WorldWideScience

Sample records for planetary geosciences people

  1. Geosciences: An Open Access Journal on Earth and Planetary Sciences and Their Interdisciplinary Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martinez-Frias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Geosciences. Geosciences is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal, which publishes original papers, rapid communications, technical notes and review articles, and discussions about all interdisciplinary aspects of the earth and planetary sciences. Geosciences may also include papers presented at scientific conferences (proceedings or articles on a well defined topic assembled by individual editors or organizations/institutions (special publications.

  2. Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation in planetary geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience education is a key factor in the academic, scientific and professional progress of any modern society. Geoethics is an interdisciplinary field, which involves Earth and Planetary Sciences as well as applied ethics, regarding the study of the abiotic world. These coss-cutting interactions linking scientific, societal and cultural aspects, consider our planet, in its modern approach, as a system and as a model. This new perspective is extremely important in the context of geoducation in planetary geosciences. In addition, Earth, our home planet, is the only planet in our solar system known to harbor life. This also makes it crucial to develop any scientific strategy and methodological technique (e.g. Raman spectroscopy) of searching for extraterrestrial life. In this context, it has been recently proposed [1-3] that the incorporation of the geoethical and geodiversity issues in planetary geology and astrobiology studies would enrich their methodological and conceptual character (mainly but not only in relation to planetary protection). Modern geoscience education must take into account that, in order to understand the origin and evolution of our planet, we need to be aware that the Earth is open to space, and that the study of meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars is also essential for this purpose (Earth analogs are also unique sites to define planetary guidelines). Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation should be incorporated into the teaching of all fundamental knowledge and skills for students and teachers. References: [1] Martinez-Frias, J. et al. (2009) 9th European Workshop on Astrobiology, EANA 09, 12-14 October 2009, Brussels, Belgiam. [2] Martinez-Frias, J., et al. (2010) 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Protecting the Lunar and Martian Environments for Scientific Research, Bremen, Germany, 18-25 July. [3] Walsh et al. (2012) 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 1910.pdf

  3. New geoscience techniques for Earth and planetary studies developed in Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorov, Andrey; Karachevtseva, Irina; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    of exploration in preparation to prospective new Russian and international space missions in cooperation with European Space Agency (ESA): to the Moon (Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs), Mars (Exo-Mars), Mercury (Bepi-Colombo), the Jupiter system (JUICE), and a possible future mission to Phobos. MExLab has new modern infrastructure, including facilities and software, and it help us to develop innovative techniques for planetary studies. We use ArcGIS (ESRI ™), and special developed modules based on PHOTOMOD software (Racurs ™), created for Earth image processing and extended for studies of celestial bodies. Main directions of MIIGAiK research of Earth and planetary bodies: 1) Innovative technologies for digital surveying and laser scanning; 2) Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and special software developing; 3) Photogrammetric stereo image processing; 4) 3D-modeling of Earth and planetary surface; 5) Geo-portal and database developing [3]; 6) GIS-analyses and mapping, icnluding comparative planetology study of terrestrial planets. A great volume of scientific investigations and industrial work is carried out in MIIGAiK using modern geoscience technologies, ensure a wide use of GIS in cartography, cadaster and while studying the Earth and other terrestrial planets of Solar system by remote sensing methods. Acknowledgements. The MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) provides fundamental and applied planetary research under the grant of Russian Science Foundation, project #14-22-00197. References: [1] http://www.miigaik.ru/eng/; [2] http://mexlab.miigaik.ru/eng/ [3] http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/#body/

  4. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  5. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  6. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  7. Cathodoluminescence and its application in the planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gucsik, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of cathodoluminescence properties of the planetary materials. It provides a unique introduction to cathodoluminescence which is widely used in the geosciences, because it is a non-destructive and "easy to use" method.

  8. Geosciences projects FY 1985 listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    This report, which updates the previous working group publication issued in February 1982, contains independent sections: (A) Summary Outline of DOE Geoscience and Related Studies, and (B) Crosscut of DOE Geoscience and Geoscience Related Studies. The FY 1985 funding levels for geoscience and related activities in each of the 11 programs within DOE are presented. The 11 programs fall under six DOE organizations: Energy Research Conservation and Renewable Energy; Fossil Energy; Defense Programs; Environmental, Safety, and Health; and Civilian radioactive Waste. From time to time, there is particular need for special interprogrammatic coordination within certain topical areas. section B of the report is intended to fill this need for a topical categorization of the Department's geoscience and related activities. These topical areas in Solid Earth Geosciences, Atmospheric Geosciences, Ocean Geosciences, Space and Solar/Terrestrial Geosciences, and Hydrological Geosciences are presented in this report.

  9. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  10. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote

  11. Geoscience Education Research: A Brief History, Context and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kastens, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding (NRC, 2011). In the geosciences, content knowledge derives from all the "spheres, the complex interactions of components of the Earth system, applications of first principles from allied sciences, an understanding of "deep time", and approaches that emphasize the interpretive and historical nature of geoscience. Insights gained from the theory and practice of the cognitive and learning sciences that demonstrate how people learn, as well as research on learning from other STEM disciplines, have helped inform the development of geoscience curricular initiatives. The Earth Science Curriculum Project (1963) was strongly influenced by Piaget and emphasized hands-on, experiential learning. Recognizing that education research was thriving in related STEM disciplines a NSF report (NSF 97-171) recommended "... that GEO and EHR both support research in geoscience education, helping geoscientists to work with colleagues in fields such as educational and cognitive psychology, in order to facilitate development of a new generation of geoscience educators." An NSF sponsored workshop, Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (2002) brought together geoscience educators and cognitive scientists to explore areas of mutual interest, and identified a research agenda that included study of spatial learning, temporal learning, learning about complex systems, use of visualizations in geoscience learning, characterization of expert learning, and learning environments. Subsequent events have focused on building new communities of scholars, such as the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development workshops, extensive collections of online resources, and networks of scholars that have addressed teaching

  12. Social Technologies to Jump Start Geoscience Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Martinez, Cynthia; Gonzales, Leila

    2010-05-01

    early career geoscientists to tune in what's going on in the geoscience community, to meet geoscience professionals, and to find innovative career ideas. Early analysis of the page's participants indicates that the network is reaching its intended audience, with more than two-thirds of "fans" participating in the page falling in the 18-34 age range. Twenty-seven percent of these are college-aged, or 18-24 years old. An additional 20% of the page's fans are over age 45, providing students with access to seasoned geoscientists working in a variety of professions. GeoConnection's YouTube Channel includes video resources for students on educational pathways and career choices. Videos on the channel have received more than 100,000 views collectively. In addition, the AGI Workforce program has been an active participant in the YES network, and facilitated the virtual participation of both speakers and attendees for the first YES Congress, held in October 2009 in Beijing. By integrating webinar technologies and other social media, the breadth of attendees and speakers at the Congress was greatly expanded. Challenges with technology represented the minor problem for this effort, but rather human factors required the greatest focus to ensure success. Likewise, the challenge for the GeoConnection Network is not so much technology implementation, but rather remaining responsive and relevant with the ever-changing landscape of online communications. Reports show that participation in social-networking media among young people ages 16-24 has dropped (eg. Istrategy Labs, 2009, Ofcom, 2009) however, internet use among younger generations is high. Geoscience organizations must identify and participate in new online communications trends in order to continue to reach students and young professionals, but also, these individuals must also communicate with geosciences organizations so that the appropriate technologies and venues can be provided to strengthen the interconnect between

  13. Geoscience on television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-01-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be

  14. Geoscience meets the four horsemen?: Tracking the rise of neocatastrophism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Skrimshire, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Although it is acknowledged that there has been an exponential growth in neocatastrophist geoscience inquiry, the extent, chronology and origin of this mode have not been precisely scrutinized. In this study, we use the bibliographic research tool Scopus to explore 'catastrophic' words replete in the earth and planetary science literature between 1950 and 2009, assessing when, where and why catastrophism has gained new currency amongst the geoscience community. First, we elucidate an exponential rise in neocatastrophist research from the 1980s onwards. We then argue that the neocatastrophist mode came to prominence in North America during the 1960s and 1970s before being more widely espoused in Europe, essentially after 1980. We compare these trends with the EM-DAT disaster database, a worldwide catalogue that compiles more than 11,000 natural disasters stretching back to 1900. The findings imply a clear link between anthropogenically forced global change and an increase in disaster research (r 2 = 0.73). Finally, we attempt to explain the rise of neocatastrophism by highlighting seven non-exhaustive factors: (1) the rise of applied geoscience; (2) inherited geological epistemology; (3) disciplinary interaction and the diffusion of ideas from the planetary to earth sciences; (4) the advent of radiometric dating techniques; (5) the communications revolution; (6) webometry and the quest for high-impact geoscience; and (7) popular cultural frameworks.

  15. Programming and Technology for Accessibility in Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevre, E.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many people, students and professors alike, shy away from learning to program because it is often believed to be something scary or unattainable. However, integration of programming into geoscience education can be a valuable tool for increasing the accessibility of content for all who are interested. It is my goal to dispel these myths and convince people that: 1) Students with disabilities can use programming to increase their role in the classroom, 2) Everyone can learn to write programs to simplify daily tasks, 3) With a deep understanding of the task, anyone can write a program to do a complex task, 4) Technology can be combined with programming to create an inclusive environment for all students of geoscience, and 5) More advanced knowledge of programming and technology can lead geoscientists to create software to serve as assistive technology in the classroom. It is my goal to share my experiences using technology to enhance the classroom experience as a way of addressing the aforementioned issues. Through my experience, I have found that programming skills can be included and learned by all to enhance the content of courses without detracting from curriculum. I hope that, through this knowledge, geoscience courses can become more accessible for people with disabilities by including programming and technology to the benefit of all involved.

  16. Building a Community for Art and Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Ellins, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Several new avenues are in place for building and supporting a community of people interested in the art and geoscience connections. Although sessions advocating for art in teaching geoscience have been scattered through geoscience professional meetings for several decades, there is now a sustained presence of artists and geoscientists with their research and projects at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. In 2011, 13 abstracts were submitted and, in 2013, 20 talks and posters were presented at the annual meeting. Participants have requested more ways to connect with each other as well as advocate for this movement of art and science to others. Several words can describe new initiatives to do this: Social, Collaborative, Connected, Informed, Networked, and Included. Social activities of informal dinners, lunches, and happy hour for interested people in the past year have provided opportunity for presenters at AGU to spend time getting to know one another. This has resulted in at least two new collaborative projects. The nascent Bella Roca and more established Geology in Art websites and their associated blogs at www.bellaroca.org and http://geologyinart.blogspot.com, respectively are dedicated to highlighting the work of artists inspired by the geosciences, connecting people and informing the community of exhibits and opportunities for collaboration. Bella Roca with its social media of Facebook (Bella Roca) and Twitter (@BellRocaGeo), is a direct outgrowth of the recent 2012 and 2013 AGU sessions and, hopefully, can be grown and sustained for this community. Articles in professional journals will also help inform the broader geoscience community of the benefit of engaging with artists and designers for both improved science knowledge and communication. Organizations such as Leonardo, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, the Art Science Gallery in Austin, Texas also promote networking among artists and scientists with

  17. Future Careers in Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.

    2001-05-01

    A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.

  18. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  19. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  20. Writing fiction about geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S.

    2013-12-01

    Employment in geology provides excellent preparation for writing mystery novels that teach geoscience. While doing pure research at the USGS under the mentorship of Edwin D. McKee, I learned that the rigors of the scientific method could be applied not only to scientific inquiry but to any search for what is true, including the art of storytelling (the oldest and still most potent form of communication), which in turn supports science. Geoscience constructs narratives of what has happened or what might happen; hence, to communicate my findings, I must present a story. Having developed my writing skills while preparing colleague-reviewed papers (which required that I learn to set my ego aside and survive brutal critiques), the many rounds of edits required to push a novel through a publishing house were a snap. My geoscience training for becoming a novelist continued through private industry, consultancy, and academia. Employment as a petroleum geologist added the pragmatism of bottom-line economics and working to deadlines to my skill set, and nothing could have prepared me for surviving publishers' rejections and mixed reviews better than having to pitch drilling projects to jaded oil patch managers, especially just before lunchtime, when I was all that stood between them and their first martinis of the day. Environmental consulting was an education in ignorant human tricks and the politics of resource consumption gone astray. When teaching at the college level and guest lecturing at primary and secondary schools, my students taught me that nothing was going to stick unless I related the story of geoscience to their lives. When choosing a story form for my novels, I found the mystery apropos because geoscientists are detectives. Like police detectives, we work with fragmentary and often hidden evidence using deductive logic, though our corpses tend to be much, much older or not dead yet. Throughout my career, I learned that negative stereotypes about scientists

  1. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  2. How Accessible Are the Geosciences? a Study of Professionally Held Perceptions and What They Mean for the Future of Geoscience Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, C.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with disabilities are not entering pathways leading to the geoscience workforce; the reasons for which continue to elude access-focused geoscience educators. While research has focused on barriers individuals face entering into STEM disciplines, very little research has considered the role that practitioner perceptions play in limiting access and accommodation to scientific disciplines. The authors argue that changing the perceptions within the geoscience community is an important step to removing barriers to entry into the myriad fields that make up the geosciences. This paper reports on an investigation of the perceptions that geoscientist practitioners hold about opportunities for engagement in geoscience careers for people with disabilities. These perspectives were collected through three separate iterations of surveys at three professional geoscience meetings in the US and Australia between 2011 and 2012. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which individuals with specific types of disabilities would be able to perform various geoscientific tasks. The information obtained from these surveys provides an initial step in engaging the larger geoscience community in a necessary discussion of minimizing the barriers of access to include students and professionals with disabilities. The results imply that a majority of the geoscience community believes that accessible opportunities exist for inclusion regardless of disability. This and other findings suggest that people with disabilities are viewed as viable professionals once in the geosciences, but the pathways into the discipline are prohibitive. Perceptions of how individuals gain entry into the field are at odds with perceptions of accessibility. This presentation will discuss the common geoscientist perspectives of access and inclusion in the geoscience discipline and how these results might impact the future of the geoscience workforce pathway for individuals with disabilities.

  3. Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Rodrigue, Christine M.; Lee, Christopher T.; Behl, Richard J.; Larson, Daniel O.; Francis, Robert D.; Hold, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    An innovative interdisciplinary project at California State University, Long Beach, was designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences (physical geography, geology, and archaeology) to underrepresented groups. The goal was to raise awareness of the geosciences by providing summer research opportunities for underrepresented high school…

  4. Planetary magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.W.; Michel, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent planetary probes have resulted in the realization of the generality of magnetospheric interactions between the solar wind and the planets. The three categories of planetary magnetospheres are discussed: intrinsic slowly rotating magnetospheres, intrinsic rapidly rotating magnetospheres, and induced magnetospheres. (BJG)

  5. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  6. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  7. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  8. Impact cratering – fundamental process in geoscience and planetary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earth history, including the so-called “Mother of All Mass Extinctions” at the Permian–Triassic boundary, were triggered .... a comprehensive albeit somewhat popular review of the history of ..... ondary ion mass spectrometry) analysis of single.

  9. Open Geoscience Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  10. GIRAF 2009 - Taking action on geoscience information across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Kristine

    2010-05-01

    more active part of the international geoscience information community. The programme for the GIRAF 2009 workshop was designed to explore each of these aspects to improve the way geoscience information contributes to improve the health and prosperity of the people in Africa. The Programme The aim of the week wasto better understand the reality of the status of geoscience information management, delivery, and systems from the perspective of the practitioners across Africa. To do that, in addition to VIP welcome speeches and presentations from across the continent, the programme included two sets of breakout sessions allowing more detailed discussion of specific issues, and each day, a novel "Question of the day", where individual feedback was sought on three pointed questions. These exercises ensured that everyone was able to contribute their views and experiences. The conclusion - a 15 point GIRAF 2009 Strategy and Agreement The results were intense discussion of the issues which the participants felt were key to developing and improving the way geoscience information could be managed and delivered in Africa. The very tangible outcome of a hardworking but fruitful week was the unanimous endorsement of a series of fifteen practical recommendations - the GIRAF Strategy and Agreement. Our week together provided new and valuable experience and new contacts, networks and friendships and most importantly the base for a sustainable initiative to improve the way geoscience information will be managed and delivered in Africa. We now look forward and are working on to taking those important recommendations forward.

  11. Planetary Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  12. Accessible Geoscience - Digital Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian

    2017-04-01

    Accessible Geoscience is a developing field of pedagogic research aimed at widening participation in Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) subjects. These subjects are often less commonly associated with disabilities, ethnic minorities, low income socio-economic groups and females. While advancements and improvements have been made in the inclusivity of these subject areas in recent years, access and participation of disabled students remains low. While universities are legally obligated to provide reasonable adjustments to ensure accessibility, the assumed incompatibility of GEES subjects and disability often deters students from applying to study these courses at a university level. Instead of making reasonable adjustments if and when they are needed, universities should be aiming to develop teaching materials, spaces and opportunities which are accessible to all, which in turn will allow all groups to participate in the GEES subjects. With this in mind, the Swansea Geography Department wish to enhance the accessibility of our undergraduate degree by developing digital field work opportunities. In the first instance, we intend to digitise three afternoon excursions which are run as part of a 1st year undergraduate module. Each of the field trips will be digitized into English- and Welsh-medium formats. In addition, each field trip will be digitized into British Sign Language (BSL) to allow for accessibility for D/deaf and hard of hearing students. Subtitles will also be made available in each version. While the main focus of this work is to provide accessible fieldwork opportunities for students with disabilities, this work also has additional benefits. Students within the Geography Department will be able to revisit the field trips, to revise and complete associated coursework. The use of digitized field work should not replace opportunities for real field work, but its use by the full cohort of students will begin to "normalize" accessible field

  13. GIS in geoscience education- geomorphometric study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahender, K.; Yogita, K.; Kunte, P.D.

    The educational institutions around the world have realised the possibility of using GIS in geosciences teaching along with in many other subjects. GIS is been used in a large number of geoscience applications viz. mapping, mineral and petroleum...

  14. Examining sexism in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Do women geoscientists face worse obstacles because of their gender than women in other sciences? A recent survey by the Committee on Professionals in Science and Technology showed that women with geoscience bachelor's degrees start off at only 68% of their male colleagues' salaries, much lower than women in biology (92%), engineering (102%), chemistry (103%), and physics (111%).Women still lag behind men in geoscience degrees as well. In 1990, women received about one-third of geoscience bachelor's degrees, one-quarter of masters, and about one-fifth of Ph.D.'s, reports the American Geological Institute. In the sciences overall, women received about half of bachelor's degrees, 42% of masters, and about a third of Ph.D.'s in 1989, according to the National Research Council.

  15. A Synthesis of Instructional Strategies in Geoscience Education Literature That Address Barriers to Inclusion for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Ivan G.; Marshall, Anita M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    People with disabilities make up the largest minority population in the U.S. yet remain sorely underrepresented in scientific disciplines that require components of field-based training such as the geosciences. This paper provides a critical analysis of broadening participation within geoscience education literature through the use of accessible…

  16. Planetary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  17. Geoscience Diversity Experiential Simulations (GeoDES) Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Chen, J.; Brown, B.; Samuels, D.; Brinkworth, C.

    2017-12-01

    The geosciences have to solve increasingly complex problems relating to earth and society, as resources become limited, natural hazards and changes in climate impact larger communities, and as people interacting with Earth become more interconnected. However, the profession has dismally low representation from geoscientists who are from diverse racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic backgrounds, as well as women in leadership roles. This underrepresentation also includes individuals whose gender identity/expression is non-binary or gender-conforming, or those who have physical, cognitive, or emotional disabilities. This lack of diversity ultimately impacts our profession's ability to produce our best science and work with the communities that we strive to protect and serve as stewards of the earth. As part of the NSF GOLD solicitation, we developed a project (Geoscience Diversity Experiential Simulations) to train 30 faculty and administrators to be "champions for diversity" and combat the hostile climates in geoscience departments. We hosted a 3-day workshop in November that used virtual simulations to give participants experience in building the skills to react to situations regarding bias, discrimination, microaggressions, or bullying often cited in geoscience culture. Participants interacted with avatars on screen, who responded to participants' actions and choices, given certain scenarios. The scenarios are framed within a geoscience perspective; we integrated qualitative interview data from informants who experienced inequitable judgement, bias, discrimination, or harassment during their geoscience careers. The simulations gave learners a safe environment to practice and build self-efficacy in how to professionally and productively engage peers in difficult conversations. In addition, we obtained pre-workshop survey data about participants' understanding regarding Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion practices, as well as observation data of participants' responses

  18. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    where we are. We want to understand how a ball of gas led to the people of the Earth. Do you think it is possible that life was delivered to Earth on an impacting meteorite? No, I think that's unnecessarily complicated. Water and organics etc can come from space—they still are hitting the Earth—but the Earth has a lot of carbon and stuff. We know that life can have arisen on Earth and there is no evidence that there are any bacteria in meteorites. And is there life on other planets? There is no reason that logically it can't happen. It is possible that life could have arisen on Mars just as it did on Earth. I'm quite prepared to admit that life may have arisen elsewhere, but within the solar system there is no indication of any higher lifeforms. What do you expect in the future from meteorite research? What's exciting is that you never know what is going to turn up. In January 2000 a new meteorite fell in Canada at Tagish Lake. It's very primitive, rich in carbon, very different from anything we have seen before. Tomorrow another new type might arrive. My great interest is Martian meteorites so I am preparing for the Beagle mission. We are also looking at how solar grains link astrophysics with meteorites. What resources would you recommend for a teacher hoping to inspire their students with planetary science and astronomy? In addition to visiting the NHM I'd suggest they look at some of the Hubble images and consider what they are looking at. There are also the asteroid pictures from Near and the PPARC meteorite teaching package. PPARC also have meteorites which can be loaned. I have just finished designing a poster with PCET. More information The award-winning Natural History Museum website is at www.nhm.ac.uk Search for Life by Monica Grady is published by the NHM (ISBN 0 565 09157 3) at £9.95. A chart entitled Meteorites (shown below) designed by Monica Grady is available from Pictorial Charts Educational Trust www.pcet.co.uk priced £7.75.

  19. Tracking the Health of the Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Martinez, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Increased demands for resources and environmental activities, relative declines in college students entering technical fields, and expectations of growth commensurate with society as a whole challenge the competitiveness of the U.S. geoscience workforce. Because of prior business cycles, more than 50% of the workforce needed in natural resource industries in 10 years is currently not in the workforce. This issue is even more acute in government at all levels and in academic institutions. Here, we present a snapshot of the current status of the geoscience profession that spans geoscientists in training to geoscience professionals in government, industry, and academia to understand the disparity between the supply of and demand for geoscientists. Since 1996, only 1% of high school SAT test takers plan to major in geosciences at college. Although the total number of geoscience degrees granted at community colleges have increased by 9% since 1996 , the number of geoscience undergraduate degrees has decreased by 7%. The number of geoscience master's and doctoral degrees have increased 4% and 14% respectively in the same time period. However, by 2005, 68 geoscience departments were consolidated or closed in U.S. universities. Students who graduate with geoscience degrees command competitive salaries. Recent bachelors geoscience graduates earned an average salary of 31,366, whereas recent master's recipients earned an average of 81,300. New geosciences doctorates commanded an average salary of 72,600. Also, fFederal funding for geoscience research has increase steadily from 485 million in 1970 to $3.5 billion in 2005. Economic indicators suggest continued growth in geoscience commodity output and in market capitalization of geoscience industries. Additionally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 19% increase in the number of geoscience jobs from 2006 to 2016. Despite the increased demand for geoscientists and increase in federal funding of geoscience research

  20. OneGeology- A Global Geoscience Data Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.; Komac, M.; Duffy, T.; Robida, F.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    OneGeology (1G) is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs) around the globe that dates back to 2007. Since then, OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using GeoSciML- an international interoperability standard for the exchange of geological data. Increased use of this new standard allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet among organisations. One of the goals of OneGeology is an exchange of know-how with the developing world, shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making it more transparent, its operation more sustainable and its membership more open where in addition to GSOs, other types of organisations that create and use geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative is focused on increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource about the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative geoscience information will help to mitigate natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale with the aim of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professionals and general public- to be part of the solution. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and the OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  1. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  2. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  3. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  4. Summary outline of DOE geoscience and geoscience - related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) supports long-range, basic research in those areas of the geosciences which are relevant to the nation's energy needs. The objective of the Geoscience program is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of geological, geophysical and geochemical structures and processes in the solid earth and in solar-terrestrial relationships. This understanding is to assure an effective knowledge base for energy resource recognition, evaluation and utilization in an environmentally acceptable manner. The work is carried out primarily in DOE laboratories and in universities, although some is conducted by other federal agencies and by the National Academy of Sciences. Principal areas of interest include: Geology, Geophysics, and Earth Dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy Resource Recognition, Evaluation and Utilization; Hydrologic and Marine Sciences; and Solar-Terrestrial/Atmospheric Interactions

  5. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  6. Application of QA geoscience investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of a classical hardware QA program (as currently embodied in DOE/ALO Manual Chapter 08XA; NRC 10CFR Part 50, Appendix B; and other similar documents) into the present geoscience quality assurance programs that address eventual NRC licensing, if required. In the context of this paper, QA will be restricted to the tasks associated with nuclear repositories, i.e. site identification, selection, characterization, verification, and utilization

  7. Teaching Introductory Geoscience: A Cutting Edge Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C.; Tewksbury, B.; Egger, A.; MacDonald, H.; Kirk, K.

    2008-12-01

    Introductory undergraduate courses play a pivotal role in the geosciences. They serve as recruiting grounds for majors and future professionals, provide relevant experiences in geoscience for pre-service teachers, and offer opportunities to influence future policy makers, business people, professionals, and citizens. An introductory course is also typically the only course in geoscience that most of our students will ever take. Because the role of introductory courses is pivotal in geoscience education, a workshop on Teaching Introductory Courses in the 21st Century was held in July 2008 as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty development program. A website was also developed in conjunction with the workshop. One of the central themes of the workshop was the importance of considering the long-term impact a course should have on students. Ideally, courses can be designed with this impact in mind. Approaches include using the local geology to focus the course and illustrate concepts; designing a course for particular audience (such as Geology for Engineers); creating course features that help students understand and interpret geoscience in the news; and developing capstone projects to teach critical thinking and problem solving skills in a geologic context. Workshop participants also explored strategies for designing engaging activities including exploring with Google Earth, using real-world scenarios, connecting with popular media, or making use of campus features on local field trips. In addition, introductory courses can emphasize broad skills such as teaching the process of science, using quantitative reasoning and developing communication skills. Materials from the workshop as well as descriptions of more than 150 introductory courses and 350 introductory-level activities are available on the website: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/index.html.

  8. GOLD: Building capacity for broadening participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amanda; Patino, Lina; Jones, Michael B.; Rom, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The geosciences continue to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the engagement, recruitment and retention of traditionally underrepresented and underserved minorities, requiring more focused and strategic efforts to address this problem. Prior investments made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) related to broadening participation in STEM have identified many effective strategies and model programs for engaging, recruiting, and retaining underrepresented students in the geosciences. These investments also have documented clearly the importance of committed, knowledgeable, and persistent leadership for making local progress in broadening participation in STEM and the geosciences. Achieving diversity at larger and systemic scales requires a network of diversity "champions" who can catalyze widespread adoption of these evidence-based best practices and resources. Although many members of the geoscience community are committed to the ideals of broadening participation, the skills and competencies that empower people who wish to have an impact, and make them effective as leaders in that capacity for sustained periods of time, must be cultivated through professional development. The NSF GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD) program was implemented in 2016, as a funding opportunity utilizing the Ideas Lab mechanism. Ideas Labs are intensive workshops focused on finding innovative solutions to grand challenge problems. The ultimate aim of this Ideas Lab, organized by the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), was to facilitate the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of innovative professional development curricula that can unleash the potential of geoscientists with interests in broadening participation to become impactful leaders within the community. The expectation is that mixing geoscientists with experts in broadening participation research, behavioral change, social psychology, institutional

  9. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

  10. Opportunities at Geoscience in Veracruz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodríguez, C.

    2006-12-01

    The State of Veracruz is located in the central part of the Gulf of Mexico. It has enormous natural, economic and cultural wealth, is the third most populous state in Mexico, with nearly 33 % of the nation's water resources. It has an enormous quantity of natural resources, including oil, and is strategically located in Mexico. On one hand, mountains to the east are a natural border on the other lies the Gulf of Mexico. Between these two barriers are located tropical forests, mountain forests, jungles, wetlands, reefs, etc., and the land is one of the richest in biodiversity within the Americas. Veracruz, because of its geographical characteristics, presents an opportunity for research and collaboration in the geosciences. The region has experienced frequent episodes of torrential rainfalls, which have caused floods resulting in large amounts of property damage to agriculture, housing, infrastructure and, in extreme situations, loss of human life. In 2004 Veracruz University initiated a bachelor degree in Geography, which will prepare professionals to use their knowledge of geosciences to understand and promote integrated assessment of the prevailing problems in the State. Along with the geography program, the Earth Science Center offers other research programs in seismology, vulcanology, climatology, sustainable development and global change. Because of these characteristics, Veracruz is an optimal environment for active research in the geosciences, as well as for sharing the results of this research with educators, students, and all learners. We look forward to facilitating these efforts in the coming years.

