources in hyperthyroidism diseases is a desirable goal from medical and radiation protection viewpoints. In order to verify the estimation of patient’s specific treatment dose and his/her related parameters, a combination of 3 different apparatus or pieces of equipment used in nuclear medicine were studied - the Iodine Probe, a Philips Forte Camera with pinhole collimators and a Mediso Nucline with HEGP for planar and SPECT techniques- by using the typical neck phantom and 131 I sources simulating diagnosis and treatment procedure. The linear behavior on diagnostic and therapeutic activity range was verified, showing a linear correlation fitting factor R 2 > 0,99. The differences between thyroid uptake determinations in all equipment were less than 6 % for therapeutic activities and less than 1,1 % in the diagnostic range. The combined protocol to calculate all the necessary parameters for the patient treatment dose planning using 2D or 3D approach was established and verified, avoiding wasting time with gamma cameras and with only one administration of 131 I. (author)

  6. Challenges while Updating Planning Parameters of an ERP System and How a Simulation-Based Support System Can Support Material Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Stumvoll

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system, production planning is influenced by a variety of parameters. Previous investigations show that setting parameter values is highly relevant to a company’s target system. Parameter settings should be checked and adjusted, e.g., after a change in environmental factors, by material planners. In practice, updating the parameters is difficult due to several reasons. This paper presents a simulation-based decision support system, which helps material planners in all stages of decision-making processes. It will present the system prototype’s user interface and the results of applying the system to a case study.

  7. Analysis of a large number of clinical studies for breast cancer radiotherapy: estimation of radiobiological parameters for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M; Li, X Allen

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) have been published in recent years. Both external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT) with different fractionation schemes are currently used. The present RT practice is largely based on empirical experience and it lacks a reliable modelling tool to compare different RT modalities or to design new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work is to derive a plausible set of radiobiological parameters that can be used for RT treatment planning. The derivation is based on existing clinical data and is consistent with the analysis of a large number of published clinical studies on early-stage breast cancer. A large number of published clinical studies on the treatment of early breast cancer with BCS plus RT (including whole breast EBRT with or without a boost to the tumour bed, whole breast EBRT alone, brachytherapy alone) and RT alone are compiled and analysed. The linear quadratic (LQ) model is used in the analysis. Three of these clinical studies are selected to derive a plausible set of LQ parameters. The potential doubling time is set a priori in the derivation according to in vitro measurements from the literature. The impact of considering lower or higher T pot is investigated. The effects of inhomogeneous dose distributions are considered using clinically representative dose volume histograms. The derived LQ parameters are used to compare a large number of clinical studies using different regimes (e.g., RT modality and/or different fractionation schemes with different prescribed dose) in order to validate their applicability. The values of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and biologically effective dose (BED) are used as a common metric to compare the biological effectiveness of each treatment regime. We have obtained a plausible set of radiobiological parameters for breast cancer. This set of parameters is consistent with in vitro

  8. Multicentre treatment planning study of MRI-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Comparison between tandem-ovoid applicator users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomden, Christel N.; Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Van Limbergen, Erik; Brabandere, Marisol de; Nulens, An; Nout, Remi A.; Laman, Mirjam; Ketelaars, Martijn; Lutgens, Ludovicus; Reniers, Brigitte; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare MRI-guided treatment planning approaches between four centres that use tandem-ovoid applicators. Material and methods: Four centres generated three treatment plans for four patients: standard, optimised intracavitary, and optimised intracavitary/interstitial. Prescribed D90 High-Risk CTV (HR-CTV) was 85 Gy EQD2 (external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy), while the D 2cc OAR limit was 90 Gy EQD2 for bladder and 75 Gy EQD2 for rectum, sigmoid, and bowel, respectively. DVH-parameters, source loading patterns and spatial dose distributions of the three treatment plans were compared. Results: The standard plans of the different centres were comparable with respect to the D90 HR-CTV, but differed in OAR doses. MRI-guided intracavitary optimisation resulted in organ sparing and smaller variation in DVH parameters between the centres. Adding interstitial needles led to target dose escalation while respecting the OAR constraints. However, substantial differences in relative weights of the applicator parts resulted in an increased variation in DVH parameters and locations of high dose regions. Conclusions: MRI-guided brachytherapy treatment planning optimisation provides the possibility to increase the dose to the HR-CTV and spare the OARs. Depending on the degree of conformity the centres make different choices in relative weighting of applicator parts, leading to different dose distributions

  9. TU-FG-201-03: Automatic Pre-Delivery Verification Using Statistical Analysis of Consistencies in Treatment Plan Parameters by the Treatment Site and Modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S; Wu, Y; Chang, X; Li, H; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A novel computer software system, namely APDV (Automatic Pre-Delivery Verification), has been developed for verifying patient treatment plan parameters right prior to treatment deliveries in order to automatically detect and prevent catastrophic errors. Methods: APDV is designed to continuously monitor new DICOM plan files on the TMS computer at the treatment console. When new plans to be delivered are detected, APDV checks the consistencies of plan parameters and high-level plan statistics using underlying rules and statistical properties based on given treatment site, technique and modality. These rules were quantitatively derived by retrospectively analyzing all the EBRT treatment plans of the past 8 years at authors’ institution. Therapists and physicists will be notified with a warning message displayed on the TMS computer if any critical errors are detected, and check results, confirmation, together with dismissal actions will be saved into database for further review. Results: APDV was implemented as a stand-alone program using C# to ensure required real time performance. Mean values and standard deviations were quantitatively derived for various plan parameters including MLC usage, MU/cGy radio, beam SSD, beam weighting, and the beam gantry angles (only for lateral targets) per treatment site, technique and modality. 2D-based rules of combined MU/cGy ratio and averaged SSD values were also derived using joint probabilities of confidence error ellipses. The statistics of these major treatment plan parameters quantitatively evaluate the consistency of any treatment plans which facilitates automatic APDV checking procedures. Conclusion: APDV could be useful in detecting and preventing catastrophic errors immediately before treatment deliveries. Future plan including automatic patient identify and patient setup checks after patient daily images are acquired by the machine and become available on the TMS computer. This project is supported by the

  10. TU-FG-201-03: Automatic Pre-Delivery Verification Using Statistical Analysis of Consistencies in Treatment Plan Parameters by the Treatment Site and Modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S; Wu, Y; Chang, X; Li, H; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A novel computer software system, namely APDV (Automatic Pre-Delivery Verification), has been developed for verifying patient treatment plan parameters right prior to treatment deliveries in order to automatically detect and prevent catastrophic errors. Methods: APDV is designed to continuously monitor new DICOM plan files on the TMS computer at the treatment console. When new plans to be delivered are detected, APDV checks the consistencies of plan parameters and high-level plan statistics using underlying rules and statistical properties based on given treatment site, technique and modality. These rules were quantitatively derived by retrospectively analyzing all the EBRT treatment plans of the past 8 years at authors’ institution. Therapists and physicists will be notified with a warning message displayed on the TMS computer if any critical errors are detected, and check results, confirmation, together with dismissal actions will be saved into database for further review. Results: APDV was implemented as a stand-alone program using C# to ensure required real time performance. Mean values and standard deviations were quantitatively derived for various plan parameters including MLC usage, MU/cGy radio, beam SSD, beam weighting, and the beam gantry angles (only for lateral targets) per treatment site, technique and modality. 2D-based rules of combined MU/cGy ratio and averaged SSD values were also derived using joint probabilities of confidence error ellipses. The statistics of these major treatment plan parameters quantitatively evaluate the consistency of any treatment plans which facilitates automatic APDV checking procedures. Conclusion: APDV could be useful in detecting and preventing catastrophic errors immediately before treatment deliveries. Future plan including automatic patient identify and patient setup checks after patient daily images are acquired by the machine and become available on the TMS computer. This project is supported by the

  11. Impact of tissue specific parameters on the predition of the biological effectiveness for treatment planning in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Rebecca Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Treatment planning in ion beam therapy requires a reliable estimation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the irradiated tissue. For the pilot project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH and at other European ion beam therapy centers RBE prediction is based on a biophysical model, the Local Effect Model (LEM). The model version in use, LEM I, is optimized to give a reliable estimation of RBE in the target volume for carbon ion irradiation. However, systematic deviations are observed for the entrance channel of carbon ions and in general for lighter ions. Thus, the LEM has been continuously developed to improve accuracy. The recent version LEM IV has proven to better describe in-vitro cell experiments. Thus, for the clinical application of LEM IV it is of interest to analyze potential differences compared to LEM I under treatment-like conditions. The systematic analysis presented in this work is aiming at the comparison of RBE-weighted doses resulting from different approaches and model versions for protons and carbon ions. This will facilitate the assessment of consequences for clinical application and the interpretation of clinical results from different institutions. In the course of this thesis it has been shown that the RBE-weighted doses predicted on the basis of LEM IV for typical situations representing chordoma treatments differ on average by less than 10 % to those based on LEM I and thus also allow a consistent interpretation of the clinical results. At Japanese ion beam therapy centers the RBE is estimated using their clinical experience from neutron therapy in combination with in-vitro measurements for carbon ions (HIMAC approach). The methods presented in this work allow direct comparison of the HIMAC approach and the LEM and thus of the clinical results obtained at Japanese and European ion beam therapy centers. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the RBE on the model parameters was evaluated. Among all parameters the

  12. Cast Off expansion plan by rapid improvement through Optimization tool design, Tool Parameters and using Six Sigma’s ECRS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Saravanan, R.

    2017-03-01

    Powerful management concepts step-up the quality of the product, time saving in producing the product thereby increase the production rate, improves tools and techniques, work culture, work place and employee motivation and morale. In this paper discussed about the case study of optimizing the tool design, tool parameters to cast off expansion plan according ECRS technique. The proposed designs and optimal tool parameters yielded best results and meet the customer demand without expansion plan. Hence the work yielded huge savings of money (direct and indirect cost), time and improved the motivation and more of employees significantly.

  13. SU-D-19A-06: The Effect of Beam Parameters On Very High-Energy Electron Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, B; Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hardemark, B; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beam parameters on the planning of a lung cancer case by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We simulated VHEE radiotherapy plans using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-DOSXYZnrc code. We selected a lung cancer case that was treated with 6MV photon VMAT to be planned with VHEE. We studied the effect of beam energy (80 MeV, 100 MeV, and 120 MeV), number of equidistant beams (16 or 32), and beamlets sizes (3 mm, 5 mm or 7 mm) on PTV coverage, sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and dose conformity. Inverse-planning optimization was performed in a research version of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB) using identical objective functions and constraints for all VHEE plans. Results: Similar PTV coverage and dose conformity was achieved by all the VHEE plans. The 100 MeV and 120 MeV VHEE plans were equivalent amongst them and were superior to the 80 MeV plan in terms of OARs sparing. The effect of using 16 or 32 equidistant beams was a mean difference in average dose of 2.4% (0%–7.7%) between the two plans. The use of 3 mm beamlet size systematically reduced the dose to all the OARs. Based on these results we selected the 100MeV-16beams-3mm-beamlet-size plan to compare it against VMAT. The selected VHEE plan was more conformal than VMAT and improved OAR sparing (heart and trachea received 125% and 177% lower dose, respectively) especially in the low-dose region. Conclusion: We determined the VHEE beam parameters that maximized the OAR dose sparing and dose conformity of the actually delivered VMAT plan of a lung cancer case. The selected parameters could be used for the planning of other treatment sites with similar size, shape, and location. For larger targets, a larger beamlet size might be used without significantly increasing the dose. B Palma: None. M Bazalova: None. B Hardemark: Employee, RaySearch Americas. E Hynning: Employee, RaySearch Americas. B Qu: None. B Loo Jr.: Research support, Ray

  14. SU-D-19A-06: The Effect of Beam Parameters On Very High-Energy Electron Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, B; Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Hardemark, B; Hynning, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beam parameters on the planning of a lung cancer case by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We simulated VHEE radiotherapy plans using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-DOSXYZnrc code. We selected a lung cancer case that was treated with 6MV photon VMAT to be planned with VHEE. We studied the effect of beam energy (80 MeV, 100 MeV, and 120 MeV), number of equidistant beams (16 or 32), and beamlets sizes (3 mm, 5 mm or 7 mm) on PTV coverage, sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and dose conformity. Inverse-planning optimization was performed in a research version of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB) using identical objective functions and constraints for all VHEE plans. Results: Similar PTV coverage and dose conformity was achieved by all the VHEE plans. The 100 MeV and 120 MeV VHEE plans were equivalent amongst them and were superior to the 80 MeV plan in terms of OARs sparing. The effect of using 16 or 32 equidistant beams was a mean difference in average dose of 2.4% (0%–7.7%) between the two plans. The use of 3 mm beamlet size systematically reduced the dose to all the OARs. Based on these results we selected the 100MeV-16beams-3mm-beamlet-size plan to compare it against VMAT. The selected VHEE plan was more conformal than VMAT and improved OAR sparing (heart and trachea received 125% and 177% lower dose, respectively) especially in the low-dose region. Conclusion: We determined the VHEE beam parameters that maximized the OAR dose sparing and dose conformity of the actually delivered VMAT plan of a lung cancer case. The selected parameters could be used for the planning of other treatment sites with similar size, shape, and location. For larger targets, a larger beamlet size might be used without significantly increasing the dose. B Palma: None. M Bazalova: None. B Hardemark: Employee, RaySearch Americas. E Hynning: Employee, RaySearch Americas. B Qu: None. B Loo Jr.: Research support, Ray

  15. CT-guided intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer: Comparison of conventional point A plan with clinical target volume-based three-dimensional plan using dose-volume parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sung Yong; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Chie, Eui Kyu; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To perform an intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) plan comparison between the conventional point A plan (conventional plan) and computed tomography (CT)-guided clinical target volume-based plan (CTV plan) by analysis of the quantitative dose-volume parameters and irradiated volumes of organs at risk in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty plans for 192 Ir high-dose-rate ICR after 30-40-Gy external beam radiotherapy were investigated. CT images were acquired at the first ICR session with artifact-free applicators in place. The gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV), point A, and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 rectal and bladder points were defined on reconstructed CT images. A fractional 100% dose was prescribed to point A in the conventional plan and to the outermost point to cover all CTVs in the CTV plan. The reference volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V ref ), and the dose-volume parameters of the coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were calculated from the dose-volume histogram. The bladder, rectal point doses, and percentage of volumes receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% of the prescribed dose were also analyzed. Results: Conventional plans were performed, and patients were categorized on the basis of whether the 100% isodose line of point A prescription dose fully encompassed the CTV (Group 1, n = 20) or not (Group 2, n = 10). The mean gross tumor volume (11.6 cm 3 ) and CTV (24.9 cm 3 ) of Group 1 were smaller than the corresponding values (23.7 and 44.7 cm 3 , respectively) for Group 2 (p = 0.003). The mean V ref for all patients was 129.6 cm 3 for the conventional plan and 97.0 cm 3 for the CTV plan (p = 0.003). The mean V ref in Group 1 decreased markedly with the CTV plan (p < 0.001). For the conventional and CTV plans in all patients, the mean coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were 0.98 and 1.0, 0.23 and 0.34, and 3.86 and

  16. Who Really Benefits from 3D-Based Planning of Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, In Bong; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Yun Hee; Choi, Hoon Sik; Lee, Jong Hak; Choi, Won Jun; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Song, Jin Ho

    2018-04-30

    Although intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) is essential for the radiation therapy of cervical cancer, few institutions in Korea perform 3-dimensional (3D)-based ICR. To identify patients who would benefit from 3D-based ICR, dosimetric parameters for tumor targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between 2-dimensional (2D)- and 3D-based ICR. Twenty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following 3D-based ICR were retrospectively evaluated. New 2D-based plans based on the Manchester system were developed. Tumor size was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 value was about 10% lower for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (88.4% vs. 97.7%; P = 0.068). Tumor coverage did not differ between 2D- and 3D-based plans in patients with tumors ≤ 4 cm at the time of brachytherapy, but the mean HR-CTV D90 values in patients with tumors > 4 cm were significantly higher for 3D-based plans than for 2D-based plans (96.0% vs. 78.1%; P = 0.017). Similar results were found for patients with tumors > 5 cm initially. Other dosimetric parameters for OARs were similar between 2D- and 3D-based plans, except that mean sigmoid D2cc was higher for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (67.5% vs. 58.8%; P = 0.043). These findings indicate that 3D-based ICR plans improve tumor coverage while satisfying the dose constraints for OARs. 3D-based ICR should be considered in patients with tumors > 4 cm size at the time of brachytherapy or > 5 cm initially.

  17. [Effect of image fusion technology of radioactive particles implantation before and after the planning target and dosimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y L; Yu, J P; Sun, H T; Guo, F X; Ji, Z; Fan, J H; Zhang, L J; Li, X; Wang, J J

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To compare the post-implant target volumes and dosimetric evaluation with pre-plan, the gross tumor volume(GTV) by CT image fusion-based and the manual delineation of target volume in CT guided radioactive seeds implantation. Methods: A total of 10 patients treated under CT-guidance (125)I seed implantation during March 2016 to April 2016 were analyzed in Peking University Third Hospital.All patients underwent pre-operative CT simulation, pre-operative planning, implantation seeds, CT scanning after seed implantation and dosimetric evaluation of GTV.In every patient, post-implant target volumes were delineated by both two methods, and were divided into two groups. Group 1: image fusion pre-implantation simulation and post-operative CT image, then the contours of GTV were automatically performed by brachytherapy treatment planning system; Group 2: the contouring of the GTV on post-operative CT image were performed manually by three senior radiation oncologists independently. The average of three data was sets. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 3.2.0. The paired t -test was used to compare the target volumes and D(90) parameters in two modality. Results: In Group 1, average volume of GTV in post-operation group was 12-167(73±56) cm(3). D(90) was 101-153 (142±19)Gy. In Group 2, they were 14-186(80±58)cm(3) and 96-146(122±16) Gy respectively. In both target volumes and D(90), there was no statistical difference between pre-operation and post-operation in Group 1.The D(90) was slightly lower than that of pre-plan group, but there was no statistical difference ( P =0.142); in Group 2, between pre-operation and post-operation group, there was a significant statistical difference in the GTV ( P =0.002). The difference of D(90) was similarly ( P manual delineation of target volume by maximum reduce the interference from artificial factor and metal artifacts. Further work and more cases are required in the future.

  18. SU-F-T-378: Evaluation of Dose-Volume Variability and Parameters Between Prostate IMRT and VMAT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, R [Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON (Canada); Kiciak, A [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compared the rectal dose-volume consistency, equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) in prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: For forty prostate IMRT and fifty VMAT patients treated using the same dose prescription (78 Gy/39 fraction) and dose-volume criteria in inverse planning optimization, the rectal EUD and NTCP were calculated for each patient. The rectal dose-volume consistency, showing the variability of dose-volume histogram (DVH) among patients, was defined and calculated based on the deviation between the mean and corresponding rectal DVH. Results: From both the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans, the rectal EUD and NTCP were found decreasing with the rectal volume. The decrease rates for the IMRT plans (EUD = 0.47 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 3.94 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}) were higher than those for the VMAT (EUD = 0.28 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 2.61 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}). In addition, the dependences of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency were found very similar between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. This shows that both delivery techniques have similar variations of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency. Conclusion: Dependences of the dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were compared between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. It is concluded that both rectal EUD and NTCP decreased with an increase of the rectal volume. The variation rates of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the rectal volume were higher for the IMRT plans than VMAT. However, variations of the rectal dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were found not significant for both delivery techniques.

  19. Influence of waste managemental and technical planning parameters on plant costs; Einfluss abfallwirtschaftlicher und technischer Plannungsgroessen auf die Anlagenkosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, R. [Inst. fuer Umwelt, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik e.V., Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The probable future costs of thermal waste treatment depend on a great number of influencing factors. One of the essential aims of the present contribution is to elaborate and present the sensitivity of costs to various parameters. [Deutsch] Die zukuenftig zu erwartenden Kosten der thermischen Abfallbehandlung haengen von einer Vielzahl von Einflussgroessen ab. Im Rahmen des Beitrags besteht daher ein wesentliches Ziel darin, die Sensitivitaet der Kosten hinsichtlich verschiedenster Parameter herauszuarbeiten und darzustellen. (orig./SR)

  20. The Internet as a parameter of strategic planning: A study of E-Marketing practices of Dutch SMBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the identification and evaluation of Internet-based strategies and examines the role of the Internet as element of the strategic planning of Small and Medium Businesses (SMBs) from a variety of Dutch industrial sectors. The study has an explorative character and

  1. SU-G-TeP4-09: Development of a Plan Data Aggregator for Time Efficient Physics Second-Checks of Machine Parameters for External Beam Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belley, M; Schmidt, M; Knutson, N [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Price, M [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Physics second-checks for external beam radiation therapy are performed, in-part, to verify that the machine parameters in the Record-and-Verify (R&V) system that will ultimately be sent to the LINAC exactly match the values initially calculated by the Treatment Planning System (TPS). While performing the second-check, a large portion of the physicists’ time is spent navigating and arranging display windows to locate and compare the relevant numerical values (MLC position, collimator rotation, field size, MU, etc.). Here, we describe the development of a software tool that guides the physicist by aggregating and succinctly displaying machine parameter data relevant to the physics second-check process. Methods: A data retrieval software tool was developed using Python to aggregate data and generate a list of machine parameters that are commonly verified during the physics second-check process. This software tool imported values from (i) the TPS RT Plan DICOM file and (ii) the MOSAIQ (R&V) Structured Query Language (SQL) database. The machine parameters aggregated for this study included: MLC positions, X&Y jaw positions, collimator rotation, gantry rotation, MU, dose rate, wedges and accessories, cumulative dose, energy, machine name, couch angle, and more. Results: A GUI interface was developed to generate a side-by-side display of the aggregated machine parameter values for each field, and presented to the physicist for direct visual comparison. This software tool was tested for 3D conformal, static IMRT, sliding window IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans. Conclusion: This software tool facilitated the data collection process needed in order for the physicist to conduct a second-check, thus yielding an optimized second-check workflow that was both more user friendly and time-efficient. Utilizing this software tool, the physicist was able to spend less time searching through the TPS PDF plan document and the R&V system and focus the second-check efforts on

  2. Evaluation of Effective Parameters on Quality of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-computed Tomography Image Fusion in Head and Neck Tumors for Application in Treatment Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Shirvani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In radiation therapy, computed tomography (CT simulation is used for treatment planning to define the location of tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-CT image fusion leads to more efficient tumor contouring. This work tried to identify the practical issues for the combination of CT and MRI images in real clinical cases. The effect of various factors is evaluated on image fusion quality. Materials and Methods: In this study, the data of thirty patients with brain tumors were used for image fusion. The effect of several parameters on possibility and quality of image fusion was evaluated. These parameters include angles of the patient's head on the bed, slices thickness, slice gap, and height of the patient's head. Results: According to the results, the first dominating factor on quality of image fusion was the difference slice gap between CT and MRI images (cor = 0.86, P 4 cm and image fusion quality was <25%. Conclusion: The most important problem in image fusion is that MRI images are taken without regard to their use in treatment planning. In general, parameters related to the patient position during MRI imaging should be chosen to be consistent with CT images of the patient in terms of location and angle.

  3. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): Concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Limbergen, Erik van; Barillot, Isabelle; Brabandere, Marisol De; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm 3 ; optional 5 and 10 cm 3 . Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm 3 . Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD 2 )-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Poetter R, Van Limbergen E et al

  4. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating non-uniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans.