  11. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  12. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  13. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that

  14. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  15. "YouTube Geology" - Increasing Geoscience Visibility Through Short Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispa, E. J.; Lerner, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have the responsibility to communicate their science to a broad audience: scientists, non-scientist, young and old. Effective ways of reaching these groups include using pathways that genuinely spark interest in the target audience. Communication techniques should evolve as the means of communication evolve. Here we talk about our experiences using short films to increase geoscience visibility and appreciation. At a time when brevity and quick engagement are vital to capturing people's attention, creating videos that fit popular formats is an effective way to draw and hold people's interest, and spreading these videos on popular sites is a good way to reach a non-academic audience. Creating videos that are fun, exciting, and catchy in order to initially increase awareness and interest is equally important as the educational content. The visual medium can also be powerful way to make complex scientific concepts seem less intimidating. We have experimented with this medium of geoscience communication by creating a number of short films that target a variety of audiences: short summaries of research topics, mock movie trailers, course advertisements, fieldwork highlight reels and geology lessons for elementary school children. Our two rules of thumb are to put the audience first and use style as a vital element. This allows for the creation of films that are more engaging and often less serious than standard informational (and longer-format) videos. Science does not need to be dry and dull - it can be humorous and entertaining while remaining highly accurate. Doing these short films has changed our own mindset as well - thinking about what to film while doing research helps keep the practical applications of our research in focus. We see a great deal of potential for collaboration between geoscientists and amateur or professional filmmakers creating hip and edgy videos that further raise awareness and interest. People like movies. We like movies. We like

  16. A Geoscience Workforce Model for Non-Geoscience and Non-Traditional STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Vladutescu, D. V.; Yuen-Lau, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Summit on the Future of Geoscience Undergraduate Education has recently identified key professional skills, competencies, and conceptual understanding necessary in the development of undergraduate geoscience students (American Geosciences Institute, 2015). Through a comprehensive study involving a diverse range of the geoscience academic and employer community, the following professional scientist skills were rated highly important: 1) critical thinking/problem solving skills; 2) effective communication; 3) ability to access and integrate information; 4) strong quantitative skills; and 5) ability to work in interdisciplinary/cross cultural teams. Based on the findings of the study above, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) has created a one-year intensive training program that focusses on the development of technical and non-technical geoscience skills for non-geoscience, non-traditional STEM students. Although City Tech does not offer geoscience degrees, the primary goal of the program is to create an unconventional pathway for under-represented minority STEM students to enter, participate, and compete in the geoscience workforce. The selected cohort of STEM students engage in year-round activities that include a geoscience course, enrichment training workshops, networking sessions, leadership development, research experiences, and summer internships at federal, local, and private geoscience facilities. These carefully designed programmatic elements provide both the geoscience knowledge and the non-technical professional skills that are essential for the geoscience workforce. Moreover, by executing this alternate, robust geoscience workforce model that attracts and prepares underrepresented minorities for geoscience careers, this unique pathway opens another corridor that helps to ameliorate the dire plight of the geoscience workforce shortage. This project is supported by NSF IUSE GEOPATH Grant # 1540721.

  17. Summary outline of ERDA geosciences and geoscience-related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research (DBER) supports long-range, basic geosciences research in those areas of the life sciences which are relevant to current or planned ERDA programs. A central objective of the DBER geosciences program is to understand the mechanisms by which radionuclides and non-nuclear pollutants move through and interact with ecological systems including the air, land, inland waters, and oceans. Principal areas of interest include, in the field of atmospheric sciences: studies of the troposphere, particle formation, particulate matter, behavior of aerosols and gases, atmospheric transport and diffusion of fossil fuel pollutants, radionuclides, radionuclide global distribution patterns, nuclear emergency response systems, precipitation scavenging and dry deposition, regional relationships between pollutant sources and ambient atmospheric concentrations; and oceanographic studies of radioactivity that may be directly added to the environment from waste disposal activities and reactor operations or indirectly from nuclear explosions and transportation, the source term characterization, transport, fate, and effects of these pollutants in the marine environment; and studies of thermal effects on biological systems, mixing and circulation of water, distribution of radionuclides in ocean waters and sediments, and geochronology.A summary outline of the research programs is presented

  18. Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project: Student Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Christine M.; Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Ramirez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Behl, Richard; Francis, Robert D.; Larson, Daniel O.; Hazen, Crisanne

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary project at California State University (Long Beach) designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences to underrepresented groups. The project is called the Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project (GDEP). It is a 3-year program which began in the fall of 2001 with funding from the National Science…

  19. Inquiring with Geoscience Datasets: Instruction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D.; Quellmalz, E.; Gobert, J.

    2005-12-01

    This session will describe a new NSF-funded project in Geoscience education, Inquiring with Geoscience Data Sets. The goals of the project are to (1) Study the impacts on student learning of Web-based supplementary curriculum modules that engage secondary-level students in inquiry projects addressing important geoscience problems using an Earth System Science approach. Students will use technologies to access real data sets in the geosciences and to interpret, analyze, and communicate findings based on the data sets. The standards addressed will include geoscience concepts, inquiry abilities in NSES and Benchmarks for Science Literacy, data literacy, NCTM standards, and 21st-century skills and technology proficiencies (NETTS/ISTE). (2) Develop design principles, specification templates, and prototype exemplars for technology-based performance assessments that provide evidence of students' geoscientific knowledge and inquiry skills (including data literacy skills) and students' ability to access, use, analyze, and interpret technology-based geoscience data sets. (3) Develop scenarios based on the specification templates that describe curriculum modules and performance assessments that could be developed for other Earth Science standards and curriculum programs. Also to be described in the session are the project's efforts to differentiate among the dimensions of data literacy and scientific inquiry that are relevant for the geoscience discplines, and how recognition and awareness of the differences can be effectively channelled for the betterment of geoscience education.

  20. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities, and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, briefly describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.

  1. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  2. Preparing for a Professional Career in the Geosciences with AEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T.; Troost, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists offers multiple resources to students and faculty about careers in the geosciences, such as description of what employers are looking for, career options, mentoring, and building your professional network. Our website provides easy access to these and other resources. Most of AEG's 3000 members found their first job through association with another AEG member and more than 75% of our membership is working in applied geoscience jobs. We know that employers are looking for the following qualities: passion for your career and the geosciences, an enthusiastic personality, flexibility, responsibility, ability to communicate well in oral and written modes, and the ability to work well in teams or independently. Employers want candidates with a strong well-rounded geoscience education and the following skills/experience: attendance at field camp, working knowledge of field methodologies, strong oral and written communication skills, basic to advanced computer skills, and the ability to conduct research. In addition, skill with GIS applications, computer modeling, and 40-hour OSHA training are desired. The most successful technique for finding a job is to have and use a network. Students can start building their network by attending regular AEG or other professional society monthly meetings, volunteering with the society, attending annual meetings, going on fieldtrips and participating in other events. Students should research what kind of job they want and build a list of potential preferred employers, then market themselves to people within those companies using networking opportunities. Word-of-mouth sharing of job openings is the most powerful tool for getting hired, and if students have name recognition established within their group of preferred employers, job interviews will occur at a faster rate than otherwise.

  3. The Person Behind the Picture: Influence of Social and Cultural Capital on Geoscience Career Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolee, E.; Libarkin, J. C.; McCallum, C.; Kurz, S.

    2017-12-01

    The amalgamation of fields in the geosciences share one desire: a better understanding of the natural world and the relationship humans have with that world. As issues such as climate change and clean water become globally recognized the geoscience job market grows. To insure these issues are resolved in ways that are fully representative of the entire human population, attention has been turned to increasing diversity of scientists in the geosciences. This study is based in the theory of social and cultural capital, types of non-financial wealth obtained by individuals and groups through connections and experiences. In particular, we investigated how individuals accessed specific resources and opportunities which eventually led to their entering the geosciences. Surveys were distributed to volunteers at a multinational geoscience conference held in fall of 2016. These surveys asked participants to "draw a picture of the people and experiences that have influenced your career up to this point." Nearly 150 completed drawings were coded through a thematic content analysis, wherein salient characteristics of drawings were documented and later grouped into common themes. We found that specific people (family, professors, peers) provided access to resources (education, museums, parks) as well as experiences (camping, traveling, research) that were instrumental in career building. Correlation analysis revealed two representative models of the drawings. These models aligned with the constructs of social and cultural capital. Cultural capital was more prevalent in majority white than nonwhite participants, suggesting different pathways into geoscience careers. We hope this research will inspire future work as well as highlight ways in which social and cultural capital can become accessible to future generations to produce a system with equal opportunities and increase diversity in the geosciences, resulting in better decision-making on global issues.

  4. People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze a part of the findings of documentation survey and field work carried out for five years in two cities and 67villages in Komeijan region of Markazi province, Iran, from some new perspectives such as ritual morphography, dramatic origin studies, eastern Scapegoat’s and anthropology of rituals. Using methods of current, and interviewing with 119 of the eldest native settlers ,as informants, and regarding the biochronology of man’s life in this region from the primitive form to civility which have been assigned to go back from the third millennium B.C.up to the present time, the morphography of 48 popular Dramatic Rituals has been determined. Among the findings of the study, one of the Archetypal Dramatic rituals, called Qaraiskurmah in the field of Anthropology of rituals, is Scapegoat’s. All these show the high IQ, innovative mind, and creative artistic tastes of the people in this region of Iran, whether they are Turkish, Persia, or Tats speakers.

  5. Impacting earthquake science and geoscience education: Educational programming to earthquake relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tina Louise

    This dissertation is comprised of four studies: three related to research on geoscience education and another seismological study of the South Island of New Zealand. The geoscience education research is grounded in 10 years of data collection and its implications for best practices for recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority students into higher education in the geosciences. The seismological component contains results from the relocation of earthquakes from the 2009 Dusky Sound Mw 7.8 event, South Island, New Zealand. In recent years, many have cited a major concern that U.S. is not producing enough STEM graduates to fit the forecasted economic need. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that underrepresented minorities are becoming a growing portion of the population, and people in these groups enter STEM careers at rates much smaller than their proportion of the populations. Among the STEM disciplines the Geosciences are the worst at attracting young people from underrepresented minorities. This dissertation reports on results the Pathways program at the University of Texas at El Paso Pathways which sought to create a geoscience recruitment and training network in El Paso, Texas to increase the number of Hispanic Americans students to attain higher degrees and increase the awareness of the geosciences from 2002-2012. Two elements of the program were a summer program for high school students and an undergraduate research program conducted during the academic year, called PREP. Data collected from pre- and post-surveys from the summer program showed statistically significant positive changes in attitudes towards the geosciences. Longitudinal data shows a strong positive correlation of the program with retention of participants in the geoscience pipeline. Results from the undergraduate research program show that it produced far more women and minority geoscience professionals than national norms. Combination of the institutional data, focus

  6. The Geoscience Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.

    2012-04-01

    Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and

  7. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  8. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  9. Place-Based Education in Geoscience: Theory, Research, Practice, and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, Steven; Ward, Emily Geraghty; Moosavi, Sadredin; Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2017-01-01

    Place-based education (PBE) is a situated, context-rich, transdisciplinary teaching and learning modality distinguished by its unequivocal relationship to place, which is any locality that people have imbued with meanings and personal attachments through actual or vicarious experiences. As an observational and historical science, geoscience is…

  10. Geoscience at Community Colleges: Availability of Programs and Geoscience Student Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Community colleges served over 7.5 million students in 2009, and have a more diverse student population than four-year institutions. In 2008, 58% of community college students were women and 33% of students were underrepresented minorities. Community colleges provide a large diverse pool of untapped talent for the geosciences and for all science and engineering disciplines. The most recent data from NSF's 2006 NSCRG database indicate that within the physical sciences, 43% of Bachelor's, 31% of Master's and 28% of Doctoral recipients had attended community college. Until recently, fine-grained datasets for examining the prevalence of community college education in geoscience students' academic pathways has not been available. Additionally, there has been limited information regarding the availability of geoscience programs and courses at community colleges. In 2011, the American Geological Institute (AGI) expanded its Directory of Geoscience Departments (DGD) to cover 434 community colleges that offer either geoscience programs and/or geoscience curriculum, and launched the first pilot of a standardized National Geoscience Exit Survey. The survey collects information not only about students' pathways in the university system and future academic and career plans, but also about community college attendance including geoscience course enrollments and Associate's degrees. The National Geoscience Exit Survey will be available to all U.S. geoscience programs at two- and four-year colleges and universities by the end of the 2011-2012 academic year, and will also establish a longitudinal survey effort to track students through their careers. Whereas the updated DGD now provides wider coverage of geoscience faculty members and programs at community colleges, the Exit Survey provides a rich dataset for mapping the flow of students from community colleges to university geoscience programs. We will discuss the availability of geoscience courses and programs at community

  11. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  12. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  13. Summaries of FY 1993 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the DOE`s many missions. The Geosciences Research Program is supported by the Office of Energy Research. The participants in this program include DOE laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the DOE and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar-atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  14. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound underlay of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the earth, atmospheric, and solar/terrestrial sciences that relate to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, which is a part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and comes under the Director of Energy Research, supports under its Geosciences program major Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the overall scope of the individual programs and details of the research performed during 1979-1980. The Geoscience program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related to the Department's technological needs, either directly or indirectly.

  15. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  16. Interoperability in planetary research for geospatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Trent M.; Rossi, Angelo P.; Frigeri, Alessandro; Marmo, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    For more than a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods for accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (e.g., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized geospatial image formats, geologic mapping conventions, U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) cartographic and metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Map Tile Services (cached image tiles), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they can be just as valuable for planetary domain. Another initiative, called VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access), will marry several of the above geoscience standards and astronomy-based standards as defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). This work outlines the current state of interoperability initiatives in use or in the process of being researched within the planetary geospatial community.

  17. Leveraging Global Geo-Data and Information Technologies to Bring Authentic Research Experiences to Students in Introductory Geosciences Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 PCAST report identified the improvement of "gateway" science courses as critical to increasing the number of STEM graduates to levels commensurate with national needs. The urgent need to recruit/ retain more STEM graduates is particularly acute in the geosciences, where growth in employment opportunities, an aging workforce and flat graduation rates are leading to substantial unmet demand for geoscience-trained STEM graduates. The need to increase the number of Bachelors-level geoscience graduates was an identified priority at the Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education (http://www.jsg.utexas.edu/events/future-of-geoscience-undergraduateeducation/), as was the necessity of focusing on 2-year colleges, where a growing number of students are being introduced to geosciences. Undergraduate research as an instructional tool can help engage and retain students, but has largely not been part of introductory geoscience courses because of the challenge of scaling such activities for large student numbers. However, burgeoning information technology resources, including publicly available earth and planetary data repositories and freely available, intuitive data visualization platforms makes structured, in-classroom investigations of geoscience questions tractable, and open-ended student inquiry possible. Examples include "MARGINS Mini-Lessons", instructional resources developed with the support of two NSF-DUE grant awards that involve investigations of marine geosciences data resources (overseen by the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) portal: www.iedadata.org) and data visualization using GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org); and the growing suite of Google-Earth based data visualization and exploration activities overseen by the Google Earth in Onsite and Distance Education project (geode.net). Sample-based investigations are also viable in introductory courses, thanks to remote instrument operations technologies that allow real student

  18. Defining the Geoscience Community through a Quantitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. These data cover the areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. The Workforce Program also considers economic changes in the United States and globally that can affect the supply and demand of the geoscience workforce. In order to have an informed discussion defining the modern geoscience community, it is essential to understand the current dynamics within the geoscience community and workforce. This presentation will provide a data-driven outlook of the current status of the geosciences in the workforce and within higher education using data collected by AGI, federal agencies and other stakeholder organizations. The data presented will highlight the various industries, including those industries with non-traditional geoscience jobs, the skills development of geoscience majors, and the application of these skills within the various industries in the workforce. This quantitative overview lays the foundation for further discussions related to tracking and understanding the current geoscience community in the United States, as well as establishes a baseline for global geoscience workforce comparisons in the future.

  19. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-06-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  20. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  1. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  2. OneGeology - Access to geoscience for all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, Marko; Lee, Kathryn; Robida, Francois

    2014-05-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as 'GeoSciML'. Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscientific data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geoscience data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscientific data and OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  3. Career Paths for Geosciences Students (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, T. S.; Flewelling, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Current and future drivers of hiring in the geosciences include climate, environment, energy, georisk and litigation areas. Although climate is closely linked to the atmospheric sciences, hiring needs in the geosciences exist as well, in understanding potential impacts of climate change on coastal erosion and water resources. Where and how to consider carbon sequestration as a climate mitigation policy will also require geosciences expertise. The environmental sciences have long been a source of geosciences hiring, and have ongoing needs in the areas of investigation of contamination, and in fluid and chemical transport. The recent expansion of the energy sector in the U.S. is providing opportunities for the geosciences in oil and gas production, hydraulic fracturing, and in geothermal development. In georisk, expertise in earthquake and volcanic hazard prediction are increasingly important, particularly in population centers. Induced seismicity is a relatively new area of georisk that will also require geosciences skills. The skills needed in the future geosciences workforce are increasingly interdisciplinary, and include those that are both observational and quantitative. Field observations and their interpretation must be focused forward as well as backwards and include the ability to recognize change as it occurs. Areas of demand for quantitative skills include hydrological, geophysical, and geochemical modeling, math and statistics, with specialties such as rock mechanics becoming an increasingly important area. Characteristics that students should have to become successful employees in these sectors include strong communication skills, both oral and written, the ability to know when to stop "studying" and identify next steps, and the ability to turn research areas into solutions to problems.

  4. How Global Science has yet to Bridge Global Differences - A Status Report of the IUGS Taskforce on Global Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences, with endorsement by UNESCO, has established a taskforce on global geosciences workforce and has tasked the American Geological Institute to take a lead. Springing from a session on global geosciences at the IGC33 in Oslo, Norway, the taskforce is to address three issues on a global scale: define the geosciences, determine the producers and consumers of geoscientists, and frame the understandings to propose pathways towards improved global capacity building in the geosciences. With the combination of rapid retirements in the developed world, and rapid economic expansion and impact of resource and hazard issues in the developing world, the next 25 years will be a dynamic time for the geosciences. However, to date there has been little more than a cursory sense of who and what the geosciences are globally and whether we will be able to address the varied needs and issues in the developed and the developing worlds. Based on prior IUGS estimates, about 50% of all working geoscientists reside in the Unites States, and the US was also producing about 50% of all new geosciences graduate degrees globally. Work from the first year of the taskforce has elucidated the immense complexity of the issue of defining the geosciences, as it bring is enormous cultural and political frameworks, but also shed light on the status of the geosciences in each country. Likewise, this leads to issues of who is actually producing and consuming geoscience talent, and whether countries are meeting domestic demand, and if not, is external talent available to import. Many US-based assumptions about the role of various countries in the geosciences’ global community of people, namely China and India, appear to have been misplaced. In addition, the migration of geoscientists between countries raised enormous questions about what is nationality and if there is an ideal ‘global geoscientist.’ But more than anything, the taskforce is revealing clear

  5. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  6. Summaries of FY 92 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions and their subdivisions including Earth dynamics, properties of Earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.

  7. Summaries of FY 91 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. Theses activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs. 2 tabs.

  8. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  9. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  10. Visual Analytics for Heterogeneous Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhu, F.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Jiang, H.; Yu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience data obtained from diverse sources have been routinely leveraged by scientists to study various phenomena. The principal data sources include observations and model simulation outputs. These data are characterized by spatiotemporal heterogeneity originated from different instrument design specifications and/or computational model requirements used in data generation processes. Such inherent heterogeneity poses several challenges in exploring and analyzing geoscience data. First, scientists often wish to identify features or patterns co-located among multiple data sources to derive and validate certain hypotheses. Heterogeneous data make it a tedious task to search such features in dissimilar datasets. Second, features of geoscience data are typically multivariate. It is challenging to tackle the high dimensionality of geoscience data and explore the relations among multiple variables in a scalable fashion. Third, there is a lack of transparency in traditional automated approaches, such as feature detection or clustering, in that scientists cannot intuitively interact with their analysis processes and interpret results. To address these issues, we present a new scalable approach that can assist scientists in analyzing voluminous and diverse geoscience data. We expose a high-level query interface that allows users to easily express their customized queries to search features of interest across multiple heterogeneous datasets. For identified features, we develop a visualization interface that enables interactive exploration and analytics in a linked-view manner. Specific visualization techniques such as scatter plots to parallel coordinates are employed in each view to allow users to explore various aspects of features. Different views are linked and refreshed according to user interactions in any individual view. In such a manner, a user can interactively and iteratively gain understanding into the data through a variety of visual analytics operations. We

  11. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geoscience Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's technological needs.

  12. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1980 to 1981. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas

  13. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1980 to 1981. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.

  14. Field research internships: Why they impact students' decisions to major in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortz, K. M.; Cardace, D.; Savage, B.; Rieger, D.

    2017-12-01

    Although internships have been shown to retain geoscience students, little research has been done on what components of research or field experiences during an internship impact students' decisions to major in the geosciences. We created and led a short, two-week field-based internship for 5 introductory-level students to conduct research and create a poster to present their results. In addition to the two professors leading the internship and the 5 interns, there were 2 masters students and 1 community college student who were returning to the field area to collect data for their own projects. These students also helped to guide and mentor the interns. The interns were diverse in many aspects: 3 were female, 2 were non-white, 3 were community college students (1 4YC student was a transfer), 2 were first-generation college students, and their ages ranged from 18 to 33. Based on our evaluation, we found that the research experience increased students' self-efficacy in the geosciences through various means, increased their connection with mentors and other individuals who could serve as resources, gave them a sense of belonging to the geoscience culture, increased their knowledge of geoscience career paths and expectations, helped them make connections with Earth, and maintained their interest. These factors have been described in the literature as leading to retention, and we propose that field-based internships are successful for recruitment or retention in the geosciences because they influence so many of these affective and cognitive components at once. In particular, the social aspect of internships plays a fundamental role in their success because many of these factors require close and sustained interactions with other people. An implication of this research is that these affective components, including social ones, should be explicitly considered in the design and implementation of internships to best serve as a recruitment and retention strategy.

  15. LaURGE: Louisiana Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Agnew, J.

    2009-12-01

    NSF and the Shell Foundation sponsor a program called Louisiana Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (LaURGE). Goals of LaURGE are: 1) Interweave geoscience education into the existing curriculum; 2) Provide teachers with lesson plans that promote interest in geoscience, critical thinking by students, and are consistent with current knowledge in geoscience; and 3) Provide teachers with supplies that make these lessons the highlights of the course. Biology workshops were held at LSU in Baton Rouge and Centenary College in Shreveport in July 2009. 25 teachers including 5 African-Americans attended the workshops. Teachers were from public and private schools in seven different parishes. Teacher experience ranged from 3 years to 40 years. Courses impacted are Biology, Honors Biology, AP Biology, and Environmental Science. The workshops began with a field trip to Mississippi to collect fossil shark teeth and create a virtual field trip. After the field trip, teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession. Teachers were also given a $200 budget from which to select fossils for use in their classrooms. One of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth have an excellent fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow teachers to explore the variations among different shark teeth and to explain the causes of those variations. Objectives are to have teachers (and their students): 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed

  16. Association for Women Geoscientists: enhancing gender diversity in the geosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Foos, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) has been working to increase the representation and advancement of women in geoscience careers since its founding in 1977. We promote the professional development of our members and encourage women to become geoscientists by gathering and providing data on the status of women in the field, providing publications to train women in professional skills, encouraging networking, publicizing mentoring opportunities, organizing and hosting workshops, funding programs to encourage women to enter the field of geosciences, and providing scholarships, particularly to non-traditional students. We promote women geoscientists' visibility through our Phillips Petroleum Speaker's List, by recognizing an Outstanding Educator at our annual breakfast at the Geological Society of America meetings, and by putting qualified women's names forward for awards given by other geo-societies. Our paper and electronic newsletters inform our members of job and funding opportunities. These newsletters provide the geoscience community with a means of reaching a large pool of women (nearly 1000 members). Our outreach is funded by the AWG Foundation and carried out by individual members and association chapters. We provide a variety of programs, from half-day "Fossil Safaris" to two-week field excursions such as the Lincoln Chapter/Homestead Girl Scouts Council Wider Opportunity, "Nebraska Rocks!!". Our programs emphasize the field experience as the most effective "hook" for young people. We have found that women continue to be under-represented in academia in the geosciences. Data from 1995 indicate we hold only 11 percent of academic positions and 9 percent of tenure-track positions, while our enrollment at the undergraduate level has risen from 25 to 34 percent over the last ten years. The proportion of women in Master's degree programs is nearly identical with our proportions in undergraduate programs, but falls off in doctoral programs. Between 1986

  17. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  18. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  19. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  20. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  1. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  2. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The summaries in this document describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1984-1985. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.

  3. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  4. The Other Kind of Rock: Diversifying Geosciences Outreach with some Tools from Rock n' Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Music can communicate science at times when words and graphs fail. For this reason, earth scientists are increasingly using sounds and rhythms to capture the public's imagination while demonstrating technical concepts and sharing the societal impacts of their research. Musical approaches reach across the boundaries of perceptual learning style, age, gender, and life history. Music therefore makes science (and scientists) more approachable to a wide range of people. But in addition to its unique power for engaging diverse audiences, music-based outreach also sets an example for the geosciences' untapped potential as a public empowerment tool. Like many STEM fields, the music industry has long been criticized for poor inclusion of women and minorities. Rock n' roll camps for girls are answering this challenge by teaching music as a vessel for empowerment, with principles that can easily be adapted to geoscience outreach and education. The process of observing the planet is innately empowering; outreach programs that emphasize this in their design will take their impacts to the next level. Just as diversity in the scientific community benefits geoscience, geoscience also benefits diverse communities. This presentation will outline some principles and applications from the music world to achieving both of these aims.

  5. Teaching Geoethics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, David; Bruckner, Monica; Kieffer, Susan; Geissman, John; Reidy, Michael; Taylor, Shaun; Vallero, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Training in geoethics is an important part of pre-professional development of geoscientists. Professional societies, governmental agencies, and employers of the geoscience workforce increasingly expect that students have had some training in ethics to guide their professional lives, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. The nature of the geosciences exposes the profession to ethical issues that derive from our work in a complex, dynamic Earth system with an incomplete geologic record and a high degree of uncertainty and ambiguity in our findings. The geosciences also address topics such as geohazards and resource development that have ethical dimensions that impact on the health, security, public policies, and economic well-being of society. However, there is currently no formal course of study to integrate geoethics into the geoscience curriculum and few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. The workshop addressed topics such as where and how should geoethics be taught in a range of courses including introductory courses for non-majors, as embedded modules in existing geoscience courses, or as a dedicated course for majors on geoethics; what are the best pedagogic practices in teaching ethics, including lessons learned from cognate disciplines (philosophy, biology, engineering); what are the goals for teaching geoethics, and what assessments can be used to demonstrate mastery of ethical principles; what resources currently exist to support teaching geoethics, and what new resources are needed? The workshop also explored four distinct but related aspects of geoethics: 1) Geoethics and self: what are the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical

  6. The silent buzz of geosciences: the challenge of geosciences communication in the Italian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    environmental dynamics and their interaction with human activity (preparedness). We suspect, that in the Italian framework, this raises from a sort of original sin: a "resistance" to science, that, for people with little or poor scientific knowledge, swings between pseudoscientific simplifications (which, unfortunately, web is variously "dotted" [Quattrociocchi et al. 2014]) and, as the sociologist Franco Ferrarotti would say, pre-scientific traditions [Peppoloni, 2011]. The "logos" of geology and the geological "narrative" are of fundamental importance in the Anthropocene, allowing to shift the focus back on the human/environment interaction. Geologists are often ignored, as bearers of uncomfortable messages, especially in a country where there is no longer a National Geological Survey, but it is unquestionable the importance of Earth Sciences and the social role of the geologist (geoethics) for Disaster Resilience. This is the next challenge of Geosciences, and of the whole community of geoscientists. Develop a coordinated communication approach for geosciences as an ethical imperative, and also as a pre-requisite to risk and emergency communication: geologists and geology are the authoritative interpreters of natural processes and risk, holders of scientific knowledge that if explained and shared allow people and decision makers to better cope with risks, and to enable Disaster Resilience.

  7. Visualizing Geoscience Concepts Through Textbook Art (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and

  8. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be...