  5. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Lee, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating non-uniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans

  6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2018; Amendments to Special Enrollment Periods and the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final rule sets forth payment parameters and provisions related to the risk adjustment program; cost-sharing parameters and cost-sharing reductions; and user fees for Federally-facilitated Exchanges and State-based Exchanges on the Federal platform. It also provides additional guidance relating to standardized options; qualified health plans; consumer assistance tools; network adequacy; the Small Business Health Options Programs; stand-alone dental plans; fair health insurance premiums; guaranteed availability and guaranteed renewability; the medical loss ratio program; eligibility and enrollment; appeals; consumer-operated and oriented plans; special enrollment periods; and other related topics.

  7. SU-F-J-148: A Collapsed Cone Algorithm Can Be Used for Quality Assurance for Monaco Treatment Plans for the MR-Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, S; Asselen, B van; Wolthaus, J; Kotte, A; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Feist, G [Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pencea, S [Elekta Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Akhiat, H [Elekta BV, Best (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment plans for the MR-linac, calculated in Monaco v5.19, include direct simulation of the effects of the 1.5T B{sub 0}-field. We tested the feasibility of using a collapsed-cone (CC) algorithm in Oncentra, which does not account for effects of the B{sub 0}-field, as a fast online, independent 3D check of dose calculations. Methods: Treatment plans for six patients were generated in Monaco with a 6 MV FFF beam and the B{sub 0}-field. All plans were recalculated with a CC model of the same beam. Plans for the same patients were also generated in Monaco without the B{sub 0}-field. The mean dose (Dmean) and doses to 10% (D10%) and 90% (D90%) of the volume were determined, as percentages of the prescribed dose, for target volumes and OARs in each calculated dose distribution. Student’s t-tests between paired parameters from Monaco plans and corresponding CC calculations were performed. Results: Figure 1 shows an example of the difference between dose distributions calculated in Monaco, with the B{sub 0}-field, and the CC algorithm. Figure 2 shows distributions of (absolute) difference between parameters for Monaco plans, with the B{sub 0}-field, and CC calculations. The Dmean and D90% values for the CTVs and PTVs were significantly different, but differences in dose distributions arose predominantly at the edges of the target volumes. Inclusion of the B{sub 0}-field had little effect on agreement of the Dmean values, as illustrated by Figure 3, nor on agreement of the D10% and D90% values. Conclusion: Dose distributions recalculated with a CC algorithm show good agreement with those calculated with Monaco, for plans both with and without the B{sub 0}-field, indicating that the CC algorithm could be used to check online treatment planning for the MRlinac. Agreement for a wider range of treatment sites, and the feasibility of using the γ-test as a simple pass/fail criterion, will be investigated.

  8. SU-F-T-55: Reproducibility of Interstitial HDR Brachytherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Ellis, R; Traughber, B; Podder, T [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treating gynecological cancers with interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy requires precise reconstruction of catheter positions to obtain accurate dosimetric plans. In this study, we investigated the degree of reproducibility of dosimetric plans for Syed HDR brachytherapy. Methods: We randomly selected five patients having cervix-vaginal cancer who were recently treated in our clinic with interstitial HDR brachytherapy with a prescription dose of 25–30 Gy in five fractions. Interstitial needles/catheters were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and intra-operative 3T MRI scan was performed to confirm the desired catheter placement for adequate target volume coverage. A CT scan was performed and fused with the MRI for delineating high-risk CTV (HR-CTV), intermediate-risk CTV (IR-CTV) and OARs. HDR treatment plans were generated using Oncentra planning software. A single plan was used for all five fractions of treatment for each patient. For this study, we took the original clinical plan and removed all the reconstructed catheters from the plan keeping the original contours unchanged. Then, we manually reconstructed all the catheters and entered the same dwell time from the first original clinical plan. The dosimetric parameters studied were: D90 for HR-CTV and IR-CV, and D2cc for bladder, rectum, sigmoid and bowel. Results: The mean of absolute differences in dosimetric coverage (D90) were (range): 1.3% (1.0–2.0%) and 2.0% (0.9–3.6%) for HR-CTV and IR-CTV, respectively. In case of OARs, the mean of absolute variations in D2cc were (range): 4.7% (0.7–8.9%) for bladder, 1.60% (0.3–3.2%) for rectum, 1.6% (0–3.9%) for sigmoid, and 1.8% (0–5.1%) for bowel. Conclusion: Overall, the reproducibility of interstitial HDR plans was within clinically acceptable limit. Observed maximum variation in D2cc for bladder. If number of catchers and dwell points were relatively low or any one catheter was heavily loaded, then reproducibility of the plan

  9. SU-F-T-37: Dosimetric Evaluation of Planned Versus Decay Corrected Treatment Plans for the Treatment of Tandem-Based Cervical HDR Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, M [Texas Oncology, PA, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (India); Manjhi, J; Rai, D [Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kehwar, T [Pinnacle Health Cancer Center, Mechanicsburg, PA (United States); Barker, J; Heintz, B; Shide, K [Texas Oncology, PA, Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated dosimetric parameters for actual treatment plans versus decay corrected treatment plans for cervical HDR brachytherapy. Methods: 125 plans of 25 patients, who received 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy, were evaluated in this study. Dose was prescribed to point A (ICRU-38) and High risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were, retrospectively, delineated on original CT images by treating physician. First HDR plan was considered as reference plan and decay correction was applied to calculate treatment time for subsequent fractions, and was applied, retrospectively, to determine point A, HR-CTV D90, and rectum and bladder doses. Results: The differences between mean point A reference doses and the point A doses of the plans computed using decay times were found to be 1.05%±0.74% (−2.26% to 3.26%) for second fraction; −0.25%±0.84% (−3.03% to 3.29%) for third fraction; 0.04%±0.70% (−2.68% to 2.56%) for fourth fraction and 0.30%±0.81% (−3.93% to 2.67%) for fifth fraction. Overall mean point A dose difference, for all fractions, was 0.29%±0.38% (within ± 5%). Mean rectum and bladder dose differences were calculated to be −3.46%±0.12% and −2.47%±0.09%, for points, respectively, and −1.72%±0.09% and −0.96%±0.06%, for D2cc, respectively. HR-CTV D90 mean dose difference was found to be −1.67% ± 0.11%. There was no statistically significant difference between the reference planned point A doses and that calculated using decay time to the subsequent fractions (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study reveals that a decay corrected treatment will provide comparable dosimetric results and can be utilized for subsequent fractions of cervical HDR brachytherapy instead of actual treatment planning. This approach will increase efficiency, decrease workload, reduce patient observation time between applicator insertion and treatment delivery. This would be particularly useful for institutions with limited

  10. Assessment of I-125 seed implant accuracy when using the live-planning technique for low dose rate prostate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorrees Joshua

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low risk prostate cancers are commonly treated with low dose rate (LDR brachytherapy involving I-125 seeds. The implementation of a ‘live-planning’ technique at the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH in 2007 enabled the completion of the whole procedure (i.e. scanning, planning and implant in one sitting. ‘Live-planning’ has the advantage of a more reliable delivery of the planned treatment compared to the ‘traditional pre-plan’ technique (where patient is scanned and planned in the weeks prior to implant. During live planning, the actual implanted needle positions are updated real-time on the treatment planning system and the dosimetry is automatically recalculated. The aim of this investigation was to assess the differences and clinical relevance between the planned dosimetry and the updated real-time implant dosimetry. Methods A number of 162 patients were included in this dosimetric study. A paired t-test was performed on the D90, V100, V150 and V200 target parameters and the differences between the planned and implanted dose distributions were analysed. Similarly, dosimetric differences for the organs at risk (OAR were also evaluated. Results Small differences between the primary dosimetric parameters for the target were found. Still, the incidence of hotspots was increased with approximately 20% for V200. Statistically significant increases were observed in the doses delivered to the OAR between the planned and implanted data; however, these increases were consistently below 3% thus probably without clinical consequences. Conclusions The current study assessed the accuracy of prostate implants with I-125 seeds when compared to initial plans. The results confirmed the precision of the implant technique which RAH has in place. Nevertheless, geographical misses, anatomical restrictions and needle displacements during implant can have repercussions for centres without live-planning option if dosimetric changes are not

  11. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  12. Forward planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  13. SU-F-T-44: A Comparison of the Pre-Plan, Intra-Operative Plan, and Post-Implant Dosimetry for a Prostate Implant Case Using Prefabricated Linear Polymer-Encapsulated Pd-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, R; Powers, A; McGee, H; Stock, R; Lo, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility and limitations of Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy using fixed length linear sources (CivaString). Methods: An LDR prostate brachytherapy case which was preplanned on MR images with prefabricated linear polymer-encapsulated Pd-103 sources (CivaString) was studied and compared with ultrasound based intra-operative planning and CT based post-implant dosimetry. We evaluated the following parameters among the three studies: prostate geometry (volume and cross sectional area), needle position and alignment deviations, and dosimetry parameters (D90). Results: The prostate volumes and axial cross sectional areas at center of prostate were measured as 41.8, 39.3 and 36.8 cc, and 14.9, 14.3, and 11.3 respectively on pre-plan MR, inter-op US, and post-implant CT studies. The deviation of prostate volumes and axial cross sectional areas measured on pre-planning MR and intra-operative US were within 5%. 17 out of 19 pre-planned needles were positioned within 5mm (the template grid size). One needle location was adjusted intra-operatively and another needle was removed due to proximity to urethra. The needle pathways were not always parallel to the trans-rectal probe due to the flexibility of CivaString. The angle of deviation was up to 10 degrees. Two pairs of needles were exchanged to better fit the length of prostate at the time of implant. This resulted in a prostate D90 of 153.8 Gy (124%) and 131.4 Gy (106.7%) for intra-op and PID respectively. Conclusion: Preplanning is a necessary part of implants performed with prefabricated linear polymer sources. However, as is often the case, there were real-time deviations from the pre-plan. Intra-op planning provides the ability conform to anatomy at the time of implant. Therefore, we propose to develop a systematic way to order extra strings of different length to provide the flexibility to perform intra-operative planning with fixed length strands.

  14. SU-F-T-44: A Comparison of the Pre-Plan, Intra-Operative Plan, and Post-Implant Dosimetry for a Prostate Implant Case Using Prefabricated Linear Polymer-Encapsulated Pd-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, R; Powers, A; McGee, H; Stock, R; Lo, Y [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility and limitations of Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy using fixed length linear sources (CivaString). Methods: An LDR prostate brachytherapy case which was preplanned on MR images with prefabricated linear polymer-encapsulated Pd-103 sources (CivaString) was studied and compared with ultrasound based intra-operative planning and CT based post-implant dosimetry. We evaluated the following parameters among the three studies: prostate geometry (volume and cross sectional area), needle position and alignment deviations, and dosimetry parameters (D90). Results: The prostate volumes and axial cross sectional areas at center of prostate were measured as 41.8, 39.3 and 36.8 cc, and 14.9, 14.3, and 11.3 respectively on pre-plan MR, inter-op US, and post-implant CT studies. The deviation of prostate volumes and axial cross sectional areas measured on pre-planning MR and intra-operative US were within 5%. 17 out of 19 pre-planned needles were positioned within 5mm (the template grid size). One needle location was adjusted intra-operatively and another needle was removed due to proximity to urethra. The needle pathways were not always parallel to the trans-rectal probe due to the flexibility of CivaString. The angle of deviation was up to 10 degrees. Two pairs of needles were exchanged to better fit the length of prostate at the time of implant. This resulted in a prostate D90 of 153.8 Gy (124%) and 131.4 Gy (106.7%) for intra-op and PID respectively. Conclusion: Preplanning is a necessary part of implants performed with prefabricated linear polymer sources. However, as is often the case, there were real-time deviations from the pre-plan. Intra-op planning provides the ability conform to anatomy at the time of implant. Therefore, we propose to develop a systematic way to order extra strings of different length to provide the flexibility to perform intra-operative planning with fixed length strands.

  15. Effect on therapeutic ratio of planning a boosted radiotherapy dose to the dominant intraprostatic tumour lesion within the prostate based on multifunctional MR parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G S; deSouza, N M; Dearnaley, D; Morgan, V A; Morgan, S C; Partridge, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of an 8-Gy focal radiation boost to a dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL), identified using multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), and to assess the potential outcome compared with a uniform 74-Gy prostate dose. Methods: The DIL location was predicted in 23 patients using a histopathologically verified model combining diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, T2 maps and three-dimensional MR spectroscopic imaging. The DIL defined prior to neoadjuvant hormone downregulation was firstly registered to MRI-acquired post-hormone therapy and subsequently to CT radiotherapy scans. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment was planned for an 8-Gy focal boost with 74-Gy dose to the remaining prostate. Areas under the dose–volume histograms (DVHs) for prostate, bladder and rectum, the tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) were compared with those of the uniform 74-Gy IMRT plan. Results: Deliverable IMRT plans were feasible for all patients with identifiable DILs (20/23). Areas under the DVHs were increased for the prostate (75.1 ± 0.6 vs 72.7 ± 0.3 Gy; p < 0.001) and decreased for the rectum (38.2 ± 2.5 vs 43.5 ± 2.5 Gy; p < 0.001) and the bladder (29.1 ± 9.0 vs 36.9 ± 9.3 Gy; p < 0.001) for the boosted plan. The prostate TCP was increased (80.1 ± 1.3 vs 75.3 ± 0.9 Gy; p < 0.001) and rectal NTCP lowered (3.84 ± 3.65 vs 9.70 ± 5.68 Gy; p = 0.04) in the boosted plan. The bladder NTCP was negligible for both plans. Conclusion: Delivery of a focal boost to an mpMRI-defined DIL is feasible, and significant increases in TCP and therapeutic ratio were found. Advances in knowledge: The delivery of a focal boost to an mpMRI-defined DIL demonstrates statistically significant increases in TCP and therapeutic ratio. PMID:24601648

  16. Optimisation of the CT parameters with evaluation of MDCT double-scan images in the planning of the dental implant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, W.; Urbanik, A.; Kownacki, P.; Kownacki, S.; Sowa, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was optimisation of the examination parameters and evaluation of reliability of the MDCT double-scan images obtained with computer navigation for dental implant treatment. Material/Methods: With the use of a MDCT scanner SOMATOM Sensation (Siemens), CT-images of a phantom were performed: slice-collimation (10 A - 0.75 mm, 10 A - 1.5 mm), slice-thickness (0.75, 1, 2, 3, 5 mm), pitch (0.5, 1, 1.5). Additionally, the analysis on various filters from H20f to H60f was performed. For study used a phantom of the human cadaver head. Qualitative analysis was done using Nobel Guide (Nobel Biocare, Sweden), assessing possible artefacts on the images, and measurements of the bone structure on all filters in comparison with the real image. Results: The quality of the phantom images was assessed as optimal for the slices thickness 0.75 and 1 mm. The use of various values of the pitch did not have statistically significant difference on the image quality. Application of various filters did not alter the parameters of the bone structure, however the use of lower filters (H30f and H40f) had a beneficial effect on the quality of 3D reconstruction. The arrangement of the 'window' parameters in CT seemed to have a greater influence on the measurement and evaluation of the bone structure. Conclusions: Slice-collimation and slice-thickness are the most important parameters in selection of the optimal scan-protocol. It is recommended to use in the postprocessing, the mentioned above parameter succession with the application of various filters (H30f and H60f) at a stable arrangement of the 'window' in the CT examination. (authors)

  17. SU-E-J-166: Sensitivity of Clinically Relevant Dosimetric Parameters to Contouring Uncertainty During Post Implant Dosimetry of Prostate Permanent Seed Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashouf, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is a strong evidence relating post-implant dosimetry for permanent seed prostate brachytherpy to local control rates. The delineation of the prostate on CT images, however, represents a challenge as it is difficult to confidently identify the prostate borders from soft tissue surrounding it. This study aims at quantifying the sensitivity of clinically relevant dosimetric parameters to prostate contouring uncertainty. Methods: The post-implant CT images and plans for a cohort of 43 patients, who have received I–125 permanent prostate seed implant in our centre, were exported to MIM Symphony LDR brachytherapy treatment planning system (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH). The prostate contours in post-implant CT images were expanded/contracted uniformly for margins of ±1.00mm, ±2.00mm, ±3.00mm, ±4.00mm and ±5.00mm (±0.01mm). The values for V100 and D90 were extracted from Dose Volume Histograms for each contour and compared. Results: The mean value of V100 and D90 was obtained as 92.3±8.4% and 108.4±12.3% respectively (Rx=145Gy). V100 was reduced by −3.2±1.5%, −7.2±3.0%, −12.8±4.0%, −19.0±4.8%, − 25.5±5.4% for expanded contours of prostate with margins of +1mm, +2mm, +3mm, +4mm, and +5mm, respectively, while it was increased by 1.6±1.2%, 2.4±2.4%, 2.7±3.2%, 2.9±4.2%, 2.9±5.1% for the contracted contours. D90 was reduced by −6.9±3.5%, −14.5±6.1%, −23.8±7.1%, − 33.6±8.5%, −40.6±8.7% and increased by 4.1±2.6%, 6.1±5.0%, 7.2±5.7%, 8.1±7.3% and 8.1±7.3% for the same set of contours. Conclusion: Systematic expansion errors of more than 1mm may likely render a plan sub-optimal. Conversely contraction errors may Result in labeling a plan likely as optimal. The use of MRI images to contour the prostate should results in better delineation of prostate organ which increases the predictive value of post-op plans. Since observers tend to overestimate the prostate volume on CT, compared with MRI, the impact of the

  18. TH-AB-BRA-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of MR-Guided HDR Brachytherapy Planning for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Y; Barkati, M; Beliveau-Nadeau, D [CHUM Notre Dame Hospital, Montreal, QC, CA (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective study on 16 patients that had both CT and T2-weighted MR scans done at first fraction using the Utrecht CT/MR applicator (Elekta Brachytherapy) in order to evaluate uncertainties associated with an MR-only planning workflow. Methods: MR-workflow uncertainties were classified in three categories: reconstruction, registration and contouring. A systematic comparison of the CT and MR contouring, manual reconstruction and optimization process was performed to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on the recommended GEC ESTRO DVH parameters: D90% and V100% for HR-CTV as well as D2cc for bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowel. This comparison was done using the following four steps: 1. Catheter reconstruction done on MR images with original CT-plan contours and dwell times. 2. OAR contours adjusted on MR images with original CT-plan reconstruction and dwell times. 3. Both reconstruction and contours done on MR images with original CT-plan dwell times. 4. Entire MR-based workflow optimized dwell times reimported to the original CT-plan. Results: The MR-based reconstruction process showed average D2cc deviations of 4.5 ± 3.0%, 1.5 ± 2.0%, 2.5 ± 2.0% and 2.0 ± 1.0% for the bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowels respectively with a maximum of 10%, 6%, 6% and 4%. The HR-CTV’s D90% and V100% average deviations was found to be 4.0 ± 3.0%, and 2.0 ± 2.0% respectively with a maximum of 10% and 6%. Adjusting contours on MR-images was found to have a similar impact. Finally, the optimized MR-based workflow dwell times were found to still give acceptable plans when re-imported to the original CT-plan which validated the entire workflow. Conclusion: This work illustrates a systematic validation method for centers wanting to move towards an MR-only workflow. This work will be expanded to model based reconstruction, PD-weighted images and other types of applicators.

  19. TH-AB-BRA-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of MR-Guided HDR Brachytherapy Planning for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamio, Y; Barkati, M; Beliveau-Nadeau, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective study on 16 patients that had both CT and T2-weighted MR scans done at first fraction using the Utrecht CT/MR applicator (Elekta Brachytherapy) in order to evaluate uncertainties associated with an MR-only planning workflow. Methods: MR-workflow uncertainties were classified in three categories: reconstruction, registration and contouring. A systematic comparison of the CT and MR contouring, manual reconstruction and optimization process was performed to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on the recommended GEC ESTRO DVH parameters: D90% and V100% for HR-CTV as well as D2cc for bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowel. This comparison was done using the following four steps: 1. Catheter reconstruction done on MR images with original CT-plan contours and dwell times. 2. OAR contours adjusted on MR images with original CT-plan reconstruction and dwell times. 3. Both reconstruction and contours done on MR images with original CT-plan dwell times. 4. Entire MR-based workflow optimized dwell times reimported to the original CT-plan. Results: The MR-based reconstruction process showed average D2cc deviations of 4.5 ± 3.0%, 1.5 ± 2.0%, 2.5 ± 2.0% and 2.0 ± 1.0% for the bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowels respectively with a maximum of 10%, 6%, 6% and 4%. The HR-CTV’s D90% and V100% average deviations was found to be 4.0 ± 3.0%, and 2.0 ± 2.0% respectively with a maximum of 10% and 6%. Adjusting contours on MR-images was found to have a similar impact. Finally, the optimized MR-based workflow dwell times were found to still give acceptable plans when re-imported to the original CT-plan which validated the entire workflow. Conclusion: This work illustrates a systematic validation method for centers wanting to move towards an MR-only workflow. This work will be expanded to model based reconstruction, PD-weighted images and other types of applicators.

  20. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  1. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  2. Knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning versus planning by experts: validation of a KBRT algorithm for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwankwo, Obioma; Mekdash, Hana; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wenz, Frederik; Glatting, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning algorithm was recently developed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how plans that are generated with the objective KBRT approach compare to those that rely on the judgment of the experienced planner. Thirty volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were randomly selected from a database of prostate plans that were generated by experienced planners (expert plans). The anatomical data (CT scan and delineation of organs) of these patients and the KBRT algorithm were given to a novice with no prior treatment planning experience. The inexperienced planner used the knowledge-based algorithm to predict the dose that the OARs receive based on their proximity to the treated volume. The population-based OAR constraints were changed to the predicted doses. A KBRT plan was subsequently generated. The KBRT and expert plans were compared for the achieved target coverage and OAR sparing. The target coverages were compared using the Uniformity Index (UI), while 5 dose-volume points (D 10 , D 30, D 50 , D 70 and D 90 ) were used to compare the OARs (bladder and rectum) doses. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to check for significant differences (p < 0.05) between both datasets. The KBRT and expert plans achieved mean UI values of 1.10 ± 0.03 and 1.10 ± 0.04, respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no statistically significant difference between both results. The D 90 , D 70, D 50 , D 30 and D 10 values of the two planning strategies, and the Wilcoxon test results suggests that the KBRT plans achieved a statistically significant lower bladder dose (at D 30 ), while the expert plans achieved a statistically significant lower rectal dose (at D 10 and D 30 ). The results of this study show that the KBRT treatment planning approach is a promising method to objectively incorporate patient anatomical variations in radiotherapy treatment planning

  3. Comparison of Intraoperatively Built Custom Linked Seeds Versus Loose Seed Gun Applicator Technique Using Real-Time Intraoperative Planning for Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauls, A. Jason; Ashenafi, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Onicescu, Georgiana [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Clarke, Harry S. [Department of Urology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Marshall, David T., E-mail: marshadt@musc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report our dosimetric results using a novel push-button seed delivery system that constructs custom links of seeds intraoperatively. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2007, 43 patients underwent implantation using a gun applicator (GA), and from 2007 to 2008, 48 patientsunderwent implantation with a novel technique allowing creation of intraoperatively built custom links of seeds (IBCL). Specific endpoint analyses were prostate D90% (pD90%), rV100% > 1.3 cc, and overall time under anesthesia. Results: Final analyses included 91 patients, 43 GA and 48 IBCL. Absolute change in pD90% ({Delta}pD90%) between intraoperative and postoperative plans was evaluated. Using GA method, the {Delta}pD90% was -8.1Gy and -12.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. Similarly, the IBCL technique resulted in a {Delta}pD90% of -8.7Gy and -9.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. No statistically significant difference in {Delta}pD90% was found comparing methods. The GA method had two intraoperative and 10 postoperative rV100% >1.3 cc. For IBCL, five intraoperative and eight postoperative plans had rV100% >1.3 cc. For GA, the mean time under anesthesia was 75 min and 87 min for Pd-103 and I-125 implants, respectively. For IBCL, the mean time was 86 and 98 min for Pd-103 and I-125. There was a statistical difference between the methods when comparing mean time under anesthesia. Conclusions: Dosimetrically relevant endpoints were equivalent between the two methods. Currently, time under anesthesia is longer using the IBCL technique but has decreased over time. IBCL is a straightforward brachytherapy technique that can be implemented into clinical practice as an alternative to gun applicators.