  9. Summaries of FY 1994 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward the long-term fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy byproducts of man. The Program is divided into five broad categories: Geophysics and earth dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy resource recognition, evaluation, and utilization; Hydrogeology and exogeochemistry; and Solar-terrestrial interactions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs in these main areas and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  10. Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Schuster, D.; Hou, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The open availability and wide accessibility of digital data sets is becoming the norm for geoscience research. The National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted a data management planning requirement in 2011, and many scientific publishers, including the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society, have recently implemented data archiving and citation policies. Many disciplinary data facilities exist around the community to provide a high level of technical support and expertise for archiving data of particular kinds, or for particular projects. However, a significant number of geoscience research projects do not have the same level of data facility support due to a combination of several factors, including the research project's size, funding limitations, or topic scope that does not have a clear facility match. These projects typically manage data on an ad hoc basis without limited long-term management and preservation procedures. The NSF is supporting a workshop to be held in Summer of 2018 to develop requirements and expectations for a Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service (GeoDaRRS). The vision for the prospective GeoDaRRS is to complement existing NSF-funded data facilities by providing: 1) data management planning support resources for the general community, and 2) repository services for researchers who have data that do not fit in any existing repository. Functionally, the GeoDaRRS would support NSF-funded researchers in meeting data archiving requirements set by the NSF and publishers for geosciences, thereby ensuring the availability of digital data for use and reuse in scientific research going forward. This presentation will engage the AGU community in discussion about the needs for a new digital data repository service, specifically to inform the forthcoming GeoDaRRS workshop.

  11. History of Geoscience Research Matters to You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    The geosciences have a long, distinguished, and very useful history Today's science is tomorrow's history of science. If we don't study the past, then every decision we face will seem unprecedented. If we don't study the history of science and apply its lessons, then I don't think we can say we really understand science. Actual research results and ongoing programs will be highlighted, with a focus on public understanding and support for atmospheric science and global change.

  12. Smartphones: Powerful Tools for Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Johnston, David W.

    2013-11-01

    Observation, formation of explanatory hypotheses, and testing of ideas together form the basic pillars of much science. Consequently, science education has often focused on the presentation of facts and theories to teach concepts. To a great degree, libraries and universities have been the historical repositories of scientific information, often restricting access to a small segment of society and severely limiting broad-scale geoscience education.

  13. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound underlay of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the earth, atmospheric, and solar/terrestrial sciences which relate to DOE's many missions. This research may be conducted in the major DOE laboratories, industry, universities and other government agencies. Such support provides for payment of salaries, purchase of equipment and other materials, an allowance for overhead costs, and is formalized by a contract between the Department and the organization performing the work. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the work performed during 1977, include the scope of the work to be performed in 1978 and provide information regarding some of the research planned for 1979. The Division of Engineering, Mathematics, and Geosciences, which is a part of the Office of Energy Research, supports, under its Geoscience Program, research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary relationships, as well as their relationship to the Department's technological needs

  14. Summaries of FY 1996 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward building the long-term fundamental knowledge base necessary to provide for energy technologies of the future. Future energy technologies and their individual roles in satisfying the nations energy needs cannot be easily predicted. It is clear, however, that these future energy technologies will involve consumption of energy and mineral resources and generation of technological wastes. The earth is a source for energy and mineral resources and is also the host for wastes generated by technological enterprise. Viable energy technologies for the future must contribute to a national energy enterprise that is efficient, economical, and environmentally sound. The Geosciences Research Program emphasizes research leading to fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy by-products of man.

  15. Future Employment Opportunities for US Geoscience Graduates - a View From Historical Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Milling, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    The geosciences in the United States has experienced a number of major booms and busts, but today has become, as a discipline, less dependent on the immediate fortunes of the natural resources industries. However, the actual employment distribution has not changed substantially in the last fifteen years, with the petroleum industry remaining by and far the single largest employer of geoscientists in the United States, and even more as a level of contributing to GNP. However, most of the geoscience professional ranks in industry were filled prior to and during the last major boom which ended in 1986. Most of this workforce is now heading into retirement and though total geoscience workforce demand is not likely to grow; substantial employment opportunities do and will exist as these individuals retire. However, this picture is more complicated than in the past. Most industries, both the traditional geoscience employers, such as petroleum, mining, and environment, and non-traditional, such as telecommunications, are increasingly global in their operations and perspectives. This increasing globalization means that US graduates now compete not only against graduates from other schools in the US, but throughout the world. When coupled with preferences for not hiring people in as expatriates for overseas assignment, US graduates face an increasingly competitive, but rewarding job market. The proverbial leveling of the playing field is also seen in the rapid rise in international membership of traditionally American professional and scientific societies. This internationalization is hardly discouraged within the culture of science, and is one that US students will need to embrace to compete effectively in the future for employment in the geosciences. One major change that will be necessitated is the adjustment of parts of academia to the new realities of preparing students for future employment within the discipline. Currently most US geoscience graduate programs are

  16. Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response

  17. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  18. Highlighting Successful Strategies for Engaging Minority Students in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Vladutescu, D. V.; Yuen-Lau, L.

    2017-12-01

    Igniting interest and creativity in students for the geosciences oftentimes require innovation, bold `outside-the-box' thinking, and perseverance, particularly for minority students for whom the preparation for the discipline and its lucrative pathways to the geoscience workforce are regrettably unfamiliar and woefully inadequate. The enrollment, retention, participation, and graduation rates of minority students in STEM generally and in the geosciences particularly remain dismally low. However, a coupled, strategic geoscience model initiative at the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) of the City University of New York has been making steady in-roads of progress, and it offers practical solutions to improve minority student engagement in the geosciences. Aided by funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two geoscience-centric programs were created from NSF REU and NSF IUSE grants, and these programs have been successfully implemented and administered at City Tech. This presentation shares the hybrid geoscience research initiatives, the multi-tiered mentoring structures, the transformative geoscience workforce preparation, and a plethora of other vital bastions of support that made the overall program successful. Minority undergraduate scholars of the program have either moved on to graduate school, to the geoscience workforce, or they persist with greater levels of success in their STEM disciplines.

  19. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  20. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  1. Geoethics and the Role of Professional Geoscience Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Palka, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Mogk, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Codes of Ethics (Conduct) for geoscientists are formulated primarily by professional societies and the codes must be viewed in the context of the Goals (Missions, Values) of the societies. Our survey of the codes of approximately twenty-five societies reveals that most codes enumerate principles centered on practical issues regarding professional conduct of individuals such as plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification, and the obligation of individuals to the profession and society at large. With the exception of statements regarding the ethics of peer review, there is relatively little regarding the ethical obligations of the societies themselves. In essence, the codes call for traditionally honorable behavior of individual members. It is striking, given that the geosciences are largely relevant to the future of Earth, most current codes of societies fail to address our immediate obligations to the environment and Earth itself. We challenge professional organizations to consider the ethical obligations to Earth in both their statements of goals and in their codes of ethics. Actions by societies could enhance the efforts of individual geoscientists to serve society, especially in matters related to hazards, resources and planetary stewardship. Actions we suggest to be considered include: (1) Issue timely position statements on topics in which there is expertise and consensus (some professional societies such as AGU, GSA, AAAS, and the AMS, do this regularly, yet others not at all.); (2) Build databases of case studies regarding geoethics that can be used in university classes; (3) Hold interdisciplinary panel discussions with ethicists, scientists, and policy makers at annual meetings; (4) Foster publication in society journals of contributions relating to ethical questions; and (5) Aggressively pursue the incorporation of geoethical issues in undergraduate and graduate curricula and in continuing professional development.

  2. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  3. The "Planet Earth Week": a National Scientific Festival helping Italy Discover Geosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, S.; Coccioni, R.

    2017-12-01

    The "Planet Earth Week- Italy Discovering Geosciences: a More Informed Society is a More Engaged Society" (www.settimanaterra.org) is a science festival that involves the whole of the Italian Regions: founded in 2012, it has become the largest event of Italian Geosciences and one of the biggest European science festivals. During a week in October several locations distributed throughout the Country (see map) are animated by events, called "Geoeventi", to disseminate geosciences to the masses and deliver science education by means of a wide range of activities: hiking, walking in city and town centers, open-door at museums and research centers, guided tours, exhibitions, educational and experimental workshops for children and young people, music and art performances, food and wine events, lectures, conferences, round tables. Universities and colleges, research centers, local Authorities, cultural and scientific associations, parks and museums, professionals organize the Geoeventi. The festival aims at bringing adults and young people to Geosciences, conveying enthusiasm for scientific research and discoveries, promoting sustainable cultural tourism, aware of environmental values and distributed all over Italy. The Geoeventi shed light both on the most spectacular and on the less known geological sites, which are often a stone's throw from home. The Planet Earth Week is growing year after year: the 2016 edition proposed 310 Geoeventi, 70 more than in 2015. The number of places involved in the project also increased and rose from 180 in 2015 to 230 in 2016. This initiative, that is also becoming a significant economic driver for many small companies active in the field of science divulgation, is analyzed, evaluated and put in a transnational network perspective.

  4. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  5. The Case for Infusing Quantitative Literacy into Introductory Geoscience Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Wenner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website

  6. Linking Undergraduate Geoscience and Education Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. W.; McManus, D. A.

    2001-05-01

    In many colleges and universities students who have declared a major in one of the geosciences are often ineligible to take the education courses necessary for state certification. In order to enroll in education courses to meet the state's Department of Education course requirements for a teaching credential, these students must drop their geoscience major and declare an education major. Students in education programs in these universities may be limited in the science classes they take as part of their degree requirements. These students face the same problem as students who have declared a science major in that course work is not open to them. As a result, universities too often produce science majors with a weak pedagogy background or education majors with a weak Earth and space sciences background. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) formed a collaboration of four universities with strong, yet separate science and education departments, to provide the venue for a one week NSF sponsored retreat to allow the communication necessary for solutions to these problems to be worked out by faculty members. Each university was represented by a geoscience department faculty member, an education department faculty member, and a K-12 master teacher selected by the two faculty members. This retreat was followed by a second retreat that focused on community colleges in the Southwest United States. Change is never easy and Linkages has shown that success for a project of this nature requires the dedication of not only the faculty involved in the project, but colleagues in their respective schools as well as the administration when departmental cultural obstacles must be overcome. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary work accomplished by the schools involved in the project.

  7. Transforming Indigenous Geoscience Education and Research (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confed­erations exert sovereignty over about 20% of all the freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 30 Native American (NA) students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosci­ences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of NA geoscientists,TIGER builds upon the momentum of Salish Kootenai College's newly accredited Hydrology Degree Program. It allows for the development and implementation of the first Bachelor's degree in geosciences (hydrology) at a Tribal College and University (TCU). TIGER integrates a solid educational research-based framework for retention and educational preparation of underrepresented minorities with culturally relevant curriculum and socio-cultural supports, offering a new model for STEM education of NA students. Innovative hydrology curriculum is both academically rigorous and culturally relevant with concurrent theoretical, conceptual, and applied coursework in chemical, biological, physical and managerial aspects of water resources. Educational outcomes for the program include a unique combination of competencies based on industry recognized standards (e.g., National Institute of Hydrologists), input from an experienced External Advisory Board (EAB), and competencies required for geoscientists working in critical NA watersheds, which include unique competencies, such as American Indian Water Law and sovereignty issues. TIGER represents a unique opportunity to capitalize on the investments the geoscience community has already made into broadening the participation of underrepresented minorities and developing a diverse workforce, by allowing SKC to develop a sustainable and exportable program capable of significantly increasing (by 25 to 75%) the National rate of Native American geoscience graduates.

  8. A Model Collaborative Platform for Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S.; Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade SERC at Carleton College has developed a collaborative platform for geoscience education that has served dozens of projects, thousands of community authors and millions of visitors. The platform combines a custom technical infrastructure: the SERC Content Management system (CMS), and a set of strategies for building web-resources that can be disseminated through a project site, reused by other projects (with attribution) or accessed via an integrated geoscience education resource drawing from all projects using the platform. The core tools of the CMS support geoscience education projects in building project-specific websites. Each project uses the CMS to engage their specific community in collecting, authoring and disseminating the materials of interest to them. At the same time the use of a shared central infrastructure allows cross-fertilization among these project websites. Projects are encouraged to use common templates and common controlled vocabularies for organizing and displaying their resources. This standardization is then leveraged through cross-project search indexing which allow projects to easily incorporate materials from other projects within their own collection in ways that are relevant and automated. A number of tools are also in place to help visitors move among project websites based on their personal interests. Related links help visitors discover content related topically to their current location that is in a 'separate' project. A 'best bets' feature in search helps guide visitors to pages that are good starting places to explore resources on a given topic across the entire range of hosted projects. In many cases these are 'site guide' pages created specifically to promote a cross-project view of the available resources. In addition to supporting the cross-project exploration of specific themes the CMS also allows visitors to view the combined suite of resources authored by any particular community member. Automatically

  9. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  10. Summaries of FY 1995 geosciences research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either direct or indirect to the Department of Energy`s long-range technological needs.

  11. Muons tomography applied to geosciences and volcanology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteau, J., E-mail: marteau@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (UMR CNRS-IN2P3 5822), Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Gibert, D.; Lesparre, N. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (UMR CNRS 7154), Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Nicollin, F. [Geosciences Rennes (CNRS UMR 6118), Universite Rennes 1, Bat. 15 Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Noli, P. [Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II and INFN sez. Napoli (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, SidlerStrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-12-11

    Imaging the inner part of large geological targets is an important issue in geosciences with various applications. Different approaches already exist (e.g. gravimetry, electrical tomography) that give access to a wide range of information but with identified limitations or drawbacks (e.g. intrinsic ambiguity of the inverse problem, time consuming deployment of sensors over large distances). Here we present an alternative and complementary tomography method based on the measurement of the cosmic muons flux attenuation through the geological structures. We detail the basics of this muon tomography with a special emphasis on the photo-active detectors.

  12. OERL: A Tool For Geoscience Education Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Online Evaluation Resource Library (OERL) is a Web-based set of resources for improving the evaluation of projects funded by the Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). OERL provides prospective project developers and evaluators with material that they can use to design, conduct, document, and review evaluations. OERL helps evaluators tackle the challenges of seeing if a project is meeting its implementation and outcome-related goals. Within OERL is a collection of exemplary plans, instruments, and reports from evaluations of EHR-funded projects in the geosciences and in other areas of science and mathematics. In addition, OERL contains criteria about good evaluation practices, professional development modules about evaluation design and questionnaire development, a dictionary of key evaluation terms, and links to evaluation standards. Scenarios illustrate how the resources can be used or adapted. Currently housed in OERL are 137 instruments, and full or excerpted versions of 38 plans and 60 reports. 143 science and math projects have contributed to the collection so far. OERL's search tool permits the launching of precise searches based on key attributes of resources such as their subject area and the name of the sponsoring university or research institute. OERL's goals are to 1) meet the needs for continuous professional development of evaluators and principal investigators, 2) complement traditional vehicles of learning about evaluation, 3) utilize the affordances of current technologies (e.g., Web-based digital libraries, relational databases, and electronic performance support systems) for improving evaluation practice, 4) provide anytime/anyplace access to update-able resources that support evaluators' needs, and 5) provide a forum by which professionals can interact on evaluation issues and practices. Geoscientists can search the collection of resources from geoscience education projects that have

  13. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.

    1978-01-01

    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  14. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for increasing awareness and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.

    2013-12-01

    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means to increase awareness of and develop interest in the Geosciences and other STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) programs. Here we describe and report the preliminary results of a new one-week program at Texas A&M University to introduce first generation, women, and underrepresented high school students to opportunities and careers in the Geosciences. Short-term indicators in the form of pre- and post-program surveys of participants and their parents suggest that there is an increase in participant understanding of geosciences and interest in pursuing a degree in the geosciences. At the start of the program, the participants and their parents had relatively limited knowledge of the geosciences and very few had a friend or acquaintance employed in the geosciences. Post-survey results suggest that the students had an improved and nuanced understanding of the geosciences and the career opportunities within the field. A survey of the parents several months after the program had ended suggests that the participants had effectively communicated their newfound understanding and that the parents now recognized the geosciences as a potentially rewarding career. With the support of their parents 42% of the participants are planning to pursue an undergraduate degree in the geosciences compared to 62% of participants who were planning to pursue a geosciences degree before the program. It is concluded that future offerings of this and similar programs should also engage the parents to ensure that the geosciences are recognized as a potential academic and career path.

  15. Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…

  16. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  17. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  18. Juggling the life-puzzle with Geosciences: personal experience and strategies from a female leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    People are very complex and difficult to categorize. For instance, in the Geosciences community I am representing both minorities and majorities. When being in minority, I am both Underrepresented and Overrepresented by the composition of this community vs the global population, and also at EGU I am both under- and over-represented vs the total geoscience community. At present, I am underrepresented being a Woman in Geosciences but earlier in my carrier, I was also underrepresented being a Young Leader - so I will focus my presentation on both gender and age, as it is difficult for me to separate these two barriers from various sorts of exclusions I experienced. Underrepresentation is bad for several reasons, for instance (i) We might miss talents if equality of opportunities are not given in geosciences; (ii) Teams work less efficient than if they are composed by different characters, competences and skills; (iii) We are less prepared for new circumstances in this rapidly changing and unstable world; (iv) We degrade in communication skills and perception, if we don't understand similarities and differences. I will discuss some representative differences that may lead to unequal opportunities in geosciences. However, we need to be careful when searching for representation as it involves attribution of characteristics, which may lead to stigmatization and oversimplify the complexity of personality. Differences between individuals in a population are still much larger than between the averages of the populations. In my presentation I will give examples from my personal experience of barriers during 25 years in geosciences and the strategies I have used to overcome them. I will also give examples of successful methods that I have used in my 17 years of leadership when building efficient teams, to make them benefit from differences between individuals. I am currently leading a group of 26 scientists with origin from 13 countries world-wide. Finally, I will give some

  19. Diversifying the Geosciences: Examples from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Like other realms of the geosciences, the scientists who comprise the Arctic research community tends to be white and male. For example, a survey of grants awarded over a 5-year period beginning in 2010 by NSF's Arctic System Science and Arctic Natural Sciences programs showed that over 90% of PIs were white whereas African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans together accounted for only about 1% of PIs. Over 70% of the PIs were male. I will suggest that involving diverse upper-level undergraduate students in authentic field research experiences may be one of the shortest and surest routes to diversifying the Arctic research community, and by extension, the geoscientific research community overall. Upper-level undergraduate students are still open to multiple possibilities, but an immersive field research experience often helps solidify graduate school and career trajectories. Though an all-of-the-above strategy is needed, focusing on engaging a diverse cohort of upper-level undergraduate students may provide one of the most efficient means of diversifying the geosciences over the coming years and decades.

  20. Progress toward Modular UAS for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Clark, M. A.; Comstock, R. J.; Fladeland, M.; Gascot, H., III; Haig, T. H.; Lam, S. J.; Mazhari, A. A.; Palomares, R. R.; Pinsker, E. A.; Prathipati, R. T.; Sagaga, J.; Thurling, J. S.; Travers, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have become accepted tools for geoscience, ecology, agriculture, disaster response, land management, and industry. A variety of consumer UAS options exist as science and engineering payload platforms, but their incompatibilities with one another contribute to high operational costs compared with those of piloted aircraft. This research explores the concept of modular UAS, demonstrating airframes that can be reconfigured in the field for experimental optimization, to enable multi-mission support, facilitate rapid repair, or respond to changing field conditions. Modular UAS is revolutionary in allowing aircraft to be optimized around the payload, reversing the conventional wisdom of designing the payload to accommodate an unmodifiable aircraft. UAS that are reconfigurable like Legos™ are ideal for airborne science service providers, system integrators, instrument designers and end users to fulfill a wide range of geoscience experiments. Modular UAS facilitate the adoption of open-source software and rapid prototyping technology where design reuse is important in the context of a highly regulated industry like aerospace. The industry is now at a stage where consolidation, acquisition, and attrition will reduce the number of small manufacturers, with a reduction of innovation and motivation to reduce costs. Modularity leads to interface specifications, which can evolve into de facto or formal standards which contain minimum (but sufficient) details such that multiple vendors can then design to those standards and demonstrate interoperability. At that stage, vendor coopetition leads to robust interface standards, interoperability standards and multi-source agreements which in turn drive costs down significantly.

  1. Fundamental geosciences program. Annual report, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Apps, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The geoscience program relating to geothermal energy consists of four projects. In the project on reservoir dynamics, sophisticated codes have been written to simulate the dynamics of heat flow in geothermal reservoir systems. These codes have also been applied to the investigations of natural aquifers as a storage system for thermal energy. In the second project, core samples are studied to determine the high temperature and high pressure behavior of aquifers in the presence of saturating fluids. The third project covers the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes in order to interpret the behavior of geothermal fluids. The fourth project involves hydrothermal solubility measurements of various minerals to elucidate the chemistry and mass transfer in geothermal systems. The second major program includes four projects which involve precise measurements and analysis of physical and chemical properties of geologic materials. These include measurements of the thermodynamic properties (viscosity, density and heat capacity) of silicate materials to help understand magma genesis and evolution, high-precision neutron activation analysis of rare and trace elements in magmatic materials, and the precise measurement of seismic wave velocities near geological faults, in order to determine the buildup of stress in the earth's crust. Third, the development program in fundamental geosciences includes six innovative projects. These projects include research in the in situ leaching of uranium ore, properties of magmas, removal of pyrite from coal, properties of soils and soft rocks, stress flow behavior of fractured rock systems, and high-precision mass spectrometry.

  2. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc. that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regression or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  3. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cacho, Isabel; Calvo, Eva; Demol, Ben; Sureda, Catalina; Artigas, Carme; Vilaplana, Miquel; Porbellini, Danilo; Rubio, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    CATAGIFT is the acronym of the project supported by the Catalan Government (trough the AGAUR agency) to support the activities of the EGU Committee on Education in Catalonia. The objective of this project is two-fold: 1) To establish a coordinated action to support the participation of three Catalan science teachers of primary and secondary schools in the GIFT Symposium, held each year during the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). 2) To produce a video documentary each year on hot topics in geosciences. The documentary is produced in Catalan, Spanish and English and is distributed to the Catalan science teachers attending the annual meeting organized by the Institute of Education Sciences and the Faculty of Geology of the University together with the CosmoCaixa Museum of Barcelona, to the international teachers attending the EGU GIFT Workshop, and to other schools in the Spanish territory. In the present-day context of science dissemination through documentaries and television programs there is a dominance of products of high technical quality and very high costs sold and broadcasted world wide. The wide spread of such products tends to standardize scientific information, not only in its content, but also in the format used for communicating science to the general public. In the field of geosciences in particular, there is a scarcity of products that combine high scientific quality and accessible costs to illustrate aspects of the natural life of our planet Earth through the results of the work of individual researchers and / or research groups. The scientific documentaries produced by CATAGIFT pursue the objective to support primary and secondary school teachers to critically interpret scientific information coming from the different media (television, newspapers, magazines, audiovisual products), in a way that they can transmit to their students. CataGIFT has created a series of documentaries called MARENOSTRUM TERRANOSTRA designed and

  4. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  5. Expanding the Horizon: A Journey to Explore and Share Effective Geoscience Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Natural Resource Science and Engineering Program (INRSEP) has worked diligently over the past 40 + years to ensure the success of Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented undergraduate and graduate students in geoscience and natural resources fields of study. Central to this success has been the development of cultural relevant research opportunities directed by Tribal people. The research experiences have been initiated to address culturally relevant challenges on Tribal and non-Tribal lands. It has become critically important to ensure students have multiple research experiences across North America as well as throughout the continent. The INRSEP community has found creating and maintaining relationships with organizations like the Geoscience Alliance, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MSPHD's) and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program has greatly improved the success of students matriculating to graduate STEM programs. These relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking students, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The presentation will highlight lessons learned on how to 1) Develop a diverse cohort or 'community' of student researchers; 2) Evolve intergenerational mentoring processes and outcomes; 3) Tether to related research and programs; and Foster the broader impact of geoscience research and outcomes.

  6. Diversifying Geoscience by Preparing Faculty as Workshop Leaders to Promote Inclusive Teaching and Inclusive Geoscience Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Beane, R. J.; Doser, D. I.; Ebanks, S. C.; Hodder, J.; McDaris, J. R.; Ormand, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to broaden participation in the geosciences require that faculty implement inclusive practices in their teaching and their departments. Two national projects are building the capacity for faculty and departments to implement inclusive practices. The NAGT/InTeGrate Traveling Workshops Program (TWP) and the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project each prepares a cadre of geoscience educators to lead workshops that provide opportunities for faculty and departments across the country to enhance their abilities to implement inclusive teaching practices and develop inclusive environments with the goal of increasing diversity in the geosciences. Both projects prepare faculty to design and lead interactive workshops that build on the research base, emphasize practical applications and strategies, enable participants to share their knowledge and experience, and include time for reflection and action planning. The curriculum common to both projects includes a framework of support for the whole student, supporting all students, data on diversity in the geosciences, and evidence-based strategies for inclusive teaching and developing inclusive environments that faculty and departments can implement. Other workshop topics include classroom strategies for engaging all students, addressing implicit bias and stereotype threat, and attracting diverse students to departments or programs and helping them thrive. Online resources for each project provide support beyond the workshops. The TWP brings together educators from different institutional types and experiences to develop materials and design a workshop offered to departments and organizations nationwide that request the workshop; the workshop leaders then customize the workshop for that audience. In SAGE 2YC, a team of leaders used relevant literature to develop workshop materials intended for re-use, and designed a workshop session for SAGE 2YC Faculty Change Agents, who

  7. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

    2011-12-01

    Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisor's recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design sessions

  8. Intersection of Hip-Hop and Geoscience: Changes in The Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R. D.; Heraldo, S. E.; Nawman, M. A.; Gerry, V. R.; Gerry, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Professionals and educators in the science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM) field rely heavily on scientific communication to convey innovations, concepts, and evidence-based policy. The geosciences presents itself as a unique field to communicate respective scientific endeavors, as research efforts have direct impacts on the Earth's resources and understanding natural processes. Several of the authors have previously composed musical pieces that integrated Earth Sciences with music, utilizing this as mechanism to not only foster creativity, but to also establish more dynamic outreach efforts. Unfortunately, geoscience does not readily present itself as a field that is easily accessible to minorities - particularly women, people of color, and those from disadvantaged communities. However, music is somewhat of a universal form of communication that is accessible to everyone. It is through the intersection of hip-hop and geoscience, that topics can be introduced to communities in unique ways. Flows in Hydrogeology was a previous project that several of the authors produced as a means to connect with youth who identify with the hip-hop community, while encouraging inquiry in the STEAM fields. Several of the authors grew up and still reside in some of the most violent cities in the United States of America. The authors have utilized their respective backgrounds in both upbringing and career endeavors to help bridge the gap between science and disadvantaged communities. The musical piece, Changes in the Climate, illustrates the power of understanding the changes in one's life and surrounding world via delivery of concepts with hip-hop and rap. Therefore this musical composition not only integrates STEAM and music, but also serves as mechanism for outreach and encouraging diversity. Such actions could yield the success of accessing untapped potential, while fostering unique opportunities for future collaboration between professionals in geoscience

  9. Linking research, education and public engagement in geoscience: Leadership and strategic partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    As a research scientist I have always been interested in sharing whatever I knew with the general public and with teachers, who have the responsibility of forming young people, our ambassadors to the future. The turning point in my educational activities was in 2002, when the European Geosciences Union (EGU) welcomed my proposition to develop a Committee on Education. One of the committee's main activities is the organisation of GIFT (Geosciences Information for Teachers) workshops, held annually during the EGU General Assembly. Typically, these workshops bring together about 80 teachers from 20-25 different countries around a general theme that changes every year. Teachers are offered a mixture of keynote presentations by renowned scientists, and participate to classroom hands-on activities led by high-class educators. They also participate to a poster session, open to every participant to the GA, in which they can show to everyone the activities they have developed in their classroom. Therefore, EGU GIFT workshops spread first-hand scientific information to science teachers, and also offer teachers an exceptional way to networking with fellow teachers worldwide. Speakers are chosen from the academic world, national geosciences organisations such as BGS (UK), BRGM (France), INGV (Italy), the European Space Agency (ESA), CEA (France), from private companies (Total), or from International Organizations for policy makers such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), and IPCC. Since 2010, EGU GIFT workshops have been organized beyond Europe, in connection with EGU Alexander von Humboldt Conferences and other major International Conferences, or in collaboration with local or international organisations. A `Teachers at Sea' program has also been developed for teachers to be able to take part in an Oceanographic cruise. Also, in collaboration with the media manager of EGU the Committee has participated in "Planet Press", a program of geoscience press releases for

  10. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP): Engaging an Entire Community in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Kinner, F.