  4. Influence of Pro-Qura-generated Plans on Postimplant Dosimetric Quality: A Review of a Multi-Institutional Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Zachariah; Merrick, Gregory S.; Grimm, Peter; Blasko, John; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne; Chaudry, Usman-Ul-Haq; Sitter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans vs. community-generated plans on postprostate brachytherapy dosimetric quality was compared. In the Pro-Qura database, 2933 postplans were evaluated from 57 institutions. A total of 1803 plans were generated by Pro-Qura and 1130 by community institutions. Iodine-125 ( 125 I) plans outnumbered Palladium 103 ( 103 Pd) plans by a ratio of 3:1. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in a standardized fashion by overlapping the preimplant ultrasound and the postimplant computed tomography (CT). In this analysis, adequacy was defined as a V 100 > 80% and a D 90 of 90% to 140% for both isotopes along with a V 150 125 I and 103 Pd. The mean postimplant V 100 and D 90 were 88.6% and 101.6% vs. 89.3% and 102.3% for Pro-Qura and community plans, respectively. When analyzed in terms of the first 8 sequence groups (10 patients/sequence group) for each institution, Pro-Qura planning resulted in less postimplant variability for V 100 (86.2-89.5%) and for D 90 (97.4-103.2%) while community-generated plans had greater V 100 (85.3-91.2%) and D 90 (95.9-105.2%) ranges. In terms of sequence groups, postimplant dosimetry was deemed 'too cool' in 11% to 30% of cases and 'too hot' in 12% to 27%. On average, no clinically significant postimplant dosimetric differences were discerned between Pro-Qura and community-based planning. However, substantially greater variability was identified in the community-based plan cohort. It is possible that the Pro-Qura plan and/or the routine postimplant dosimetric evaluation may have influenced dosimetric outcomes at community-based centers

  5. The impact of induction chemotherapy on the dosimetric parameters of subsequent radiotherapy: an investigation of 30 consecutive patients with locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer and modern radiation planning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Jonathan D; Sobremonte, Angela; Hillebrandt, Evangeline; Allen, Pamela K; Gomez, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of induction chemotherapy (ICT) on dosimetric outcomes in patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT). 30 patients with inoperable stage II-III NSCLC treated with 2–4 cycles of ICT followed by definitive CRT to ≥ 60 Gy were selected. Tumor response to chemotherapy was scored by RECIST criteria. Treatment plans based on tumor extent prior to chemotherapy were generated based on equivalent planning constraints and techniques as the original post-chemotherapy plans. Dosimetric parameters predictive of toxicity for lung, esophagus, heart, and spinal cord were compared amongst the pre- and post-ICT plans. The majority of patients (70%) experienced an overall reduction in GTV size between the pre-ICT imaging and the time of simulation. Comparing pre-and post-ICT diagnostic imaging, 5 patients met the RECIST criteria for response, 23 were classified as stable, and 2 experienced disease progression on diagnostic imaging. Despite a significantly reduced GTV size in the post-ICT group, no systematic improvements in normal tissue doses were seen amongst the entire cohort. This result persisted amongst the subgroup of patients with larger pre-ICT GTV tumor volumes (>100 cc 3 ). Among patients with RECIST-defined response, a significant reduction in lung mean dose (1.9 Gy absolute, median 18.2 Gy to 16.4 Gy, p = 0.04) and V 20, the percentage of lung receiving 20 Gy (3.1% absolute, median 29.3% to 26.3%, p = 0.04) was observed. In the non-responding group of patients, an increased esophageal V 50 was found post-chemotherapy (median 28.9% vs 30.1%, p = 0.02). For patients classified as having a response by RECIST to ICT, modest improvements in V 20 and mean lung dose were found. However, these benefits were not realized for the cohort as a whole or for patients with larger tumors upfront. Given the variability of tumor response to ICT, the a priori impact of induction chemotherapy to

  6. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  7. Comparison of Dosimetric and Biologic Effective Dose Parameters for Prostate and Urethra Using 131Cs and 125I for Prostate Permanent Implant Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahgal, Arjun; Jabbari, Siavash; Chen, Josephine; Pickett, Barbie; Roach, Mack; Weinberg, Vivian; Hsu, I-C.; Pouliot, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the urethral and prostate absolute and biologic effective doses (BEDs) for 131 Cs and 125 I prostate permanent implant brachytherapy (PPI). Methods and Materials: Eight previously implanted manually planned 125 I PPI patients were replanned manually with 131 Cs, and re-planned using Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing. 131 Cs activity and the prescribed dose (115 Gy) were determined from that recommended by IsoRay. The BED was calculated for the prostate and urethra using an α/β ratio of 2 and was also calculated for the prostate using an α/β ratio of 6 and a urethral α/β ratio of 2. The primary endpoints of this study were the prostate D 90 BED (pD 90 BED) and urethral D 30 BED normalized to the maximal potential prostate D 90 BED (nuD 30 BED). Results: The manual plan comparison (α/β = 2) yielded no significant difference in the prostate D 90 BED (median, 192 Gy 2 for both isotopes). No significant difference was observed for the nuD 30 BED (median, 199 Gy 2 and 202 Gy 2 for 125 I and 131 Cs, respectively). For the inverse planning simulated annealing plan comparisons (α/β 2), the prostate D 90 BED was significantly lower with 131 Cs than with 125 I (median, 177 Gy 2 vs. 187 Gy 2 , respectively; p = 0.01). However, the nuD 30 BED was significantly greater with 131 Cs than with 125 I (median, 192 Gy 2 vs. 189 Gy 2 , respectively; p = 0.01). Both the manual and the inverse planning simulated annealing plans resulted in a significantly lower prostate D 90 BED (p = 0.01) and significantly greater nuD 30 BED for 131 Cs (p = 0.01), compared with 125 I, when the prostate α/β ratio was 6 and the urethral α/β ratio was 2. Conclusion: This report highlights the controversy in comparing the dose to both the prostate and the organs at risk with different radionuclides

  8. LMFBR plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This document contains up-to-date data on existing or firmly decided prototype or demonstration LMFBR reactors (Table I), on planned commercial size LMFBR according to the present status of design (Table II) and on experimental fast reactors such as BOR-60, DFR, EBR-II, FERMI, FFTF, JOYO, KNK-II, PEC, RAPSODIE-FORTISSIMO (Table III). Only corrected and revised parameters submitted by the countries participating in the IWGFR are included in this document

  9. Ranking as parameter estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2009), s. 142-158 ISSN 1745-7645 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2C06001; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ranking * Bayesian estimation * negotiation * modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/karny- ranking as parameter estimation.pdf

  10. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  11. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  12. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  13. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  14. Calculation of shielding parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Z, J.

    1994-01-01

    With the propose of reduce the hazard to radiation, exist three basic factors: a) time, the time to exposition to working person inside to area, from exist determined speed the doses, is proportional of the time permanence; b) distance, the reduce to doses is inverse square of the distance to exposition point; c) building, consist to interpose between source and exposition point to material. The main aspect development to the analysis of parameters distance and building. The analysis consist to development of the mathematical implicit, in the model of source radioactive, beginning with the geometry to source, distance to exposition source, and configuration building. In the final part was realize one comparative studied to calculus of parameters to blinding, employs two codes CPBGAM and MICROSHIELD, the first made as part to work thesis. The point source its a good approximation to any one real source, but in the majority of the time to propose analysis the spatial distribution of the source must realized in explicit way. The buildings calculus in volumetry's source can be approximate begin's of plan as source adaptations. It's important to have present that not only the building exist the exposition to the radiation, and the parameters time and distance plays an important paper too. (Author)

  15. LMFBR plant parameters 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The document has been prepared on the basis of information provided by the members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It contains updated parameters of 27 experimental, prototype and commercial size liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). Most of the reactors are currently in operation, under construction or in an advanced planning stage. Parameters of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (USA), PEC (Italy), RAPSODIE (France), DFR (UK) and EFFBR (USA) are included in the report because of their important role in the development of LMFBR technology from first LMFBRs to the prototype size fast reactors. Two more reactors appeared in the list: European Fast Reactor (EFR) and PRISM (USA). Parameters of these reactors included in this publication are based on the data from the papers presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IWGFR. All in all more than four hundred corrections and additions have been made to update the document. The report is intended for specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors

  16. Plan well, plan often

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  17. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  18. Placement of empty catheters for an HDR-emulating LDR prostate brachytherapy technique: comparison to standard intraoperative planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayr, Thomas R; Nguyen, Paul L; Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R; Kovtun, Konstantin A; Neubauer Sugar, Emily; Cail, Daniel W; O'Farrell, Desmond A; Hansen, Jorgen L; Cormack, Robert A; Buzurovic, Ivan; Wolfsberger, Luciant T; O'Leary, Michael P; Steele, Graeme S; Devlin, Philip M; Orio, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether placing empty catheters within the prostate and then inverse planning iodine-125 seed locations within those catheters (High Dose Rate-Emulating Low Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy [HELP] technique) would improve concordance between planned and achieved dosimetry compared with a standard intraoperative technique. We examined 30 consecutive low dose rate prostate cases performed by standard intraoperative technique of planning followed by needle placement/seed deposition and compared them to 30 consecutive low dose rate prostate cases performed by the HELP technique. The primary endpoint was concordance between planned percentage of the clinical target volume that receives at least 100% of the prescribed dose/dose that covers 90% of the volume of the clinical target volume (V100/D90) and the actual V100/D90 achieved at Postoperative Day 1. The HELP technique had superior concordance between the planned target dosimetry and what was actually achieved at Day 1 and Day 30. Specifically, target D90 at Day 1 was on average 33.7 Gy less than planned for the standard intraoperative technique but was only 10.5 Gy less than planned for the HELP technique (p 0.05). Placing empty needles first and optimizing the plan to the known positions of the needles resulted in improved concordance between the planned and the achieved dosimetry to the target, possibly because of elimination of errors in needle placement. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dosimetric comparison of interactive planned and dynamic dose calculated prostate seed brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Gert J; van den Berg, Hetty A; Hurkmans, Coen W; Stijns, Pascal E; Weterings, Jan H

    2006-09-01

    To compare the dosimetrical results of an interactive planning procedure and a procedure based on dynamic dose calculation for permanent prostate brachytherapy. Between 6/2000 and 11/2005, 510 patients underwent (125)I implants for T1-T2 prostate cancer. Before 4/2003, 187 patients were treated using an interactive technique that included needle updating. After that period, 323 patients were treated with a more refined dynamic technique that included constant updating of the deposited seed position. The comparison is based on postimplant dose - volume parameters such as the V(100) and d(90) for the target, V(100)(r) for the rectum and d(10)(u) for the urethra. Furthermore, the target volume ratios (TVR identical with V(100)(body)/V(100)), and the homogeneity indices (HI identical with [V(100)-V(150)]/V(100)) were calculated as additional quality parameters. The dose outside the target volume was significantly reduced, the V(100)(r) decreased from 1.4 cm(3) for the interactive technique to 0.6 cm(3) for the dynamic technique. Similarly the mean TVR reduced from 1.66 to 1.44. In addition, the mean V(100) increased from 92% for the interactive procedure to 95% for the dynamic procedure. More importantly, the percentage of patients with a V(100) < 80% reduced from 5% to 1%. A slight decline was observed with regard to the d(10)(u) (136% vs. 140%) and the HI (0.58 vs. 0.51). The dynamic implant procedure resulted in improved implants. Almost ideal dose coverage was achieved, while minimizing the dose outside the prostate.

  20. Dosimetric comparison of interactive planned and dynamic dose calculated prostate seed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Gert J.; Berg, Hetty A. van den; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Stijns, Pascal E.; Weterings, Jan H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetrical results of an interactive planning procedure and a procedure based on dynamic dose calculation for permanent prostate brachytherapy. Materials and methods: Between 6/2000 and 11/2005, 510 patients underwent 125 I implants for T1-T2 prostate cancer. Before 4/2003, 187 patients were treated using an interactive technique that included needle updating. After that period, 323 patients were treated with a more refined dynamic technique that included constant updating of the deposited seed position. The comparison is based on postimplant dose-volume parameters such as the V 100 and d 90 for the target, V 100 r for the rectum and d 10 u for the urethra. Furthermore, the target volume ratios (TVR=V 100 body /V 100 ), and the homogeneity indices (HI=[V 100 -V 150 ]/V 100 ) were calculated as additional quality parameters. Results: The dose outside the target volume was significantly reduced, the V 100 r decreased from 1.4cm 3 for the interactive technique to 0.6cm 3 for the dynamic technique. Similarly the mean TVR reduced from 1.66 to 1.44. In addition, the mean V 100 increased from 92% for the interactive procedure to 95% for the dynamic procedure. More importantly, the percentage of patients with a V 100 10 u (136% vs. 140%) and the HI (0.58 vs. 0.51). Conclusion: The dynamic implant procedure resulted in improved implants. Almost ideal dose coverage was achieved, while minimizing the dose outside the prostate

  1. LMFBR plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This document has been prepared on the basis of information compiled by the members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It contains parameters of 25 experimental, prototype and commercial size liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). Most of the reactors are currently in operation, under construction or in an advanced planning stage. Parameters of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (USA) are presented because its design was nearly finished and most of the components were fabricated at the time when the project was terminated. Three reactors (RAPSODIE (France), DFR (UK) and EFFBR (USA)) have been shut down. However, they are included in the report because of their important role in the development of LMFBR technology from first LMFBRs to the prototype size fast reactors. The first LMFBRs (CLEMENTINE (USA), EBR-1 (USA), BR-2 (USSR), BR-5 (USSR)) and very special reactors (LAMPRE (USA), SEFOR (USA)) were not recommended by the members of the IWGFR to be included in the report

  2. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  3. Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  4. Treatment planning optimization for linear accelerator radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M.; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Linear accelerator radiosurgery uses multiple arcs delivered through circular collimators to produce a nominally spherical dose distribution. Production of dose distributions that conform to irregular lesions or conformally avoid critical neural structures requires a detailed understanding of the available treatment planning parameters. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning parameters that may be manipulated within a single isocenter to provide conformal avoidance and dose conformation to ellipsoidal lesions include differential arc weighting and gantry start/stop angles. More irregular lesions require the use of multiple isocenters. Iterative manipulation of treatment planning variables can be difficult and computationally expensive, especially if the effects of these manipulations are not well defined. Effects of treatment parameter manipulation are explained and illustrated. This is followed by description of the University of Florida Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment Planning Algorithm. This algorithm organizes the manipulations into a practical approach for radiosurgery treatment planning. Results: Iterative treatment planning parameters may be efficiently manipulated to achieve optimal treatment plans by following the University of Florida Treatment Planning Algorithm. The ability to produce conformal stereotactic treatment plans using the algorithm is demonstrated for a variety of clinical presentations. Conclusion: The standard dose distribution produced in linear accelerator radiosurgery is spherical, but manipulation of available treatment planning parameters may result in optimal dose conformation. The University of Florida Treatment Planning Algorithm organizes available treatment parameters to efficiently produce conformal radiosurgery treatment plans

  5. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  6. Radiation doses in mammography as planning parameters for premature breast cancer tracking programs; Doses de radiacao em mamografias como parametros de planejamento para programas de rastreamento do cancer precoce da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Ferreira, Rubemar de

    1994-12-31

    Radiation doses are the main parameters applied to the evaluation of mammographic radiological impact. This study, for a sample of 407 women, were analyzed, through the thermoluminescent dosimetry, radiation doses in the surface of skin and glandular absorbed doses for cranio-caudal view. The results show the presence of a large dose range to the same mammographic procedure, which, analyzed enclosed with 585 facilities, suggest be necessary the standardization of the mammographic technique. From that results, with the additive model, the excess of breast cancer (radioinduced) and lifetime loss risk, for age groups between 30 and 70 years were estimated. Is demonstrated that the benefits from dedicated mammography, overcome the relationship among the epidemiological aspects of breast cancer and ionizing radiation as an harmful agent, which may show an important correlation for large exposed populations, point out the importance of the continuous risk and benefit evaluation to the new technologies introduced. (author). 86 refs., 40 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  8. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  9. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  10. Development of an adjoint sensitivity field-based treatment-planning technique for the use of newly designed directional LDR sources in brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaswal, V; Thomadsen, B R; Henderson, D L

    2012-02-21

    The development and application of an automated 3D greedy heuristic (GH) optimization algorithm utilizing the adjoint sensitivity fields for treatment planning to assess the advantage of directional interstitial prostate brachytherapy is presented. Directional and isotropic dose kernels generated using Monte Carlo simulations based on Best Industries model 2301 I-125 source are utilized for treatment planning. The newly developed GH algorithm is employed for optimization of the treatment plans for seven interstitial prostate brachytherapy cases using mixed sources (directional brachytherapy) and using only isotropic sources (conventional brachytherapy). All treatment plans resulted in V100 > 98% and D90 > 45 Gy for the target prostate region. For the urethra region, the D10(Ur), D90(Ur) and V150(Ur) and for the rectum region the V100cc, D2cc, D90(Re) and V90(Re) all are reduced significantly when mixed sources brachytherapy is used employing directional sources. The simulations demonstrated that the use of directional sources in the low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy of the prostate clearly benefits in sparing the urethra and the rectum sensitive structures from overdose. The time taken for a conventional treatment plan is less than three seconds, while the time taken for a mixed source treatment plan is less than nine seconds, as tested on an Intel Core2 Duo 2.2 GHz processor with 1GB RAM. The new 3D GH algorithm is successful in generating a feasible LDR brachytherapy treatment planning solution with an extra degree of freedom, i.e. directionality in very little time.

  11. Development of an adjoint sensitivity field-based treatment-planning technique for the use of newly designed directional LDR sources in brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaswal, V.; Thomadsen, B. R.; Henderson, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    The development and application of an automated 3D greedy heuristic (GH) optimization algorithm utilizing the adjoint sensitivity fields for treatment planning to assess the advantage of directional interstitial prostate brachytherapy is presented. Directional and isotropic dose kernels generated using Monte Carlo simulations based on Best Industries model 2301 I-125 source are utilized for treatment planning. The newly developed GH algorithm is employed for optimization of the treatment plans for seven interstitial prostate brachytherapy cases using mixed sources (directional brachytherapy) and using only isotropic sources (conventional brachytherapy). All treatment plans resulted in V100 > 98% and D90 > 45 Gy for the target prostate region. For the urethra region, the D10Ur, D90Ur and V150Ur and for the rectum region the V100cc, D2cc, D90Re and V90Re all are reduced significantly when mixed sources brachytherapy is used employing directional sources. The simulations demonstrated that the use of directional sources in the low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy of the prostate clearly benefits in sparing the urethra and the rectum sensitive structures from overdose. The time taken for a conventional treatment plan is less than three seconds, while the time taken for a mixed source treatment plan is less than nine seconds, as tested on an Intel Core2 Duo 2.2 GHz processor with 1GB RAM. The new 3D GH algorithm is successful in generating a feasible LDR brachytherapy treatment planning solution with an extra degree of freedom, i.e. directionality in very little time.

  12. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  13. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  14. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  15. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  16. The ASDEX Upgrade Parameter Server

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Gregor, E-mail: gregor.neu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Gräter, Alex [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Rapson, Christopher J.; Raupp, Gerhard; Treutterer, Wolfgang; Zasche, Dietrich; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We describe our main tool in the plasma control configuration process. • Parameter access and computation are configurable with XML files. • Simple implementation of in situ tests by rerouting requests to test data. • Pulse specific overriding of parameters. - Abstract: Concepts for the configuration of plant systems and plasma control of modern devices such as ITER and W7-X are based on global data structures, or “pulse schedules” or “experiment programs”, which specify all physics characteristics (waveforms for controlled actuators and plasma quantities) and all technical characteristics of the plant systems (diagnostics and actuators operation settings) for a planned pulse. At ASDEX Upgrade we use different approach. We observed that the physics characteristics driving the discharge control system (DCS) are frequently modified on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Plant system operation, however, relies on technical standard settings, or “basic configurations” to provide guaranteed resources or services, which evolve according to longer term session or campaign operation schedules. This is why AUG manages technical configuration items separately from physics items. Consistent computation of the DCS configuration requires access to all this physics and technical data, which include the discharge programme (DP), settings of actuator systems and real-time diagnostics, the current system state and a database of static parameters. A Parameter Server provides a unified view on all these parameter sets and acts as the central point of access. We describe the functionality and architecture of the Parameter Server and its embedding into the control environment.

  17. Parameter tracking with partial forgetting method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Nagy, Ivan; Kárný, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-12 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : regression models * model * parameter estimation * parameter tracking Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/dedecius-0370448.pdf

  18. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L; Den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D 90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2–5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D 90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D 90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models. (paper)

  19. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  20. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan

    2017-12-01

    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  1. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. [Mintec Inc. (US)

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art mine planning program that facilitates data storage and provides easy access to essential mine information. MineSight from Mintec, Inc., and the addition MineSight 3D provide a powerful tool used by major coal companies worldwide, offering modelling of different deposit types and complete planning tools including advanced surface/surface and solid/surface intersection routines. The new MineSight Operations addition helps to streamline the planning process and store raw blasthole data (in acQuire) and essential cut attribute information. 12 figs.

  2. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  3. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  4. Education plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.

    1987-01-01

    There is pressing need for education of fusion people and those in the radiation effects community on the role of radiation hardening in radiation diagnostic. There is no plan at present to do this. The plan is to be proposed and developed. The education methods should include distribution of a primer, the proceedings of this workshop, and updated data compilations and talks by experts at the fusion labs, universities, and meetings

  5. business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Luzan, Dmitrij

    2009-01-01

    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  6. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  7. Calculation of the ceramics Weibull parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2011), s. 642-647 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine 2011. Bali, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomaterial parameters * Weibull statistics * ceramics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-132.pdf

  8. Energy planning and management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  9. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  10. Mathematical determination of setup parameters for carcinoma breast cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.B.L.D.; Suresh, P.; Sridhar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining proper patient set up parameters like IFD, Gantry angles and field width in Ca Breast are prime important to achieve precise treatment. In a center where 3D Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) and simulator are not available to determine the set up parameters, contouring of target region is essential which is time consuming. The mathematical formula described here provides instant patient set up parameters using machine parameters. (author)

  11. Cosmological Parameters 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Joel R.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\

  12. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  13. DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS, DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS, AND THE ACCUMULATION OF RETIREMENT WEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David

    2010-01-01

    The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597

  14. Optimization of importance factors in inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, L.

    1999-01-01

    Inverse treatment planning starts with a treatment objective and obtains the solution by optimizing an objective function. The clinical objectives are usually multifaceted and potentially incompatible with one another. A set of importance factors is often incorporated in the objective function to parametrize trade-off strategies and to prioritize the dose conformality in different anatomical structures. Whereas the general formalism remains the same, different sets of importance factors characterize plans of obviously different flavour and thus critically determine the final plan. Up to now, the determination of these parameters has been a 'guessing' game based on empirical knowledge because the final dose distribution depends on the parameters in a complex and implicit way. The influence of these parameters is not known until the plan optimization is completed. In order to compromise properly the conflicting requirements of the target and sensitive structures, the parameters are usually adjusted through a trial-and-error process. In this paper, a method to estimate these parameters computationally is proposed and an iterative computer algorithm is described to determine these parameters numerically. The treatment plan selection is done in two steps. First, a set of importance factors are chosen and the corresponding beam parameters (e.g. beam profiles) are optimized under the guidance of a quadratic objective function using an iterative algorithm reported earlier. The 'optimal' plan is then evaluated by an additional scoring function. The importance factors in the objective function are accordingly adjusted to improve the ranking of the plan. For every change in the importance factors, the beam parameters need to be re-optimized. This process continues in an iterative fashion until the scoring function is saturated. The algorithm was applied to two clinical cases and the results demonstrated that it has the potential to improve significantly the existing method of

  15. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...