    2008-12-01

    Native Americans are poorly represented in all science, technology and engineering fields. This under- representation results from numerous cultural, economic, and historical factors. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP), initiated in 2007, strives to construct a culturally-integrated, geoscience education program for Native American young people through engagement of the entire tribal community. The ESEP has developed a unique approach to informal geoscience education, using environmental restoration as a centerpiece. Environmental restoration is an increasingly important goal for tribes. By integrating geoscience activities with community tradition and history, project stakeholders hope to show students the relevance of science to their day-to-day lives. The ESEP's strength lies in its participatory structure and unique network of partners, which include Olympic National Park; the non-profit, educational center Olympic Park Institute (OPI); a geologist providing oversight and technical expertise; and the Lower Elwha Tribe. Lower Elwha tribal elders and educators share in all phases of the project, from planning and implementation to recruitment of students and discipline. The project works collaboratively with tribal scientists and cultural educators, along with science educators to develop curriculum and best practices for this group of students. Use of hands-on, place-based outdoor activities engage students and connect them with the science outside their back doors. Preliminary results from this summer's middle school program indicate that most (75% or more) students were highly engaged approximately 90% of the time during science instruction. Recruitment of students has been particularly successful, due to a high degree of community involvement. Preliminary evaluations of the ESEP's outcomes indicate success in improving the outlook of the tribe's youth towards the geosciences and science, in general. Future evaluation will be likewise participatory

  11. Using Web 2.0 technologies to recruit the next generation of talent to the geoscience workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. M.; Keane, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    communications. Reports show that participation in social-networking media among young people ages 16-24 has dropped (eg. Istrategy Labs, 2009, Ofcom, 2009) however, internet use among younger generations is high. Geoscience organizations must identify and participate in new online communications trends in order to continue to reach students.

  12. Engaging diverse community college students in the geosciences through a year-round career mentoring and research workforce program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, V.; Barge, L. M.; Smith, M.

    2017-12-01

    Student attrition from STEM majors most often occurs in the first or second year of college. To retain underrepresented minority students who are largely enrolled in community colleges in STEM pathways, it is critical to provide hands-on experiences and exposure to STEM occupations in a supportive community, before the students transfer to four-year colleges. The goal of the Bridge to the Geosciences is to provide community college students with year-round career mentoring, exposure to different fields and organizations in the geosciences through small field or research experiences, and community-building within the cohort and in connection with a broader community of scientists. Each year, 20 students from Citrus College in Glendora, California participate in research "geomodules" organized around the planetary, atmospheric, ocean, and environmental science subfields of the geosciences at: (1) the Oak Crest Institute of Science, a chemistry research and diversity-oriented education organization in Monrovia, CA; (2) the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a NASA center in Pasadena, CA; (3) the University of Southern California's (USC) Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, a research center on Catalina Island; and (4) the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) in Boulder, CO. A peak experience of the program is a ten-day mini-internship at UCAR in Colorado where the students are immersed in atmospheric research, training, fieldwork, and presenting at a premier facility. Professional development, mentoring, science communication and cohort-development are woven across all four geomodules and throughout the year. This program is funded by the National Science Foundation's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education or IUSE program. Preliminary results indicate that the students' interest in the geosciences, confidence in their skills and identify as a scientist, and their sense of belonging to a cohort are increased by participation in this program.

  13. Unidata: A cyberinfrastrucuture for the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Data are the lifeblood of the geosciences. Rapid advances in computing, communications, and observational technologies - along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system - are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. The result is a dramatic proliferation of data from diverse sources; data that are consumed by an evolving and ever-broadening community of users and that are becoming the principal engine for driving scientific advances. Data-enabled research has emerged as a Fourth Paradigm of science, alongside experiments, theoretical studies, and computer simulations Unidata is a data facility, sponsored by the NSF, and our mission is to provide the data services, tools, and cyberinfrastructure leadership that advance Earth system science, enhance educational opportunities, and broaden participation in the geosciences. For more nearly thirty years, Unidata has worked in concert with the atmospheric science education and research community to develop and provide innovative data systems, tools, techniques, and resources to support data-enabled science to understand the Earth system. In doing so, Unidata has maintained a close, synergistic relationship with the universities, engaging them in collaborative efforts to exploit data and technologies, and removing roadblocks to data discovery, access, analysis, and effective use. As a community-governed program, Unidata depends on guidance and feedback from educators, researchers, and students in the atmospheric and related sciences. The Unidata Program helps researchers and educators acquire and use earth-related data. Most of the data are provided in "real time" or "near-real time" - that is, the data are sent to participants almost as soon as the observations are made. Unidata also develops, maintains, and supports a variety of software packages. Most of these packages are developed at the Unidata Program Center (UPC), while a few others

  14. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu), it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS (http://ads.harvard.edu) focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  15. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  16. GeoMod 2014 - Modelling in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2016-08-01

    GeoMod is a biennial conference to review and discuss latest developments in analogue and numerical modelling of lithospheric and mantle deformation. GeoMod2014 took place at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany. Its focus was on rheology and deformation at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales: from earthquakes to long-term deformation, from micro-structures to orogens and subduction systems. It also addressed volcanotectonics and the interaction between tectonics and surface processes (Elger et al., 2014). The conference was followed by a 2-day short course on "Constitutive Laws: from Observation to Implementation in Models" and a 1-day hands-on tutorial on the ASPECT numerical modelling software.

  17. Radon applications in geosciences - Progress & perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, S. M.; Donner, R. V.; Steinitz, G.

    2015-05-01

    During the last decades, the radioactive noble gas radon has found a variety of geoscientific applications, ranging from its utilization as a potential earthquake precursor and proxy of tectonic stress over its specific role in volcanic environments to a wide range of applications as a tracer in marine and hydrological settings. This topical issue summarizes the current state of research as exemplified by some original research articles covering the aforementioned as well as other closely related aspects and points to some important future directions of radon application in geosciences. This editorial provides a more detailed overview of the contents of this volume, a brief summary of the rationale underlying the diverse applications, and outlines some important perspectives.

  18. Mentored undergraduate research in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Shelley; Pollock, Meagen; Wiles, Greg; Wilson, Mark

    2012-09-01

    There is little argument about the merits of undergraduate research, but it can seem like a complex, resource-intensive endeavor [e.g., Laursen et al., 2010; Lopatto, 2009; Hunter et al., 2006]. Although mentored undergraduate research can be challenging, the authors of this feature have found that research programs are strengthened when students and faculty collaborate to build new knowledge. Faculty members in the geology department at The College of Wooster have conducted mentored undergraduate research with their students for more than 60 years and have developed a highly effective program that enhances the teaching, scholarship, and research of our faculty and provides life-changing experiences for our students. Other colleges and universities have also implemented successful mentored undergraduate research programs in the geosciences. For instance, the 18 Keck Geology Consortium schools (http://keckgeology.org/), Princeton University, and other institutions have been recognized for their senior capstone experiences by U.S. News & World Report.

  19. Teaching Geoscience in Place for Local Diversity and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S.

    2008-12-01

    Globalization, careerism, media, thoughtless consumption, standardized education and assessment, and even well-meaning advocacy for far-flung environments and people all divert our attention from meaningful interaction with our own surroundings. Meanwhile, many young Americans prefer virtual realities over personal intimacy with nature. Many have lost sight of the pedagogical power of places: localities imbued with meaning by human experience. To lack a sense of local places is to be oblivious to their environmental, cultural, and aesthetic importance, and to risk acceding to their degradation. The geosciences, born and rooted in exploration of environments, have much to lose from this trend but can be pivotal in helping to reverse it. Place-based teaching is situated in local physical and cultural environments and blends experiential learning, transdisciplinary and multicultural content, and service to the community. It is advocated for its relevance and potential to engage diverse students. Authentically place-based education is informed not only by scientific knowledge of places but also by the humanistic meanings and attachments affixed to them. Leveraging and enriching the senses of place of students, teachers, and the community is a defining and desirable learning outcome. We have researched and piloted several place-based approaches to geoscience teaching at various places in the Southwest USA: at a rural Tribal College, a large urban university, and a teacher in-service program at an underserved, minority-majority rural school district. Curricula are situated in complexly evolved, ruggedly beautiful desert-mountain physical landscapes coincident with multicultural, deeply historic, but rapidly changing cultural landscapes. The organizing theme is a cyclical path of inquiry through Earth and Sky, derived from Indigenous ethnogeology; syllabi integrate geology, hydrology, climate, environmental quality, and cultural geography and are situated in real places

  20. Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips in the Geosciences: Integrating Geodetic Data in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Klippel, A.; Zhao, J.; Walgruen, J. O.; Stubbs, C.; Jackson, K. L.; Wetzel, R.

    2017-12-01

    High-quality geodetic data and data products, including GPS-GNSS, InSAR, LiDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM) are opening the doors to visualizing, quantifying, and modeling geologic, tectonic, geomorphic, and geodynamic processes. The integration of these data sets with other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data is providing opportunities for the development of immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) field trips in the geosciences. iVR fieldtrips increase accessibility in the geosciences, by providing experiences that allow for: 1) exploration of field locations that might not be tenable for introductory or majors courses; 2) accessibility to outcrops for students with physical disabilities; and 3) the development of online geosciences courses. We have developed a workflow for producing iVR fieldtrips and tools to make quantitative observations (e.g., distance, area, and volume) within the iVR environment. We use a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and SfM data, 360° photos and videos, and other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data to develop realistic experiences for students to be exposed to the geosciences from sedimentary geology to physical volcanology. We present two of our iVR field trips: 1) Inside the Volcano: Exploring monogenetic volcanism at Thrihnukagigar Iceland; and 2) Changes in Depositional Environment in a Sedimentary Sequence: The Reedsville and Bald Eagle Formations, Pennsylvania. The Thrihnukagigar experience provides the opportunity to investigate monogenetic volcanism through the exploration of the upper 125 m of a fissure-cinder cone eruptive system. Students start at the plate boundary scale, then zoom into a single volcano where they can view the 3D geometry from either terrestrial LiDAR or SfM point clouds, view geochemical data and petrologic thins sections of rock samples, and a presentation of data collection and analysis, results and interpretation. Our sedimentary geology experience is based on a field lab from our

  1. Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals: Needs, Strategies, Programs, and Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Dunbar, R. W.; Beane, R. J.; Bruckner, M.; Bralower, T. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty, departments, and programs play an important role in preparing future geoscience professionals. One challenge is supporting the diversity of student goals for future employment and the needs of a wide range of potential employers. Students in geoscience degree programs pursue careers in traditional geoscience industries; in geoscience education and research (including K-12 teaching); and opportunities at the intersection of geoscience and other fields (e.g., policy, law, business). The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has documented a range of approaches that departments use to support the development of geoscience majors as professionals (serc.carleton.edu/departments). On the Cutting Edge, a professional development program, supports graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing an academic career through workshops, webinars, and online resources (serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep). Geoscience departments work at the intersection of student interests and employer needs. Commonly cited program goals that align with employer needs include mastery of geoscience content; field experience; skill in problem solving, quantitative reasoning, communication, and collaboration; and the ability to learn independently and take a project from start to finish. Departments and faculty can address workforce issues by 1) implementing of degree programs that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students need, while recognizing that students have a diversity of career goals; 2) introducing career options to majors and potential majors and encouraging exploration of options; 3) advising students on how to prepare for specific career paths; 4) helping students develop into professionals, and 5) supporting students in the job search. It is valuable to build connections with geoscience employers, work with alumni and foster connections between students and alumni with similar career interests, collaborate with

  2. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  3. Topics in planetary plasmaspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Contributions to the understanding of two distinct kinds of planetary plasmaspheres: namely the earth-type characterized by an ionospheric source and a convection limited radial extent, and the Jupiter-type characterized by a satellite source and a radial extent determined by flux tube interchange motions. In both cases the central question is the geometry of the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere as it is determined by the appropriate production and loss mechanisms. The contributions contained herein concern the explication and clarification of these production and loss mechanisms

  4. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  5. Geoscience Education Research, Development, and Practice at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.; Reynolds, S. J.; Johnson, J.; Baker, D. R.; Luft, J.; Middleton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research and professional development thrive in an authentically trans-disciplinary environment at Arizona State University (ASU), benefiting from a long history of mutual professional respect and collaboration among STEM disciplinary researchers and STEM education researchers--many of whom hold national and international stature. Earth science education majors (pre-service teachers), geoscience-education graduate students, and practicing STEM teachers richly benefit from this interaction, which includes team teaching of methods and research courses, joint mentoring of graduate students, and collaboration on professional development projects and externally funded research. The geologically, culturally, and historically rich Southwest offers a superb setting for studies of formal and informal teaching and learning, and ASU graduates the most STEM teachers of any university in the region. Research on geoscience teaching and learning at ASU is primarily conducted by three geoscience faculty in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and three science-education faculty in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education. Additional collaborators are based in the College of Teacher Education and Leadership, other STEM schools and departments, and the Center for Research on Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (CRESMET). Funding sources include NSF, NASA, US Dept Ed, Arizona Board of Regents, and corporations such as Resolution Copper. Current areas of active research at ASU include: Visualization in geoscience learning; Place attachment and sense of place in geoscience learning; Affective domain in geoscience learning; Culturally based differences in geoscience concepts; Use of annotated concept sketches in learning, teaching, and assessment; Student interactions with textbooks in introductory courses; Strategic recruitment and retention of secondary-school Earth science teachers; Research-based professional

  6. Towards a Conceptual Design of a Cross-Domain Integrative Information System for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Malik, T.; Gupta, A.

    2013-12-01

    As geoscientists increasingly focus on studying processes that span multiple research domains, there is an increased need for cross-domain interoperability solutions that can scale to the entire geosciences, bridging information and knowledge systems, models, software tools, as well as connecting researchers and organization. Creating a community-driven cyberinfrastructure (CI) to address the grand challenges of integrative Earth science research and education is the focus of EarthCube, a new research initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation. We are approaching EarthCube design as a complex socio-technical system of systems, in which communication between various domain subsystems, people and organizations enables more comprehensive, data-intensive research designs and knowledge sharing. In particular, we focus on integrating 'traditional' layered CI components - including information sources, catalogs, vocabularies, services, analysis and modeling tools - with CI components supporting scholarly communication, self-organization and social networking (e.g. research profiles, Q&A systems, annotations), in a manner that follows and enhances existing patterns of data, information and knowledge exchange within and across geoscience domains. We describe an initial architecture design focused on enabling the CI to (a) provide an environment for scientifically sound information and software discovery and reuse; (b) evolve by factoring in the impact of maturing movements like linked data, 'big data', and social collaborations, as well as experience from work on large information systems in other domains; (c) handle the ever increasing volume, complexity and diversity of geoscience information; (d) incorporate new information and analytical requirements, tools, and techniques, and emerging types of earth observations and models; (e) accommodate different ideas and approaches to research and data stewardship; (f) be responsive to the existing and anticipated needs

  7. Structure of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Image-tube photographs of planetary nebulae taken through narrow-band interference filters are used to map the surface brightness of these nebulae in their most prominent emission lines. These observations are best understood in terms of a two-component model consisting of a tenuous diffuse nebular medium and a network of dense knots and filaments with neutral cores. The observations of the diffuse component indicate that the inner regions of these nebulae are hollow shells. This suggests that steady stellar winds are the dominant factor in determining the structure of the central regions of planetary nebulae. The observations of the filamentary components of NGC 40 and NGC 6720 show that the observed nebular features can result from the illumination of the inner edges of dense fragmentary neutral filaments by the central stars of these nebulae. From the analysis of the observations of the low-excitation lines in NGC 2392, it is concluded that the rate constant for the N + --H charge transfer reaction is less than 10 -12 cm 3 sec -1

  8. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  9. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  10. Geoscience as an Agent for Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Orr, C. H.; Kastens, K.

    2016-12-01

    As our society becomes more aware of the realities of the resource and environmental challenges that face us, we have the opportunity to educate more broadly about the role of geoscience in addressing these challenges. The InTeGrate STEP Center is using three strategies to bring learning about the Earth to a wider population of undergraduate students: 1) infusing geoscience into disciplinary courses throughout the curriculum; 2) creating interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary courses with a strong geoscience component that draw a wide audience; and 3) embedding more opportunities to learn about the methods of geoscience and their application to societal challenges in courses for future teachers. InTeGrate is also bringing more emphasis on geoscience in service to societal challenges to geoscience students in introductory geoscience courses and courses for geoscience majors. Teaching science in a societal context is known to make science concepts more accessible for many learners, while learning to use geoscience to solve real world, interdisciplinary problems better prepares students for the 21stcentury workforce and for the decisions they will make as individuals and citizens. InTeGrate has developed materials and models that demonstrate a wide variety of strategies for increasing opportunities to learn about the Earth in a societal context that are freely available on the project website (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate) and that form the foundation of ongoing professional development opportunities nationwide. The strategies employed by InTeGrate reflect a systems approach to educational transformation, the importance of networks and communities in supporting change, and the need for resources designed for adaptability and use. The project is demonstrating how geoscience can play a larger role in higher education addressing topics of wide interest including 1) preparing a competitive workforce by increasing the STEM skills of students regardless of their major

  11. Portrayal of the Geosciences in the New York Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Lindstrom, A.

    2017-12-01

    An analysis of the portrayal of science, including the geosciences, in the New York Times shows that geoscience topics dominate front-page science coverage, appearing significantly more often than articles concerning biology, chemistry, or physics. This is significant because the geosciences are sometimes portrayed (in most high schools, for example) as being of less significance or importance than the other sciences, yet their portrayal in what is arguably the leading U.S. newspaper shows just the opposite - that the geosciences are the most relevant and newsworthy of the sciences. We analyzed NY Times front pages and Tuesday "Science Times" sections for 2012 - 2015, and looked at many parameters including science discipline, the kind of article (research, policy, human-interest, etc.), correlations to the "big ideas" of the Next Generation Science Standards, and for the geosciences, a break-down of sub-disciplines. For the front pages, we looked at both full articles and call-outs to articles on later pages. For front-page full articles, geoscience-related articles were more frequent (almost 60%) than biology, chemistry, and physics combined. Including call-outs to later articles, the geosciences still made the most front-page appearances (almost 40%), and this included the fact that 1/3 of front-page science articles were medicine-related, which accounted for nearly all of the biology and chemistry articles. Interestingly, what the NY Times perceived as "science" differed significantly: 60% of all Tuesday "Science Times" articles were medicine-related, and even removing these, biology (40%) edged the geosciences (35%) as the most frequent Science Times articles. Of the front-page geoscience articles, the topics were dominated each year by natural hazards, natural resources, and human impacts, with the percentage of human-impact-related articles almost doubling over the 4 years. The most significant 4-year trend was in the attention paid to climate change. For

  12. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  13. BCube: Building a Geoscience Brokering Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Nativi, Stefano; Duerr, Ruth; Pearlman, Jay

    2014-05-01

    BCube is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. As a prototype "building block" for NSF's EarthCube cyberinfrastructure initiative, BCube is demonstrating how a broker can serve as an intermediary between information systems that implement well-defined interfaces, thereby providing a bridge between communities that employ different specifications. Building on the GEOSS Discover and Access Broker (DAB), BCube will develop new modules and services including: • Expanded semantic brokering capabilities • Business Model support for work flows • Automated metadata generation • Automated linking to services discovered via web crawling • Credential passing for seamless access to data • Ranking of search results from brokered catalogs Because facilitating cross-discipline research involves cultural and well as technical challenges, BCube is also addressing the sociological and educational components of infrastructure development. We are working, initially, with four geoscience disciplines: hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with an emphasis on connecting existing domain infrastructure elements to facilitate cross-domain communications.

  14. Raft river geoscience case study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis, J. A.; Garber, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (1) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (2) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (3) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (4) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

  15. Why research into the history of geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    Study of the history of various sciences is rather heterogeneous. Some disciplines, such as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy, have numerous noteworthy compendia and even specialized journals where papers on the history of these sciences can be published.The situation in geophysics, meteorology, and other subdivisions of the geosciences is far less favorable. This neglect is an outcome of a dogma of autonomy that is essentially oriented toward progress in understanding, without much reference to historical developments. But even the geoscientists cannot ignore that the phenomenon ‘science’ must be viewed in the context of sociological processes. In the initial stages, sociologists and some philosophers, in the context of the general theory of perception, began research into the development of scientific thought, but the geoscientists and other natural scientists contributed very little. It has since become clear that research on these topics requires historical assessment and more insight. The development of the ‘science of science’ is directed toward understanding and explanation of the complex human involvement in science, not only in the sense of theorizing about the scientific processes but also in sociological, political, and historical context [Kuhn, 1973; Burrichter, 1979; Sandkühler and Plath, 1979.

  16. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  17. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  18. Technology under Planetary Protection Research (PPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary protection involves preventing biological contamination on both outbound and sample return missions to other planetary bodies. Numerous areas of research...

  19. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  20. Outdoor Experiential Learning to Increase Student Interest in Geoscience Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, K.; Moysey, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor-focused experiential learning opportunities are uncommon for students in large introductory geology courses, despite evidence that field experiences are a significant pathway for students to enter the geoscience pipeline. We address this deficiency by creating an extracurricular program for geology service courses that allows students to engage with classmates to foster a positive affective environment in which they are able to explore their geoscience interests, encouraged to visualize themselves as potential geoscientists, and emboldened to continue on a geoscience/geoscience-adjacent career path. Students in introductory-level geology courses were given pre- and post-semester surveys to assess the impact of these experiential learning experiences on student attitudes towards geoscience careers and willingness to pursue a major/minor in geology. Initial results indicate that high achieving students overall increase their interest in pursuing geology as a major regardless of their participation in extracurricular activities, while low achieving students only demonstrate increased interest in a geology major if they did not participate in extra credit activities. Conversely, high achieving, non-participant students showed no change in interest of pursuing a geology minor, while high achieving participants were much more likely to demonstrate interest in a minor at the end of the course. Similar to the trends of interest in a geology major, low achieving students only show increased interest in a minor if they were non-participants. These initial results indicate that these activities may be more effective in channeling students towards geology minors rather than majors, and could increase the number of students pursuing geoscience-related career paths. There also seem to be several competing factors at play affecting the different student populations, from an increased interest due to experience or a displeasure that geology is not simply `rocks for jocks

  1. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  2. Unidata: A geoscience e-infrastructure for International Data Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2017-04-01

    The Internet and its myriad manifestations, including the World Wide Web, have amply demonstrated the compounding benefits of a global cyberinfrastructure and the power of networked communities as institutions and people exchange knowledge, ideas, and resources. The Unidata Program recognizes those benefits, and over the past several years it has developed a growing portfolio of international data distribution activities, conducted in close collaboration with academic, research and operational institutions on several continents, to advance earth system science education and research. The portfolio includes provision of data, tools, support and training as well as outreach activities that bring various stakeholders together to address important issues, all toward the goals of building a community with a shared vision. The overarching goals of Unidata's international data sharing activities include: • democratization of access-to and use-of data that describe the dynamic earth system by facilitating data access to a broad spectrum of observations and forecasts • building capacity and empowering geoscientists and educators worldwide by building encouraging local communities where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared • strengthening international science partnerships for exchanging knowledge and expertise • Supporting faculty and students at research and educational institutions in the use of Unidata systems building regional and global communities around specific geoscientific themes. In this presentation, I will present Unidata's ongoing data sharing activities in Latin America, Europe, Africa and Antarctica that are enabling linkages to existing and emergent e-infrastructures and operational networks, including recent advances to develop interoperable data systems, tools, and services that benefit the geosciences. Particular emphasis in the presentation will be made to describe the examples of the use of Unidata

  3. Geoscience Australia Publishes Sample Descriptions using W3C standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, N. J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Bastrakova, I.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The recent revision of the W3C Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN) has focused on three key concerns: Extending the scope of the ontology to include sampling and actuation as well as observation and sensing Modularizing the ontology into a simple core with few classes and properties and little formal axiomatization, supplemented by additional modules that formalize the semantics and extend the scope Alignments with several existing applications and upper ontologies These enhancements mean that SSN can now be used as the basis for publishing descriptions of geologic samples as Linked Data. Geoscience Australia maintains a database of about three million samples, collected over 50 years through projects from ocean core, terrestrial rock and hydrochemistry borehole projects, almost all of which are held in in the special-purpose GA samples repository. Access to descriptions of these samples as Linked Data has recently been enabled. The sample descriptions can be viewed in various machine-readable formalizations, including IGSN (XML & RDF), Dublin Core (XML & RDF) and SSN (RDF), as well as web landing-pages for people. Of particular importance is the support for encoding relationships between samples, and between samples and surveys, boreholes, and traverses which they are related to, as well as between samples processed for analytical purposes and their parents, siblings, and back to the original field samples. The SSN extension for Sample Relationships provides an extensible, semantically rich mechanism to capture any relationship necessary to explain the provenance of observation results obtained from samples. Sample citation is facilitated through the use of URI-based persistent identifiers which resolve to samples' landing pages. The sample system also allows PROV pingbacks to be received for samples when users of them record provenance for their actions.

  4. Make it fun for everyone: visualization techniques in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, A.; Sojtaric, M.

    2017-12-01

    We live on a planet that mostly consists of oceans, but most people cannot picture what the surface and the subsurface of the ocean floor looks like. Marine geophysics has traditionally been difficult to explain to general public as most of what we do happens beyond the visual realm of an average audience. However, recent advances in 3D visualization of scientific data is one of the tools we can employ to better explain complex systems through gripping visual content. Coupled with a narrative approach, this type of visualization can open up a whole new and relatively little known world of science to general public. Up-to-date remote-sensing methods provide unique data of surface of seabed and subsurface all over the planet. Modern software can present this data in a spectacular way and with great scientific accuracy, making it attractive both for specialists and non-specialists in geoscience. As an example, we present several visualizations, which in simple way tell stories of various research in the remote parts of the World, such as Arctic regions and deep ocean in the Gulf of Mexico. Diverse datasets: multibeam echosounding; hydrographic survey; seismic and borehole data are put together to build up perfectly geo-referenced environment, showing the complexity of geological processes on our planet. Some of the data was collected 10-15 years ago, but acquired its new life with the help of new data visualization techniques. Every digital object with assigned coordinates, including 2D pictures and 3D models may become a part of this virtual geologic environment, limiting the potential of geo-visualization only by the imagination of a scientist. Presented videos have an apparent scientific focus on marine geology and geophysics, since the data was collected by several research and petroleum organizations, specialized in this field. The stories which we tell in this way may, for example, provide the public with further insight in complexities surrounding natural

  5. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  6. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument.

  7. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  8. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B

    2017-01-01

    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  9. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  10. Sustaining Public Communication of Geoscience in the Mass Media Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Most public communication about geoscience is either performed as a derivative of a research program or as part of one-off funded outreach activities. Few efforts are structured to both educate the public about geoscience while also attempting to establish a sustainable funding model. EARTH Magazine, a non-profit publications produced by the American Geosciences Institute, is a monthly geoscience news and information magazine geared towards the public. Originally a profession-oriented publication, titled Geotimes, the publication shifted towards public engagement in the 1990s, completing that focus in 1998. Though part of a non-profit institute, EARTH is not a recipient of grants or contributions to offset its costs and thus must strive to "break even" to sustain its operations and further its mission. How "break even" is measured in a mission-based enterprise incorporates a number of factors, including financial, but also community impact and offsets to other investments. A number of strategies and their successes and failures, both editorially in its focus on audience in scope, tone, and design, and from an operational perspective in the rapidly changing world of magazines, will be outlined. EARTH is now focused on exploring alternative distribution channels, new business models, and disaggregation as means towards broader exposure of geoscience to the widest audience possible.

  11. Engaging teachers & students in geosciences by exploring local geoheritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding geoscience concepts and the interactions of Earth system processes in one's own community has the potential to foster sound decision making for environmental, economic and social wellbeing. School-age children are an appropriate target audience for improving Earth Science literacy and attitudes towards scientific practices. However, many teachers charged with geoscience instruction lack awareness of local geological significant examples or the pedagogical ability to integrate place-based examples into their classroom practice. This situation is further complicated because many teachers of Earth science lack a firm background in geoscience course work. Strategies for effective K-12 teacher professional development programs that promote Earth Science literacy by integrating inquiry-based investigations of local and regional geoheritage sites into standards based curriculum were developed and tested with teachers at a rural school on the Hannahville Indian Reservation located in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The workshops initiated long-term partnerships between classroom teachers and geoscience experts. We hypothesize that this model of professional development, where teachers of school-age children are prepared to teach local examples of earth system science, will lead to increased engagement in Earth Science content and increased awareness of local geoscience examples by K-12 students and the public.