  16. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  17. Big plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kevin F; Doyle, James F

    2005-09-01

    In Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare's capital planning method: Future replacement costs of assets are estimated by inflating their historical cost over their lives. A balanced model is created initially based on the assumption that rates of revenue growth, inflation, investment income, and interest expense are all equal. Numbers then can be adjusted to account for possible variations, such as excesses or shortages in investment or debt balances.

  18. Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  19. Strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years' worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program's specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program's success

  20. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  1. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  2. Safeguards systems parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Heil, J.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper analyses are made of the values of those parameters that characterize the present safeguards system that is applied to a national fuel cycle; those values have to be fixed quantitatively so that all actions of the safeguards authority are specified precisely. The analysis starts by introducing three categories of quantities: The design parameters (number of MBAs, inventory frequency, variance of MUF, verification effort and false-alarm probability) describe those quantities whose values have to be specified before the safeguards system can be implemented. The performance criteria (probability of detection, expected detection time, goal quantity) measure the effectiveness of a safeguards system; and the standards (threshold amount and critical time) characterize the magnitude of the proliferation problem. The means by which the values of the individual design parameters can be determined with the help of the performance criteria; which qualitative arguments can narrow down the arbitrariness of the choice of values of the remaining parameters; and which parameter values have to be fixed more or less arbitrarily, are investigated. As a result of these considerations, which include the optimal allocation of a given inspection effort, the problem of analysing the structure of the safeguards system is reduced to an evaluation of the interplay of only a few parameters, essentially the quality of the measurement system (variance of MUF), verification effort, false-alarm probability, goal quantity and probability of detection

  3. Planning Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...... is represented as something outside and fluid which is meant to be channelled into the territorial containers by means of regional development and spatial planning. These representations of the social suggest a territorialized culturally integrated society as the unquestioned frame of reference which has lost...

  4. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose–Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pötter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45–50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model (α/β = 10 Gy for tumor; α/β = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV (± 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 (±30) cm 3 , and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 (±14) cm 3 . The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 (±13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 (±20) Gy, 76 (±16) Gy, 70 (±9) Gy, and 60 (±9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19–87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and organs at risk are in a comparable

  5. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose-Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Schmid, Maximilian P., E-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Fidarova, Elena; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45-50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy for tumor; {alpha}/{beta} = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV ({+-} 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 ({+-}30) cm{sup 3}, and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 ({+-}14) cm{sup 3}. The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 ({+-}13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 ({+-}20) Gy, 76 ({+-}16) Gy, 70 ({+-}9) Gy, and 60 ({+-}9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19-87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and

  6. Automated IMRT planning with regional optimization using planning scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; Wong, Eugene; Bzdusek, Karl; Lock, Michael; Chen, Jeff

    2013-01-07

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a standard technique in radiation therapy for treating different types of cancers. Various class solutions have been developed for simple cases (e.g., localized prostate, whole breast) to generate IMRT plans efficiently. However, for more complex cases (e.g., head and neck, pelvic nodes), it can be time-consuming for a planner to generate optimized IMRT plans. To generate optimal plans in these more complex cases which generally have multiple target volumes and organs at risk, it is often required to have additional IMRT optimization structures such as dose limiting ring structures, adjust beam geometry, select inverse planning objectives and associated weights, and additional IMRT objectives to reduce cold and hot spots in the dose distribution. These parameters are generally manually adjusted with a repeated trial and error approach during the optimization process. To improve IMRT planning efficiency in these more complex cases, an iterative method that incorporates some of these adjustment processes automatically in a planning script is designed, implemented, and validated. In particular, regional optimization has been implemented in an iterative way to reduce various hot or cold spots during the optimization process that begins with defining and automatic segmentation of hot and cold spots, introducing new objectives and their relative weights into inverse planning, and turn this into an iterative process with termination criteria. The method has been applied to three clinical sites: prostate with pelvic nodes, head and neck, and anal canal cancers, and has shown to reduce IMRT planning time significantly for clinical applications with improved plan quality. The IMRT planning scripts have been used for more than 500 clinical cases.

  7. Treatment Planning for Ion Beam Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver

    The special aspects of treatment planning for ion beams are outlined in this chapter, starting with positioning and immobilization of the patient, describing imaging and segmentation, definition of treatment parameters, dose calculation and optimization, and, finally, plan assessment, verification, and quality assurance.

  8. Electroweak interaction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    After a presentation of the experimentally determined parameters of the standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model the author discusses the definition of the Weinberg angle. Then masses and widths of the intermediate vector bosons are considered in the framework of the Weinberg-Salam theory with radiative corrections. Furthermore the radiative decays of these bosons are discussed. Then the relations between the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark are considered. Thereafter grand unification is briefly discussed with special regards to the SU(5) prediction of some observable parameters. Finally some speculations are made concerning the observation of radiative decays in the UA1 experiments. (HSI)

  9. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  10. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  11. Multiemployer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active multiemployer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  12. Inverse planning and class solutions for brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, P.

    2010-01-01

    Brachytherapy or interventional radiooncology is a method of radiation therapy. It is a method, where a small encapsulated radioactive source is placed near to / in the tumour and therefore delivers high doses directly to the target volume. Organs at risk (OARs) are spared due to the inverse square dose fall-off. In the past years there was a slight stagnation in the development of techniques for brachytherapy treatment. While external beam radiotherapy became more and more sophisticated, in brachytherapy traditional methods have been still used. Recently, 3D imaging was considered also as the modality for brachytherapy and more precise brachytherapy could expand. Nowadays, an image guided brachytherapy is state-of-art in many centres. Integration of imaging methods lead to the dose distribution individually tailored for each patient. Treatment plan optimization is mostly performed manually as an adaptation of a standard loading pattern. Recently, inverse planning approaches have been introduced into brachytherapy. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to analyze inverse planning and to develop concepts how to integrate inverse planning into cervical cancer brachytherapy. First part of the thesis analyzes the Hybrid Inverse treatment Planning and Optimization (HIPO) algorithm and proposes a workflow how to safely work with this algorithm. The problem of inverse planning generally is that only the dose and volume parameters are taken into account and spatial dose distribution is neglected. This fact can lead to unwanted high dose regions in a normal tissue. A unique implementation of HIPO into the treatment planning system using additional features enabled to create treatment plans similar to the plans resulting from manual optimization and to shape the high dose regions inside the CTV. In the second part the HIPO algorithm is compared to the Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) algorithm. IPSA is implemented into the commercial treatment planning system. It

  13. Sea surface stability parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.; Suich, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of studies dealing with climatology of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean have been published in the last ten years. These published studies have dealt with directly measured meteorological parameters, e.g., wind speed, temperature, etc. This information has been useful because of the increased focus on the near coastal zone where man's activities are increasing in magnitude and scope, e.g., offshore power plants, petroleum production, and the subsequent environmental impacts of these activities. Atmospheric transport of passive or nonpassive material is significantly influenced by the turbulence structure of the atmosphere in the region of the atmosphere-ocean interface. This research entails identification of the suitability of standard atmospheric stability parameters which can be used to determine turbulence structure; the calculation of these parameters for the near-shore and continental shelf regions of the U.S. east coast from Cape Hatteras to Miami, Florida; and the preparation of a climatology of these parameters. In addition, a climatology for average surface stress for the same geographical region is being prepared

  14. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.

  15. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  16. Quantization of physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    Dynamical models are described with parameters (mass, coupling strengths) which must be quantized for quantum mechanical consistency. These and related topological ideas have physical application to phenomenological descriptions of high temperature and low energy quantum chromodynamics, to the nonrelativistic dynamics of magnetic monopoles, and to the quantum Hall effect. (author)

  17. Plan Repair as an Extension of Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dynamic environments, agents have to deal with changing situations. In these cases, repairing a plan is often more efficient than planning from scratch, but existing planning techniques are more advanced than existing plan repair techniques. Therefore, we propose a straightforward method to

  18. Optomechanical parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-01-01

    We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (paper)

  19. Critical parameters for ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Masui, G.; Uematsu, M.

    2005-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for ammonia were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -1 K (T - T c ) 0.04 K, and of densities: -19 kg . m -3 (ρ - ρ c ) 19 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 350, and 400) K. The critical parameters of T c and ρ c were determined based on the results of observation of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure p c was determined from the present measurements at T c on the vapor pressure curve. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  20. Critical parameters for ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Masui, G. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2005-09-15

    (p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for ammonia were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -1 K (T - T {sub c}) 0.04 K, and of densities: -19 kg . m{sup -3} ({rho} - {rho} {sub c}) 19 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 350, and 400) K. The critical parameters of T {sub c} and {rho} {sub c} were determined based on the results of observation of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure p {sub c} was determined from the present measurements at T {sub c} on the vapor pressure curve. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  1. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  2. Interactively exploring optimized treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Isaac; Liu, H. Helen; Childress, Nathan; Liao Zhongxing

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A new paradigm for treatment planning is proposed that embodies the concept of interactively exploring the space of optimized plans. In this approach, treatment planning ignores the details of individual plans and instead presents the physician with clinical summaries of sets of solutions to well-defined clinical goals in which every solution has been optimized in advance by computer algorithms. Methods and materials: Before interactive planning, sets of optimized plans are created for a variety of treatment delivery options and critical structure dose-volume constraints. Then, the dose-volume parameters of the optimized plans are fit to linear functions. These linear functions are used to show in real time how the target dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes as the DVHs of the critical structures are changed interactively. A bitmap of the space of optimized plans is used to restrict the feasible solutions. The physician selects the critical structure dose-volume constraints that give the desired dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and then those constraints are used to create the corresponding optimized plan. Results: The method is demonstrated using prototype software, Treatment Plan Explorer (TPEx), and a clinical example of a patient with a tumor in the right lung. For this example, the delivery options included 4 open beams, 12 open beams, 4 wedged beams, and 12 wedged beams. Beam directions and relative weights were optimized for a range of critical structure dose-volume constraints for the lungs and esophagus. Cord dose was restricted to 45 Gy. Using the interactive interface, the physician explored how the tumor dose changed as critical structure dose-volume constraints were tightened or relaxed and selected the best compromise for each delivery option. The corresponding treatment plans were calculated and compared with the linear parameterization presented to the physician in TPEx. The linear fits were best for the maximum PTV dose and worst

  3. ATLAS parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem

  4. Plan Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  5. Radiation portal evaluation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of the unauthorized movement of radioactive materials is one of the most effective nonproliferation measures. Automatic special nuclear material (SNM) portal monitors are designed to detect this unauthorized movement and are an important part of the safeguard systems at US nuclear facilities. SNM portals differ from contamination monitors because they are designed to have high sensitivity for the low energy gamma-rays associated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. These instruments are now being installed at international borders to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination an SNM. In this paper the parameters important to evaluating radiation portal monitors are discussed. (author)

  6. Buncher system parameter optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A least-squares algorithm is presented to calculate the RF amplitudes and cavity spacings for a series of buncher cavities each resonating at a frequency that is a multiple of a fundamental frequency of interest. The longitudinal phase-space distribution, obtained by particle tracing through the bunching system, is compared to a desired distribution function of energy and phase. The buncher cavity parameters are adjusted to minimize the difference between these two distributions. Examples are given for zero space charge. The manner in which the method can be extended to include space charge using the 3-D space-charge calculation procedure is indicated

  7. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  8. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Uncertainty in spatial planning proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is distinctive of spatial planning as it arises from the necessity to co-ordinate the various interests within the area, from the urgency of adopting spatial planning decisions, the complexity of the environment, physical space and society, addressing the uncertainty of the future and from the uncertainty of actually making the right decision. Response to uncertainty is a series of measures that mitigate the effects of uncertainty itself. These measures are based on two fundamental principles – standardization and optimization. The measures are related to knowledge enhancement and spatial planning comprehension, in the legal regulation of changes, in the existence of spatial planning as a means of different interests co-ordination, in the active planning and the constructive resolution of current spatial problems, in the integration of spatial planning and the environmental protection process, in the implementation of the analysis as the foundation of spatial planners activities, in the methods of thinking outside the parameters, in forming clear spatial concepts and in creating a transparent management spatial system and also in the enforcement the participatory processes.

  10. Planning issues for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, P.; Schneider, M.; Smee, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Despite the 'inverse planning' stage of an intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment there remains a large number of variables that can, and must, be set manually. These variables can significantly affect the quality of the dose distribution arrived at by the optimisation. Clinical IMRT planning with the Radionics XPlan system for micro-multileaf collimator (MMLC) delivery has allowed for important lessons to be learned regarding the best beam and organ configurations prior to optimisation of beamlet weights. Important user-definable variables are beam directions, organ parameters (dose goals/penalties), and the margin (if any) around the planning target volume (PTV) used to aid coverage. Conventional stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments typically involve non-coplanar beams since there is often an advantage in terms of cranial organ at risk (OAR) sparing. IMRT can also benefit from such a configuration. The balance between target coverage and OAR sparing is largely controlled by user-defined goal doses and penalties. Once optimisation has been performed, intensity maps can be discretised into a selected number of levels. Less levels means less field segments and thus a shorter treatment time. Although IMRT beams attempt to spare structures which are in the 'beam's eye view' (BEV) of the target volume, sparing is greater if beams which minimise the involvement of OARs in their view are used. It has been found that the use of a margin is an effective way to ensure adequate PTV coverage. Alternatively the PTV penalties can be made larger. The best result is often obtained by the use of a 3-4 mm margin, whose penalty for underdosage is somewhat less than that for the PTV. Discretising the intensity maps to 4 or 5 levels is typically a good balance between shortening treatment time and not overly degrading the dose distribution. Beam configuration is still an important step in IMRT planning, even though optimisation of intensity maps is

  11. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  12. Wilmar Planning Tool, VBA documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-15

    This is a documentation of the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) in the Wilmar Planning Tool. VBA is used in the Wilmar User Shell (an Excel workbook) and in the three Access databases that hold input, scenario and output data. The Wilmar Planning Tool is developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (contract ENK5-CT-2002-00663). The User Shell controls the operation of the Wilmar Planning Tool. In the User Shell various control parameters are set, and then a macro in the Input Database is run that writes input files for the Joint market Model and the Long Term Model. Afterwards these models can be started from the User Shell. Finally, the User Shell can start a macro in the Output Database that imports the output files from the models. (LN)

  13. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  14. Wilmar Planning Tool, VBA documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-01

    This is a documentation of the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) in the Wilmar Planning Tool. VBA is used in the Wilmar User Shell (an Excel workbook) and in the three Access databases that hold input, scenario and output data. The Wilmar Planning Tool is developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (contract ENK5-CT-2002-00663). The User Shell controls the operation of the Wilmar Planning Tool. In the User Shell various control parameters are set, and then a macro in the Input Database is run that writes input files for the Joint market Model and the Long Term Model. Afterwards these models can be started from the User Shell. Finally, the User Shell can start a macro in the Output Database that imports the output files from the models. (LN)

  15. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites

  16. Parameter Subset Selection Techniques for Problems in Mathematical Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian; Smith, Ralph; Tran, Hien

    2015-01-01

    Patient-specific models for diagnostics and treatment planning require reliable parameter estimation and model predictions. Mathematical models of physiological systems are often formulated as systems of nonlinear ODEs with many parameters and few options for measuring all state variables....... Consequently, it can be difficult to determine which parameters can reliably be estimated from the available data. This investigation highlights some pitfalls associated with parameters that are unidentifiable in the sense that they are not uniquely determined by responses, and presents methods for recognizing...... and addressing identifiability problems. These methods quantify the magnitude of parameter influence through sensitivity analysis, and parameter interactions that might complicate unambiguous parameter estimation. The methods will be demonstrated using five examples of increasing complexity, as well...

  17. Test planning and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    Testing plan should include Safety guide Q4 - Inspection and testing - A testing plan should be prepared including following information: General information (facility name, item or system reference, procurement document reference, document reference number and status, associated procedures and drawings); A sequential listing of all testing activities; Procedure, work instruction, specification or standard to be followed in respect of each operation and test; Acceptance criteria; Identification of who is performing tests; Identification of hold points; Type of records to be prepared for each test; Persons and organizations having authority for final acceptance. Proposed activities sequence is: visual, electrical and mechanical checks; environmental tests (thermal aging, vibrations aging, radioactive aging); performance evaluation in extreme conditions; dynamic tests with functional checks; final electrical and mechanical checks The planning of the tests should always be performed taking into account an interpretative model: a very tight cooperation is advisable between experimental people and numerical people dealing with the analysis of more or less complex models for the seismic assessment of structures and components. Preparatory phase should include the choice of the following items should be agreed upon with the final user of the tests: Excitation points, Excitation types, Excitation amplitude with respect to frequency, Measuring points. Data acquisition, recording and storage, should take into account the characteristics of the successive data processing: to much data can be cumbersome to be processed, but to few data can make unusable the experimental results. The parameters for time history acquisition should be chosen taking into account data processing: for Shock Response Spectrum calculation some special requirements should be met: frequency bounded signal, high frequency sampling, shock noise. For stationary random-like excitation, the sample length

  18. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  19. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  20. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  2. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  3. Safety Parameters Graphical Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canamero, B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power plant data are received at the Operations Center of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear in emergency situations. In order to achieve the required interface and to prepare those data to perform simulation and forecasting with already existing computer codes a Safety Parameters Graphical Interface (IGPS) has been developed. The system runs in a UNIX environment and use the Xwindows capabilities. The received data are stored in such a way that it can be easily used for further analysis and training activities. The system consists of task-oriented modules (processes) which communicate each other using well known UNIX mechanisms (signals, sockets and shared memory segments). IGPS conceptually have two different parts: Data collection and preparation, and Data monitorization. (Author)

  4. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  5. Intelligent robot action planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, T; Siegler, A

    1982-01-01

    Action planning methods used in intelligent robot control are discussed. Planning is accomplished through environment understanding, environment representation, task understanding and planning, motion analysis and man-machine communication. These fields are analysed in detail. The frames of an intelligent motion planning system are presented. Graphic simulation of the robot's environment and motion is used to support the planning. 14 references.

  6. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  7. Process Damping Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

  8. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  9. Financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Χατζηγώγου, Αρτεμις Π.

    2003-01-01

    Σκοπός της μελέτης αυτής, είναι η συγκέντρωση όλων των στοιχείων εκείνων που συνθέτουν μια οργανωμένη διαδικασία έρευνας, που είναι γνωστή ως Financial Planning. Θα μπορούσαμε εναλλακτικά να πούμε, ότι βασικά ο χρηματοοικονομικός σχεδιασμός προγραμματίζει, εξευρίσκει και χρησιμοποιεί τα κεφάλαια με τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε η συνεισφορά τους να είναι μεγαλύτερη στην αποτελεσματική λειτουργία της οικονομικής μονάδας. Παρέχει τις γνώσεις των χρηματιστικών αγορών από όπου αντλούνται τα κεφάλαια. Οδηγεί ...

  10. Planning ATES systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Kwakkel, Jan; Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can contribute to significant reductions in energy use within the built environment, by providing seasonal energy storage in aquifers for the heating and cooling of buildings. ATES systems have experienced a rapid uptake over the last two decades; however, despite successful experiments at the individual level, the overall performance of ATES systems remains below expectations - largely due to suboptimal practices for the planning and operation of systems in urban areas. The interaction between ATES systems and underground aquifers can be interpreted as a common-pool resource problem, in which thermal imbalances or interference could eventually degrade the storage potential of the subsurface. Current planning approaches for ATES systems thus typically follow the precautionary principle. For instance, the permitting process in the Netherlands is intended to minimize thermal interference between ATES systems. However, as shown in recent studies (Sommer et al., 2015; Bakr et al., 2013), a controlled amount of interference may benefit the collective performance of ATES systems. An overly restrictive approach to permitting is instead likely to create an artificial scarcity of available space, limiting the potential of the technology in urban areas. In response, master plans - which take into account the collective arrangement of multiple systems - have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative. However, permits and master plans both take a static, ex ante view of ATES governance, making it difficult to predict the effect of evolving ATES use or climactic conditions on overall performance. In particular, the adoption of new systems by building operators is likely to be driven by the available subsurface space and by the performance of existing systems; these outcomes are themselves a function of planning parameters. From this perspective, the interactions between planning authorities, ATES operators, and subsurface conditions

  11. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  12. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  13. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  14. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  15. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  16. Economic planning: Time to reconsider?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafouros Wassily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the collapse of what was once called the socialist system, was also the collapse of research on any other form of economic organization of a society. Administrative methods for running an economy, with economic planning foremost among them, were inseparably linked to the collapse of the socialist system and, in essence, were held responsible for it. Thus, although the dominant economic paradigm has once again failed to deliver in recent years, the research for other methods fell into oblivion along with the system they were attached to. This work represents an attempt to reconsider the potential of economic planning as a means of organizing an economy at various levels, at various degrees and in various environments. I shall try to illustrate that the blame for the collapse of different socialist systems should not have fallen on the systemic deficiencies of economic planning but, instead, on the political institutions responsible for its application. In addition, I will stress that economic planning has been condemned by non-economic parameters and the application of wrong planning methods. In making this argument I hope to provide an angle through which the discussion of economic organization can be opened to a broader scope of research.

  17. Chickpea seeds germination rational parameters optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Yu A.; Ivliev, M. N.; Lemeshkin, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the influence of chickpea seeds bioactivation parameters on their enzymatic activity experimental results. Optimal bioactivation process modes were obtained by regression-factor analysis: process temperature - 13.6 °C, process duration - 71.5 h. It was found that in the germination process, the proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes activity increased, and the urease enzyme activity is reduced. The dependences of enzyme activity on chickpea seeds germination conditions were obtained by mathematical processing of experimental data. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental ones. This confirms the optimization efficiency based on experiments mathematical planning in order to determine the enzymatic activity of chickpea seeds germination optimal parameters of bioactivated seeds.

  18. 11. Strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  19. Comparison of attitudes related with family planning methods before and after effective family planning counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esim Büyükbayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of family planning counseling on the changeover of the family planning method and to determine level of knowledge of participants on family planning methods and their attitude towards changeover of the method after counseling. Setting: Kartal education and reseach hospital obstetrics and gynecology clinic, department of family planning. Patients. 500 consecutive women applying to family planning department for any reason. Interventions: Effective family planning counseling service was given to each participant then a questioner containin 14 questions was applied with face to face technique. Main Outcome Measures: Attitude towards family planning counseling, comparison of the preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service and influential sociodemographic parameters on method choise were studied. Results: 45,2% of the participants were not taken family planning counseling service before. knowledge on family planning methods was sufficient in 25,2% of the participants, insufficient in 56,8% of the participants and 18% of the participants reported that they have no idea. 57,8% of the participants change mind about family planning counseling. 52,2% of the participants changeover perious method after counseling. 99,4% of the participants said that family planning counseling service should be given to every women. Preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service was statistically significantly different (p<0.01. Educational level, income and age were found to be influential sociodemographic factors for method preference. Conclusions: Effective family planning counseling service is found to have favorable effect on attitude and knowledge about family planning methods. Modern method usage increase as educational level and income of the participants increase.