  12. Geoscience for society. 125th Anniversary volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenonen, K.; Nurmi, P.A. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of Finnish geology and natural resources has considerably increased during the last few decades. Geological Survey of Finland - GTK has mapped the bedrock and Quaternary deposits, as well as mineral resources in great detail using modern geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques, so that Finland today has one of the best geological databases in the world. We have recently compiled countrywide datasets of seamless bedrock information at the scale of 1:200,000, and completed low-altitude airborne geophysical (200 m line spacing and 40 m terrain clearance), regional geochemical (80 000 samples), and reflection seismic surveys at the crustal scale and at high resolution on the main orepotential formations. Isotopic age determinations have been performed at GTK since the 1960s, and we now have accurate ages for about thousand samples, which is a key to studying the complex evolution of the Finnish Precambrian. GTK currently plays a vital role in providing geological expertise to the government, the business sector and the wider community. Specific responsibilities include the promotion and implementation of sustainable approaches to the supply and management of minerals, energy and construction materials, and to ensure environmental compliance through monitoring, assessment and remediation programmes. GTK also contributes to a wide range of international geoscience, mapping, mineral resources and environmental monitoring projects, and is active in developing multidisciplinary research programmes with universities, government agencies and stakeholders across related sectors. This 125th Anniversary Publication aims at elucidating, through a number of short articles, the current focus of research and development at GTK. In reaching the milestone of 125 years, we can state that our anniversary slogan, 'forever young', is justified by the vitality and increasing societal impact of the organization and our research focusing on sustainable

  13. Geoscience for society. 125th Anniversary volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenonen, K.; Nurmi, P A [eds.

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of Finnish geology and natural resources has considerably increased during the last few decades. Geological Survey of Finland - GTK has mapped the bedrock and Quaternary deposits, as well as mineral resources in great detail using modern geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques, so that Finland today has one of the best geological databases in the world. We have recently compiled countrywide datasets of seamless bedrock information at the scale of 1:200,000, and completed low-altitude airborne geophysical (200 m line spacing and 40 m terrain clearance), regional geochemical (80 000 samples), and reflection seismic surveys at the crustal scale and at high resolution on the main orepotential formations. Isotopic age determinations have been performed at GTK since the 1960s, and we now have accurate ages for about thousand samples, which is a key to studying the complex evolution of the Finnish Precambrian. GTK currently plays a vital role in providing geological expertise to the government, the business sector and the wider community. Specific responsibilities include the promotion and implementation of sustainable approaches to the supply and management of minerals, energy and construction materials, and to ensure environmental compliance through monitoring, assessment and remediation programmes. GTK also contributes to a wide range of international geoscience, mapping, mineral resources and environmental monitoring projects, and is active in developing multidisciplinary research programmes with universities, government agencies and stakeholders across related sectors. This 125th Anniversary Publication aims at elucidating, through a number of short articles, the current focus of research and development at GTK. In reaching the milestone of 125 years, we can state that our anniversary slogan, 'forever young', is justified by the vitality and increasing societal impact of the organization and our research focusing on sustainable development of

  14. An Accessible User Interface for Geoscience and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevre, E. O.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    . Currently, the software works in a prototype mode, and it is our goal to further development to create software that can benefit a wide range of people working in geosciences, which will make code development practical and accessible for a wider audience of scientists. By using an interface like this, it reduces potential for errors by reusing known working code.

  15. Leveraging biology interest to broaden participation in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, S.; Conner, L.; Oxtoby, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has been well documented that female participation in the geoscience workforce is low. By contrast, the biology workforce has largely reached gender parity. These trends are rooted in patterns of interest among youth. Specifically, girls tend to like biology and value social and societal connections to science (Brotman & Moore 2008). Our NSF-funded project, "BRIGHT Girls," offers two-week summer academies to high school-aged girls, in which the connections between the geosciences and biology are made explicit. We are conducting qualitative research to trace the girls' identity work during this intervention. Using team-based video interaction analysis, we are finding that the fabric of the academy allows girls to "try on" new possible selves in science. Our results imply that real-world, interdisciplinary programs that include opportunities for agency and authentic science practice may be a fruitful approach for broadening participation in the geosciences.

  16. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  17. Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini

    2017-04-01

    More and more women today are choosing to study science and undertake scientific careers. Likewise mobility during one's career is increasingly important as research tends to be undertaken via international collaboration, often within networks based on the researchers mobility, especially in geosciences. We have developed an ebook on Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists to showcase the careers of women scientists who have undertaken mobility during their careers. It is hoped that their stories will provide young women who are just starting out in their science careers with inspirational role models, and that these stories give them realistic information about career opportunities: many of them are women scientists in geosciences. These are not famous scientists, but rather real examples of people who express all the passion of the world of science. It is hoped that reading about successful scientists who have achieved a healthy work-life balance while moving to new locations will be particularly helpful for those individuals considering mobility in their own career. The ebook is available to be used by programs that support the development of systematic approaches to increasing the representation and advancement of women in science, engineering and technology, since mobility plays a key role in these programs. The stories contained herein will be useful to mentoring or advising program focusing on career, networking opportunities, discussion and grants opportunities in conjunction with mobility. There is still a gap between female graduates and the pool of female job applicants - even though the proportion of female graduate students and postdocs in most scientific fields is higher today than it is ever been. Therefore we suggest that focus should be placed on examining the real challenges which women need to overcome, particularly when "mobility" comes into play. Role models who have overcome these challenges will continue to play an important

  18. DAGIK: A data-showcase system of geoscience in KML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, D.; Saito, A.

    2009-12-01

    We are developing a system to display geoscience data of various databases on virtual globe. This system is designed to be a showcase of databases. Users can browse various types of data of databases on this system. When they find data of interest, they can follow the network link to the WWW-based database and study it in detail. This system is served as a portal to geoscience databases. We call this system DAGIK (DAta-showcase system of Geoscience In Kml). It uses Google Earth as a browser. The reason to use Google Earth is that it has 1) four-dimensional data presentation capability, 2) scalability in time and space, 3) network capability. Virtual globe can show the data in intuitive way. It is a very powerful tool to show the characteristics of data for those who are not familiar with the data. DAGIK started in 2007 for geospace data, and was expanded to cover the geoscience in 2009. The sequence of usage of DAGIK is as follows: 1) user downloads the start up file, dagik.kml, from the DAGIK server (http://www-step.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dagik/) with a WWW browser, 2) it can be opened with Google Earth, 3) user select year, month and day, 4) for the selected date, the data list file will be downloaded from the DAGIK server, 5) user can select the data type from the data list, 6) and the KML/KMZ plot files will be downloaded from the DAGIK server or the other KML/KMZ server to display on Google Earth. There are several databases that provide their data plots in KML/KMZ format for DAGIK. DAGIK, a data-showcase system of geoscience, can bridge the gap between databases and novice users of the geoscience data.

  19. A framework for high-school teacher support in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Mair, A.; Schaller, G.; Koeberl, C.

    2012-04-01

    To attract future geoscientists in the classroom and share the passion for science, successful geoscience education needs to combine modern educational tools with applied science. Previous outreach efforts suggest that classroom-geoscience teaching tremendously benefits from structured, prepared lesson plans in combination with hands-on material. Building on our past experience, we have developed a classroom-teaching kit that implements interdisciplinary exercises and modern geoscientific application to attract high-school students. This "Mobile Phone Teaching Kit" analyzes the components of mobile phones, emphasizing the mineral compositions and geologic background of raw materials. Also, as geoscience is not an obligatory classroom topic in Austria, and university training for upcoming science teachers barely covers geoscience, teacher training is necessary to enhance understanding of the interdisciplinary geosciences in the classroom. During the past year, we have held teacher workshops to help implementing the topic in the classroom, and to provide professional training for non-geoscientists and demonstrate proper usage of the teaching kit. The material kit is designed for classroom teaching and comes with a lesson plan that covers background knowledge and provides worksheets and can easily be adapted to school curricula. The project was funded by kulturkontakt Austria; expenses covered 540 material kits, and we reached out to approximately 90 schools throughout Austria and held a workshop in each of the nine federal states in Austria. Teachers received the training, a set of the material kit, and the lesson plan free of charge. Feedback from teachers was highly appreciative. The request for further material kits is high and we plan to expand the project. Ultimately, we hope to enlighten teachers and students for the highly interdisciplinary variety of geosciences and a link to everyday life.

  20. National Geoscience Data Repository System: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.

  1. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  2. Calcium signals in planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

  3. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  4. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  5. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  6. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  7. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  8. On the merits of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy in geosciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Bertelsen, P.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give on the weath......Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give...

  9. METALS (Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences) and the Value of Collaborative Field-centered Experiences in the Geosciences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    METALS (Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences) is a field-based, geoscience diversity program developed by a collaborative venture among San Francisco State University, the University of Texas at El Paso, the University of New Orleans, and Purdue University. Since 2010, this program has created meaningful geoscience experiences for underrepresented minorities by engaging 30 high school students in experiential learning opportunities each year. During METALS field trips, the primarily urban students observe natural landforms, measure water quality, conduct beach profiles, and interpret stratigraphic and structural features in locations that have included southern Utah, southern Louisiana, central Wyoming, and northern California. In these geological settings participants are also able to focus on societally relevant, community-related issues. Results from program evaluation suggest that student participants view METALS as: (1) opening up new opportunities for field-based science not normally available to them, (2) engaging in a valuable science-based field experience, (3) an inspirational, but often physically challenging, undertaking that combines high-interest geology content with an exciting outdoor adventure, and (4) a unique social experience that brings together people from various parts of the United States. Further evaluation findings from the four summer trips completed thus far demonstrate that active learning opportunities through direct interaction with the environment is an effective way to engage students in geoscience-related learning. Students also seem to benefit from teaching strategies that include thoughtful reflection, journaling, and teamwork, and mentors are positive about engaging with these approaches. Participants appear motivated to explore geoscience topics further and often discuss having new insights and new perspectives leading to career choices in geosciences. Additionally, students who had a prior and

  10. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    2010-05-01

    structural uncertainties is hard to reduce and this could be one of the reasons determining slow progress in narrowing the climate model uncertainty range over the last 30 years (Knutti and Hagerl, Nature Geoscience, 2008). One of the most prominent structural uncertainties in the ongoing transient climate change is related to poor understanding and hence incorrect modelling of the turbulent physics and dynamics processes in the planetary boundary layer. Nevertheless, the climate models continue to rely on physically incorrect boundary layer parameterizations (Cuxart et al., BLM, 2006), whose erroneous dynamical response in the climate models may lead to significant abnormalities in simulated climate. At present, international efforts in theoretical understanding of the turbulent mixing have resulted in significant progress in turbulence simulation, measurements and parameterizations. However, this understanding has not yet found its way to the climate research community. Vice versa, climate research is not usually addressed by the boundary layer research community. The gap needs to be closed in order to crucially complete the scientific basis of climate change studies. The focus of the proposed forum could be formulated as follows: The planetary boundary layer determines several key parameters controlling the Earth's climate system but being a dynamic sub-system, just a layer of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere/ocean, it is also controlled by the climate system and its changes. Such a dynamic relationship causes a planetary boundary layer feedback (PBL-feedback) which could be defined as the response of the surface air temperature on changes in the vertical turbulent mixing. The forum participants have discussed both climatological and fluid dynamic aspects of this response, in order to quantify their role in the Earth's transient heat uptake and its representation in climate models. The choice of the forum location and dates are motivated by the role of tropical oceans

  11. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  12. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  13. Computer programing for geosciences: Teach your students how to make tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    2011-12-01

    When I announced my intention to pursue a Ph.D. in geophysics, some people gave me confused looks, because I was working on a master's degree in computer science at the time. My friends, like many incoming geoscience graduate students, have trouble linking these two fields. From my perspective, it is pretty straightforward: Much of geoscience evolves around novel analyses of large data sets that require custom tools—computer programs—to minimize the drudgery of manual data handling; other disciplines share this characteristic. While most faculty adapted to the need for tool development quite naturally, as they grew up around computer terminal interfaces, incoming graduate students lack intuitive understanding of programing concepts such as generalization and automation. I believe the major cause is the intuitive graphical user interfaces of modern operating systems and applications, which isolate the user from all technical details. Generally, current curricula do not recognize this gap between user and machine. For students to operate effectively, they require specialized courses teaching them the skills they need to make tools that operate on particular data sets and solve their specific problems. Courses in computer science departments are aimed at a different audience and are of limited help.

  14. Enabling interoperability in planetary sciences and heliophysics: The case for an information model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Raugh, Anne C.; Cecconi, Baptiste; Guinness, Edward A.; Isbell, Christopher E.; Mafi, Joseph N.; Gordon, Mitchell K.; Hardman, Sean H.; Joyner, Ronald S.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Data System has developed the PDS4 Information Model to enable interoperability across diverse science disciplines. The Information Model is based on an integration of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) level standards for trusted digital archives, information model development, and metadata registries. Where controlled vocabularies provides a basic level of interoperability by providing a common set of terms for communication between both machines and humans the Information Model improves interoperability by means of an ontology that provides semantic information or additional related context for the terms. The information model was defined by team of computer scientists and science experts from each of the diverse disciplines in the Planetary Science community, including Atmospheres, Geosciences, Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Navigational and Ancillary Information, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Ring-Moon Systems, and Small Bodies. The model was designed to be extensible beyond the Planetary Science community, for example there are overlaps between certain PDS disciplines and the Heliophysics and Astrophysics disciplines. "Interoperability" can apply to many aspects of both the developer and the end-user experience, for example agency-to-agency, semantic level, and application level interoperability. We define these types of interoperability and focus on semantic level interoperability, the type of interoperability most directly enabled by an information model.

  15. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  16. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  17. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  18. Radiogenic heat production and the earth's heat balance. A source of arguments in geoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The terrestrial heat flow into interstellar space amounts to approx. 32 TW on the basis of an average heat flow density of 63 mW per sq.m. of earth surface. The loss flow derives part of the energy from the residual heat of the nascent phase of the earth (approx. 40%) and the other part from the natural disintegration of longlived radionuclides, i.e. radiogenic heat production (roughly 60%). This concept met with broad consensus in the geosciences until the 1980s. In 1993, Pollack et al. concluded from the evaluation of recent measured data that heat loss via the oceanic crust of the earth was clearly higher, which raises the loss flow to a total of 44 TW. This is contradicted by Hoffmeister and Criss, who conclude from a modified geochemical model that the total heat loss of 31 TW is fully compensated by radiogenic heat production. In 2001, C. Herndon introduced a new idea into the discussion. According to his thesis, planetary differentiation caused a nuclear georeactor to be created in the center of the earth, whose continuous thermal power of approx. 3 TW contributes to compensating heat losses. Physicists and geoscientists hope to be able to derive new findings on this thesis and on the distribution of radiogenic heat production in the interior of the earth from the planned geo-neutrino experiment in Homestake, USA. (orig.)

  19. Connecting geoscience systems and data using Linked Open Data in the Web of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Neher, Günther; Iyemori, Toshihiko; Koyama, Yukinobu; Yatagai, Akiyo; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Galkin, Ivan; King, Todd; Fung, Shing F.; Hughes, Steve; Habermann, Ted; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2014-05-01

    specific and cross-domain vocabularies in the sense of terminological ontologies are the foundation for a virtually unified data retrieval and access in IUGONET, ESPAS and GFZ ISDC data management systems. SPARQL endpoints realized either by originally RDF databases, e.g. Virtuoso or by virtual SPARQL endpoints, e.g. D2R services enable an only upon Web standard-based mash-up of domain-specific systems and data, such as in this case the space weather and geomagnetic domain but also cross-domain connection to data and vocabularies, e.g. related to NASA's VxOs, particularly VWO or NASA's PDS data system within LOD. LOD - Linked Open Data RDF - Resource Description Framework RDFS - RDF Schema OWL - Ontology Web Language SPARQL - SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language FOAF - Friends of a Friend ontology ESPAS - Near Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science (Project) IUGONET - Inter-university Upper Atmosphere Global Observation Network (Project) GFZ ISDC - German Research Centre for Geosciences Information System and Data Center XML - Extensible Mark-up Language D2R - (Relational) Database to RDF (Transformation) XSLT - Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation Virtuoso - OpenLink Virtuoso Universal Server (including RDF data management) NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration VOx - Virtual Observatories VWO - Virtual Wave Observatory PDS - Planetary Data System

  20. The Natural Science Program at the University of New Mexico: Geosciences Play a Central Role in Preservice Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M. W.; Ellwein, A. L.; Geissman, J. W.; McFadden, L. D.; Crossey, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    An important component for future directions of geoscience departments is public education. The role of geoscience departments in the preparation and professional development of K-12 teachers is particularly critical, and merges with other teaching missions within the University. The importance of geoscience content for teachers (and the general public) is evident in the numerous earth science related public policy issues that are the subject of ever-increasing attention (climate change, energy resources, water utilization, etc.). The earth and space sciences are not only included in both state and federal science content education standards but are also inherently interesting to students and therefore provide an important gateway to foster interest in science as well as other scientific disciplines. For over 10 years, the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (EPS) at the University of New Mexico (UNM) has housed and supported the Natural Science Program (NSP), which provides science content courses and numerous programs for K-12 pre- and in-service teachers. Classes and laboratories are integrated, and are capped at 21 students in the 200-level courses, assuring an active and supportive learning environment for students who are typically science-phobic with negative or no experiences with science. Enrollments are maintained at ~150 preservice teachers per semester. The program is staffed by two lecturers, who have advanced degrees in the geosciences as well as K-12 teaching experience, and several part time instructors, including graduate students who gain valuable teaching experience through teaching in the NSP. With continued support from the department, the NSP has expanded to develop robust and functional relationships related to science teacher professional development with Sandia National Laboratories and local school districts, initiated development of a graduate certificate in science teaching and, advanced a proposal for the development of an Energy

  1. Geoscience Videos and Their Role in Supporting Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggen, Jennifer; McDonnell, David

    2017-01-01

    A series of short (5 to 7 minutes long) geoscience videos were created to support student learning in a flipped class setting for an introductory geology class at North Carolina State University. Videos were made using a stylus, tablet, microphone, and video editing software. Essentially, we narrate a slide, sketch a diagram, or explain a figure…

  2. Information extraction and knowledge graph construction from geoscience literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Jingwen

    2018-03-01

    Geoscience literature published online is an important part of open data, and brings both challenges and opportunities for data analysis. Compared with studies of numerical geoscience data, there are limited works on information extraction and knowledge discovery from textual geoscience data. This paper presents a workflow and a few empirical case studies for that topic, with a focus on documents written in Chinese. First, we set up a hybrid corpus combining the generic and geology terms from geology dictionaries to train Chinese word segmentation rules of the Conditional Random Fields model. Second, we used the word segmentation rules to parse documents into individual words, and removed the stop-words from the segmentation results to get a corpus constituted of content-words. Third, we used a statistical method to analyze the semantic links between content-words, and we selected the chord and bigram graphs to visualize the content-words and their links as nodes and edges in a knowledge graph, respectively. The resulting graph presents a clear overview of key information in an unstructured document. This study proves the usefulness of the designed workflow, and shows the potential of leveraging natural language processing and knowledge graph technologies for geoscience.

  3. Undergraduate research projects help promote diversity in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, De'Etra; Trimboli, Shannon; Toomey, Rick S.; Byl, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    A workforce that draws from all segments of society and mirrors the ethnic, racial, and gender diversity of the United States population is important. The geosciences (geology, hydrology, geospatial sciences, environmental sciences) continue to lag far behind other science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines in recruiting and retaining minorities (Valsco and Valsco, 2010). A report published by the National Science Foundation in 2015, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering” states that from 2002 to 2012, less than 2% of the geoscience degrees were awarded to African-American students. Data also show that as of 2012, approximately 30% of African-American Ph.D. graduates obtained a bachelor’s degree from a Historic Black College or University (HBCU), indicating that HBCUs are a great source of diverse students for the geosciences. This paper reviews how an informal partnership between Tennessee State University (a HBCU), the U.S. Geological Survey, and Mammoth Cave National Park engaged students in scientific research and increased the number of students pursuing employment or graduate degrees in the geosciences.

  4. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  5. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  6. Making a Difference: a Global Geoscience Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, E.

    2013-05-01

    Since 2009, an informal group, comprising four former board members of the International Year of Planet Earth, has been promoting the concept of a so-called Global Geoscientific Initiative. The GGI should: i.Be inclusive, involve a geoscience community, which is broad both in terms of discipline and nationality, and involve the social sciences; ii.Have a clear socio-economic context and global societal relevance; iii.Focus on a globally significant science theme and preferably involve global processes; iv.Attract the support of geoscientific communities, funding agencies, governments and other institutions in many countries, under the umbrella of UNESCO, ICSU and its geoscientific unions. A series of five town hall meetings have been held at which usually three invited, well-respected figures from the geoscientific community gave presentations. Those presentations were followed by discussion about the importance or otherwise of particular areas of science, and the need to engage better with legislators, policy makers, the media and the lay public. No one challenged the desirability of a large-scale programme that would attract researchers from many geoscientific disciplines and potentially involve the geo-unions. The discussions can be summarised under three broad themes: i.Mineral and hydrocarbon resources and their waste products; ii.Living with natural hazards; iii.Strategic Earth science in Africa through the Africa Alive corridors. During the course of development of the GGI, ICSU has issued a number of papers, most recently a strategic plan, covering the period 2012-2017, working parties have been undertaking foresight analysis and there have also been discussions concerning regional environmental change: human action and adaptation with the question "what does it take to meet the Belmont challenge?". The Belmont Forum brings together a number of funding agencies and could provide the resource to enable some initiative to go forward. More recently a programme

  7. Building Strong Geoscience Departments Through the Visiting Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Clemens-Knott, D.; Doser, D. I.; Feiss, P. G.; Rhodes, D. D.; Richardson, R. M.; Savina, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project focuses on helping geoscience departments adapt and prosper in a changing and challenging environment. From 2005-2009, the project offered workshop programs on topics such as student recruitment, program assessment, preparing students for the workforce, and strengthening geoscience programs. Participants shared their departments' challenges and successes. Building on best practices and most promising strategies from these workshops and on workshop leaders' experiences, from 2009-2011 the project ran a visiting workshop program, bringing workshops to 18 individual departments. Two major strengths of the visiting workshop format are that it engages the entire department in the program, fostering a sense of shared ownership and vision, and that it focuses on each department's unique situation. Departments applied to have a visiting workshop, and the process was highly competitive. Selected departments chose from a list of topics developed through the prior workshops: curriculum and program design, program elements beyond the curriculum, recruiting students, preparing students for the workforce, and program assessment. Two of our workshop leaders worked with each department to customize and deliver the 1-2 day programs on campus. Each workshop incorporated exercises to facilitate active departmental discussions, presentations incorporating concrete examples drawn from the leaders' experience and from the collective experiences of the geoscience community, and action planning to scaffold implementation. All workshops also incorporated information on building departmental consensus and assessing departmental efforts. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website complements the workshops with extensive examples from the geoscience community. Of the 201 participants in the visiting workshop program, 140 completed an end of workshop evaluation survey with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.8 out of a possible 10

  8. The Quantitative Preparation of Future Geoscience Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Modern geoscience is a highly quantitative science. In February, a small group of faculty and graduate students from across the country met to discuss the quantitative preparation of geoscience majors for graduate school. The group included ten faculty supervising graduate students in quantitative areas spanning the earth, atmosphere, and ocean sciences; five current graduate students in these areas; and five faculty teaching undergraduate students in the spectrum of institutions preparing students for graduate work. Discussion focused in four key ares: Are incoming graduate students adequately prepared for the quantitative aspects of graduate geoscience programs? What are the essential quantitative skills are that are required for success in graduate school? What are perceived as the important courses to prepare students for the quantitative aspects of graduate school? What programs/resources would be valuable in helping faculty/departments improve the quantitative preparation of students? The participants concluded that strengthening the quantitative preparation of undergraduate geoscience majors would increase their opportunities in graduate school. While specifics differed amongst disciplines, a special importance was placed on developing the ability to use quantitative skills to solve geoscience problems. This requires the ability to pose problems so they can be addressed quantitatively, understand the relationship between quantitative concepts and physical representations, visualize mathematics, test the reasonableness of quantitative results, creatively move forward from existing models/techniques/approaches, and move between quantitative and verbal descriptions. A list of important quantitative competencies desirable in incoming graduate students includes mechanical skills in basic mathematics, functions, multi-variate analysis, statistics and calculus, as well as skills in logical analysis and the ability to learn independently in quantitative ways

  9. AMIDST: Attracting Minorities to Geosciences Through Involved Digital Story Telling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Ohler, J.; Cooper, C.; McDermott, M.; Heinrich, J.; Johnson, R.; Leeper, L.; Polk, N.; Wimer, T.

    2009-12-01

    Attracting Minorities to Geosciences Through Involved Digital Story Telling (AMIDST) is a project funded by the Geoscience Directorate of the National Science Foundation through their program entitled Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in Geosciences. This project centers around the idea of integrating place-based geoscience education with culturally sensitive digital story telling, to engage and attract Alaska’s native and rural children from grades 3 through 5 to geosciences. In Spring 2008 we brought together a team 2 native elders, a group of scientists and technicians, an evaluator, 2 teachers and their 24 third grade students from Fairbanks (interior Alaska) to create computer-based digital stories around the geoscience themes of permafrost, and forest fires. These two to four minutes digital narratives consisted of a series of images accompanied by music and a voice-over narration by the children. In Fall 2008 we worked with a similar group from Nome (coastal town in western Alaska). The geoscience themes were climate change, and gold in Alaska. This time the students used the same kind of “green screen” editing so prevalent in science fiction movies. Students enacted and recorded their stories in front of a green screen and in post-production replaced the green background with photos, drawings and scientific illustrations related to their stories. Evaluation involved pre and post project tests for all participants, mid-term individual interviews and exit-interviews of selected participants. Project final assessment results from an independent education evaluator showed that both students and teachers improved their geo science content knowledge about permafrost, forest fires, gold mining, and sea ice changes. Teachers and students went through a very steep learning curve and gained experience and new understanding in digital storytelling in the context of geologic phenomena of local interest. Children took pride in being creators, directors and

  10. Strategies for Positive Engagement with the Public in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.

    2017-12-01

    Strategies for engaging with the public about the geosciences are abundant. Whether engaging in these endeavors through professional opportunties associated with their research activities, or in their personal lives, scientists have numerous ways in which they can share the science they care so much about with the public. While participating in tried and true well-designed "outreach" activities associated with research projects has become a classic approach over the past 20 years, this is not the only way to reach "the public". Indeed, as we have recently learned, such approaches depend on the availability of funding for research projects and outreach components. With potentially large research funding cuts looming at federal agencies, and the future of "education and outreach" associated with funded projects in question, we need to think hard about approaches that are not so closely tied to the federal government. Engaging with the public through involvement in the K-12 educational arena provides another avenue to reach people - not only students and teachers, but also the parents of the students. Furthermore, engagement in local communities - on school boards as a member or regular attendee, in civic groups, in museums on their boards or as volunteers, in congregations, and in more informal local associations are additional opportunities. Indeed, one of the most important resources we have, as geoscientists, is ourselves. While many of us may be involved with groups in our communities, our willingness to openly talk about our science in ways that are accessible to members of the public is less clear. Indeed, some of us may intentionally avoid discussing our research with neighbors and friends for any number of reasons. But by doing so, we have effectively allowed scientists to be framed as "the other" - rather than the neighbor with a kid on the soccer team who occasionally hosts a sleepover for the team, or who really knows how to grill a nice steak, or who

  11. The ethical implications of geosciences in the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    One major goal of Geoscientists is to educate people to natural hazards. This requires a constant action to disseminate scientific topics based on a simplified language able to foster and promote the participation of the Society to the educative activities. The issue has been debated many times since the establishment of the unprecedented interest of citizens and media towards major catastrophes that took place at the beginning of the 90'. In the last 25 years many efforts have been made by the scientific community to shift the increased demand of the public in search for information about the next big earthquake or volcanic eruption to a wider communication landscape that also includes the scientific aspects of the phenomenon and the risk preparedness. In this attempts scientists developed a language alternative to pure scientific communication, based on short, simple and figurative statements. However the enhanced interest of the society towards scientific topics also attracted non experts, as the number of web blogs dealing with Geosciences matters currently show. Moreover, it spanned to non scientific fields including arts, in particular the visual ones. Their impact on the society was and is way too high compared to the traditional ways of communicating science, but seldom the scientific content of this powerful communication form is rigorous and correct. In movies, for example, due to the need of a more astonishing show and thanks to the numerous facilities offered by the studios, the reaction of the characters to natural dangers is often exaggerated, oversimplified or not safe (like walking inside the Earth's core or riding a big car on magma) and leads the spectator to inexact information or, even worse, to imitate the actor in an emergency. A well educated society would understand the fictive nature of the show, but in most cases the effects of wrong messages or inaccurate information reflect on the preparedness towards natural hazards. In this poster I

  12. Challenges of the NGSS for Future Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.

    2013-12-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which spell out a set of K-12 performance expectations for life science, physical science, and Earth and space science (ESS), pose a variety of opportunities and challenges for geoscience education. Among the changes recommended by the NGSS include establishing ESS on an equal footing with both life science and physical sciences, at the full K-12 level. This represents a departure from the traditional high school curriculum in most states. In addition, ESS is presented as a complex, integrated, interdisciplinary, quantitative Earth Systems-oriented set of sciences that includes complex and politically controversial topics such as climate change and human impacts. The geoscience communities will need to mobilize in order to assist and aid in the full implementation of ESS aspects of the NGSS in as many states as possible. In this context, the NGSS highlight Earth and space science to an unprecedented degree. If the NGSS are implemented in an optimal manner, a year of ESS will be taught in both middle and high school. In addition, because of the complexity and interconnectedness of the ESS content (with material such as climate change and human sustainability), it is recommended (Appendix K of the NGSS release) that much of it be taught following physics, chemistry, and biology. However, there are considerable challenges to a full adoption of the NGSS. A sufficient work force of high school geoscientists qualified in modern Earth Systems Science does not exist and will need to be trained. Many colleges do not credit high school geoscience as a lab science with respect to college admission. The NGSS demand curricular practices that include analyzing and interpreting real geoscience data, and these curricular modules do not yet exist. However, a concerted effort on the part of geoscience research and education organizations can help resolve these challenges.