  20. Dosimetric comparison of lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment plans using averaged computed tomography and end-exhalation computed tomography images: Evaluation of the effect of different dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Nakamura, Akira; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively evaluate differences in dose distributions calculated using various computed tomography (CT) datasets, dose-calculation algorithms, and prescription methods in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Data on 29 patients with early-stage lung cancer treated with SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Averaged CT (Ave-CT) and expiratory CT (Ex-CT) images were reconstructed for each patient using 4-dimensional CT data. Dose distributions were initially calculated using the Ave-CT images and recalculated (in the same monitor units [MUs]) by employing Ex-CT images with the same beam arrangements. The dose-volume parameters, including D 95 , D 90 , D 50 , and D 2 of the planning target volume (PTV), were compared between the 2 image sets. To explore the influence of dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods on the differences in dose distributions evident between Ave-CT and Ex-CT images, we calculated dose distributions using the following 3 different algorithms: x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), Acuros XB (AXB), and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). We also used 2 different dose-prescription methods; the isocenter prescription and the PTV periphery prescription methods. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data were within 3 percentage points (%pts) employing the isocenter prescription method, and within 1.5%pts using the PTV periphery prescription method, irrespective of which of the 3 algorithms (XVMC, AXB, and AAA) was employed. The frequencies of dose-volume parameters differing by >1%pt when the XVMC and AXB were used were greater than those associated with the use of the AAA, regardless of the dose-prescription method employed. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data on patients who underwent lung SBRT were within 3%pts, regardless of the dose-calculation algorithm or the

  1. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  2. Plan negocios : Conjunto Residencial Los Helechos

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Ibarra, Andrés Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The business plan has been developed from a research and analysis of multiple variables, which are directly related to housing market in the city of Quito. Therefore, the business plan seeks to establish the right parameters that will support the viability of the project. The housing project consists of 14 units and is located in northern Quito, on the Kennedy parish. The project belongs to the architectural firm Endara Architects, who have been in the market for over 20 years. The mai...

  3. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis.......A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis....

  4. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  5. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  6. Using sobol sequences for planning computer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statnikov, I. N.; Firsov, G. I.

    2017-12-01

    Discusses the use for research of problems of multicriteria synthesis of dynamic systems method of Planning LP-search (PLP-search), which not only allows on the basis of the simulation model experiments to revise the parameter space within specified ranges of their change, but also through special randomized nature of the planning of these experiments is to apply a quantitative statistical evaluation of influence of change of varied parameters and their pairwise combinations to analyze properties of the dynamic system.Start your abstract here...

  7. IMRT plan validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The lecture encompassed the following topics: Utility of radiographic and radiochromic film dosimetry; Diode and chamber arrays; 3D gel dosimetry; 4D dosimetry; Experimental design for dosimetry; In vivo measurements. and Portal dosimetry. In conclusion, the following pitfalls, potential errors and possible actions are pointed to: (i) Lacking algorithm in the TPS for tongue-and-groove effect. Action: Design and verify a new plan in which the tongue-and-groove effect plays a minor role. Discuss the issue with the TPS manufacturer. (ii) Systematic deviations between TPS calculations and ionisation chamber measurements at the isocentre for plans with many small segments due to uncertainties in the output factor calculation. Action: Rescale the number of MUs. Discuss the issue with the TPS manufacturer. (iii) Large regions with gamma values larger than one during repeated film measurements, while ionisation chamber measurements are correct. Action: Check if the film batch is not expired and if so repeat the measurement with a new batch. (iv) Missing significant errors, e.g., resulting from MLC displacements, due to the limited resolution of the measuring device. Action: Move the device in different directions and repeat the measurement. (v) Missing errors at other parts of the PTV or in OARs by performing only one ionisation chamber measurement or an independent MU calculation at a point. Action: Perform also measurements in a plane for representative clinical cases. (vi) Wrong parameter in the TPS for the definition of leaf position. Action: Understand and verify the definition of leaf position in your TPS. (P.A.)

  8. Automation of radiation treatment planning. Evaluation of head and neck cancer patient plans created by the Pinnacle"3 scripting and Auto-Planning functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, Stefan; Weiss, Alexander; Bert, Christoph; Klein, Andreas; Kober, Lukas; Yohannes, Indra

    2017-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques are now standard practice. IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allow treatment of the tumor while simultaneously sparing organs at risk. Nevertheless, treatment plan quality still depends on the physicist's individual skills, experiences, and personal preferences. It would therefore be advantageous to automate the planning process. This possibility is offered by the Pinnacle"3 treatment planning system (Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany) via its scripting language or Auto-Planning (AP) module. AP module results were compared to in-house scripts and manually optimized treatment plans for standard head and neck cancer plans. Multiple treatment parameters were scored to judge plan quality (100 points = optimum plan). Patients were initially planned manually by different physicists and re-planned using scripts or AP. Script-based head and neck plans achieved a mean of 67.0 points and were, on average, superior to manually created (59.1 points) and AP plans (62.3 points). Moreover, they are characterized by reproducibility and lower standard deviation of treatment parameters. Even less experienced staff are able to create at least a good starting point for further optimization in a short time. However, for particular plans, experienced planners perform even better than scripts or AP. Experienced-user input is needed when setting up scripts or AP templates for the first time. Moreover, some minor drawbacks exist, such as the increase of monitor units (+35.5% for scripted plans). On average, automatically created plans are superior to manually created treatment plans. For particular plans, experienced physicists were able to perform better than scripts or AP; thus, the benefit is greatest when time is short or staff inexperienced. (orig.) [de

  9. Automation of radiation treatment planning : Evaluation of head and neck cancer patient plans created by the Pinnacle3 scripting and Auto-Planning functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Stefan; Klein, Andreas; Kober, Lukas; Weiss, Alexander; Yohannes, Indra; Bert, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques are now standard practice. IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allow treatment of the tumor while simultaneously sparing organs at risk. Nevertheless, treatment plan quality still depends on the physicist's individual skills, experiences, and personal preferences. It would therefore be advantageous to automate the planning process. This possibility is offered by the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system (Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany) via its scripting language or Auto-Planning (AP) module. AP module results were compared to in-house scripts and manually optimized treatment plans for standard head and neck cancer plans. Multiple treatment parameters were scored to judge plan quality (100 points = optimum plan). Patients were initially planned manually by different physicists and re-planned using scripts or AP. Script-based head and neck plans achieved a mean of 67.0 points and were, on average, superior to manually created (59.1 points) and AP plans (62.3 points). Moreover, they are characterized by reproducibility and lower standard deviation of treatment parameters. Even less experienced staff are able to create at least a good starting point for further optimization in a short time. However, for particular plans, experienced planners perform even better than scripts or AP. Experienced-user input is needed when setting up scripts or AP templates for the first time. Moreover, some minor drawbacks exist, such as the increase of monitor units (+35.5% for scripted plans). On average, automatically created plans are superior to manually created treatment plans. For particular plans, experienced physicists were able to perform better than scripts or AP; thus, the benefit is greatest when time is short or staff inexperienced.

  10. Conditional Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) offers a solid foundation for automated planning under partial observability and non-determinism. Under such circumstances, a plan must branch if it is to guarantee achieving the goal under all contingencies (strong planning). Without...... branching, plans can offer only the possibility of achieving the goal (weak planning). We show how to formulate planning in uncertain domains using DEL and give a language of conditional plans. Translating this language to standard DEL gives verification of both strong and weak plans via model checking....... In addition to plan verification, we provide a tableau-inspired algorithm for synthesising plans, and show this algorithm to be terminating, sound and complete....

  11. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  12. Failed fuel action plan guidelines: Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a generic guideline that can be used to formulate a failed fuel action plan (FFAP) for specific application by a utility. This document is intended to be part of a comprehensive fuel reliability monitoring, management, and improvement program. The utilities may utilize this document as one resource in developing a failed fuel action plan. This document is not intended to be used as a failed fuel action plan standard. This document is intended to provide guidance on: management responsibilities; fuel performance parameters; cost/benefit analysis; action levels; long-term improvement methods; and data collection, analysis, and trending. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  14. Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Biranjan

    2013-01-01

    Degree Thesis “Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu” demonstrates structured marketing planning process with the help of case company “Feeniks Koulu”. The central idea of Thesis is to come up with systematic marketing plan following structured process. Thesis employs qualitative research methodology following inductive reasoning approach. Thesis, initiates by outlining theoretical planning methods, which then is materialized into marketing plan with the help of empirical research. Discussion and...

  15. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    This Ph.d. project describes the development of a workflow for Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for clinical radiotherapy plans. The workflow may be utilized to perform an independent dose verification of treatment plans. Modern radiotherapy treatment delivery is often conducted by dynamically...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...... and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...

  16. Reconstruction of the parameters of V0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierusalimov, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The procedure of reconstruction of the parameters of V 0 particles is considered for CBM setup that is planned to build up at the FAIR complex (GSI, Germany). It was shown that the use of various kinematic cuts permits one to improve essentially the selection of V 0 particles and to increase the signal/background ratio. The use of the kinematic fit procedure gives still more considerable improvement of the accuracy of V 0 parameters. The procedure of the selection of Ξ - hyperons is also examined. The considered algorithm can be used practically without changes to reconstruct the parameters of V 0 particles and Ω - /Ξ - hyperons in MPD/NICA

  17. Crystal structure of vanadite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Skála, Roman; Haloda, J.; Císařová, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2006), s. 271-275 ISSN 1210-8197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : anisotropic displacement parameter * crystal structure * single-crystal X-ray refinement * vanadinite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Study on the Energetic Parameters in a Photothermic Sensor with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the Energetic Parameters in a Photothermic Sensor with Black Polymeric Film. ... The evolution of incidental solar illumination on the horizontal plan of sensor and the temperature distribution are studied. Results showed that the ... Keywords: film, solar energy, greenhouse effect, design, radiation, illumination.

  19. W-algebra for solving problems with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlyakov, A. O.; Matveev, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    A method of solving the problems with fuzzy parameters by means of a special algebraic structure is proposed. The structure defines its operations through operations on real numbers, which simplifies its use. It avoids deficiencies limiting applicability of the other known structures. Examples for solution of a quadratic equation, a system of linear equations and a network planning problem are given.

  20. Normalized Dynamic Blood Pressure Parameters - Additional Marker of Hypertension Risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, P.; Fráňa, P.; Plachý, M.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2008), s. 103 ISSN 1556-7451. [World Congress on Heart Disease /14./. 26.07.2008-29.07.2008, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : hypertension * vessel compliance * blood pressure * dynamic parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  1. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden about the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 1 describes the general background, the plans for research and development, including the necessary facilities. The time schedule and the calculated costs of the operations are presented. (G.B.)

  2. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  3. Changed planning for planned and unplanned change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.; Aarts, N.; Herzele, Van A.

    2011-01-01

    Change, planned and unplanned, can be the product of events (change by chance), new language (change from societal interaction), and practices (track-bound change), and can involve many different societal actors. To position planning as an activity within this broader context, we present a model

  4. Wilmar Planning Tool, user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-15

    This is a short user guide to the Wilmar Planning Tool developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2002-00663). A User Shell implemented in an Excel workbook controls the Wilmar Planning Tool. All data are contained in Access databases that communicate with various sub-models through text files that are exported from or imported to the databases. In the User Shell various scenario variables and control parameters are set, and export of model data from the input database, activation of the models, as well as import of model results to the output database are triggered from the shell. (au)

  5. Wilmar Planning Tool, user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-01

    This is a short user guide to the Wilmar Planning Tool developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2002-00663). A User Shell implemented in an Excel workbook controls the Wilmar Planning Tool. All data are contained in Access databases that communicate with various sub-models through text files that are exported from or imported to the databases. In the User Shell various scenario variables and control parameters are set, and export of model data from the input database, activation of the models, as well as import of model results to the output database are triggered from the shell. (au)

  6. Influence of processing parameters on lattice parameters in laser deposited tool alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.F., E-mail: gfsun82@gmail.com [Center for Laser-Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Bhattacharya, S. [Center for Laser-Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Dinda, G.P.; Dasgupta, A. [Center for Advanced Technologies, Focus: Hope, Detroit, MI, 48238 (United States); Mazumder, J. [Center for Laser-Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Orientation relationships among phases in the DMD are given. {yields} Martensite lattice parameters increased with laser specific energy. {yields} Austenite lattice parameters decreased with laser specific energy. - Abstract: Laser aided direct metal deposition (DMD) has been used to form AISI 4340 steel coating on the AISI 4140 steel substrate. The microstructural property of the DMD coating was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Microhardness of the DMD was measured with a Vickers microhardness tester. Results indicate that DMD can be used to form dense AISI 4340 steel coatings on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The DMD coating is mainly composed of martensite and retained austenite. Consecutive thermal cycles have a remarkable effect on the microstructure of the plan view of the DMD coating and on the corresponding microhardness distribution. Orientation relationships among austenite, martensite and cementite in the DMD coating followed the ones in conventional heat treated steels. As the laser specific energy decreased, cooling rate increased, and martensite peaks broadened and shifted to a lower Bragg's angle. Also martensite lattice parameters increased and austenite lattice parameters decreased due to the above parameter change.

  7. Influence of processing parameters on lattice parameters in laser deposited tool alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, G.F.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dinda, G.P.; Dasgupta, A.; Mazumder, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Orientation relationships among phases in the DMD are given. → Martensite lattice parameters increased with laser specific energy. → Austenite lattice parameters decreased with laser specific energy. - Abstract: Laser aided direct metal deposition (DMD) has been used to form AISI 4340 steel coating on the AISI 4140 steel substrate. The microstructural property of the DMD coating was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Microhardness of the DMD was measured with a Vickers microhardness tester. Results indicate that DMD can be used to form dense AISI 4340 steel coatings on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The DMD coating is mainly composed of martensite and retained austenite. Consecutive thermal cycles have a remarkable effect on the microstructure of the plan view of the DMD coating and on the corresponding microhardness distribution. Orientation relationships among austenite, martensite and cementite in the DMD coating followed the ones in conventional heat treated steels. As the laser specific energy decreased, cooling rate increased, and martensite peaks broadened and shifted to a lower Bragg's angle. Also martensite lattice parameters increased and austenite lattice parameters decreased due to the above parameter change.

  8. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN

  9. Nuclear materials inventory plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, R.W.; Nichols, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    In any processing, manufacturing, or active storage facility it is impractical to assume that any physical security system can prevent the diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). It is, therefore, the responsibility of any DOE Contractor, Licensee, or other holder of SNM to provide assurance that loss or diversion of a significant quantity of SNM is detectable. This ability to detect must be accomplishable within a reasonable time interval and can be accomplished only by taking physical inventories. The information gained and decisions resulting from these inventories can be no better than the SNM accounting system and the quality of measurements performed for each receipt, removal and inventory. Inventories interrupt processing or production operations, increase personnel exposures, and can add significantly to the cost of any operation. Therefore, realistic goals for the inventory must be defined and the relationship of the inherent parameters used in its validation be determined. Purpose of this document is to provide a statement of goals and a plan of action to achieve them

  10. Planning for information systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, William R

    2015-01-01

    Edited by one of the best-known and most widely respected figures in the field, ""Planning for Information Systems"" is a comprehensive, single source overview of the myriad ideas and processes that are identified with IS planning. While many chapters deal with high level strategic planning, the book gives equal attention to on-the-ground planning issues.Part I, 'Key Concepts of IS Planning', focuses on how IS planning has evolved over the years; business-IS strategic alignment; and the role of dynamic organizational capabilities in leveraging IS competencies. Part II, 'The Organizational IS P

  11. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  12. Improved Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques refined for estimating heat of vaporization and other parameters from molecular structure. Using parabolic equation with three adjustable parameters, heat of vaporization can be used to estimate boiling point, and vice versa. Boiling points and vapor pressures for some nonpolar liquids were estimated by improved method and compared with previously reported values. Technique for estimating thermodynamic parameters should make it easier for engineers to choose among candidate heat-exchange fluids for thermochemical cycles.

  13. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  14. MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power

  15. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  16. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  17. INDOT Technical Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The study provides the background documents necessary for the development of a Technical Training Plan and makes recommendations : for the content and structure of such a plan for the District Operations, Operations, Capital Program Management, and E...

  18. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project.......This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project....

  20. Technology Implementation Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential.......The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential....

  1. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  2. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  3. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  4. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  5. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Planning ahead From choosing the crib to finding a ... care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  7. The Plan's the Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Planning is the process of setting direction, priorities, and guidelines. A CASE survey of public relations professionals is described that notes the use of staff retreats and brainstorming sessions, among other techniques and strategies, that help professionals plan. (MLW)

  8. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  9. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  10. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  11. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Planning ahead It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ...

  14. USCG Security Plan Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Security Plan Review module is intended for vessel and facility operators to check on the status of their security plans submitted to the US Coast Guard. A MISLE...

  15. Network development plan 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    Network plan 1995 concerns several strategic problems, among others environmental policy of power transmission lines. Possibilities of restructuring aerial cable network are described. The state of the existing systems and plans for new network systems are presented. (EG)

  16. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  17. Plan for radiological security at a university health center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiaman Mendoza, G.M.; Sanchez Riojas, M.M.; Felix JImenez, D.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows a radiological security plan applied to a Basic Radiological Service at a university health center. Factors taken into account were installation designs, equipment operation parameters, work procedures, image system and responsibilities

  18. Perceived Speech Privacy in Computer Simulated Open-plan Offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Claudiu B.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    In open plan offices the lack of speech privacy between the workstations is one of the major acoustic problems. Improving the speech privacy in an open plan design is therefore the main concern for a successful open plan environment. The project described in this paper aimed to find an objective...... parameter that correlates well with the perceived degree of speech privacy and to derive a clear method for evaluating the acoustic conditions in open plan offices. Acoustic measurements were carried out in an open plan office, followed by data analysis at the Acoustic Department, DTU. A computer model...

  19. 30 CFR 780.14 - Operation plan: Maps and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Maps and plans. 780.14 Section... PLAN § 780.14 Operation plan: Maps and plans. Each application shall contain maps and plans as follows: (a) The maps and plans shall show the lands proposed to be affected throughout the operation and any...

  20. Developing nursing care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Helen

    2016-02-24

    This article aims to enhance nurses' understanding of nursing care plans, reflecting on the past, present and future use of care planning. This involves consideration of the central theories of nursing and discussion of nursing models and the nursing process. An explanation is provided of how theories of nursing may be applied to care planning, in combination with clinical assessment tools, to ensure that care plans are context specific and patient centred.

  1. Interactive Energy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje

    2006-01-01

    Though it is being questioned whether planning theory should be fitted into neat typologies, some have described evolving planning theory as a journey away from ethnocentrism, through the lands of rationalism, pragmatism, socio-ecological idealism, political-economic mobilization, currently...... anchoring along the shores of the land of communications and collaboration. Whether or not a particular typology is applicable, theory and praxis are establishing standpoints, which strengthens our understanding of the planning complex, and which should inspire improved energy planning methodologies...

  2. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  3. Computer assisted SCFE osteotomy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapikowski, Pawel; Tyrakowski, Marcin; Czubak, Jaroslaw; Czwojdzinski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common pediatric orthopedic disorder that requires surgical correction. Preoperative planning of a proximal femoral osteotomy is essential in cases of SCFE. This planning is usually done using 2D radiographs, but 3D data can be acquired with CT and analyzed with 3D visualization software. SCFEanalyzer is a computer program developed for preoperative planning of proximal femoral osteotomy to correct SCFE. Computed tomography scans were performed on human bone specimens: one pelvis and two femoral bones (right and left) and volume data of a patient. The CT data were used to test the abilities of the SCFEanalyzer software, which utilizes 3D virtual models of anatomic structures constructed from CT image data. Separation of anatomical bone structures is done by means of ''cutting'' 3D surface model of the pelvis. The software enables qualitative and quantitative spatial analysis of chosen parameters analogous to those done on the basis of plain radiographs. SCFEanalyzer makes it possible to evaluate the function of the hip joint by calculating the range of motion depending on the shape of bone structures based on oriented bounding box object representation. Pelvic and hip CT scans from a patient with SCFE were subjected to femoral geometry analysis and hip joint function assessment. These were done to plan and simulate osteotomy of the proximal femur. Analogous qualitative and quantitative evaluation after performing the virtual surgery were evaluated to determine the potential treatment effects. The use of computer assistance in preoperative planning enable us to increase objectivity and repeatability, and to compare the results of different types of osteotomy on the proximal femur, and thus to choose the optimal operation in each individual case. (orig.)

  4. Computer assisted SCFE osteotomy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapikowski, Pawel [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Control and Information Engineering, Poznan (Poland); Tyrakowski, Marcin; Czubak, Jaroslaw; Czwojdzinski, Adam [Postgraduate Medical Education Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-11-15

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common pediatric orthopedic disorder that requires surgical correction. Preoperative planning of a proximal femoral osteotomy is essential in cases of SCFE. This planning is usually done using 2D radiographs, but 3D data can be acquired with CT and analyzed with 3D visualization software. SCFEanalyzer is a computer program developed for preoperative planning of proximal femoral osteotomy to correct SCFE. Computed tomography scans were performed on human bone specimens: one pelvis and two femoral bones (right and left) and volume data of a patient. The CT data were used to test the abilities of the SCFEanalyzer software, which utilizes 3D virtual models of anatomic structures constructed from CT image data. Separation of anatomical bone structures is done by means of ''cutting'' 3D surface model of the pelvis. The software enables qualitative and quantitative spatial analysis of chosen parameters analogous to those done on the basis of plain radiographs. SCFEanalyzer makes it possible to evaluate the function of the hip joint by calculating the range of motion depending on the shape of bone structures based on oriented bounding box object representation. Pelvic and hip CT scans from a patient with SCFE were subjected to femoral geometry analysis and hip joint function assessment. These were done to plan and simulate osteotomy of the proximal femur. Analogous qualitative and quantitative evaluation after performing the virtual surgery were evaluated to determine the potential treatment effects. The use of computer assistance in preoperative planning enable us to increase objectivity and repeatability, and to compare the results of different types of osteotomy on the proximal femur, and thus to choose the optimal operation in each individual case. (orig.)

  5. Parameters in pure type systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloo, C.J.; Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Rajsbaum, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the addition of parameters to typed ¿-calculus with definitions. We show that the resulting systems have nice properties and illustrate that parameters allow for a better fine-tuning of the strength of type systems as well as staying closer to type systems used in practice in

  6. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  7. HF Parameters of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Benallal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of experimental studies of HF input and primary parameters. A simulation model in Matlab SimulinkTM of multiphase windings as ladder circuit of coils is developed. A method for determining the primary parameters of ladder equivalent circuits is presented.

  8. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identified the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites

  9. Parameter Uncertainty for Repository Thermal Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greenberg, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dupont, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    This report is one follow-on to a study of reference geologic disposal design concepts (Hardin et al. 2011a). Based on an analysis of maximum temperatures, that study concluded that certain disposal concepts would require extended decay storage prior to emplacement, or the use of small waste packages, or both. The study used nominal values for thermal properties of host geologic media and engineered materials, demonstrating the need for uncertainty analysis to support the conclusions. This report is a first step that identifies the input parameters of the maximum temperature calculation, surveys published data on measured values, uses an analytical approach to determine which parameters are most important, and performs an example sensitivity analysis. Using results from this first step, temperature calculations planned for FY12 can focus on only the important parameters, and can use the uncertainty ranges reported here. The survey of published information on thermal properties of geologic media and engineered materials, is intended to be sufficient for use in generic calculations to evaluate the feasibility of reference disposal concepts. A full compendium of literature data is beyond the scope of this report. The term “uncertainty” is used here to represent both measurement uncertainty and spatial variability, or variability across host geologic units. For the most important parameters (e.g., buffer thermal conductivity) the extent of literature data surveyed samples these different forms of uncertainty and variability. Finally, this report is intended to be one chapter or section of a larger FY12 deliverable summarizing all the work on design concepts and thermal load management for geologic disposal (M3FT-12SN0804032, due 15Aug2012).