  13. Automatic User Interface Generation for Visualizing Big Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tang, Z.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Along with advanced computing and observation technologies, geoscience and its related fields have been generating a large amount of data at an unprecedented growth rate. Visualization becomes an increasingly attractive and feasible means for researchers to effectively and efficiently access and explore data to gain new understandings and discoveries. However, visualization has been challenging due to a lack of effective data models and visual representations to tackle the heterogeneity of geoscience data. We propose a new geoscience data visualization framework by leveraging the interface automata theory to automatically generate user interface (UI). Our study has the following three main contributions. First, geoscience data has its unique hierarchy data structure and complex formats, and therefore it is relatively easy for users to get lost or confused during their exploration of the data. By applying interface automata model to the UI design, users can be clearly guided to find the exact visualization and analysis that they want. In addition, from a development perspective, interface automaton is also easier to understand than conditional statements, which can simplify the development process. Second, it is common that geoscience data has discontinuity in its hierarchy structure. The application of interface automata can prevent users from suffering automation surprises, and enhance user experience. Third, for supporting a variety of different data visualization and analysis, our design with interface automata could also make applications become extendable in that a new visualization function or a new data group could be easily added to an existing application, which reduces the overhead of maintenance significantly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework using real-world applications.

  14. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  15. Geosciences Information Network (GIN): A modular, distributed, interoperable data network for the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Gundersen, L. C.; Richard, S. M.; Dickinson, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    A coalition of the state geological surveys (AASG), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and partners will receive NSF funding over 3 years under the INTEROP solicitation to start building the Geoscience Information Network (www.geoinformatics.info/gin) a distributed, interoperable data network. The GIN project will develop standardized services to link existing and in-progress components using a few standards and protocols, and work with data providers to implement these services. The key components of this network are 1) catalog system(s) for data discovery; 2) service definitions for interfaces for searching catalogs and accessing resources; 3) shared interchange formats to encode information for transmission (e.g. various XML markup languages); 4) data providers that publish information using standardized services defined by the network; and 5) client applications adapted to use information resources provided by the network. The GIN will integrate and use catalog resources that currently exist or are in development. We are working with the USGS National Geologic Map Database's existing map catalog, with the USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program, which is developing a metadata catalog (National Digital Catalog) for geoscience information resource discovery, and with the GEON catalog. Existing interchange formats will be used, such as GeoSciML, ChemML, and Open Geospatial Consortium sensor, observation and measurement MLs. Client application development will be fostered by collaboration with industry and academic partners. The GIN project will focus on the remaining aspects of the system -- service definitions and assistance to data providers to implement the services and bring content online - and on system integration of the modules. Initial formal collaborators include the OneGeology-Europe consortium of 27 nations that is building a comparable network under the EU INSPIRE initiative, GEON, Earthchem, and GIS software company ESRI

  16. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  17. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  18. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  19. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  20. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  1. US Geoscience Information Network, Web Services for Geoscience Information Discovery and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S.; Allison, L.; Clark, R.; Coleman, C.; Chen, G.

    2012-04-01

    The US Geoscience information network has developed metadata profiles for interoperable catalog services based on ISO19139 and the OGC CSW 2.0.2. Currently data services are being deployed for the US Dept. of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System. These services utilize OGC Web Map Services, Web Feature Services, and THREDDS-served NetCDF for gridded datasets. Services and underlying datasets (along with a wide variety of other information and non information resources are registered in the catalog system. Metadata for registration is produced by various workflows, including harvest from OGC capabilities documents, Drupal-based web applications, transformation from tabular compilations. Catalog search is implemented using the ESRI Geoportal open-source server. We are pursuing various client applications to demonstrated discovery and utilization of the data services. Currently operational applications allow catalog search and data acquisition from map services in an ESRI ArcMap extension, a catalog browse and search application built on openlayers and Django. We are developing use cases and requirements for other applications to utilize geothermal data services for resource exploration and evaluation.

  2. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    (PIRE) programs, and the new Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) program. Many broader impact activities associated with individual research grants supported by GEO contribute to the mix, through integration of research and education. Improving access to high quality geoscience education, developing educational resources and pedagogies that reflect current understandings based on cognitive research on how people learn science in formal and informal settings, cultivating a diverse talent pool for the future, and developing robust mechanisms to evaluate the quality of these various approaches and tools are challenges faced by the entire geosciences research and education community, not just NSF/GEO. In the past two years, GEO has worked collaboratively with the Education and Human Resources (EHR) Directorate, and sister agencies NOAA and NASA, to establish a new GEO Education and Diversity Strategic Framework, that will guide our investments in the future, and identify opportunities for a more cohesive, collaborative, and synergistic approach across NSF and the federal government. Details of this new strategic framework, results of recent program evaluations, and their implications for future NSF/GEO education program funding will be discussed.

  3. PROGRESS (PROmoting Geoscience Research Education and SuccesS): a novel mentoring program for retaining undergraduate women in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sandra; Adams, Amanda; Barnes, Rebecca; Bloodhart, Brittany; Bowker, Cheryl; Burt, Melissa; Godfrey, Elaine; Henderson, Heather; Hernandez, Paul; Pollack, Ilana; Sample McMeeking, Laura Beth; Sayers, Jennifer; Fischer, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Women still remain underrepresented in many areas of the geosciences, and this underrepresentation often begins early in their university career. In 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the geosciences (multiple sub-disciplines), psychology, education and STEM persistence began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in geoscience fields. The developed program (PROGRESS) focuses on mentoring undergraduate female students, starting in their 1st and 2nd year, from two geographically disparate areas of the United States: the Carolinas in the southeastern part of the United States and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in the western part of the United States. The two regions were chosen due to their different student demographics, as well as the differences in the number of working female geoscientists in the region. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. Four cohorts of students were recruited and participated in our professional development workshops (88 participants in Fall 2015 and 94 participants in Fall 2016). Components of the workshops included perceptions of the geosciences, women in STEM misconceptions, identifying personal strengths, coping strategies, and skills on building their own personal network. The web-platform (http://geosciencewomen.org/), designed to enable peer-mentoring and provide resources, was launched in the fall of 2015 and is used by both cohorts in conjunction with social media platforms. We will present an overview of the major components of the program, discuss lessons learned during 2015 that were applied to 2016, and share preliminary analyses of surveys and interviews with study participants from the first two years of a five-year longitudinal study that follows PROGRESS participants and a control group.

  4. Techniques for Engaging the Public in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Public audiences are often curious about planetary science. Scientists and education and public engagement specialists can leverage this interest to build scientific literacy. This poster will highlight research-based techniques the authors have tested with a variety of audiences, and are disseminating to planetary scientists through trainings.Techniques include:Make it personal. Audiences are interested in personal stories, which can capture the excitement, joy, and challenges that planetary scientists experience in their research. Audiences can learn more about the nature of science by meeting planetary scientists and hearing personal stories about their motivations, interests, and how they conduct research.Share relevant connections. Most audiences have very limited understanding of the solar system and the features and compositions of planetary bodies, but they enjoy learning about those objects they can see at night and factors that connect to their culture or local community.Demonstrate concepts. Some concepts can be clarified with analogies, but others can be demonstrated or modeled with materials. Demonstrations that are messy, loud, or that yield surprising results are particularly good at capturing an audience’s attention, but if they don’t directly relate to the key concept, they can serve as a distraction.Give them a role. Audience participation is an important engagement technique. In a presentation, scientists can invite the audience to respond to questions, pause to share their thoughts with a neighbor, or vote on an answer. Audiences can respond physically to prompts, raising hands, pointing, or clapping, or even moving to different locations in the room.Enable the audience to conduct an activity. People learn best by doing and by teaching others; simple hands-on activities in which the audience is discovering something themselves can be extremely effective at engaging audiences.This poster will cite examples of each technique, resources that

  5. SPEX: The spectropolarimeter for planetary EXploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Harten, G. van; Stam, D.M.; Keller, C.U.; Smit, J.M.; Laan, E.C.; Verlaan, A.L.; Horst, R. ter; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S.G.; Voors, R.

    2010-01-01

    SPEX (Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration) is an innovative, compact instrument for spectropolarimetry, and in particular for detecting and characterizing aerosols in planetary atmospheres. With its ∼1-liter volume it is capable of full linear spectropolarimetry, without moving parts. The

  6. Red giants as precursors of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Planetary Nebulae are produced by asymptotic giant-branch stars. Therefore, several properties of planetary nebulae are discussed in the framework of the current theory of stellar evolution. (Auth.)

  7. Number of planetary nebulae in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloin, D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, C.; Peimbert, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that the contribution to the ionization of the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is from one or two orders of magnitude smaller than that due to O stars. The mass return to the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is investigated, and the birth rate of white dwarfs and planetary nebulae are compared. Several arguments are given against the possibility that the infrared sources detected by Becklin and Neugebauer in the direction of the galactic center are planetary nebulae

  8. Recently Identified Changes to the Demographics of the Current and Future Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. Much of these trends are displayed in detail in AGI's Status of the Geoscience Workforce reports. In May, AGI released the Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014, which updates these trends since the 2011 edition of this report. These updates highlight areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. Some examples of these changes include the increase in the number of states that will allow a high school course of earth sciences as a credit for graduation and the increasing importance of two-year college students as a talent pool for the geosciences, with over 25% of geoscience bachelor's graduates attending a two-year college for at least a semester. The continued increase in field camp hinted that these programs are at or reaching capacity. The overall number of faculty and research staff at four-year institutions increased slightly, but the percentages of academics in tenure-track positions continued to slowly decrease since 2009. However, the percentage of female faculty rose in 2013 for all tenure-track positions. Major geoscience industries, such as petroleum and mining, have seen an influx of early-career geoscientists. Demographic trends in the various industries in the geoscience workforce forecasted a shortage of approximately 135,000 geoscientists in the next decade—a decrease from the previously predicted shortage of 150,000 geoscientists. These changes and other changes identified in the Status of the Geoscience Workforce will be addressed in this talk.

  9. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  10. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  11. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  13. Institute of Geophyics and Planetary Physics. Annual report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, F.J. [ed.

    1995-09-29

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, and Irvine and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the six branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, high-pressure sciences, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and is structured around three research centers. The Center for Geosciences, headed by George Zandt and Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Center for High-Pressure Sciences, headed by William Nellis, sponsors research on the properties of planetary materials and on the synthesis and preparation of new materials using high-pressure processing.

  14. The "Week Of Planet Earth" Italy Discovering Geosciences: a More Informed Society is a More Engaged Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, S.; Coccioni, R.

    2016-12-01

    The "Week of Planet Earth" (www.settimanaterra.org) is a science festival that involves the whole of the Italian Regions: founded in 2012, it has become the largest event of Italian Geosciences and one of the biggest European science festivals. During a week in October several locations distributed throughout the Country are animated by events, called "Geoeventi", to disseminate geosciences to the masses and deliver science education by means of a wide range of activities: hiking, walking in city and town centers, open-door at museums and research centers, guided tours, exhibitions, educational and experimental workshops for children and young people, music and art performances, food and wine events, lectures, conferences, round tables. Universities and colleges, research centers, local Authorities, cultural and scientific associations, parks and museums, professionals organize the Geoeventi. The festival aims at bringing adults and young people to Geosciences, conveying enthusiasm for scientific research and discoveries, promoting sustainable cultural tourism, aware of environmental values and distributed all over Italy. The Geoeventi shed light both on the most spectacular and on the less known geological sites, which are often a stone's throw from home. The Week of Planet Earth is growing year after year: the 2016 edition proposes 310 Geoeventi, 70 more than in 2015. The number of places involved in the project also increased and rose from 180 in 2015 to 230 in 2016. This initiative, that is also becoming a significant economic driver for many small companies active in the field of science divulgation, is analyzed, evaluated and put in a transnational network perspective.

  15. Carleton College: Geoscience Education for the Liberal Arts and the Geoscience Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Carleton College is a small (current enrollment ~1950), four-year, residential liberal arts college that has graduated more than 900 geology majors since the inception of the geology department inception in 1933. Since 1974, an average of more than 20 geology students have graduated each year. The department curriculum aims to educate at least six overlapping groups of students, who, however, may not place themselves into one of these groups until well after graduating. These groups include students in non- science majors who take geology for breadth or because of interest; science majors; geology majors who end up in other professions; and geology majors who pursue careers related to geology, most of whom ultimately earn a higher, professional degree. Goals for these groups of students differ and the department focuses its curriculum on developing skills and providing student experiences that will serve all groups well. The department has a strong focus on field geology and communication skills, solving complex problems in many project-based courses (culminating in a senior independent project for each student), and much group work. These characteristics correlate well with Carleton institutional goals. The senior independent projects (all reported in written, visual and oral forms) form the basis for outcomes assessment. We also regularly survey alumni who are in graduate programs of all kinds (not just geoscience), asking them about how well their undergraduate education has prepared them. Finally, the staff meet at least annually to discuss the curriculum, its goals, values, skills and content, and do a formal self-study with external and internal reviewers at least once a decade. The success of Carleton geology alumni in government, research, industry, education, consulting and other professions is the ultimate assessment tool.

  16. International Geoscience Workforce Trends: More Challenges for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groat, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Concern about the decreasing number of students entering undergraduate geoscience programs has been chronic and, at times, acute over the past three decades. Despite dwindling populations of undergraduate majors, graduate programs have remained relatively robust, bolstered by international students. With Increasing competition for graduate students by universities in Europe, Japan, Australia, and some developing countries, and with procedural challenges faced by international students seeking entry into the United States and its universities, this supply source is threatened. For corporations operating on a global scale, the opportunity to employ students from and trained in the regions in which they operate is generally a plus. For U.S. universities that have traditionally supplied this workforce, the changing situation poses challenges, but also opportunities for creative international partnerships. Federal government science agencies face more challenges than opportunities in meeting workforce needs under both present and changing education conditions. Restrictions on hiring non-U.S. citizens into the permanent workforce have been a long-standing issue for federal agencies. Exceptions are granted only where they can document the absence of eligible U.S.-citizen candidates. The U.S. Geological Survey has been successful in doing this in its Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, but there has been no solution to the broader limitation. Under current and forecast workforce recruitment conditions, creativity, such as that evidenced by the Mendenhall program,will be necessary if federal agencies are to draw from the increasingly international geoscience talent pool. With fewer U.S. citizens in U.S. geoscience graduate programs and a growing number of advanced-degreed scientists coming from universities outside the U.S., the need for changes in federal hiring policies is heightened. The near-term liklihood of this is low and combined with the decline in

  17. Geosciences program annual report 1978. [LBL Earth Sciences Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a reprint of the Geosciences section of the LBL Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1978 (LBL-8648). It contains summary papers that describe fundamental studies addressing a variety of earth science problems of interest to the DOE. They have applications in such diverse areas as geothermal energy, oil recovery, in situ coal gasification, uranium resource evaluation and recovery, and earthquake prediction. Completed work has been reported or likely will be in the usual channels. (RWR)

  18. The role of karst in engineering and environmental geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Ho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Karst is a unique landform developed by soluble rock. It usually relates to the groundwater drainage system, and provides important water resources. Current researches indicate that karst is closely related to the Earth system and environmental protection, and it can also create potential natural hazards such as sinkhole flooding and land subsidence in urban area. Its relationship with hydrogeology has also been an important factor for studying water pollution and nutrient cycles in engineering geosciences and agricultural geology.

  19. Tube Maps for Effective Geoscience Career Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.

  20. History and development of ABCDEFG: a data standard for geosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Mareike; Glöckler, Falko; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Döring, Markus; Fichtmüller, David; Laphakorn, Lertsutham; Baltruschat, Brian; Hoffmann, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Museums and their collections have specially customized databases in order to optimally gather and record their contents and associated metadata associated with their specimens. To share, exchange, and publish data, an appropriate data standard is essential. ABCD (Access to Biological Collection Data) is a standard for biological collection units, including living and preserved specimen, together with field observation data. Its extension, EFG (Extension for Geoscience), ena...

  1. Virtual Reality as a Story Telling Platform for Geoscience Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, K.; Moysey, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Capturing the attention of students and the public is a critical step for increasing societal interest and literacy in earth science issues. Virtual reality (VR) provides a means for geoscience engagement that is well suited to place-based learning through exciting and immersive experiences. One approach is to create fully-immersive virtual gaming environments where players interact with physical objects, such as rock samples and outcrops, to pursue geoscience learning goals. Developing an experience like this, however, can require substantial programming expertise and resources. At the other end of the development spectrum, it is possible for anyone to create immersive virtual experiences with 360-degree imagery, which can be made interactive using easy to use VR editing software to embed videos, audio, images, and other content within the 360-degree image. Accessible editing tools like these make the creation of VR experiences something that anyone can tackle. Using the VR editor ThingLink and imagery from Google Maps, for example, we were able to create an interactive tour of the Grand Canyon, complete with embedded assessments, in a matter of hours. The true power of such platforms, however, comes from the potential to engage students as content authors to create and share stories of place that explore geoscience issues from their personal perspective. For example, we have used combinations of 360-degree images with interactive mapping and web platforms to enable students with no programming experience to create complex web apps as highly engaging story telling platforms. We highlight here examples of how we have implemented such story telling approaches with students to assess learning in courses, to share geoscience research outcomes, and to communicate issues of societal importance.

  2. A hybrid personalized data recommendation approach for geoscience data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, M.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Recommender systems are effective tools helping Internet users overcome information overloading. The two most widely used recommendation algorithms are collaborating filtering (CF) and content-based filtering (CBF). A number of recommender systems based on those two algorithms were developed for multimedia, online sells, and other domains. Each of the two algorithms has its advantages and shortcomings. Hybrid approaches that combine these two algorithms are better choices in many cases. In geoscience data sharing domain, where the items (datasets) are more informative (in space and time) and domain-specific, no recommender system is specialized for data users. This paper reports a dynamic weighted hybrid recommendation algorithm that combines CF and CBF for geoscience data sharing portal. We first derive users' ratings on items with their historical visiting time by Jenks Natural Break. In the CBF part, we incorporate the space, time, and subject information of geoscience datasets to compute item similarity. Predicted ratings were computed with k-NN method separately using CBF and CF, and then combined with weights. With training dataset we attempted to find the best model describing ideal weights and users' co-rating numbers. A logarithmic function was confirmed to be the best model. The model was then used to tune the weights of CF and CBF on user-item basis with test dataset. Evaluation results show that the dynamic weighted approach outperforms either solo CF or CBF approach in terms of Precision and Recall.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  4. Web-based Academic Roadmaps for Careers in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. P.; Veeger, A. I.; Grossman-Garber, D.

    2007-12-01

    To a greater extent than most science programs, geology is underrepresented in K-12 curricula and the media. Thus potential majors have scant knowledge of academic requirements and career trajectories, and their idea of what geologists do--if they have one at all--is outdated. We have addressed these concerns by developing a dynamic, web-based academic roadmap for current and prospective students, their families, and others who are contemplating careers in the geosciences. The goals of this visually attractive "educational pathway" are to not only improve student recruitment and retention, but to empower student learning by creating better communication and advising tools that can render our undergraduate program transparent for learners and their families. Although we have developed academic roadmaps for four environmental and life science programs at the University of Rhode Island, we focus here on the roadmap for the geosciences, which illustrates educational pathways along the academic and early-career continuum for current and potential (i.e., high school) students who are considering the earth sciences. In essence, the Geosciences Academic Roadmap is a "one-stop'" portal to the discipline. It includes user- friendly information about our curriculum, outcomes (which at URI are tightly linked to performance in courses and the major), extracurricular activities (e.g., field camp, internships), careers, graduate programs, and training. In the presentation of this material extensive use is made of streaming video, interviews with students and earth scientists, and links to other relevant sites. Moreover, through the use of "Hot Topics", particular attention is made to insure that examples of geoscience activities are not only of relevance to today's students, but show geologists using the modern methods of the discipline in exciting ways. Although this is a "work-in-progress", evaluation of the sites, by high school through graduate students, has been strongly

  5. Starting Point: Linking Methods and Materials for Introductory Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Merritts, D.; Savina, M.

    2004-12-01

    Introductory courses are one of the most challenging teaching environments for geoscience faculty. Courses are often large, students have a wide variety of background and skills, and student motivation can include completing a geoscience major, preparing for a career as teacher, fulfilling a distribution requirement, and general interest. The Starting Point site (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/index.html) provides help for faculty teaching introductory courses by linking together examples of different teaching methods that have been used in entry-level courses with information about how to use the methods and relevant references from the geoscience and education literature. Examples span the content of geoscience courses including the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, Earth surface, energy/material cycles, human dimensions/resources, hydrosphere/cryosphere, ocean, solar system, solid earth and geologic time/earth history. Methods include interactive lecture (e.g think-pair-share, concepTests, and in-class activities and problems), investigative cases, peer review, role playing, Socratic questioning, games, and field labs. A special section of the site devoted to using an Earth System approach provides resources with content information about the various aspects of the Earth system linked to examples of teaching this content. Examples of courses incorporating Earth systems content, and strategies for designing an Earth system course are also included. A similar section on Teaching with an Earth History approach explores geologic history as a vehicle for teaching geoscience concepts and as a framework for course design. The Starting Point site has been authored and reviewed by faculty around the country. Evaluation indicates that faculty find the examples particularly helpful both for direct implementation in their classes and for sparking ideas. The help provided for using different teaching methods makes the examples particularly useful. Examples are chosen from

  6. Meeting the Challenges for Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M. A.; Kastens, K. A.; Miller, R. B.; Mutter, J. C.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments and government agencies including major funding agencies. They teach at all levels, advise research students, make research discoveries and receive honors in recognition of their achievements. Despite these advances, women continue to be under-represented in the earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. As of 1997 women received only 29% of the doctorates in the earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences and accounted for only 13% of employed Ph.D.s in these fields. Women's salaries also lag: the median annual salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was \\60,000; for women the figure is \\47,000. Solving the problem of gender imbalance in the geosciences requires understanding of the particular obstacles women face in our field. The problem of under-representation of women requires that earth science departments, universities and research centers, funding agencies, and professional organizations like AGU take constructive action to recognize the root causes of the evident imbalance, and enact corrective policies. We have identified opportunities and challenges for each of these groups. A systematic study of the flux of women at Columbia University enabled a targeted strategy towards improving gender diversity based on the observed trends. The challenge for academic institutions is to document the flux of scientists and develop an appropriate strategy to balance the geoscience demographics. Based on the MIT study, an additional challenge faces universities and research centers. To enhance gender diversity these institutions need to develop transparency in promotion processes and open distribution of institutional resources. The challenge for granting agencies is to implement policies that ease the burden of extensive fieldwork on parents. Many fields of science require long work hours

  7. The 33rd IGC, Oslo, Norway 2008; Geoscience World Congress 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, A.; Bjoerlykke, A.

    2007-12-01

    The International Geological Congress (IGC) has been arranged every four years since 1878. During the previous Congress in Florence, Italy, 2004, the Nordic countries were awarded the organisation of the 33rd IGC, which will be held in Oslo, Norway, August 6-14, 2008. We expect between 6000 and 9000 participants to the Congress, which also includes workshops, short-courses, and business meetings, as well as more than 50 pre -and post Congress excursions. The Congress is organised under the umbrella of IUGS and the patronage of UNESCO. The Congress will run with 40 parallel sessions and cover the whole width of the geosciences. About 500 symposia will run in 40 parallel sessions. There will be a major poster session, as well as a large exhibition (Geoexpo 2008), in which industry and other organisations will be able to exhibit their products and services. A number of international affiliations have announced their interest in organising annual business meetings during the Congress. In addition, a number of workshops and short-courses will be arranged. More than 50 excursions are planned for the two weeks before the Congress and one week after. These run in all the Nordic Countries, as well as in NW Russia, Ukraine, Greenland, Svalbard, and the Faeroes Islands. These excursions will give the participants a first-hand insight into Nordic Geosciences, as well as the Nordic natural and cultural heritage. Two major international events are important for the Congress. The "International Polar Year" (IPY) and the United Nations' "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) are both running in the period 2007-2009. The Congress focuses on many of the main themes of IYPE, with major emphasis on "Geoscience and Society". Seven major themes will be treated in full-day plenary sessions of lectures given by invited lecturers. These plenary sessions will have a scientific part in the morning, a key-note lecture at lunch-time, and a societal part in the afternoon, followed by a

  8. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  9. AMS Online Weather Studies: The National Dissemination of a Distance Learning Course for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Porter, W. A.; Moran, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Our nation faces a serious challenge in attracting young people to science and science-related careers (including teaching). This is particularly true for members of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology and is especially acute in the number of minority college students majoring in the geosciences. A formidable obstacle in attracting undergraduates to the geosciences is lack of access, that is, no opportunity to enroll in geoscience courses simply because none is offered at their college or university. Often college-level introductory courses are a student's first exposure to the geosciences. To help alleviate this problem of access, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has developed and implemented nationally an introductory weather and climate course, Online Weather Studies, which can be added to an institution's menu of general education course offerings. This highly successful course has been licensed by over 230 colleges and universities nationwide, among them 72 minority-serving institutions which have joined via the AMS Online Weather Studies Geosciences Diversity Program since 2002. This program designed to reach institutions serving large numbers of minority students has been made possible through support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) and Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement-National Dissemination (CCLI-ND) programs. Online Weather Studies is an innovative, 12- to 15-week introductory college-level, online distance-learning course on the fundamentals of atmospheric science. Learner-formatted current weather data are delivered via the Internet and coordinated with investigations keyed to the day's weather. The principal innovation of Online Weather Studies is that students learn about weather as it happens in near real-time - a highly motivational learning experience. The AMS Education Program designed and services this course

  10. Modelling and approaching pragmatic interoperability of distributed geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang

    2010-05-01

    Interoperability of geodata, which is essential for sharing information and discovering insights within a cyberinfrastructure, is receiving increasing attention. A key requirement of interoperability in the context of geodata sharing is that data provided by local sources can be accessed, decoded, understood and appropriately used by external users. Various researchers have discussed that there are four levels in data interoperability issues: system, syntax, schematics and semantics, which respectively relate to the platform, encoding, structure and meaning of geodata. Ontology-driven approaches have been significantly studied addressing schematic and semantic interoperability issues of geodata in the last decade. There are different types, e.g. top-level ontologies, domain ontologies and application ontologies and display forms, e.g. glossaries, thesauri, conceptual schemas and logical theories. Many geodata providers are maintaining their identified local application ontologies in order to drive standardization in local databases. However, semantic heterogeneities often exist between these local ontologies, even though they are derived from equivalent disciplines. In contrast, common ontologies are being studied in different geoscience disciplines (e.g., NAMD, SWEET, etc.) as a standardization procedure to coordinate diverse local ontologies. Semantic mediation, e.g. mapping between local ontologies, or mapping local ontologies to common ontologies, has been studied as an effective way of achieving semantic interoperability between local ontologies thus reconciling semantic heterogeneities in multi-source geodata. Nevertheless, confusion still exists in the research field of semantic interoperability. One problem is caused by eliminating elements of local pragmatic contexts in semantic mediation. Comparing to the context-independent feature of a common domain ontology, local application ontologies are closely related to elements (e.g., people, time, location

  11. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops of the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friedrich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Cifelli, Francesca; Funiciello, Francesca; King, Chris; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Schwarz, Annegret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly in Vienna, and also elsewhere in the world usually associated with large geoscience conferences. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "The solar system and beyond", "Mineral Resources", "Our changing Planet", "Natural Hazards", "Water" and "Evolution and Biodiversity". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 800 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all

  12. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  13. INPOP17a planetary ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.; Fienga, A.; Gastineau, M.; Laskar, J.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the use of Cassini radio tracking data and the introduction of LLR data obtained at 1064 nm, a new planetary ephemerides INPOP17a was built including improvements for the planet orbits as well as for Moon ephemerides. Besides new asteroid masses, new parameters related to the inner structure of the Moon were obtained and presented here. Comparisons with values found in the literature are also discussed. LLR Residuals reach the centimeter level for the new INPOP17a ephemerides.

  14. Numerical models of planetary dynamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Roberts, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a nonlinear, axisymmetric, spherical-shell model of planetary dynamos. This intermediate-type dynamo model requires a prescribed helicity field (the alpha effect) and a prescribed buoyancy force or thermal wind (the omega effect) and solves for the axisymmetric time-dependent magnetic and velocity fields. Three very different time dependent solutions are obtained from different prescribed sets of alpha and omega fields

  15. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  16. Planetary Surface-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary bodies having an accessible solid surface and significant atmosphere, such as Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, share common phenomenology. Specifically wind induced transport of surface materials, subsequent erosion, the generation and transport of solid aerosols which leads both to chemical and electrostatic interaction with the atmosphere. How these processes affect the evolution of the atmosphere and surface will be discussed in the context of general planetology and the latest laboratory studies will be presented.

  17. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  18. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  19. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at LLNL is to enrich the opportunities of University of California campus researchers by making available to them some of the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific horizon of LLNL researchers by encouraging collaborative or interdisciplinary work with other UC scientists. The IGPP continues to emphasize three fields of research - geoscience, astrophysics, and high-pressure physics - each administered by a corresponding IGPP Research Center. Each Research Center coordinates the mini-grant work in its field, and also works with the appropriate LLNL programs and departments, which frequently can provide supplementary funding and facilities for IGPP projects. 62 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2012-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through

  1. Improving Undergraduate STEM Education: Pathways into Geoscience (IUSE: GEOPATHS) - A National Science Foundation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Patino, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Preparation of the future professional geoscience workforce includes increasing numbers as well as providing adequate education, exposure and training for undergraduates once they enter geoscience pathways. It is important to consider potential career trajectories for geoscience students, as these inform the types of education and skill-learning required. Recent reports have highlighted that critical thinking and problem-solving skills, spatial and temporal abilities, strong quantitative skills, and the ability to work in teams are among the priorities for many geoscience work environments. The increasing focus of geoscience work on societal issues (e.g., climate change impacts) opens the door to engaging a diverse population of students. In light of this, one challenge is to find effective strategies for "opening the world of possibilities" in the geosciences for these students and supporting them at the critical junctures where they might choose an alternative pathway to geosciences or otherwise leave altogether. To address these and related matters, The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) has supported two rounds of the IUSE: GEOPATHS Program, to create and support innovative and inclusive projects to build the future geoscience workforce. This program is one component in NSF's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) initiative, which is a comprehensive, Foundation-wide effort to accelerate the quality and effectiveness of the education of undergraduates in all of the STEM fields. The two tracks of IUSE: GEOPATHS (EXTRA and IMPACT) seek to broaden and strengthen connections and activities that will engage and retain undergraduate students in geoscience education and career pathways, and help prepare them for a variety of careers. The long-term goal of this program is to dramatically increase the number and diversity of students earning undergraduate degrees or enrolling in graduate programs in geoscience fields, as well as

  2. Mainstreaming Climate Change Into Geosciences Curriculum of Tertiary Educational Systems in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of Climate Change has a far-reaching implication for economies and people living in the fragile Regions of Africa analysts project that by 2020, between 75 million and 250 million people will be exposed various forms of Climate Change Stresses. Education as a key strategy identified under Agenda 21 has been incorporated into the efforts of various educational institutions as a means of mitigating climate change and enhancing sustainability. Climate Change education offers many opportunities and benefits for educators, researchers, learners, and for wider society, but there are also many challenges, which can hinder the successful mainstreaming of climate change education. The study aims at understanding barriers for Climate Change Education in selected tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study was conducted among Geoscience Departments of the 7 main public universities of Ghana and also juxtapose with the WASCAL graduate school curriculum. The transcript analysis identified issues that hinders the mainstreaming of Climate Change, these includes existing levels of knowledge and understanding of the concept of climate change, appreciating the threshold concepts, ineffective teaching of Climate Change and some Departments are slow in embracing Climate Change as a discipline. Hence to develop strategies to mainstream climate change education it is important to recognize that increasing the efficiency and delivery of Climate Change education requires greater attention and coordination of activities and updating the educators knowledge and skill's. Institutions and Educator should be encouraged to undertake co-curricula activities and finding ways to make Climate Change education practical.

  3. Field Studies—Essential Cognitive Foundations for Geoscience Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C.; Mogk, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Learning in the field has traditionally been one of the fundamental components of the geoscience curriculum. Field experiences have been attributed to having positive impacts on cognitive, affective, metacognitive, mastery of skills and social components of learning geoscience. The development of geoscience thinking, and of geoscience expertise, encompasses a number of learned behaviors that contribute to the progress of Science and the development of scientists. By getting out into Nature, students necessarily engage active and experiential learning. The open, dynamic, heterogeneous and complex Earth system provides ample opportunities to learn by inquiry and discovery. Learning in this environment requires that students make informed decisions and to think critically about what is important to observe, and what should be excluded in the complex overload of information provided by Nature. Students must learn to employ the full range of cognitive skills that include observation, description, interpretation, analysis and synthesis that lead to “deep learning”. They must be able to integrate and rationalize observations of Nature with modern experimental, analytical, theoretical, and modeling approaches to studying the Earth system, and they must be able to iterate between what is known and what is yet to be discovered. Immersion in the field setting provides students with a sense of spatial and temporal scales of natural phenomena that can not be derived in other learning environments. The field setting provides strong sensory inputs that stimulate cognition and memories that will be available for future application. The field environment also stimulates strong affective responses related to motivation, curiosity, a sense of “ownership” of field projects, and inclusion in shared experiences that carry on throughout professional careers. The nature of field work also contains a strong metacognitive component, as students learn to be aware of what and how they

  4. Recruitment Strategies for Geoscience Majors: Conceptual Framework and Practical Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; Eyles, C.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    One characteristic of strong geoscience departments is that they recruit and retain quality students. In a survey to over 900 geoscience departments in the US and Canada several years ago nearly 90% of respondents indicated that recruiting and retaining students was important. Two years ago we offered a pre-GSA workshop on recruiting and retaining students that attracted over 30 participants from over 20 different institutions, from liberal arts colleges to state universities to research intensive universities. Since then we have sought additional feedback from a presentation to the AGU Heads & Chairs at a Fall AGU meeting, and most recently from a workshop on strengthening geoscience programs in June 2009. In all of these settings, a number of themes and concrete strategies have emerged. Key themes included strategies internal to the department/institution; strategies that reach beyond the department/institution; determining how scalable/transferable strategies that work in one setting are to your own setting; identifying measures of success; and developing or improving on an existing action plan specific to your departmental/institutional setting. The full results of all of these efforts to distill best practices in recruiting students will be shared at the Fall AGU meeting, but some of the best practices for strategies local to the department/institution include: 1) focusing on introductory classes (having the faculty who are most successful in that setting teach them, having one faculty member make a common presentation to all classes about what one can do with a geoscience major, offering topical seminars, etc.); 2) informing students of career opportunities (inviting alumni back to talk to students, using AGI resources, etc.,); 3) creating common space for students to work, study, and be a community; 4) inviting all students earning an ‘A’ (or ‘B’) in introductory classes to a departmental event just for them; and 5) creating a field trip for incoming

  5. Integrated Design for Geoscience Education with Upward Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, T. J.; Hogsett, M.; Ensign, T. I.; Hemler, D.

    2009-05-01

    Capturing the interest of our students is imperative to expand the conduit of future Earth scientists in the United States. According to the Rising Above the Gathering Storm report (2005), we must increase America's talent pool by improving K-12 mathematics and science education. Geoscience education is uniquely suited to accomplish this goal, as we have become acutely aware of our sensitivity to the destructive forces of nature. The educational community must take advantage of this heightened awareness to educate our students and ensure the next generation rebuilds the scientific and technological base on which our society rests. In response to these concerns, the National Science Foundation advocates initiatives in Geoscience Education such as IDGE (Integrated Design for Geoscience Education), which is an inquiry-based geoscience program for Upward Bound (UB) students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. The UB program targets low-income under-represented students for a summer academic-enrichment program. IDGE builds on the mission of UB by encouraging underprivileged students to investigate science and scientific careers. During the two year project, high school students participated in an Environmental Inquiry course utilizing GLOBE program materials and on-line learning modules developed by geoscience specialists in land cover, soils, hydrology, phenology, and meteorology. Students continued to an advanced course which required IDGE students to collaborate with GLOBE students from Costa Rica. The culmination of this project was an educational expedition in Costa Rica to complete ecological field studies, providing first-hand knowledge of the international responsibility we have as scientists and citizens of our planet. IDGE was designed to continuously serve educators and students. By coordinating initiatives with GLOBE headquarters and the GLOBE country community, IDGE's efforts have yielded multiple ways in which to optimize positive

  6. LIME: 3D visualisation and interpretation of virtual geoscience models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon; Ringdal, Kari; Dolva, Benjamin; Naumann, Nicole; Kurz, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional and photorealistic acquisition of surface topography, using methods such as laser scanning and photogrammetry, has become widespread across the geosciences over the last decade. With recent innovations in photogrammetric processing software, robust and automated data capture hardware, and novel sensor platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles, obtaining 3D representations of exposed topography has never been easier. In addition to 3D datasets, fusion of surface geometry with imaging sensors, such as multi/hyperspectral, thermal and ground-based InSAR, and geophysical methods, create novel and highly visual datasets that provide a fundamental spatial framework to address open geoscience research questions. Although data capture and processing routines are becoming well-established and widely reported in the scientific literature, challenges remain related to the analysis, co-visualisation and presentation of 3D photorealistic models, especially for new users (e.g. students and scientists new to geomatics methods). Interpretation and measurement is essential for quantitative analysis of 3D datasets, and qualitative methods are valuable for presentation purposes, for planning and in education. Motivated by this background, the current contribution presents LIME, a lightweight and high performance 3D software for interpreting and co-visualising 3D models and related image data in geoscience applications. The software focuses on novel data integration and visualisation of 3D topography with image sources such as hyperspectral imagery, logs and interpretation panels, geophysical datasets and georeferenced maps and images. High quality visual output can be generated for dissemination purposes, to aid researchers with communication of their research results. The background of the software is described and case studies from outcrop geology, in hyperspectral mineral mapping and geophysical-geospatial data integration are used to showcase the novel

  7. Spinning Your Own Story - Marketing the Geosciences to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of high achieving African-American and Hispanic students have shown the students do not go into STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) disciplines due to the poor teaching by some STEM teachers, lack of encouragement from teachers or parents and a self perception the students will not be successful. One underlying component to this problem is the issue of perception of the STEM disciplines by the general public. This study focuses on changing the often negative or neutral perception into one more positive and diverse. This study utilizes clear, and hopefully effective, media communication through the use of traditional marketing strategies to promote the geosciences and the geology program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga to the general public in the Chattanooga metropolitan area. Average citizens are generally unaware of the various geoscience divisions and career opportunities available. Pioneer marketing, used in this study, introduces new ideas and concepts to the general public, but does not ask for direct action to be taken. The primary goal is to increase awareness of the geosciences. The use of printed and online media delivers the message to the public. In the media, personal interviews with geoscientists from all races and backgrounds were included to demonstrate diversity. An invitation was made to all high school students to participate in an associated after-school program. Elements developed for this program include: 1) clearly defining goals for the marketing effort; 2) delineating the target market by age, education, race and gender; 3) developing a story to tell in the marketing effort; and 4) producing products to achieve the marketing goals. For this effort, the product results included: an annual newspaper tabloid, an associated website and a departmental brochure. The marketing results show increased public awareness, increased awareness of the geology program within the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

  8. An Integrated Model for Improving Undergraduate Geoscience Workforce Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Within STEM fields, employers are reporting a widening gap in the workforce readiness of new graduates. As departments continue to be squeezed with new requirements, chasing the latest technologies and scientific developments and constrained budgets, formal undergraduate programs struggle to fully prepare students for the workforce. One major mechanisms to address gaps within formal education is in life-long learning. Most technical and professional fields have life-long learning requirements, but it is not common in the geosciences, as licensing requirements remain limited. By introducing the concept of career self-management and life-long learning into the formal education experience of students, we can build voluntary engagement and shift some of the preparation burden from existing degree programs. The Geoscience Online Learning Initiative (GOLI) seeks to extend professional life-long learning into the formal education realm. By utilizing proven, effective means to capture expert knowledge, the GOLI program constructs courses in the OpenEdX platform, where the content authors and society staff continuously refine the material into effective one- to two-hour long asynchronous modules. The topical focus of these courses are outside of the usual scope of the academic curriculum, but are aligned with applied technical or professional issues. These courses are provided as open education resources, but also qualify for CEUs as the ongoing professional microcredential in the profession. This way, interested faculty can utilize these resources as focused modules in their own course offerings or students can engage in the courses independently and upon passing the assessments and paying of a nominal fee, be awarded CEUs which count towards their professional qualifications. Establishing a continuum of learning over one's career is a critical cultural change needed for students to succeed and be resilient through the duration of a career. We will examine how this

  9. Building Strong Geoscience Programs: Perspectives From Three New Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T. P.; Munk, L.; Anderson, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    During the past decade, at least sixteen geoscience departments in the U.S. that offer a B.S. degree or higher have been eliminated or dispersed. During that same time, three new geoscience departments with degree-granting programs have been developed. Each program has unique student demographics, affiliation (i.e. public institution versus private liberal arts college), geoscience curricula and reasons for initiation. Some of the common themes for each program include; 1) strong devotion to providing field experiences, 2) commitment to student-faculty collaborative research, 3) maintaining traditional geology program elements in the core curriculum and 4) placing students into high quality graduate programs and geoscience careers. Although the metrics for each school vary, each program can claim success in the area of maintaining solid enrollments. This metric is critical because programs are successful only if they have enough students, either in the major and/or general education courses, to convince administrators that continued support of faculty, including space and funding is warranted. Some perspectives gained through the establishment of these new programs may also be applicable to established programs. The success and personality of a program can be greatly affected by the personality of a single faculty member. Therefore, it may not be in the best interest of a program to distribute programmatic work equally among all faculty. For example, critical responsibilities such as teaching core and introductory courses should be the responsibility of faculty who are fully committed to these pursuits. However, if these responsibilities reduce scholarly output, well-articulated arguments should be developed in order to promote program quality and sustainability rather than individual productivity. Field and undergraduate research experiences should be valued as much as high-quality classroom and laboratory instruction. To gain the support of the administration

  10. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  11. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  12. PC 11: Symbiotic star or planetary nebulae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Cortes, G.

    1987-01-01

    PC 11 is an object listed in Perek and Kohoutek (1967) Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae as PK 331 -5 0 1. Some authors suggest that it is not a planetary nebula, but that it has some characteristics (though not all) of symbiotic stars. We have made photographic, spectrophotometric and spectroscopic observations of PC 11. The analysis of the results suggests that it is a young planetary nebula. (Author)

  13. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  14. Enhancing Geoscience Education within a Minority-Serving Preservice Teacher Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, Katherine K.; Olson, Hilary Clement

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and Huston-Tillotson University collaborated on a proof of concept project to offer a geoscience course to undergraduate students and preservice teachers in order to expand the scope of geoscience education within the local minority student and teacher population. Students were exposed to rigorous…

  15. The Oil Game: Generating Enthusiasm for Geosciences in Urban Youth in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.; Kalczynski, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on game based upon principles of oil accumulation and drilling was highly effective at generating enthusiasm toward the geosciences in urban youth from underrepresented minority groups in Newark, NJ. Participating 9th-grade high school students showed little interest in the geosciences prior to participating in the oil game, even if they…

  16. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  17. Polarimetry of stars and planetary systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Hough, James; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2015-01-01

    ... fields of polarimetric exploration, including proto-planetary and debris discs, icy satellites, transneptunian objects, exoplanets and the search for extraterrestrial life -- unique results produced...

  18. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  19. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  20. PSUP: A Planetary SUrface Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Ballans, H.; Dassas, K.; Audouard, J.; Carter, J.; Gondet, B.; Lozac'h, L.; Malapert, J.-C.; Marmo, C.; Riu, L.; Séjourné, A.

    2018-01-01

    The large size and complexity of planetary data acquired by spacecraft during the last two decades create a demand within the planetary community for access to the archives of raw and high level data and for the tools necessary to analyze these data. Among the different targets of the Solar System, Mars is unique as the combined datasets from the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions provide a tremendous wealth of information that can be used to study the surface of Mars. The number and the size of the datasets require an information system to process, manage and distribute data. The Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) have developed a portal, called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal), for providing users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the Martian surface. The objectives of the portal are: 1) to allow processing and downloading of data via a specific application called MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System); 2) to provide the visualization and merging of high level (image, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu), and 3) to distribute some of these specific high level data with an emphasis on products issued by the science teams of OSUPS and OSUL. As the MarsSI service is extensively described in a companion paper (Quantin-Nataf et al., companion paper, submitted to this special issue), the present paper focus on the general architecture and the functionalities of the web-based user interface MarsVisu. This service provides access to many data products for Mars: albedo, mineral and thermal inertia global maps from spectrometers; mosaics from imagers; image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; high level specific products (defined as catalogs or vectors). MarsVisu can be used to quickly assess the visualized processed data and maps as well as identify areas that have not been mapped yet

  1. Geoscience Education Research: The Role of Collaborations with Education Researchers and Cognitive Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.; Tikoff, B.; Shipley, T. F.; Ormand, C. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience Education Research aims to improve geoscience teaching and learning by understanding clearly the characteristics of geoscience expertise, the path from novice to expert, and the educational practices that can speed students along this path. In addition to expertise in geoscience and education, this research requires an understanding of learning -the domain of cognitive scientists. Beginning in 2002, a series of workshops and events focused on bringing together geoscientists, education researchers, and cognitive scientists to facilitate productive geoscience education research collaborations. These activities produced reports, papers, books, websites and a blog developing a research agenda for geoscience education research at a variety of scales: articulating the nature of geoscience expertise, and the overall importance of observation and a systems approach; focusing attention on geologic time, spatial skills, field work, and complex systems; and identifying key research questions in areas where new technology is changing methods in geoscience research and education. Cognitive scientists and education researchers played critical roles in developing this agenda. Where geoscientists ask questions that spring from their rich understanding of the discipline, cognitive scientists and education researchers ask questions from their experience with teaching and learning in a wide variety of disciplines and settings. These interactions tend to crystallize the questions of highest importance in addressing challenges of geoscience learning and to identify productive targets for collaborative research. Further, they serve as effective mechanisms for bringing research techniques and results from other fields into geoscience education. Working productively at the intersection of these fields requires teams of cognitive scientists, geoscientists, and education reserachers who share enough knowledge of all three domains to have a common articulation of the research

  2. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before

  3. Broadening Awareness and Participation in the Geosciences Among Underrepresented Minorities in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks

  4. The Geoscience Communication School (GCS): an interactive approach for sharing science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Nogherotto, Rita

    2017-04-01

    In 2016 we have organized the first international Geoscience Communication School (GSC) with the purpose of promoting communication skills in scientists: communication not only meant for education but also designed to reach scientific objectives. We strongly believe that, in science communication, the practice and interaction are more important than frontal lectures so we facilitated the creation of a heterogeneous group. We supported the hotel room sharing between researchers with different backgrounds and we organized a social dinner the day before starting the school. The school was divided in 2 different modules: the first 4 days with general topics open to researchers of different disciplines and the last 2 days focusing on geosciences. We thought that having participants with different knowledge and background (in this school: biology, medicine, environment, remote sensing, meteorology, volcanology, seismology) would benefit the students to practice full time their communication skills since they all spent the school period together during the "lectures" and during the free time. All the lectures were accompanied by laboratories and the students experienced concrete activities and were able to practice what they just learnt getting feedbacks directly from the lecturers and the general public. Some innovative laboratories were implemented for the first time during this school: - with the "Poster Lab" each student presented a poster at the beginning of the school and the posters were corrected and improved at the end of the school by using scissors, white papers and colors; - with the "Pick the victim Lab" the local people with different backgrounds and different education level, not involved in scientific activities were invited to the school to interpret the being "victims" of the school participants. It was requested to the victims to listen a quick students` activity presentations and to be honest and frank telling them if they were using difficult terms

  5. Mobile devices, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Digital Geoscience Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, H.; De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.

    2016-12-01

    Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in geoscience education. Affordances include instructor-student communication and class management in large classrooms, virtual and augmented reality applications, digital mapping, and crowd-sourcing. Mobile technologies have spawned the sub field of mobile learning or m-learning, which is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. Geoscientists have traditionally engaged in non-digital mobile learning via fieldwork, but digital devices are greatly extending the possibilities, especially for non-traditional students. Smartphones and tablets are the most common devices but smart glasses such as Pivothead enable live streaming of a first-person view (see for example, https://youtu.be/gWrDaYP5w58). Virtual reality headsets such as Google Cardboard create an immersive virtual field experience and digital imagery such as GigaPan and Structure from Motion enables instructors and/or students to create virtual specimens and outcrops that are sharable across the globe. Whereas virtual reality (VR) replaces the real world with a virtual representation, augmented reality (AR) overlays digital data on the live scene visible to the user in real time. We have previously reported on our use of the AR application called FreshAiR for geoscientific "egg hunts." The popularity of Pokémon Go demonstrates the potential of AR for mobile learning in the geosciences.

  6. XML — an opportunity for data standards in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlding, Simon W.

    2001-08-01

    Extensible markup language (XML) is a recently introduced meta-language standard on the Web. It provides the rules for development of metadata (markup) standards for information transfer in specific fields. XML allows development of markup languages that describe what information is rather than how it should be presented. This allows computer applications to process the information in intelligent ways. In contrast hypertext markup language (HTML), which fuelled the initial growth of the Web, is a metadata standard concerned exclusively with presentation of information. Besides its potential for revolutionizing Web activities, XML provides an opportunity for development of meaningful data standards in specific application fields. The rapid endorsement of XML by science, industry and e-commerce has already spawned new metadata standards in such fields as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, multi-media and Web micro-payments. Development of XML-based data standards in the geosciences would significantly reduce the effort currently wasted on manipulating and reformatting data between different computer platforms and applications and would ensure compatibility with the new generation of Web browsers. This paper explores the evolution, benefits and status of XML and related standards in the more general context of Web activities and uses this as a platform for discussion of its potential for development of data standards in the geosciences. Some of the advantages of XML are illustrated by a simple, browser-compatible demonstration of XML functionality applied to a borehole log dataset. The XML dataset and the associated stylesheet and schema declarations are available for FTP download.

  7. OntoSoft: A Software Commons for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the EarthCube OntoSoft project is to enable the creation of a germinal ecosystem for software stewardship in geosciences that will empower scientists to manage their software as valuable scientific assets in an open transparent mode that enables broader access to that software by other scientists, software professionals, students, and decision makers. Our work to date includes: 1) an ontology for describing scientific software metadata, 2) a scientific software repository that contains more than 600 entries that can be searched and compared across metadata fields, 3) an intelligent user interface that guides scientists to publish software. We have also developed a training program where scientists learn to describe and cite software in their papers in addition to data and provenance. This training program is part of a Geoscience Papers of the Future Initiative, where scientists learn as they are writing a journal paper that can be submitted to a Special Section of the AGU Earth and Space Science Journal.

  8. OntoSoft: A Software Registry for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garijo, D.; Gil, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the EarthCube OntoSoft project is to enable the creation of an ecosystem for software stewardship in geosciences that will empower scientists to manage their software as valuable scientific assets. By sharing software metadata in OntoSoft, scientists enable broader access to that software by other scientists, software professionals, students, and decision makers. Our work to date includes: 1) an ontology for describing scientific software metadata, 2) a distributed scientific software repository that contains more than 750 entries that can be searched and compared across metadata fields, 3) an intelligent user interface that guides scientists to publish software and allows them to crowdsource its corresponding metadata. We have also developed a training program where scientists learn to describe and cite software in their papers in addition to data and provenance, and we are using OntoSoft to show them the benefits of publishing their software metadata. This training program is part of a Geoscience Papers of the Future Initiative, where scientists are reflecting on their current practices, benefits and effort for sharing software and data. This journal paper can be submitted to a Special Section of the AGU Earth and Space Science Journal.

  9. The ENGAGE Workshop: Encouraging Networks between Geoscientists and Geoscience Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued

  10. Academic provenance: Investigation of pathways that lead students into the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, Heather R.

    Pathways that lead students into the geosciences as a college major have not been fully explored in the current literature, despite the recent studies on the "geoscience pipeline model." Anecdotal evidence suggests low quality geoscience curriculum in K-12 education, lack of visibility of the discipline and lack of knowledge about geoscience careers contribute to low geoscience enrollments at universities. This study investigated the reasons why college students decided to major in the geosciences. Students' interests, experiences, motivations and desired future careers were examined to develop a pathway model. In addition, self-efficacy was used to inform pathway analyses, as it is an influential factor in academic major and career choice. These results and interpretations have strong implications for recruitment and retention in academia and industry. A semi-structured interview protocol was developed, which was informed by John Flanagan's critical incident theory. The responses to this interview were used to identify common experiences that diverse students shared for reasons they became geoscience majors. Researchers used self-efficacy theory by Alfred Bandura to assess students' pathways. Seventeen undergraduate geoscience majors from two U.S. Midwest research universities were sampled for cross-comparison and analysis. Qualitative analyses led to the development of six categorical steps for the geoscience pathway. The six pathway steps are: innate attributes/interest sources, pre-college critical incidents, college critical incidents, current/near future goals, expected career attributes and desired future careers. Although, how students traversed through each step was unique for individuals, similar patterns were identified between different populations in our participants: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. In addition, critical incidents were found to act on behavior in two different ways: to support and confirm decision-making behavior (supportive critical

  11. High Demand, Core Geosciences, and Meeting the Challenges through Online Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Leahy, P. Patrick; Houlton, Heather; Wilson, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    As the geosciences has evolved over the last several decades, so too has undergraduate geoscience education, both from a standpoint of curriculum and educational experience. In the United States, we have been experiencing very strong growth in enrollments in geoscience, as well as employment demand for the last 7 years. That growth has been largely fueled by all aspects of the energy boom in the US, both from the energy production side and the environmental management side. Interestingly the portfolio of experiences and knowledge required are strongly congruent as evidenced from results of the American Geosciences Institute's National Geoscience Exit Survey. Likewise, the demand for new geoscientists in the US is outstripping even the nearly unprecedented growth in enrollments and degrees, which is calling into question the geosciences' inability to effectively reach into the largest growing segments of the U.S. College population - underrepresented minorities. We will also examine the results of the AGI Survey on Geoscience Online Learning and examine how the results of that survey are rectified with Peter Smith's "Middle Third" theory on "wasted talent" because of spatial, economic, and social dislocation. In particular, the geosciences are late to the online learning game in the United States and most faculty engaged in such activities are "lone wolves" in their department operating with little knowledge of the support structures that exist in such development. Yet the most cited barriers for faculty not engaging actively in online learning is the assertion that laboratory and field experiences will be lost and thus fight engaging in this medium. However, the survey shows that faculty are discovering novel approaches to address these issues, many of which have great application to enabling geoscience programs in the United States to meet the expanding demand for geoscience degrees.

  12. Developing Curriculum to Help Students Explore the Geosciences' Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Schoof, J. T.; Therrell, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Even though climate change and an unhealthy environment have a disproportionate affect on persons of color, there is a poor record of diversity in geoscience-related fields where researchers are investigating ways to improve the quality of the environment and human health. This low percentage of representation in the geosciences is equally troubling at the university where we are beginning the third and final year of a project funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG). The purpose of this project is to explore a novel approach to using the social sciences to help students, specifically underrepresented minorities, discover the geosciences' cultural relevance and consider a career in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. To date, over 800 college freshmen have participated in a design study to evaluate the curriculum efficacy of a geoscience reader. Over half of these participants are students of color. The reader we designed allows students to analyze multiple, and sometimes conflicting, sources such as peer-reviewed journal articles, political cartoons, and newspaper articles. The topic for investigation in the reader is the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave, a tragic event that killed over 700 residents. Students use this reader in a core university course required for entering freshmen with low reading comprehension scores on standardized tests. To support students' comprehension, evaluation, and corroboration of these sources, we incorporated instructional supports aligned with the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), reciprocal teaching, historical reasoning, media literacy, and quantitative reasoning. Using a digital format allows students to access multiple versions of the sources they are analyzing and definitions of challenging vocabulary and scientific concepts. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from participating students and their instructors included focus

  13. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  14. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  15. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  16. American Indian and Indigenous Geoscience Program: Ensuring the Evolution of Diverse STEM Scientists and Researchers in the 21st Century and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    Have you ever been lost? Knowing where you want to go yet unsure how to get there? In today's contemporary society you deploy the use of a navigator or navigation system. This is also one component of a cultural geoscience program in ensuring diverse students complete with excellence and success their route to research and education. The critical components of a cultural geoscience program and the role of cultural mentors are broad and the opportunity to expand one's own personal and professional success in science and society is immense. There remains a critical need and challenge to increase the representation of underrepresented people in the sciences. To address this challenge a navigational geoscience program approach was developed centered on the incorporation of traditional knowledge into modern research and education. The approach incorporates defining cultural/personal choices for a STEM vocation, developing science research with a "purpose", and refining leadership. The program model incorporates a mentor's personal oral histories and experiences in education, research and life. The goal is to ensure the next generation of scientists and researchers are more diverse, highly educated, experienced and leadership orientated by the time they complete STEM programs - then by the time they are our age, have our level of education and experience.