  10. The effect of interobserver differences in post-implant prostate CT image interpretation on dosimetric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ben H.; Wallner, Kent; Merrick, Gregory; Badiozamani, Kas; Butler, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify where observers differ in their interpretation of CT scans, and to relate those differences to clinically relevant dosimetric parameters. Twenty unselected patients treated with I-125 or Pd-103 brachytherapy at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System (VAPSHCS) in 2001 were studied. Patients were implanted with I-125 (7 patients, 0.87 mCi/source) or Pd-103 (13 patients, 2.54 U/source). The number of I-125 sources implanted ranged from 52 to 78. The number of Pd-103 sources implanted ranged from 58-144. Post-implant 3 mm CT images were imported into a laptop running Varian Variseed trade mark sign and sent to the four physician investigators, who outlined the prostate independently. Investigators were not coached specifically for this study, beyond their having read prior reports regarding prostate volume determinations. There was moderate interobserver variability in CT volume determination, with the standard deviations as a percent of the mean ranging from 9% to 29% (median: 17%). An average of 14% of implants (range: 5%-20%) would have been judged inadequate based on a minimum V100 of 80%, versus 24% of implants (range: 5%-45%) being judged inadequate based on a minimum D90 of 90% of prescription dose. The greatest variability was seen in prostate length (median standard deviation: 0.57 cm), due to vagaries in base and apical localization. However, the prostatic width and thickness also varied substantially between observers, with median standard deviations of 0.24 and 0.32 cm, respectively. Treatment margin variability was greatest at the anterior border, with a median standard deviation of 0.21 cm±0.10. We believe that CT-based dosimetry, while influenced by CT interpretation, still provides useful general dosimetric calculations, that are likely to be reproducible enough to provide clinically useful information between institutions. The V100 and TMs are less influenced by interobserver CT interpretation

  11. The Project of Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1986-01-01

    This article contains an interview with John Friedmann. The interview covers two core areas in John Friedmann's work: (a) The history of planning, from the beginning of the industrial era till today and (b) radical planning and social mobilization. In relation to radical planning and social mobil...

  12. Planning for agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, W.W.; Duchhart, I.; Hardesty, L.N.; Steiner, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this book a selection of contributions to the international symposium "Planning for agroforestry", held at Washington State University on April 24-27, 1989, is published. First the planning for agroforestry and agroforestry diagnosis and design is viewed over. Then the planning for and

  13. Generational Pension Plan Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Mahieu, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    We propose a generational plan for the occupational pension provision in which people from the same generation are pooled in a generational fund. Each fund can set its own policies independently. This plan provides the benefits of differentiation missing in the prevailing collective plan and the

  14. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK CLOSE SMOKEFREE.GOV HOME Create My Quit Plan Quitting starts now. Make a plan . Step 1 of 7 mark Step 2 of ... boosts your chances of success. Build a quit plan to get ready and find out what to ...

  15. Making Planning Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Planning for a growth opportunity's success remains a challenge. Under which conditions does planning work, then? This exploratory study investigates the business development tasks and processes that span a growth opportunity's planning phase and its implementation phase and their unique performa...

  16. Planning for study abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L H; Hermann, C P

    1994-01-01

    There is more to planning for study abroad than buying airplane tickets. Providing a successful course away from the host institution requires a great deal of planning by the educator. This planning includes course development, budget, marketing, travel, housing, food, and entertainment. Careful preparation provides both the educator and student a unique and enriching experience that goes beyond the traditional course.

  17. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  18. Plan Merging : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few

  19. Introduction to planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG) [de

  20. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  1. Language Policy and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  2. Generating three-parameter sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.

  3. Climate plan 2004; Plan climat 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  4. Transportation planning for planned special events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  5. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planning and environmental management strategically, functionally and operationally is ongoing .... between the built and the natural environment .... priorities as being experienced in. South Africa. 2. ... (intervention) proposals as contained.

  6. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  7. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  8. Configuration Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has established a configuration management (CM) plan to execute the SRS CM Policy and the requirements of the DOE Order 4700.1. The Reactor Restart Division (RRD) has developed its CM Plan under the SRS CM Program and is implementing it via the RRD CM Program Plan and the Integrated Action Plan. The purpose of the RRD CM program is to improve those processes which are essential to the safe and efficient operation of SRS production reactors. This document provides details of this plan

  9. Inspection and test planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of Quality Plan - arrangement of all necessary tests or inspections as far as possible filted to certain components or systems. Subject of Quality Plan - precise determination of tests or inspections and - according to the actual safety significance - the certificates to be done. Disposition of Quality Plan - accommodation of tests to the actual state of fabrication. Application of Quality Plan - to any component or system that is regarded. Supervision of Employment - by authorized personnel of manufacturer, customer or authority providing exact employment of quality plan. Overservance of Instructions - certificates given by authorized personnel. (orig./RW)

  10. Comparison of Parameter Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-based control of mechatronic systems requires excellent knowledge about the physical behavior of each component. For several types of components of a system, e.g. mechanical or electrical ones, the dynamic behavior can be described by means of a mathematic model consisting of a set of differential equations, difference equations and/or algebraic constraint equations. The knowledge of a realistic mathematic model and its parameter values is essential to represent the behaviour of a mechatronic system. Frequently it is hard or impossible to obtain all required values of the model parameters from the producer, so an appropriate parameter estimation technique is required to compute missing parameters. A manifold of parameter identification techniques can be found in the literature, but their suitability depends on the mathematic model. Previous work dealt with the automatic assembly of mathematical models of serial and parallel robots with drives and controllers within the dynamic multibody simulation code HOTINT as fully-fledged mechatronic simulation. Several parameters of such robot models were identified successfully by our embedded algorithm. The present work proposes an improved version of the identification algorithm with higher performance. The quality of the identified parameter values and the computation effort are compared with another standard technique.

  11. Planning DMPO pelvis using the algorithm of Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorado Rodriguez, M. P.; Exposito, R. D.; Planes Meseguer, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a planning protocol for pelvic pathologies using the algorithm Direct Machine Parameter Optimization (DMPO) from Philips Pinnacle3, I improves compliance rate (vant Riet Conformation of Nurnber et al.) Of PTVs and significantly reduces the dosage in organs at risk, without incurring a large increase in the planning time or irradiation, and in which verification is possible monitor routine unit.

  12. Operating plan FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document is the first edition of Argonne`s new Operating Plan. The Operating Plan complements the strategic planning in the Laboratory`s Institutional Plan by focusing on activities that are being pursued in the immediate fiscal year, FY 1998. It reflects planning that has been done to date, and it will serve in the future as a resource and a benchmark for understanding the Laboratory`s performance. The heart of the Institutional Plan is the set of major research initiatives that the Laboratory is proposing to implement in future years. In contrast, this Operating Plan focuses on Argonne`s ongoing R&D programs, along with cost-saving measures and other improvements being implemented in Laboratory support operations.

  13. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  14. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  15. Setup planning for machining

    CERN Document Server

    Hazarika, Manjuri

    2015-01-01

    Professionals as well as researchers can benefit from this comprehensive introduction into the topic of setup planning, which reflects the latest state of research and gives hands-on examples. Starting with a brief but thorough introduction, this book explains the significance of setup planning in process planning and includes a reflection on its external constraints. Step-by-step the different phases of setup planning are outlined and traditional as well as modern approaches, such as fuzzy logic based setup planning, on the solution of setup planning problems are presented. Three detailed examples of applications provide a clear and accessible insight into the up-to-date techniques and various approaches in setup planning.

  16. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  17. Effect of patient setup errors on simultaneously integrated boost head and neck IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Wu Qiuwen; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from random and systematic setup errors for head-and-neck patients treated using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who participated in an intramural Phase I/II parotid-sparing IMRT dose-escalation protocol using the SIB treatment technique had their dose distributions reevaluated to assess the impact of random and systematic setup errors. The dosimetric effect of random setup error was simulated by convolving the two-dimensional fluence distribution of each beam with the random setup error probability density distribution. Random setup errors of σ = 1, 3, and 5 mm were simulated. Systematic setup errors were simulated by randomly shifting the patient isocenter along each of the three Cartesian axes, with each shift selected from a normal distribution. Systematic setup error distributions with Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis were simulated. Combined systematic and random setup errors were simulated for σ = Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis. For each dose calculation, the gross tumor volume (GTV) received by 98% of the volume (D 98 ), clinical target volume (CTV) D 90 , nodes D 90 , cord D 2 , and parotid D 50 and parotid mean dose were evaluated with respect to the plan used for treatment for the structure dose and for an effective planning target volume (PTV) with a 3-mm margin. Results: Simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT head-and-neck treatment plans were found to be less sensitive to random setup errors than to systematic setup errors. For random-only errors, errors exceeded 3% only when the random setup error σ exceeded 3 mm. Simulated systematic setup errors with Σ = 1.5 mm resulted in approximately 10% of plan having more than a 3% dose error, whereas a Σ = 3.0 mm resulted in half of the plans having more than a 3% dose error and 28% with a 5% dose error

  18. Emergency response planning in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the decade since the accident at Three Mile Island, emergency planning for response to these events has undergone a significant change in Pennsylvania, as elsewhere. Changes respond to federal guidance and to state agency initiatives. The most singular change is the practice of implementing a protective action throughout the entire emergency planning zone (EPZ). Due to Pennsylvania agency experiences during the accident, the decision was made soon after to develop a staff of nuclear engineers, each giving special day-to-day attention to a specific nuclear power station in the state. Changes in communications capabilities are significant, these being dedicated phone lines between the Commonwealth and each power station, and the reorientation of the Department of Environmental Resources radio network to accommodate direction of field monitoring teams from Harrisburg. Changes that are being or will be implemented in the near future include assessing the emergency response data system for electronic delivery of plant parameter data form facilities during accidents, increased participation in exercises, emergency medical planning, and training, the inclusion of all 67 counties in Pennsylvania in an ingestion EPZ, and the gradual severance of dependence on land-line emergency communication systems

  19. Biotropic parameters of magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, M.A.

    The use of magnetic fields (MF) in biology and medicine to control biological systems has led to appearance of the term, biotropic parameters of MF. They include the physical characteristics of MF, which determine the primary biologically significant physicochemical mechanisms of field action causing formation of corresponding reactions on the level of the integral organism. These parameters include MF intensity, gradient, vector, pulse frequency and shape, and duration of exposure. Factors that elicit responses by the biological system include such parameter of MF interaction with the integral organism as localization of exposure and volume of tissues interacting with the field, as well as the initial state of the organism. In essence, the findings of experimental studies of biotropic parameters of MF make it possible to control physiological processes and will aid in optimizing methods of MF therapy.

  20. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargervik, Karin; Rubin, Marcie S; Grayson, Barry H

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary conference was convened in March 2010 with the charge to develop parameters of care for patients with craniosynostosis. The 52 participants represented 16 medical specialties and 16 professional societies. Herein, we present the dental, orthodontic, and surgical care...

  1. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  2. THE HAEMORHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HYPERTENSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    ) and. Whole Blood Relative Viscosity (WBRV) were determined by capillary viscometry as described by Reid and Ugwu (1987) and recently modified by Korubo-Owiye et al. (1997). All haemorheological parameters were analyzed within 2 ...

  3. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called ... However, there are other parameters which are fairly good indicators ... Whereas a final deciding factor reflecting on .... matter of a future work.

  4. Development Plans and Life Plans: Knowledge Sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Vieco Albarracín

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities of establishing knowledge sharing between governmental development plans and the “life plans” (planes de vida made by indigenous organizations, in particular the life plan of the Asociación de Autoridades Indígenas del Resguardo Tikuna, Cocama, Yagua (Aticoya, municipality of Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia. Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 created the ETI (Entidad Territorial Indígena,“indigenous territorial entity” as a territorial unit, just like municipalities, departments, and districts. This means that indigenous reservations (or “reserves” or “preserves” and associations should manage public funds, for which they must design a life plan. This inclusion and recognition of indigenous peoples entails that those life plans should articulate with the municipal, departmental, and national development plans. The article illustrates this situation by comparing two welfare programs –Resa (Red de Seguridad Alimentaria “Food Security Network” and Familias Guardabosques (“Forest Ranger Families”– and two income-generating productive and service (tourism projects carried out by Aticoya and the local indigenous councils of communities on the Amazon and Loretoyacu Rivers.

  5. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  6. Reduction of robot base parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandanjon, P O [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Gautier, M [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Reduction of robot base parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandanjon, P.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  8. PTTSA Action Plan Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA) Report identified findings with respect to the way Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, (including Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Kauai Test Facility (KTF)) conducts its environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) activities. It presented Action Plan Requirements (APR) addressing these findings. The purpose of this PTTSA Action Plan Report is to assist in managing these action plan requirements by collecting, prioritizing, and estimating required resources. The specific objectives addressed by this report include: collection of requirements for the resolution of the findings presented in the PTTSA Report; consolidation of proposed Action Plan Requirements into logical Action Plan groupings for efficiency of resolution; categorization of Action Plans according to severity of the hazards represented by the findings; provision of a basis for long-range planning and issues management; documentation of the status of the proposed corrective actions; establishment of traceability of the corrective action to the original problem or issue; and integration of these plans into the existing ES ampersand H structure. The Action Plans in this report are an intermediate step between the identification of a problem or a finding in the PTTSA Report and the execution of the solution. They consist of requirements for solution, proposed actions, and an estimate of the time and (where applicable) resources required to develop the solution. This report is an input to the process of planning, resource commitment, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance of problem resolution. 2 figs

  9. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  10. Operation planning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Odakawa, Naoto; Erikuchi, Makoto; Okada, Masayuki; Koizumi, Atsuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention provides a device suitable for monitoring a reactor core state and operation replanning in terms of reactor operation. Namely, (1) an operation result difference judging means judges that replanning is necessary when the operation results deviates from the operation planning, (2) an operation replanning rule data base storing means stores a deviation key which shows various kinds of states where the results deviate from the planning and a rule for replanning for returning to the operation planning on every deviating key, (3) an operation replanning means forms a new operation planning in accordance with the rule which is retrieved based on the deviation key, (4) an operation planning optimizing rule data base storing means evaluates the reformed planning and stores it on every evaluation item, (5) an operation planning optimization means correct the operation planning data so as to be optimized when the evaluation of the means (4) is less than a reference value, and (6) an operation planning display means edits adaptable operation planning data and the result of the evaluation and displays them. (I.S.)

  11. Reconstruction of IP Beam Parameters at the ILC from Beamstraahlung

    CERN Document Server

    White, Glen

    2005-01-01

    The luminosity performance of the ILC will be very sensitive to the parameters of the colliding bunches. Only some of these parameters can be measured using planned instrumentation. This analysis aims to access some of the colliding beam parameters not available by other means and to improve on the resolution of those that are. GUINEA-PIG is used to simulate the beam-beam interactions and produce beamstrahlung radiation (e+/e- pairs and photons). These are tracked to a simulation of the low-angle Beam Calorimeter and a photon detector and event shapes are produced. A Taylor map is produced to transform from the event shapes to the simulated beam parameters. This paper reports on the progress of this analysis, examining the usefulness of the proposed fitting technique.

  12. Data acquisition of mass transport parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Riyo; Hama, Katsuhiro; Morikawa, Keita; Hosoya, Shinichi

    2017-02-01

    Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been carrying out the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study understanding the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The aim of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. This project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III). Currently, the project is being carried out under the Phase III. Mass transport study is mainly performed as part of Phase III project. In Phase III, the goal of mass transport study is to obtain a better understanding of mass transport phenomena in the geological environment as well as to develop technologies for measurement of the mass transport parameters, model construction, numerical analysis and validation of those technologies. This study was planned to understand the influence of the geological characteristics of fracture on the mass transport parameters. This report presents the results of diffusion experiment, observation of polished thin section, sorption experiment and porophysicality measurement. (author)

  13. SU-G-TeP1-07: Investigation of RapidPlan Based Plan Quality for Breast IMRTSimultaneously Integrated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wu, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy and to evaluate its performance for planners with different planning experiences. Methods: A training database was collected with 80 expert plan datasets from patients previously received left breast conserving surgery and IMRT-simultaneously integrated boost radiotherapy. The models were created on the RapidPlan. Five patients from the training database and 5 external patients were used for internal and external validation, respectively. Three planners with different planning experiences (beginner, junior, senior) designed manual and RapidPlan based plans for additional ten patients. The plan qualities were compared with manual and RapidPlan based ones. Results: For the internal and external validations, there were no significant dose differences on target coverage for plans from RapidPlan and manual. Also, no difference was found in the mean doses to contralateral breast and lung. The RapidPlan improved the heart (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mead dose) and ipsilateral lung (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mean dose) sparing for the beginner and junior planners. Compare to the plans from senior planner, 6 out of 16 clinically checked parameters were improved in RapidPlan, and the left parameters were similar. Conclusion: It is feasible to generate clinical acceptable plans using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy. The RapidPlan helps to systematically improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of clinically accepted plans. The RapidPlan shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced planners.

  14. SU-G-TeP1-07: Investigation of RapidPlan Based Plan Quality for Breast IMRTSimultaneously Integrated Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wu, Z [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy and to evaluate its performance for planners with different planning experiences. Methods: A training database was collected with 80 expert plan datasets from patients previously received left breast conserving surgery and IMRT-simultaneously integrated boost radiotherapy. The models were created on the RapidPlan. Five patients from the training database and 5 external patients were used for internal and external validation, respectively. Three planners with different planning experiences (beginner, junior, senior) designed manual and RapidPlan based plans for additional ten patients. The plan qualities were compared with manual and RapidPlan based ones. Results: For the internal and external validations, there were no significant dose differences on target coverage for plans from RapidPlan and manual. Also, no difference was found in the mean doses to contralateral breast and lung. The RapidPlan improved the heart (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mead dose) and ipsilateral lung (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mean dose) sparing for the beginner and junior planners. Compare to the plans from senior planner, 6 out of 16 clinically checked parameters were improved in RapidPlan, and the left parameters were similar. Conclusion: It is feasible to generate clinical acceptable plans using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy. The RapidPlan helps to systematically improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of clinically accepted plans. The RapidPlan shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced planners.

  15. 30 CFR 784.23 - Operation plan: Maps and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Maps and plans. 784.23 Section... PLAN § 784.23 Operation plan: Maps and plans. Each application shall contain maps and plans as follows... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  16. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  17. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  18. Evaluation of an artificial intelligence guided inverse planning system: Clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Willett, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An artificial intelligence (AI) guided method for parameter adjustment of inverse planning was implemented on a commercial inverse treatment planning system. For evaluation purpose, four typical clinical cases were tested and the results from both plans achieved by automated and manual methods were compared. Methods and materials: The procedure of parameter adjustment mainly consists of three major loops. Each loop is in charge of modifying parameters of one category, which is carried out by a specially customized fuzzy inference system. A physician prescribed multiple constraints for a selected volume were adopted to account for the tradeoff between prescription dose to the PTV and dose-volume constraints for critical organs. The searching process for an optimal parameter combination began with the first constraint, and proceeds to the next until a plan with acceptable dose was achieved. The initial setup of the plan parameters was the same for each case and was adjusted independently by both manual and automated methods. After the parameters of one category were updated, the intensity maps of all fields were re-optimized and the plan dose was subsequently re-calculated. When final plan arrived, the dose statistics were calculated from both plans and compared. Results: For planned target volume (PTV), the dose for 95% volume is up to 10% higher in plans using the automated method than those using the manual method. For critical organs, an average decrease of the plan dose was achieved. However, the automated method cannot improve the plan dose for some critical organs due to limitations of the inference rules currently employed. For normal tissue, there was no significant difference between plan doses achieved by either automated or manual method. Conclusion: With the application of AI-guided method, the basic parameter adjustment task can be accomplished automatically and a comparable plan dose was achieved in comparison with that achieved by the manual

  19. Evaluation of an artificial intelligence guided inverse planning system: clinical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Yin, Fang-Fang; Willett, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    An artificial intelligence (AI) guided method for parameter adjustment of inverse planning was implemented on a commercial inverse treatment planning system. For evaluation purpose, four typical clinical cases were tested and the results from both plans achieved by automated and manual methods were compared. The procedure of parameter adjustment mainly consists of three major loops. Each loop is in charge of modifying parameters of one category, which is carried out by a specially customized fuzzy inference system. A physician prescribed multiple constraints for a selected volume were adopted to account for the tradeoff between prescription dose to the PTV and dose-volume constraints for critical organs. The searching process for an optimal parameter combination began with the first constraint, and proceeds to the next until a plan with acceptable dose was achieved. The initial setup of the plan parameters was the same for each case and was adjusted independently by both manual and automated methods. After the parameters of one category were updated, the intensity maps of all fields were re-optimized and the plan dose was subsequently re-calculated. When final plan arrived, the dose statistics were calculated from both plans and compared. For planned target volume (PTV), the dose for 95% volume is up to 10% higher in plans using the automated method than those using the manual method. For critical organs, an average decrease of the plan dose was achieved. However, the automated method cannot improve the plan dose for some critical organs due to limitations of the inference rules currently employed. For normal tissue, there was no significant difference between plan doses achieved by either automated or manual method. With the application of AI-guided method, the basic parameter adjustment task can be accomplished automatically and a comparable plan dose was achieved in comparison with that achieved by the manual method. Future improvements to incorporate case

  20. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  1. Practical Planning in COLLAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Amy L.; Getoor, Lise C.; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    COLLAGE is a domain-independent planner that differs from traditional planners in two key ways: (1) it uses a diverse and extendible set of (it action-based) plan constructions methods; and (2) it utilizes a technique called (it localization) to partition the planning problem into smaller (and potentially interacting) sub problems. In this paper, we describe these features and how they are exploited in two different real-world planning domains. The first domain, building construction planning, has served as a framework for us to investigate how localization can improve scalability. The second domain, data analysis planning, benefits from COLLAGE's unique plan construction and representation methods. In addition, we describe extensions that were necessary to tackle these real-world problems.

  2. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  3. Influenza pandemic planning guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Management Planning In Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Management planning in traffic and other activities includesa choice of missions and goals, as well as actions undertakenfor their realisation. It requires decision-making, that is,a choice among alternative trends of future actions. Therefore,planning and control are closely related.There are several types of plans: purposes or missions,goals, strategies, policies, procedures, rules, programs and calculations.Once managers become aware of the opportunities, they rationallyplan the setting of the goals and assumptions about thecurrent and future environment, finding and evaluating alternativetrends, and selecting the one that is to be followed.Therefore, planning means looking ahead and controlmeans looking backwards. The concept of overall planning,thus including traffic planning, illustrates the approach to managementwhich is based on the achieved goals.

  5. Planning Practice and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning has dramatically shifted when compared with its former logics and styles. Increasingly, the dynamics of large urban agglomerations spanning multiple boundaries put significant pressure on planning institutions to scale up. In this shifting context, how can both planning theory...... and practice co- evolve in adapting to the ever-increasing transformation of cities and urban regions? In this context, Planning Practice and Research (PPR) is seeking perspectives from the young academic community in planning. We propose to publish at least one special edition of PPR with a number of short...... papers from Young Academics. The contributions should address the question of how planning theory and practice can respond to the increasing complexity of cities and regions....

  6. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  7. Influence of increment of gantry angle and number of arcs on esophageal volumetric modulated arc therapy planning in Monaco planning system: A planning study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the increment of gantry angle and the number of arcs on esophageal volumetric modulated arc therapy plan. All plans were done in Monaco planning system for Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with 80 multileaf collimator (MLC. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans were done with different increment of gantry angle like 15 o , 20 o , 30 o and 40 o . The remaining parameters were similar for all the plans. The results were compared. To compare the plan quality with number of arcs, VMAT plans were done with single and dual arc with increment of gantry angle of 20 o . The dose to gross tumor volume (GTV for 60 Gy and planning target volume (PTV for 48 Gy was compared. The dosimetric parameters D 98% , D 95% , D 50% and D max of GTV were analyzed. The homogeneity index (HI and conformity index (CI of GTV were studied and the dose to 98% and 95% of PTV was analyzed. Maximum dose to spinal cord and planning risk volume of cord (PRV cord was compared. The Volume of lung receiving 10 Gy, 20 Gy and mean dose was analyzed. The volume of heart receiving 30 Gy and 45 Gy was compared. The volume of normal tissue receiving greater than 2 Gy and 5 Gy was compared. The number of monitor units (MU required to deliver the plans were compared. The plan with larger increment of gantry angle proved to be superior to smaller increment of gantry angle plans in terms of dose coverage, HI, CI and normal tissue sparing. The number of arcs did not make any difference in the quality of the plan.

  8. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  9. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  10. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  11. Biodiesel Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Biodiesel Test Plan Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited. July 2014 Report No. CG-D-07-14...Appendix C) Biodiesel Test Plan ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al. Public | July 2014 N O T I C E This...Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Biodiesel Test Plan iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | G. W. Johnson, et al

  12. China SLAT Plan Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This document serves as the System-Level Acceptance Test (SLAT) Plan for Site Name, City, Country. This test plan is to provide independent testing of the Radiation Detection System (RDS) installed at Site Name to verify that Customs has been delivered a fully-functioning system as required by all contractual commitments. The system includes all installed hardware and software components. The SLAT plan will verify that separate components are working individually and collectively from a system perspective.

  13. A New Approach to Tuning Heuristic Parameters of Genetic Algorithms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2006), s. 562-569 ISSN 1790-0832. [AIKED'06. WSEAS International Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Knowledge Engineering and Data Bases. Madrid, 15.02.2006-17.02.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0325; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary optimization * genetic algorithms * heuristic parameters * parameter tuning * artificial neural networks * convergence speed * population diversity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  15. Fund management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This revision of the Fund Management Plan updates the original plan published in May 1983. It is derived from and supplements the Mission Plan of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. A major purpose in preparing this Plan is to inform the public about management of the Nuclear Waste Fund and the Interim Storage Fund. The purpose of the Interim Storage Fund is to finance the provision of the Federal interim storage capacity of up to 1900 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Fund is a separate account for all revenues and expenditures related to the geological disposal and monitored retrieval storage of civilian radioactive waste

  16. Animation of planning algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Planning is the process of creating a sequence of steps/actions that will satisfy a goal of a problem. The partial order planning (POP) algorithm is one of Artificial Intelligence approach for problem planning. By learning G52PAS module, I find that it is difficult for students to understand this planning algorithm by just reading its pseudo code and doing some exercise in writing. Students cannot know how each actual step works clearly and might miss some steps because of their confusion. ...

  17. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  18. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Business Plans For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Tiffany, Paul; Barrow, Colin

    2011-01-01

    A full updated and extended second edition of an established UK bestseller Business Plans For Dummies 2nd Edition features new and updated information on formulating a solid business plan to build a secure business - even in an economic downturn. Complete with a brand new business plan template to get you started this expert guide offers fresh advice on reading the competitive marketplace and assessing your business in the current economic climate. It walks you step-by-step through every aspect of planning achievable business goals and diversification strategies, identifying trends, exploring

  20. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  1. Research Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  2. Public Participation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to describe the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plan for involving the public in the decision-making process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The plan describes how the DOE will meet the public participation requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, as amended, and of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. It includes the UMTRA Project Office plans for complying with DOE Order 5440.1D and for implementing the DOE's Public Participation Policy for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1992) and Public Participation Guidance for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1993)

  3. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  4. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  5. US ITER Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This US ITER Management Plan is the plan for conducting the Engineering Design Activities within the US. The plan applies to all design, analyses, and associated physics and technology research and development (R ampersand D) required to support the program. The plan defines the management considerations associated with these activities. The plan also defines the management controls that the project participants will follow to establish, implement, monitor, and report these activities. The activities are to be conducted by the project in accordance with this plan. The plan will be updated to reflect the then-current management approach required to meet the project objectives. The plan will be reviewed at least annually for possible revision. Section 2 presents the ITER objectives, a brief description of the ITER concept as developed during the Conceptual Design Activities, and comments on the Engineering Design Activities. Section 3 discusses the planned international organization for the Engineering Design Activities, from which the tasks will flow to the US Home Team. Section 4 describes the US ITER management organization and responsibilities during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 5 describes the project management and control to be used to perform the assigned tasks during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 6 presents the references. Several appendices are provided that contain detailed information related to the front material

  6. A class solution for RapidArc prostate planning with simultaneous integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, David; Alahakone, D.; Meyer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Standardised treatment planning procedures make the planning process for rotational IMRT more efficient and consistent. This may be achieved by applying the same planning strategy, or class solution, for each patient. In doing so it may be possible to achieve acceptable plans for each patient within a relatively short timeframe, whilst time consuming individual optimisation of the planning parameters can be avoided. Methods Tn this work, a robust and streamlined planning strategy is established with an emphasis on treating prostate patients with a simultaneous integrated boost RapidArc plan. This planning strategy outlines the field set up, recommended starting objectives, required user interactions to be made throughout optimisation and post optimisation adjustments. A comparative planning study-with static gantry IMRT -is then presented for ten prostate patients as justification for the planning strategy itself. Results A variety of parameters are evaluated relating to both the planning itself and the plans that result. Results of this comparative study are in line with previously published data and the planning process is streamlined to a point where the RapidArc optimisation and calculation time is 16.7 1.5 min collectively. Discussion and Conclusion Application of this planning strategy reduces the dependence of the produced plan on the experience of the planner and has the potential to streamline the planning process within radiotherapy departments. Modified applications of the strategy have also proved to be useful for the planning of other treatment sites.

  7. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  8. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  9. Diagnostic planning in JT-60 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Suzuki, Yasuo; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi

    1977-08-01

    The diagnostic plans of JT-60 were made along with design of the main machine. Basic requirements of the diagnostic program are (1) multiple measurement of respective plasma parameters, (2) efficient usage of the discharge, (3) capable data acquisition system, (4) high reliability of the diagnostic equipments, and (5) systematic development of new diagnostic techniques. Dimensions of the diagnostic ports were determined in detailed design of the vacuum vessel, anticipating the possible diagnostic methods. The proposed diagnostic systems and the plans are shown in table and figures respectively. Problems in the diagnostics are also described. (auth.)

  10. Green Network Planning Model for Optical Backbones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Jensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    on the environment in general. In network planning there are existing planning models focused on QoS provisioning, investment minimization or combinations of both and other parameters. But there is a lack of a model for designing green optical backbones. This paper presents novel ideas to be able to define......Communication networks are becoming more essential for our daily lives and critically important for industry and governments. The intense growth in the backbone traffic implies an increment of the power demands of the transmission systems. This power usage might have a significant negative effect...

  11. Machine-learned and codified synthesis parameters of oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Huang, Kevin; Tomala, Alex; Matthews, Sara; Strubell, Emma; Saunders, Adam; McCallum, Andrew; Olivetti, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Predictive materials design has rapidly accelerated in recent years with the advent of large-scale resources, such as materials structure and property databases generated by ab initio computations. In the absence of analogous ab initio frameworks for materials synthesis, high-throughput and machine learning techniques have recently been harnessed to generate synthesis strategies for select materials of interest. Still, a community-accessible, autonomously-compiled synthesis planning resource which spans across materials systems has not yet been developed. In this work, we present a collection of aggregated synthesis parameters computed using the text contained within over 640,000 journal articles using state-of-the-art natural language processing and machine learning techniques. We provide a dataset of synthesis parameters, compiled autonomously across 30 different oxide systems, in a format optimized for planning novel syntheses of materials.

  12. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-01-01

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters

  13. Intelligent Planning for Laser Refractive Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yue, Yong; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Bao, Fangjun

    2018-02-01

    Refractive error is one of leading ophthalmic diseases for both genders all over the world. Laser refractive correction surgery, e.g., laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), has been commonly used worldwide. The prediction of surgical parameters, e.g., corneal ablation depth, depends on the doctor’s experience, theoretical formula and surgery reference manual in the preoperative diagnosis. The error of prediction may present a potential surgical risk and complication. Being aware of the surgery parameters is important because these can be used to estimate a patient’s post-operative visual quality and help the surgeon plan a suitable treatment. Therefore, in this paper we discuss data mining techniques that can be utilized for the prediction of laser refractive correction surgery parameters. It can provide the surgeon with a reference for possible surgical parameters and outcomes of the patient before the laser refractive correction surgery.

  14. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden concerning the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 2 describes the waste facilities in details. The layouts and estimated costs are presented. The decomissioning of nuclear power plants and the postponement of it is discussed. (G.B.)

  15. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    with continuous interpolation between population members. With a suitable sound engine, the system forms a surprisingly expressive performance instrument, used by the electronic free impro duo pantoMorf in concerts and recording sessions over the last year.......The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added...... to define the current point in parameter space. Vectors can be scaled globally, allowing exploration of the whole space or minute timberal expression. The vector origin can be shifted at any time, allowing exploration of subspaces. In essence, this amounts to mutation-based interactive evolution...

  16. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2003-01-01

    Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...

  17. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  18. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  19. Measuring the Michel parameter ξ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.; Deutsch, J.; Egger, J.; Fetscher, W.; Foroughi, F.; Govaerts, J.; Hadri, M.; Kirch, K.; Kistryn, S.; Lang, J.; Morelle, X.; Naviliat, O.; Ninane, A.; Prieels, R.; Severijns, N.; Simons, L.; Sromicki, J.; Vandormael, S.; Hove, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the majority of Michel parameters which are consistent with the Standard Model V-A interaction, the experimental value of ξ''(=0.65±0.36) [1] is poorly known. Our experiment will measure the longitudinal polarization, P L , of positrons emitted from the decay of polarized muons. The value of P L , equal to unity in the Standard Model, will decrease for high energy positrons emitted antiparallel to the muon spin if the combination of Michel parameters ξ''/ξξ' - 1 deviates from the Standard Model value of zero

  20. Transformation of a virtual action plan into a motor plan in the premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Tomoko; Tanji, Jun; Hoshi, Eiji

    2008-10-08

    Before preparing to initiate a forthcoming motion, we often acquire information about the future action without specifying actual motor parameters. The information for planning an action at this conceptual level can be provided with verbal commands or nonverbal signals even before the associated motor targets are visible. Under these conditions, the information signifying a virtual action plan must be transformed to information that can be used for constructing a motor plan to initiate specific movements. To determine whether the premotor cortex is involved in this process, we examined neuronal activity in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of monkeys performing a behavioral task designed to isolate the behavioral stages of the acquisition of information for a future action and the construction of a motor plan. We trained the animals to receive a symbolic instruction (color and shape of an instruction cue) to determine whether to select the right or left of targets to reach, despite the physical absence of targets. Subsequently, two targets appeared on a screen at different locations. The animals then determined the correct target (left or right) based on the previous instruction and prepared to initiate a reaching movement to an actual target. The experimental design dissociated the selection of the right/left at an abstract level (action plan) from the physical motor plan. Here, we show that activity of individual PMd neurons initially reflects a virtual action plan transcending motor specifics, before these neurons contribute to a transformation process that leads to activity encoding a motor plan.

  1. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  2. EMI Registry Development Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, S.; Szigeti, G.; Field, L.

    2012-01-01

    This documents describes the overall development plan of the EMI Registry product, the plan focuses on the realisation of the EMI Registry specification as defined in the document. It is understood that during the course of the development phase the specification will likely evolve and the changes will be fed into the specification document.

  3. Technology Planning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Effective planning strategies drive achievement of an overall technology goal to increase access to electronic information in real time in order to increase efficiency, productivity, and communication across campus. Planning relies on providing access, 'Anytime Anywhere' to student information, calendar, email, course management tools, and the…

  4. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  5. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  6. Statistical Analysis Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Søgaard, Karen; Gram, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    This is the analysis plan for the multicentre randomised control study looking at the effect of training and exercises in chronic neck pain patients that is being conducted in Jutland and Funen, Denmark. This plan will be used as a work description for the analyses of the data collected....

  7. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  8. A Process for Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurowitz, William D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes how Division of Campus Life at Cornell University conducted long-range planning and the results of its 2-year effort. Explains 2 (strategic and organizational) by 3 (diagnosis, formulation, and execution) matrix providing systems view from describing and evaluating long-range planning. Presents 10-step process implemented at Cornell. (NB)

  9. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    This ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities

  10. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  11. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  12. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  13. Planning for College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…

  14. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...

  15. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...

  16. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch

    2003-06-20

    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN.

  17. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  18. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  19. 'Plans are useless'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An essential element in crisis recovery is the protection and/or recovery of reputation. This calls for a crisis communications function that is of more than passing interest to the business continuity specialist and which presents two major challenges in this era of process-driven management: (1) it is an inexact science, more about common sense, psychology, empathy and 'playing it by ear' than about box ticking; (2) it does not lend itself to detailed, rigid plans, although some degree of planning is essential. This paper outlines a flexible approach that will help the crisis team to develop a workable communications plan that strikes a balance between being too detailed and too sketchy. It argues that the whole management team should be involved in developing the plan and sets a number of questions, which, on being answered, will help a realistic, achievable and effective plan to evolve.

  20. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  1. Health Workforce Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  2. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.

    2010-01-01

    the design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document......The present document presents a framework for maintenance planning. Maintenance plays a fundamental role in counteracting degradation effects, which are present in all infrastructure and industrial products. Therefore, maintenance planning is a very critical aspect to consider both during...... is to present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  3. Effective Hull IMMR plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Mireille

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the Hull Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Plan is to ensure the total integrity of the Floating Production Unit. To be efficient, the Monitoring has to be part of the Hull Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Plan (IMMR). The IMMR Plan should be developed during the design and project phases and take into account the interfaces between the different systems and teams' tasks in operation. The IMMR is multidisciplinary and form part of the hand-over to ensure an efficient and early implementation. Implementation of such a complex plan requires: - Cross-functionality: take advantage of the synergies - Boldness: break the mould and think outside the box - Listening: be attentive, be available, - Mutual support: during good and bad times. This paper presents the way Total believe the Hull IMMR Plan shall be developed, implemented and followed up. (Author)

  4. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  5. Planning and Foucault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Richardson, Tim

    In this paper we argue that the use of the communicative theory of Jürgen Habermas in planning theory is problematic because it hampers an understanding of how power shapes planning. We posit an alternative approach based on the power analytics of Michel Foucault which focuses on "what is actually...... done", as opposed to Habermas`  focus on "what should be done". We discuss how the Foucauldian stance problematises planning, asking difficult questions about the treatment of legitimacy, rationality, knowledge and spatiality. We conclude that Foucault offers a type of analytic planning theory which...... offers better prospects than does Habermas for those interested in understanding and bringing about democratic social change through planning....

  6. Planning and Foucault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Richardson, Tim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the use of the communicative theory of Jürgen Habermas in planning theory is problematic because it hampers an understanding of how power shapes planning. We posit an alternative approach based on the power analytics of Michel Foucault which focuses on ?what is actually...... done?, as opposed to Habermas?s focus on ?what should be done?. We discuss how the Foucauldian stance problematises planning, asking difficult questions about the treatment of legitimacy, rationality, knowledge and spatiality. We conclude that Foucault offers a type of analytic planning theory which...... offers better prospects than does Habermas for those interested in understanding and bringing about democratic social change through planning....

  7. The 1986 action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion covers the actions that must be taken and the standards to be met to achieve the goals of the 20 year plan. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has agreed to develop detailed work plans for achieving the objects of the plan, through a public process in consultation with the Council and interested parties. BPA work plans and activities are outlined. The Council's plan emphasizes the following priorities: (1) a stronger regional role for BPA; (2) development of the capability to acquire conservation on a regional basis; (3) strategies to make better use of the hydropower system; (4) building conservation capability in all sectors; (5) demonstrating the cost effectiveness of renewable resources so they are available before the region has to build new generating resources; (6) allocation of costs for two unfinished nuclear power plants and elimination of barriers to their completion; and (7) a study of electric power sales and purchases between regions

  8. PUSPATI Triga Reactor pulsing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auu, Gui Ah; Abu, Puad Haji; Yunus, Yaziz [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    The pulsing experiment was carried out as part of the commissioning activites of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR). Several parameters of PTR were deduced from the experiment. It was found that the maximum temperature of the fuel was far below the safety limit when the maximum allowable positive reactivity of $3.00 was inserted into the core. The peak power achieved was 1354 Mw.

  9. Parameter setting and input reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; van Kampen, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126439737

    2008-01-01

    The language acquisition procedure identifies certain properties of the target grammar before others. The evidence from the input is processed in a stepwise order. Section 1 equates that order and its typical effects with an order of parameter setting. The question is how the acquisition procedure

  10. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good ...

  11. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibira, Gabriel, E-mail: cibira@lm.uniza.sk; Koščová, Marcela, E-mail: mkoscova@lm.uniza.sk

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab{sup ®} and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  12. IAHR List of Sea Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.

    1997-01-01

    A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....

  13. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T; Skeet, A

    1995-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs.

  14. Identifying parameter regions for multistationarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradi, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda; Mincheva, Maya

    2017-01-01

    is the avoidance of numerical analysis and parameter sampling. The procedure consists of a number of steps. Each of these steps might be addressed algorithmically using various computer programs and available software, or manually. We demonstrate our procedure on several models of gene transcription and cell...

  15. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF m...

  16. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab ® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  17. Normalisation: ROI optimal treatment planning - SNDH pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilvat, D.V.; Bhandari, Virendra; Tamane, Chandrashekhar; Pangam, Suresh

    2001-01-01

    Dose precision maximally to the target / ROI (Region of Interest), taking care of tolerance dose of normal tissue is the aim of ideal treatment planning. This goal is achieved with advanced modalities such as, micro MLC, simulator and 3-dimensional treatment planning system. But SNDH PATTERN uses minimum available resources as, ALCYON II Telecobalt unit, CT Scan, MULTIDATA 2-dimensional treatment planning system to their maximum utility and reaches to the required precision, same as that with advance modalities. Among the number of parameters used, 'NORMALISATION TO THE ROI' will achieve the aim of the treatment planning effectively. This is dealing with an example of canal of esophagus modified treatment planning based on SNDH pattern. Results are attractive and self explanatory. By implementing SNDH pattern, the QUALITY INDEX of treatment plan will reach to greater than 90%, with substantial reduction in dose to the vital organs. Aim is to utilize the minimum available resources efficiently to achieve highest possible precision for delivering homogenous dose to ROI while taking care of tolerance dose to vital organs

  18. QUALITY PARAMETERS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdoğan Eker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology concept which has added a new dimension to our lives in recent years, is finding a place in every sector day by day. The combined effect of nanotechnology is almost equal to the industrial revolution of last 200 years and have is able to fill all developments in a few years. However this development should be taken under control. Otherwise unstoppable new structures will not ease life but will be a problem for humanity. For this purpose, the main parameters (from the start up stage of nano-technologic applications to the obtained product should be checked. These parameters are actually not different than the adaptation of the classical quality indicators for nanotechnology applications. Especially it plays an important role in obtaining a uniform distribution and regarding the features of the end product in nano-technological ceramic and etc. applications. The most important problem faced in particles of that size is the accumulation they create. Another problem is the increasing friction force as size gets smaller. The friction force of asubstance increases proportionally with the cube of its surface area. Another problem is surface tension. The increasing surface tension due to increasing surface area will cause the particles to attract and stick to each other. The structures aimed to be obtained are mostly complex and especially in upwards approach, it is thermodynamically very hard for the atoms to get into that order. Therefore in this announcement, we stated the quality parameters that will be taken into consideration in nano-technological applications and the methods for obtaining those parameters. The aim is to explain these parameters with all dimensions so that they will lead the way to the future nano-technological applications.

  19. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  20. Vega library for processing DICOM data required in Monte Carlo verification of radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, C.; Zavgorodni, S.; British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Center, Victoria BC

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods provide the most accurate to-date dose calculations in heterogeneous media and complex geometries, and this spawns increasing interest in incorporating MC calculations into treatment planning quality assurance process. This involves MC dose calculations for clinically produced treatment plans. To perform these calculations, a number of treatment plan parameters specifying radiation beam

  1. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  2. Radiotherapy treatment planning linear-quadratic radiobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J Donald

    2015-01-01

    Understand Quantitative Radiobiology from a Radiation Biophysics PerspectiveIn the field of radiobiology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) equation has become the standard for defining radiation-induced cell killing. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning: Linear-Quadratic Radiobiology describes tumor cell inactivation from a radiation physics perspective and offers appropriate LQ parameters for modeling tumor and normal tissue responses.Explore the Latest Cell Killing Numbers for Defining Iso-Effective Cancer TreatmentsThe book compil

  3. Plan Recognition using Statistical Relational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    corresponding undirected model can be significantly more complex since there is no closed form solution for the maximum-likelihood set of parameters unlike in...algorithm did not scale to larger training sets, and the overall results are still not competitive with BALPs. 5In directed models, a closed form solution...opinions of ARO, DARPA, NSF or any other government agency. References Albrecht DW, Zukerman I, Nicholson AE. Bayesian models for keyhole plan

  4. Using gEUD based plan analysis method to evaluate proton vs. photon plans for lung cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Zou, Wei J; Chen, Ting; Yue, Ning J; Jabbour, Salma K; Parikh, Rahul; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to exam the efficacy of current DVH based clinical guidelines draw from photon experience for lung cancer radiation therapy on proton therapy. Comparison proton plans and IMRT plans were generated for 10 lung patients treated in our proton facility. A gEUD based plan evaluation method was developed for plan evaluation. This evaluation method used normal lung gEUD(a) curve in which the model parameter "a" was sampled from the literature reported value. For all patients, the proton plans delivered lower normal lung V 5 Gy with similar V 20 Gy and similar target coverage. Based on current clinical guidelines, proton plans were ranked superior to IMRT plans for all 10 patients. However, the proton and IMRT normal lung gEUD(a) curves crossed for 8 patients within the tested range of "a", which means there was a possibility that proton plan would be worse than IMRT plan for lung sparing. A concept of deficiency index (DI) was introduced to quantify the probability of proton plans doing worse than IMRT plans. By applying threshold on DI, four patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. Meanwhile if a threshold to the location of curve crossing was applied, 6 patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. The contradictory ranking results between the current clinical guidelines and the gEUD(a) curve analysis demonstrated there is potential pitfalls by applying photon experience directly to the proton world. A comprehensive plan evaluation based on radio-biological models should be carried out to decide if a lung patient would really be benefit from proton therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  6. Public affairs plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  7. Personal strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Juan Soliz Estrada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconciling personal skills with the demands of a globalized and competitive market has become a pre-requisite for professionals aspiring for success in their careers. The quest for personal fulfillment has encouraged people to search for tools which develop their talents and balance their efforts, in order to achieve a better, happier and healthier life. As an option, planning, which historically was restricted to being an organizational tool, today has also come to be used by individuals who desire personal success. In this way, the objective of this article is to develop a model of Personal Strategic Planning which takes into account the various operation areas and human performance. The proposed model is divided into: Individual Planning, Professional Planning, Family Planning, Personal Business Planning and Political Participation, Social and Religious/Spiritual Planning and their respective fields. In order to analyse and validate the model, exploratory research of a qualitative nature was used through primary and secondary data sources. From the results obtained by the model, it is possible to consider their importance to future research, once the studied areas can be developed in subsequent works.

  8. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  9. AECB strategic plan 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This strategic plan provides the direction and focus required to successfully carry out our mandate in an efficient and effective manner over the next two to three years. It gives broad corporate direction by identifying where efforts need to be focussed, and therefore provides guidance for setting priorities and allocating resources. While we cannot ignore any aspect of our mandate, we must recognize that we will always have more work to do than can be accomplished within the resources available to us. Therefore we must set priorities and develop appropriate management systems to ensure that our major efforts and our resources are being directed towards those priorities. Our strategic plan is not a static document. We will always be faced with new challenges, and our strategies for meeting those challenges will also have to change. Therefore our strategic plan must be seen as a guide that reflects both the ever-changing environment and our ability to deal with new or evolving changes effectively. This plan is not intended to be a detailed operational plan. Each directorate must develop its own operational plans and procedures based on the directions in this strategic plan, and on corporate priorities and policies. (author)

  10. Development of an arid site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Barnes, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the development of a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of an arid low-level waste disposal site. This plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed. A specific example is presented showing how the field-validated hydrologic models can be used to develop a final prototype closure plan. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  11. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  12. Planning for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiewing, Janis

    2002-01-01

    Revising the strategic plan was the beginning of a multiyear initiative that will determine the path of the JRCERT. The key word in the preceding statement is beginning. The strategic plan is an ever-changing document. Although some components, such as the values statements, will stand over time, other components will change as accreditation and educational arenas change. That is the paradox of strategic planning: Remaining true to the vision, values and mission statements requires knowing when to change to keep the JRCERT aligned with the responsive to its communities of interest.

  13. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  14. Sea materials experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This Seal Materials Performance Test Plan describes the plan for testing materials that will be used to seal a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The need for sealing and backfilling the repository and the use of various sealing materials are described. The seal materials include mined salt backfills, cementitious bulkheads and plugs, and earthen backfills. The laboratory testing program for characterizing the behavior and performance of these materials is described. This report includes plans for screening materials, evaluating candidate materials to be tested, and testing a representative set of materials

  15. Business Plan: Elpis Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Luu Quoc Phong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create a business plan for starting up a restaurant in European – Asian style in Helsinki. While the restaurants are in European or Asian style separately, this restaurant will be unique with dishes which are based on local traditional dishes, traditional Asian dishes and mixture between them as well as creation of new dishes. This business plan is created to minimize the risk when starting up a restaurant. The plan will not only help the restaur...

  16. Environmental monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  19. Multi-institutional Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Planning Strategies and Planning Results for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ho; Park, Suk Won; Oh, Do Hoon; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Jeung Kee; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Suh, Hyun Sook; Lee, Rena; Bae, Hoonsik

    2009-01-01

    The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategies for nasopharyngeal cancer among Korean radiation oncology facilities were investigated. Five institutions with IMRT planning capacity using the same planning system were invited to participate in this study. The institutions were requested to produce the best plan possible for 2 cases that would deliver 70 Gy to the planning target volume of gross tumor (PTV1), 59.4 Gy to the PTV2, and 51.5 Gy to the PTV3 in which elective irradiation was required. The advised fractionation number was 33. The planning parameters, resultant dose distributions, and biological indices were compared. We found 2-3-fold variations in the volume of treatment targets. Similar degree of variation was found in the delineation of normal tissue. The physician-related factors in IMRT planning had more influence on the plan quality. The inhomogeneity index of PTV dose ranged from 4 to 49% in Case 1, and from 5 to 46% in Case 2. Variation in tumor control probabilities for the primary lesion and involved LNs was less marked. Normal tissue complication probabilities for parotid glands and skin showed marked variation. Results from this study suggest that greater efforts in providing training and continuing education in terms of IMRT planning parameters usually set by physician are necessary for the successful implementation of IMRT. PMID:19399266

  20. Parameter prediction for microwave garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Linearity of the microwave parameters (resonance linewidth ΔH and effective linewidth ΔH eff ) is demonstrated and their use in the Computer-aided design (CAD)/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) of new microwave garnets is proposed. Such an approach would combine a numerical database of microwave data and several computational programs. The model is an applied formulation of the analysis of a wide range of microwave garnets

  1. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  2. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A set of selected precise measurements of the SM parameters from the LHC experiments is discussed. Results on W-mass measurement and forward-backward asymmetry in production of the Drell--Yan events in both dielectron and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is discussed.

  3. Failure probability under parameter uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, R; Tsanakas, A

    2011-05-01

    In many problems of risk analysis, failure is equivalent to the event of a random risk factor exceeding a given threshold. Failure probabilities can be controlled if a decisionmaker is able to set the threshold at an appropriate level. This abstract situation applies, for example, to environmental risks with infrastructure controls; to supply chain risks with inventory controls; and to insurance solvency risks with capital controls. However, uncertainty around the distribution of the risk factor implies that parameter error will be present and the measures taken to control failure probabilities may not be effective. We show that parameter uncertainty increases the probability (understood as expected frequency) of failures. For a large class of loss distributions, arising from increasing transformations of location-scale families (including the log-normal, Weibull, and Pareto distributions), the article shows that failure probabilities can be exactly calculated, as they are independent of the true (but unknown) parameters. Hence it is possible to obtain an explicit measure of the effect of parameter uncertainty on failure probability. Failure probability can be controlled in two different ways: (1) by reducing the nominal required failure probability, depending on the size of the available data set, and (2) by modifying of the distribution itself that is used to calculate the risk control. Approach (1) corresponds to a frequentist/regulatory view of probability, while approach (2) is consistent with a Bayesian/personalistic view. We furthermore show that the two approaches are consistent in achieving the required failure probability. Finally, we briefly discuss the effects of data pooling and its systemic risk implications. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. PUSPATI Triga Reactor pulsing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu; Puad Haji Abu; Yaziz Yunus

    1984-01-01

    The pulsing experiment was carried out as part of the commissioning activites of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR). Several parameters of PTR were deduced from the experiment. It was found that the maximum temperature of the fuel was far below the safety limit when the maximum allowable positive reactivity of $3.00 was inserted into the core. The peak power achieved was 1354 Mw. (author)

  5. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  6. Financial planning considerations at retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R J

    1998-03-01

    The process of retirement planning is a difficult one for a physician. The Planning process should address the areas of Investment Planning, Estate Planning, and Risk Management. This article examines each of these dimensions with special emphasis on Modern Portfolio Theory as the basis for investment planning.

  7. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth / For Parents / What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... acción contra el asma? What's an Asthma Action Plan? An asthma action plan (or management plan) is ...

  8. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  9. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  10. Modifying factors for metabolic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1990-01-01

    Studies on factors which influence the metabolic parameter for calculation of radiation doses from intakes of radionuclides are very important for estimation of the doses for the general public, because the present procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection is for occupationally exposed workers and the underlying metabolic and dosimetric models have been developed from studies on adult man and experiments on adult animals and from observations on radionuclides in physico-chemically simple form. Many factors have been reported to influence the metabolic parameters. Among them, the food-chain involvement of radionuclides and the age-dependence in humans and animals are most significant as environmental and physiological factor, respectively. In connection with the age-dependence of dose calculation, the ICRP started a new programme. They organized a Task Group on Age-Dependent Dose-Factors where relevant information on metabolic and biokinetic parameters are presently being reviewed for development of a set of dose factors for the following age-groups: infant, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old, and ICRP Reference Man. The first stage of the work is for age-dependent integrated organ and effective dose factors for radioisotopes of the following elements: hydrogen, carbon, iodine, cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. (author)

  11. Teaching planning theory as planner roles in urban planning education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Planning theory is often portrayed as a subject that urban planning students find too abstract and fail to see the relevance of. This paper advocates the perspective that planning theory can be made more student-friendly. This requires, firstly, that academic discussions about the relevance...... of planning theory for urban planning practice are integrated into the course module. If students are to appreciate planning theory, it requires that they understand how planning theory can inspire planning practice. Secondly, it requires careful considerations to the pedagogy of planning theory. The paper...... suggests that teaching planning theory as a variety of planner roles offers a helpful pedagogical approach for helping students construct their identities as urban planners. The paper builds on the author’s own experiences of teaching planning theory in a master’s urban planning programme, and has been...

  12. Role of regional planning organizations in transportation planning across boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-11

    The Volpe Center conducted research for the Federal Highway Administration Office of Planning that explores the implications of Regional Planning Organizations (RPO) engaging in transportation planning partnerships and projects of megaregions signifi...

  13. Treatment planning for MLC based robotic radiosurgery for brain metastases: plan comparison with circular fields and suggestions for planning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possible range of application of the new InCise2 MLC for the CyberKnife M6 system in brain radiosurgery, a plan comparison was made for 10 brain metastases sized between 1.5 and 9cm3 in 10 patients treated in a single fraction each. The target volumes consist of a PTV derived by expanding the GTV by 1mm and were chosen to have diversity in the cohort regarding regularity of shape, location and the structures needed to be blocked for beam transmission in the vicinity. For each case, two treatment plans were optimized: one using the MLC and one using the IRIS-collimator providing variable circular fields. Plan re-quirements were: dose prescription to the 70% isodose line (18 or 20Gy, 100% GTV coverage, ≥98% PTV coverage, undisturbed central high dose region (95% of maximum dose and a conformity index as low as possible. Plan com-parison parameters were: conformity index (CI, high-dose gradient index (GIH, low-dose gradient index (GIL, total number of monitor units (MU and expected treatment time (TT. For all cases, clinically acceptable plans could be gen-erated with the following results (mean±SD for CI, GIH, GIL, MU and TT, respectively for the MLC plans: 1.09±0.03, 2.77±0.26, 2.61±0.08, 4514±830MU and 27±5min and for the IRIS plans: 1.05±0.01, 3.00±0.35, 2.46±0.08, 8557±1335MU and 42±7min. In summary, the MLC plans were on average less conformal and had a shallower dose gradient in the low dose region, but a steeper dose gradient in the high dose region. This is accompanied by a smaller vol-ume receiving 10Gy. A plan by plan comparison shows that usage of the MLC can spare about one half of the MUs and one third of treatment time. From these experiences and results suggestions for MLC planning strategy can be de-duced.

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  15. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs

  16. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron (VHEE) scanning pencil beams of 60–120 MeV and to study VHEE plans as a function of VHEE treatment parameters. Additionally, VHEE plans were compared to clinical state-of-the-art volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans for three cases. Methods: VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse treatment planning in a research version of RayStation. In order to study the effect of VHEE treatment parameters on VHEE dose distributions, a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE MC pencil beam doses was developed. Through the GUI, pediatric case MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies (60, 80, 100, and 120 MeV), number of beams (13, 17, and 36), pencil beam spot (0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) and grid (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm) sizes, and source-to-axis distance, SAD (40 and 50 cm). VHEE plans for the pediatric case calculated with the different treatment parameters were optimized and compared. Furthermore, 100 MeV VHEE plans for the pediatric case, a lung, and a prostate case were calculated and compared to the clinically delivered VMAT plans. All plans were normalized such that the 100% isodose line covered 95% of the target volume. Results: VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions of the pediatric case. For the same target dose, the mean doses to organs at risk (OARs) decreased by 5%–16% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV, but there was no further improvement in the 120 MeV plan. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams, but to a more modest degree (<8%). While pencil beam spacing and SAD had a small effect on VHEE dose distributions, 0.1–3 mm pencil beam sizes resulted in identical dose distributions. For the 100 MeV VHEE pediatric

  17. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  18. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels declined in all three groups. The two groups that received counseling and followed a treatment plan had more weight loss than the advice-only group. However, participants who received counseling and followed the DASH diet had the greatest ...

  19. Environmental Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex

  20. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  1. Planning for design quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguglio, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear industry and in other high technology industries in which the Government serves as either a customer or a regulator, it is almost always required that the contractor prepare a Quality Program Plan sometimes also referred to as a Quality Program Index. Often, the Quality Program Plan is included as part of the contractor's proposal in response to the Government's or a prime contractor's Request for Proposal. At this stage, the Quality Program Plan serves to demonstrate to the prospective customer the availability of the various quality systems. It provides the customer with a commitment as to the use of these quality systems, thus giving greater assurance that the customer's overall quality and design requirements can be met. The Quality Program Plan is contributing to the salability of the proposal. 1 ref

  2. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  3. Climate plan 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO 2 each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  4. SSCL computer planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Laboratory is in the process of planning the acquisition of a substantial computing system to support the design of detectors. Advice has been sought from users and computer experts in several stages. This paper discuss this process

  5. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your breastfeeding support network How to get your family on board with breastfeeding African-American celebrity moms ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' ...

  7. Licensee safeguards contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is amending its regulations to require that licensees authorized to operate a nuclear reactor (other than certain research and test reactors), and those authorized to possess strategic quantities of plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium-235 develop and implement acceptable plans for responding to threats, thefts, and industrial sabotage of licensed nuclear materials and facilities. The plans will provide a structured, orderly, and timely response to safeguards contingencies and will be an important segment of NRC's contingency planning programs. Licensee safeguards contingency plans will result in organizing licensee's safeguards resources in such a way that, in the unlikely event of a safeguards contingency, the responding participants will be identified, their several responsibilities specified, and their responses coordinated

  8. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  10. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing ... decisions. But if you haven’t already thought about breastfeeding, now is a great time. Before your baby is here is the ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Don't Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week ... family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media ...

  13. Joint Operation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  14. Elective course planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2011-01-01

    Efficient planning increasingly becomes an indispensable tool for management of both companies and public organizations. This is also the case for high school management in Denmark, because the growing individual freedom of the students to choose courses makes planning much more complex. Due...... to reforms, elective courses are today an important part of the curriculum, and elective courses are a good way to make high school education more attractive for the students. In this article, the problem of planning the elective courses is modeled using integer programming and three different solution...... for the Elective Course Planning Problem has been described in the literature before. The proposed algorithms are tested on data sets from 98 of the 150 high schools in Denmark. The tests show that for the majority of the problems, the optimal solution can be obtained within the one hour time bound. Furthermore...

  15. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose

    level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning......This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... and strategic renewal. Empirical evidence of the various difficulties that learning flows has to overcome as it journeys through organizational and hierarchical levels are presented. Despite various cognitive and social psychological barriers identified along the way, the results show the novel...

  16. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  17. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get ... with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us ...

  18. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  19. A Planning Palimpsest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay; Gutzon Larsen, Henrik; Olesen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article...... demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality through time and over space. These layers do not completely overlay one another, but present a palimpsest...... saturated with contradictions as well as possibilities. We propose the notion of the ‘planning palimpsest’ as a helpful metaphor for drawing attention to the historical-geographical characteristics of planning discourses and practices....

  20. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  1. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  2. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  3. Business Continuity Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014......maximum 200 words) Navy Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) lacks a business process framework for the development of Business Continuity Management

  4. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Easy An Interview About Breastfeeding: Lauren Sogor Taking Care of Your Health — and Your Baby's Subscribe ... topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  5. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  6. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  7. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in ...

  8. Planning Through Incrementalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Ph.

    1974-01-01

    An incremental model of decisionmaking is discussed and compared with the Comprehensive Rational Approach. A model of reconciliation between the two approaches is proposed, and examples are given in the field of economic development and educational planning. (Author/DN)

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected ... the Call, Don't Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's ...

  10. Succession planning : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Succession planning is an organizational investment in the future. Institutional : knowledge is a critical ingredient in the culture of an organization, and its intangible : value becomes significant when an organization is faced with the need to pas...

  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Planning ahead It's Only Natural ...

  12. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  13. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay ... Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ...

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  16. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we ...

  17. Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    RMP implements Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, and requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a Risk Management Plan and revise/resubmit every five years. Find guidance, factsheets, training, and assistance.

  18. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we ...

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed

  20. Family planning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  1. Oncentra brachytherapy planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jack

    2018-03-27

    In modern cancer management, treatment planning has progressed as a contemporary tool with all the advances in computing power in recent years. One of the advanced planning tools uses 3-dimensional (3D) data sets for accurate dose distributions in patient prescription. Among these planning processes, brachytherapy has been a very important part of a successful cancer management program, offering clinical benefits with specific or combined treatments with external beam therapy. In this chapter, we mainly discussed the Elekta Oncentra planning system, which is the main treatment planning tool for high-dose rate (HDR) modality in our facility and in many other facilities in the United States. HDR is a technically advanced form of brachytherapy; a high-intensity radiation source (3.6 mm in length) is delivered with step motor in submillimeter precision under computer guidance directly into the tumor areas while minimizing injury to surrounding normal healthy tissue. Oncentra planning is the key component to generate a deliverable brachytherapy procedure, which is executed on the microSelectron V3 remote afterloader treatment system. Creating a highly conformal plan can be a time-consuming task. The development of Oncentra software (version 4.5.3) offers a variety of useful tools that facilitate many of the clinical challenging tasks for planning, such as contouring and image reconstruction, as well as rapid planning calculations with dose and dose volume histogram analysis. Oncentra Brachy module creates workflow and optimizes the planning accuracy for wide varieties of clinical HDR treatments, such as skin, gynecologic (GYN), breast, prostate, and many other applications. The treatment file can also be transferred to the afterloader control station for speedy delivery. The design concept, calculation algorithms, and optimization modules presented some key characteristics to plan and treat the patients effectively and accurately. The dose distribution and accuracy of

  2. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  3. Environmental implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this document, the Savannah River site environmental programs and plans from DOE contractors and Westinghouse Savannah River Company divisions/departments are presented along with the environmental coordinator for each program. The objectives are to enhase communication of existing or planned programs to do the following: identify activities required for meeting environmental needs; identify needing resources and a schedule to accomplish those activities; promote share-savings and consistency in those activities

  4. NRPB corporate plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger

    1995-01-01

    As with all non-departmental public bodies, the National Radiological Protection Board is required to prepare a Corporate Plan each year. The Plan for 1995/1996 to 1999/2000 is now available as a Board report; extracts from the introductory section are given here. They deal with the Board's statutory duty to provide advice and conduct research and with its power to provide services, all in relation to ionising and non-ionising radiations. (author)

  5. WIPP documentation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plung, D.L.; Montgomery, T.T.; Glasstetter, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Publications and Procedures Section developed a documentation plan that provides an integrated document hierarchy; further, this plan affords several unique features: 1) the format for procedures minimizes the writing responsibilities of the technical staff and maximizes use of the writing and editing staff; 2) review cycles have been structured to expedite the processing of documents; and 3) the numbers of documents needed to support the program have been appreciably reduced

  6. Data Management Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Vogelsang, Stefan; Freudenberg, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the Data Management Plan (DMP) (first version), relating to RIBuild WP8, deliverable D8.1. The DMP include description of data sets, standards and metadata, data sharing and archiving and preservation of data.......This document describes the Data Management Plan (DMP) (first version), relating to RIBuild WP8, deliverable D8.1. The DMP include description of data sets, standards and metadata, data sharing and archiving and preservation of data....

  7. AUDIT plan documenting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornecsu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work describes a method of documenting the AUDIT plan upon the basis of two quantitative elements resulting from quality assurance program appraisal system function implementation degree as established from the latest AUDIT performed an system function weight in QAP, respectively, appraised by taking into account their significance for the activities that are to be performed in the period for which the AUDITs are planned. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs

  8. Management of Logistics Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnar Aas; Stein W. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Logistics problems are gradually becoming more complex and a better understanding of logistics management as a subject is a key to deal with the new challenges. A core element of logistics management is logistics planning, which substitutes for low customer service levels, high waste, and the use of buffers and slacks in the execution of logistic activities. Furthermore, the availability of information and problem-solving capabilities are established as the core parts of logistics planning. B...

  9. Factor 4 planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bariol-Mathais, Brigitte; Lavoillotte, Philippine; Gall-Sorrentino, Florence; Malez, Marianne; Sanna, Daniela; Marsauche, Maud; Marquet, Sarah; Debergue, Sophie; Aminu, Olufunmi; Bernard, Helene; Marchand, Jean-Michel; Blin, Frederic; Grange, Jerome; Caillierez, Sophie; Muller, Dania; Clement, Bob; Desire, Jean-Charles; Metais, Benedicte; Lannuzel, Philippe; Pezet-Kuhn, Murielle; Pons, Anne; Rivoire-Meley, Benedicte; Tissot, Heloise

    2015-07-01

    Factor 4 is the goal of cutting our greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050. Achieving this objective will necessitate radical changes in our practices, in particular concerning transport and housing; the measures currently implemented, such as positive-energy buildings, low-impact mobility and eco-neighbourhoods, will not be enough to meet this goal. These measures must be conceived in the framework of broad territorial planning that integrates environmental and energy objectives far upstream. To this end, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French network of Urban Planning Agencies (FNAU), pursuing their missions in their respective areas of competence, have joined forces to make infrastructure and land use planning an integral part of the environmental and energy transition process. In 2013, the two organisations signed a partnership agreement and compiled an inventory of practices that are relevant to Factor 4 planning. This work was led by Epures, Saint-etienne urban planning agency, along with FNAU, drawing upon the expertise of a dozen urban planning agencies in precursor territories. This inventory describes the stakes, resources and strengths for each territory, which have led to cross-sectoral territorial planning exercises with ambitious environmental and energy objectives; the importance of evaluation in attaining these goals is emphasised. Current experience, questions and available methodological tools are summarised in this document, to encourage territories and help them design their planning policies along a trajectory to achieve Factor 4 goals. The compilation also aims to be a contribution to the COP21 climate conference

  10. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  11. The Sensitivity of the Input Impedance Parameters of Track Circuits to Changes in the Parameters of the Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Ivanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sensitivity of the input impedance of an open track circuit in the event that the parameters of the track are changed. Weather conditions and the state of pollution are the most common reasons for parameter changes. The results were obtained from the measured values of the parameters R (resistance, G (conductance, L (inductance, and C (capacitance of a rail superstructure depending on the frequency. Measurements were performed on a railway siding in Orlova. The results are used to design a predictor of occupancy of a track section. In particular, we were interested in the frequencies of 75 and 275 Hz for this purpose. Many parameter values of track substructures have already been solved in different works in literature. At first, we had planned to use the parameter values from these sources when we designed the predictor. Deviations between them, however, are large and often differ by three orders of magnitude (see Tab.8. From this perspective, this article presents data that have been updated using modern measurement devices and computer technology. And above all, it shows a transmission (cascade matrix used to determine the parameters.

  12. SCENARIO PLANNING AS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lourenço Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario Planning has been increasingly used, from its introduction to the decision process as effective tools to test decisions, and improve performance in a dynamic environment (Chermack, 2005. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of an experimental Scenario Planning Model to mobilize, encourage and add more content to the organization’s decision making process – mainly with respect to Strategic Plans of two governmental institutions, a pharmaceutical company and a technology education foundation.  This study describes the application stages of a hybrid scenario-planning model – herein referred to as Planning as Learning – via action-research, showing the scenarios resulting from the experiment and describes the main results of an assessment of such practice. In order to do that, two well-established Scenario Planning models (Prospective school and Shell’s model were analyzed. They were used as a reference for the proposition and application of an experimental model in the two study objects. A questionnaire was used to assess the technique impact. It was possible to obtain high levels of reliability. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the participants. At the end, the results confirmed the model efficiency as a basis for decision making in the competitive environment in which the two institutions are inserted, also to encourage the learning process as a group, as observed throughout the work.

  13. Strategic planning for marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  14. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  15. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  16. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  17. Site 300 SPCC Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-23

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  18. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs

  19. Your cancer survivorship care plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000822.htm Your cancer survivorship care plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... get one. What Is a Cancer Survivorship Care Plan? A cancer survivorship care plan is a document ...

  20. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...