  17. The First Hydrology (Geoscience) Degree at a Tribal College or University: Salish Kootenai College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, G.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    A new Hydrology Degree Program was developed at Salish and Kootenai College in western Montana. This program will begin to address the fact that our nation only awards 20 to 30 Geoscience degrees annually to Native American students. Previously absent from SKC and the other 36 Tribal Colleges or Universities (TCU) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related programs are specific Geoscience disciplines, particularly those focusing on hydrological and water based sciences. Though 23 TCU’s offer some classes to supplement their environmental science or natural resource programs. This program is timely and essential for addressing the concerns that Native Americans have who maintain sovereignty over approximately 20% of our nation’s fresh water resources which are becoming more stressed each year. The overall objective of this new SKC Hydrology degree program is to produce students who are able to “give voice” to the perspectives of Native peoples on natural resources and particularly water-related issues, including water rights, agriculture, environmental health (related to water), beliefs and spirituality related to water, and sustainability of water resources. It will provide the opportunity for interdisciplinary study in physical, chemical, and biological water resources and their management. Students will gain theoretical, conceptual, computational, and practical knowledge/experiences in quantifying, monitoring, qualifying, and managing today’s water resource challenges with particular emphasis on Tribal lands. Completion of the Associate of Science Degree will provide the student with the necessary skills to work as a hydrology- water quality- or geo-technician within the Reservation area, the U. S. Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of Reclamation, the United States Geological Society, and other earth science disciplines. The Bachelor’s Degree program provides students with a broad-based theoretical

  18. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  19. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  20. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  1. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  2. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  3. OneGeology - The most appropriate model to achieve access to up-to-date geoscience data using a distributed data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, Marko; Duffy, Tim; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matt; Allison, Lee

    2015-04-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as the 'GeoSciML' (currently version 3.2 exists, which enables instant interoperability of the data). Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geosciences data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and One

  4. Numbers of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the overall faculty. This talk will present the results of a survey I conducted on the status of women faculty at the 20 top-ranked geology programs, which was originally published as a feature article in Eos [Wolfe, 1999]. Data from the 1997 AGI Directory of Geoscience Departments were used to compare the numbers of women faculty at different departments, as well as to consider the distribution of men and women faculty by year of Ph.D. Strong inequities were found to exist between the individual departments. The percentages of women in the departments ranged from 0% to as high as 23%, and 37% of the departments had either one woman faculty member or none. Histograms of the faculty sorted by year of Ph.D. showed that clear generational differences existed between the sets of men and women faculty. Thirty-nine percent of the men obtained their Ph.D. prior to 1970, whereas only 3% of the women obtained their Ph.D. before this date. The majority of women faculty members (64%) received their Ph.D. after 1980, but a minority of men (31%) received their degrees after 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, the geosciences expanded and departments employed a high percentage of recent Ph.D.s, but hiring of young faculty decreased in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, the numbers of women graduate students only began to rise after 1970, and thus the quantity of women Ph.D.s increased as the number of young hires decreased. Two problems appeared evident from this study using 1997 data

  5. Making Geoscience Data Relevant for Students, Teachers, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Prakash, A.; Domenico, B.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific data collected by government funded research belongs to the public. As such, the scientific and technical communities are responsible to make scientific data accessible and usable by the educational community. However, much geoscience data are difficult for educators and students to find and use. Such data are generally described by metadata that are narrowly focused and contain scientific language. Thus, data access presents a challenge to educators in determining if a particular dataset is relevant to their needs, and to effectively access and use the data. The AccessData project (EAR-0623136, EAR-0305058) has developed a model for bridging the scientific and educational communities to develop robust inquiry-based activities using scientific datasets in the form of Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) chapters. EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for accessing specific data and analyzing it with a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. The AccessData model involves working directly with small teams made up of data providers from scientific data archives or research teams, data analysis tool specialists, scientists, curriculum developers, and educators (AccessData, http://serc.carleton.edu/usingdata/accessdata). The process involves a number of steps including 1) building of the team; 2) pre-workshop facilitation; 3) face-to-face 2.5 day workshop; 4) post-workshop follow-up; 5) completion and review of the EET chapter. The AccessData model has been evolved over a series of six annual workshops hosting ~10 teams each. This model has been expanded to other venues to explore expanding its scope and sustainable mechanisms. These venues include 1) workshops focused on the data collected by a large research program (RIDGE, EarthScope); 2) a workshop focused on developing a citizen scientist guide to conducting research; and 3) facilitating a team on an annual basis

  6. Alliances With the Potential to Transform Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience problems and disciplines are inherently global, and today's opportunities for students to join the workforce also increasingly involve every country and every place on the planet. We have reached the point where the need to create global educational experiences and to make global connections are more important than ever. First, there is enormous benefit to all students if they can contribute within the context of an increasingly globalized world. Second, our primary objective as educators is to build human capacity. The reach and impact of any university is severely limited if our efforts to build this capacity is limited to students within our own classroom. The Alliances that have the potential to transform Geoscience education then have two pathways. The first is to internationalize the curriculum and to provide international educational and research opportunities. This includes: (1) establishing formal undergraduate exchange opportunities specially for the Geosciences, (2) providing opportunities within our course frameworks to enable students to gain international competences, (3) promoting international field experiences and research projects, (4) developing collaborative educational projects with international partners, and (5) creating institutional structures that are charged with promoting, proposing, reviewing, monitoring and assessing international opportunities. The second is to recognize that developing strong educational programs across the world will have a greater impact on education and research, and hence the global workforce, then for select countries to educate small populations of international students. The Alliance for Earth Science, Engineering and Development in Africa (AESEDA), created at Penn State in 2003, is establishing the partnerships with universities in Africa and with HCBUs within the U.S. that both internationalize the education of Penn State students and enable capacity building within the participating universities

  7. EarthCube: A Community Organization for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative is a community-driven approach to building cyberinfrastructure for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information to better address today's grand-challenge science questions. The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance project is a two-year effort seeking to engage diverse geo- and cyber-science communities in applying a responsive approach to the development of a governing system for EarthCube. During Year 1, an Assembly of seven stakeholder groups representing the broad EarthCube community developed a draft Governance Framework. Finalized at the June 2014 EarthCube All Hands Meeting, this framework will be tested during the demonstration phase in Year 2, beginning October 2014. A brief overview of the framework: Community-elected members of the EarthCube Leadership Council will be responsible for managing strategic direction and identifying the scope of EarthCube. Three Standing Committees will also be established to oversee the development of technology and architecture, to coordinate among new and existing data facilities, and to represent the academic geosciences community in driving development of EarthCube cyberinfrastructure. An Engagement Team and a Liaison Team will support communication and partnerships with internal and external stakeholders, and a central Office will serve a logistical support function to the governance as a whole. Finally, ad hoc Working Groups and Special Interest Groups will take on other issues related to EarthCube's goals. The Year 2 demonstration phase will test the effectiveness of the proposed framework and allow for elements to be changed to better meet community needs. It will begin by populating committees and teams, and finalizing leadership and decision-making processes to move forward on community-selected priorities including identifying science drivers, coordinating emerging technical elements, and coming to convergence on system architecture. A

  8. Infusing Geoethics One Geoscience Course at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Positive change is sometimes difficult to accomplish within a university. While it might be easy to get faculty members and administrators to agree that facilitating the development of students as ethical geoscientists is a desirable goal in the abstract, formally proposing concrete plans to achieve that goal might generate negative responses and even roadblocks. For example, it might be a challenge to pass a course in geoethics through a college curriculum committee, because ethics is a topic usually taught by the philosophy faculty. Although there are recognized subfields in engineering, medical, business, and legal ethics that are commonly taught by faculty members in those respective departments, geoethics is not yet recognized in this way. A more productive approach might be to begin with change that can be accomplished simply, within existing courses. Faculty members are usually granted broad discretionary authority to decide how material is to be presented in geoscience courses, including required core courses. My suggestion is to structure a course that presents all of the material normally expected under that course title, but in such a way that the ethical dimensions are intentionally and consistently highlighted. As with any change in the way we present course material, there is a startup cost to be borne by the teacher. One cost is the time needed to deepen our understanding of applied professional and scientific ethics; however, this is more of a personal and professional benefit than a cost in the long run. Infusing a course with an awareness of ethical issues also takes prior thought and planning to be successful. But, of course, that is no different from any other improvement in science education. Impressions from a semester's effort to include geoethics in a required core course in structural geology to about 25 students will be shared. The main course topic is not particularly relevant, because there are a number of ethical questions that students

  9. A Categorical Framework for Model Classification in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauhs, Michael; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Models have a mixed record of success in the geosciences. In meteorology, model development and implementation has been among the first and most successful examples of triggering computer technology in science. On the other hand, notorious problems such as the 'equifinality issue' in hydrology lead to a rather mixed reputation of models in other areas. The most successful models in geosciences are applications of dynamic systems theory to non-living systems or phenomena. Thus, we start from the hypothesis that the success of model applications relates to the influence of life on the phenomenon under study. We thus focus on the (formal) representation of life in models. The aim is to investigate whether disappointment in model performance is due to system properties such as heterogeneity and historicity of ecosystems, or rather reflects an abstraction and formalisation problem at a fundamental level. As a formal framework for this investigation, we use category theory as applied in computer science to specify behaviour at an interface. Its methods have been developed for translating and comparing formal structures among different application areas and seems highly suited for a classification of the current "model zoo" in the geosciences. The approach is rather abstract, with a high degree of generality but a low level of expressibility. Here, category theory will be employed to check the consistency of assumptions about life in different models. It will be shown that it is sufficient to distinguish just four logical cases to check for consistency of model content. All four cases can be formalised as variants of coalgebra-algebra homomorphisms. It can be demonstrated that transitions between the four variants affect the relevant observations (time series or spatial maps), the formalisms used (equations, decision trees) and the test criteria of success (prediction, classification) of the resulting model types. We will present examples from hydrology and ecology in

  10. Workshop Results: Teaching Geoscience to K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these

  11. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  12. Nature as a treasure map! Teaching geoscience with the help of earth caches?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    This presentation looks at how earth caches are influence the learning process in the field of geo science in non-formal education. The development of mobile technologies using Global Positioning System (GPS) data to point geographical location together with the evolving Web 2.0 supporting the creation and consumption of content, suggest a potential for collaborative informal learning linked to location. With the help of the GIS in smartphones you can go directly in nature, search for information by your smartphone, and learn something about nature. Earth caches are a very good opportunity, which are organized and supervised geocaches with special information about physical geography high lights. Interested people can inform themselves about aspects in geoscience area by earth caches. The main question of this presentation is how these caches are created in relation to learning processes. As is not possible, to analyze all existing earth caches, there was focus on Bavaria and a certain feature of earth caches. At the end the authors show limits and potentials for the use of earth caches and give some remark for the future.

  13. Web Approach for Ontology-Based Classification, Integration, and Interdisciplinary Usage of Geoscience Metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ritschel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web is a W3C approach that integrates the different sources of semantics within documents and services using ontology-based techniques. The main objective of this approach in the geoscience domain is the improvement of understanding, integration, and usage of Earth and space science related web content in terms of data, information, and knowledge for machines and people. The modeling and representation of semantic attributes and relations within and among documents can be realized by human readable concept maps and machine readable OWL documents. The objectives for the usage of the Semantic Web approach in the GFZ data center ISDC project are the design of an extended classification of metadata documents for product types related to instruments, platforms, and projects as well as the integration of different types of metadata related to data product providers, users, and data centers. Sources of content and semantics for the description of Earth and space science product types and related classes are standardized metadata documents (e.g., DIF documents, publications, grey literature, and Web pages. Other sources are information provided by users, such as tagging data and social navigation information. The integration of controlled vocabularies as well as folksonomies plays an important role in the design of well formed ontologies.

  14. Observability during planetary approach navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

  15. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  16. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  17. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  18. Be Explicit: Geoscience Program Design to Prepare the Next Generation of Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The work of geoscientists is to engage inquiry, discovery and exploration of Earth history and processes, and increasingly, to apply this knowledge to the "grand challenges" that face humanity. Geoscience as a discipline is confronted with an incomplete geologic record, observations or data that are often ambiguous or uncertain, and a need to grasp abstract concepts such as temporal reasoning ('deep time'), spatial reasoning over many orders of magnitude, and complex system behavior. These factors provide challenges, and also opportunities, for training future geoscientists. Beyond disciplinary knowledge, it is also important to provide opportunities for students to engage the community of practice and demonstrate how to "be" a geoscientist. Inculcation of geoscience "ways of knowing" is a collective responsibility for geoscientists (teaching faculty and other professionals), at all instructional levels, in all geoscience disciplines, and for all students. A whole-student approach is recommended. Geoscience programs can be designed to focus on student success by explictly: 1) defining programmatic student learning outcomes , 2) embedding assessments throughout the program to demonstrate mastery, 3) aligning course sequences to reinforce and anticipate essential concepts/skills, 4) preparing students to be life-long learners; 5) assigning responsibilities to courses/faculty to ensure these goals have been met; 6) providing opportunities for students to "do" geoscience (research experiences), and 7) modeling professional behaviors in class, field, labs, and informal settings. Extracurricular departmental activities also contribute to student development such as journal clubs, colloquia, field trips, and internships. Successful design of geoscience department programs is informed by: the AGI Workforce program and Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education that define pathways for becoming a successful geoscientist; training in Geoethics; Geoscience Education

  19. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T.; Arviset, C.; Crichton, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of projects and coordinates international collaboration. The IPDA conducts a number of focused projects to enable interoperability, construction of compatible archives, and the operation of the IPDA as a whole. These projects have helped to establish the IPDA and to move the collaboration forward. A key project that is currently underway is the implementation of the PDS4 data standard. Given the international focus, it has been critical that the PDS and the IPDA collaborate on its development. Also, other projects have been conducted successfully, including developing the IPDA architecture and corresponding requirements, developing shared registries for data and tools across international boundaries, and common templates for supporting agreements for archiving and sharing data for international missions. Several projects demonstrating interoperability across

  20. Pop Up/Drill Down: A Traveling Exhibit Designed to Reach Underserved Communities through Art and Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists observe the world around them in an attempt to understand it. Artists observe the world around them in an attempt to create a reflection or response to the environment. It is critical for the two fields to work together in order to engage and inform the general population. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership, the International Ocean Discovery Program and a series of collaborators are designing a traveling exhibit that will inspire underserved communities in the excitement of exploration, the process of science, and the people and tools required to get there. The project aims to learn more about how to increase access to and awareness of ocean/earth science by bringing a pop-up style museum exhibit to local libraries and public events. As an artist with a science and education background and the graphic designer for this exhibit, this author will highlight the ways this project utilizes art and design to educate underserved populations in ocean and geosciences.

  1. Strategic Roadmap for the U.S. Geoscience Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gallagher, K. T.; Richard, S. M.; Hutchison, V. B.

    2012-04-01

    An external advisory working group has prepared a 5-year strategic roadmap for the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). USGIN is a partnership of the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), who formally agreed in 2007 to develop a national geoscience information framework that is distributed, interoperable, uses open source standards and common protocols, respects and acknowledges data ownership, fosters communities of practice to grow, and develops new Web services and clients. The intention of the USGIN is to benefit the geological surveys by reducing the cost of online data publication and access provision, and to benefit society through easier (lower cost) access to public domain geoscience data. This information supports environmental planning, resource-development, hazard mitigation design, and decision-making. USGIN supposes that sharing resources for system development and maintenance, standardizing data discovery and creating better access mechanisms, causes cost of data access and maintenance to be reduced. Standardization in a wide variety of business domains provides economic benefits that range between 0.2 and 0.9% of the gross national product. We suggest that the economic benefits of standardization also apply in the informatics domain. Standardized access to rich data resources will create collaborative opportunities in science and business. Development and use of shared protocols and interchange formats for data publication will create a market for user applications, facilitating geoscience data discovery and utility for the benefit of society. The USGIN Working Group envisions further development of tools and capabilities, in addition to extending the community of practice that currently involves geoinformatics practitioners from the USGS and AASG. Promoting engagement and participation of the state geological surveys, and increasing communication between the states, USGS, and other

  2. Supporting REU Leaders and Effective Workforce Development in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, V.; Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    Research shows that research science experiences for undergraduates are key to the engagement of students in science, and teach critical thinking and communication, as well as the professional development skills. Nonetheless, undergraduate research programs are time and resource intensive, and program managers work in relative isolation from each other. The benefits of developing an REU community include sharing strategies and policies, developing collaborative efforts, and providing support to each other. This paper will provide an update on efforts to further develop the Geoscience REU network, including running a national workshop, an email listserv, workshops, and the creation of online resources for REU leaders. The goal is to strengthen the connections between REU community members, support the sharing of best practices in a changing REU landscape, and to make progress in formalizing tools for REU site managers.

  3. Exploring Various Monte Carlo Simulations for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, R.

    2010-12-01

    Computer simulations are increasingly important in geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on (0, 1), can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. Equidistributed quasi-random numbers (QRNs) can also be used in Monte Carlo simulations. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the resulting error variances can even be of different orders of magnitude. Furthermore, practical techniques for variance reduction such as Importance Sampling and Stratified Sampling can be implemented to significantly improve the results. A comparative analysis of these strategies has been carried out for computational applications in planar and spatial contexts. Based on these experiments, and on examples of geodetic applications of gravimetric terrain corrections and gravity inversion, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and general applicability are included.

  4. Exploring Monte Carlo Simulation Strategies for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J.; Grebenitcharsky, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on [0, 1], can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), quasi-random number (QRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the expected error variances are generally of different orders for the same number of random numbers. A comparative analysis of these three strategies has been carried out for geodetic and related applications in planar and spherical contexts. Based on these computational experiments, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and error variances are included.

  5. Righting the balance: Gender diversity in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Kastens, Kim A.; Cane, Mark; Muller, Roberta B.; Mutter, John C.; Pfirman, Stephanie

    The blatant barriers are down. Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments, and funding agencies. Nonetheless, barriers remain. Women continue to be under-represented in the Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. Let's do the numbers: As of 1997, women received 41% of all Ph.D.s in science and engineering, but only 29% of the doctorates in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences [NSF, 1999a]. Women were 23% of employed Ph.D.s across all fields of science, but only accounted for 13% in the geosciences. Women's salaries also lag: the median salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was $60,000; for women, the figure is $47,000 [NSF, 1999b]. The growing number of women students is a step in the right direction, but only a step.

  6. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  7. History and development of ABCDEFG: a data standard for geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Museums and their collections have specially customized databases in order to optimally gather and record their contents and associated metadata associated with their specimens. To share, exchange, and publish data, an appropriate data standard is essential. ABCD (Access to Biological Collection Data is a standard for biological collection units, including living and preserved specimen, together with field observation data. Its extension, EFG (Extension for Geoscience, enables sharing and publishing data related to paleontological, mineralogical, and petrological objects. The standard is very granular and allows detailed descriptions, including information about the collection event itself, the holding institution, stratigraphy, chemical analysis, and host rock. The standard extension was developed in 2006 and has been used since then by different initiatives and applied for the publication of collection-related data in domain-specific and interdisciplinary portals.

  8. Number of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Cecily J.

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates [e.g.,NSF, 1996] for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the faculty. The barriers confronting the advancement of women scientists are complex and difficult to unravel. Proposed factors include cultural stereotypes, childhood socialization, lack of women mentors and role models, lack of critical mass, family responsibilities, dual-career-couple status, isolation from collegial networks, different research and publishing strategy, and less adequate access to institutional resources [c.f., Widnall, 1988; Zuckerman et al., 1991].

  9. Geoscience research for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the concept of deep disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock. As part of that assessment, a broad program of geoscience and geotechnical work has been undertaken to develop methods for characterizing sites, incorporating geotechnical data into disposal facility design, and incorporating geotechnical data into environmental and safety assessment of the disposal system. General field investigations are conducted throughout the Precambrian Shield, subsurface investigations are conducted at designated field research areas, and in situ rock mass experiments are being conducted in an Underground Research Laboratory. Samples from the field research areas and elsewhere are subjected to a wide range of tests and experiments in the laboratory to develop an understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in ground-water-rock-waste interactions. Mathematical models to simulate these processes are developed, verified and validated. 114 refs.; 13 figs

  10. 3D Immersive Visualization: An Educational Tool in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Campos, N.; Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Juárez-Casas, M.; Castrejón-Pineda, R.

    2007-05-01

    3D immersive visualization is an innovative tool currently used in various disciplines, such as medicine, architecture, engineering, video games, etc. Recently, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) mounted a visualization theater (Ixtli) with leading edge technology, for academic and research purposes that require immersive 3D tools for a better understanding of the concepts involved. The Division of Engineering in Earth Sciences of the School of Engineering, UNAM, is running a project focused on visualization of geoscience data. Its objective is to incoporate educational material in geoscience courses in order to support and to improve the teaching-learning process, especially in well-known difficult topics for students. As part of the project, proffessors and students are trained in visualization techniques, then their data are adapted and visualized in Ixtli as part of a class or a seminar, where all the attendants can interact, not only among each other but also with the object under study. As part of our results, we present specific examples used in basic geophysics courses, such as interpreted seismic cubes, seismic-wave propagation models, and structural models from bathymetric, gravimetric and seismological data; as well as examples from ongoing applied projects, such as a modeled SH upward wave, the occurrence of an earthquake cluster in 1999 in the Popocatepetl volcano, and a risk atlas from Delegación Alvaro Obregón in Mexico City. All these examples, plus those to come, constitute a library for students and professors willing to explore another dimension of the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, this experience can be enhaced by rich discussions and interactions by videoconferences with other universities and researchers.

  11. Helping geoscience students improve their numeracy using online quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Anne-Marie; Stott, Tim; Sparke, Shaun

    2010-05-01

    This project aims to help geoscience undergraduates improve their competence and confidence in numeracy using online quizzes delivered via the Blackboard virtual learning environment. Numeracy materials are being developed based on actual examples used in a range of modules in the geoscience degree programmes taught at Liverpool John Moores University. This is to ensure the subject relevance which is considered vital to maintaining student interest & motivation. These materials are delivered as a collection of Blackboard quizzes on specific numeracy topics which students can access at any point in their studies, either on or off campus. Feedback and guidance is provided immediately so that a student gains a confidence boost if they get it right or else they can learn where they have gone wrong. It is intended that positive feedback and repetition/reinforcement will help build the confidence in numeracy which so many students seem to lack. The anonymous nature of the delivery means that students avoid the common fear of ‘asking a stupid question' in class, which can hamper their progress. The fact that students can access the quizzes anytime and from anywhere means that they can use the materials flexibly to suit their individual learning needs. In preliminary research, 70% of the students asked felt that they were expected to have greater numeracy skills than they possessed and 65% said that they would use numeracy support materials on Blackboard. Once fully developed and evaluated, the Blackboard quizzes can be opened up to other departments who may wish to use them with their own students.

  12. Georgia Teachers in Academic Laboratories: Research Experiences in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school mathematics, science and technology teachers in over 1000 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program places an average of 75 teachers per summer into internship positions. In the summer of 2005, 83 teachers worked in corporate and research environments throughout the state of Georgia and six of these positions involved authentic research in geoscience related departments at the Georgia Institute of Technology, including aerospace engineering and the earth and atmospheric sciences laboratories. This presentation will review the history and the structure of the program including the support system for teachers and mentors as well as the emphasis on inquiry based learning strategies. The focus of the presentation will be a comparison of two placement models of the teachers placed in geoscience research laboratories: middle school earth science teachers placed in a 6 week research experience and high school teachers placed in 7 week internships with teams of 3 high school students. The presentation will include interviews with faculty to determine the value of these experiences

  13. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  14. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  15. Building a Network of Internships for a Diverse Geoscience Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, V.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.

    2011-12-01

    Individual undergraduate internship programs, however effective, are not sufficient to address the lack of diversity in the geoscience workforce. Rather than competing with each other for a small pool of students from historically under-represented groups, REU and internship programs might share recruiting efforts and application processes. For example, in 2011, the RESESS program at UNAVCO and the SOARS program at UCAR shared recruiting websites and advertising. This contributed to a substantial increase in the number of applicants to the RESESS program, the majority of which were from historically under-represented groups. RESESS and SOARS shared qualified applications with other REU/internship programs and helped several additional minority students secure summer internships. RESESS and SOARS also leveraged their geographic proximity to pool resources for community building activities, a two-day science field trip, a weekly writing workshop, and our final poster session. This provided our interns with an expanded network of peers and gave our staff opportunities to work together on planning. Recently we have reached out to include other programs and agencies in activities for our interns, such as mentoring high-school students, leading outreach to elementary school students, and exposing our interns to geoscience careers options and graduate schools. Informal feedback from students suggests that they value these interactions and appreciate learning with interns from partner programs. Through this work, we are building a network of program managers who support one another professionally and share effective strategies. We would like to expand that network, and future plans include a workshop with university partners and an expanded list of REU programs to explore further collaborations.

  16. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. For example, digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts, to the point where parts might be cheaper to print than to make by traditional means in a plant and ship. Some key benefits of additive manufacturing include short lead times, complex shapes, parts on demand, zero required inventory and less material waste. Even subtractive processing, such as milling and etching, may be economized by additive manufacturing. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that the marriage of these technologies can bring to geosciences, including examples from our current research initiatives in developing constitutive laws for transport and geomechanics via digital rock physics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  17. The AR Sandbox: Augmented Reality in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.; Reed, S.; Hsi, S.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H.; Chan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The AR Sandbox is a combination of a physical box full of sand, a 3D (depth) camera such as a Microsoft Kinect, a data projector, and a computer running open-source software, creating a responsive and interactive system to teach geoscience concepts in formal or informal contexts. As one or more users shape the sand surface to create planes, hills, or valleys, the 3D camera scans the surface in real-time, the software creates a dynamic topographic map including elevation color maps and contour lines, and the projector projects that map back onto the sand surface such that real and projected features match exactly. In addition, users can add virtual water to the sandbox, which realistically flows over the real surface driven by a real-time fluid flow simulation. The AR Sandbox can teach basic geographic and hydrologic skills and concepts such as reading topographic maps, interpreting contour lines, formation of watersheds, flooding, or surface wave propagation in a hands-on and explorative manner. AR Sandbox installations in more than 150 institutions have shown high audience engagement and long dwell times of often 20 minutes and more. In a more formal context, the AR Sandbox can be used in field trip preparation, and can teach advanced geoscience skills such as extrapolating 3D sub-surface shapes from surface expression, via advanced software features such as the ability to load digital models of real landscapes and guiding users towards recreating them in the sandbox. Blueprints, installation instructions, and the open-source AR Sandbox software package are available at http://arsandbox.org .

  18. Increasing Geoscience Literacy and Public Support for the Earthscope National Science Initiative Through Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubele, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Geology and geophysics are frequently perceived by the student, teacher, or adult non-geologist as "difficult to understand"; however, most non-geologists of all ages appreciate geological landforms such as mountains, volcanoes and canyons, and are interested in phenomena such as earthquakes and natural resources. Most people are also interested in local connections and newsworthy programs and projects. Therefore, the EarthScope Project is a perfect opportunity to excite and educate the public about solid-Earth geoscience research and to increase the non-geologist's understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. As the EarthScope Project sweeps across the country, the general public must be made aware of the magnitude, scope, excitement, and achievements of this national initiative. However, EarthScope science is difficult for the non-scientist to understand. The project is large-scale and long-term, and its data sets consist of maps, structural graphics, 3D and 4D visualizations, and the integration of many different geophysical instruments, all elements that are difficult for the non-scientist to understand. Targeted programs for students, teachers, and visitors to the National Parks will disseminate EarthScope information; in addition, museums and other informal science education centers can also play an important role in translating scientific research for the general public. Research on learning in museums has shown that museums educate an audience that is self-selected and self-directed (non-captive), includes family/groups, multigenerational, and repeat visitors, and requires presentation of information for a variety of learning styles. Informal science centers have the following advantages in geoscience-related education: (1) graphics/display expertise; (2) flexibility in approach and programming; (3) ability to quickly produce exhibits, educational programming, and curricula themed to specific topics of interest; (4) inclusion of K-12 teachers in the

  19. The role of ethics and deontology is essential must be reinforced in geosciences. Focus natural hazards and catastrophic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zango-Pascual, Marga

    2016-04-01

    Marga Zango-Pascual Area: Environmental Technologies. Department: Chemical, Physical and Natural Systems. Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain. mzanpas@upo.es In todaýs globalized and changing world, Natural Hazard Management is becoming a priority. It is essential for us to combine both global and interdisciplinary approaches with in-depth knowledge about the natural hazards that may cause damage to both people and property. Many catastrophic events have to see with geological hazards. Science and technology, and particularly geosciences, play an essential role. But this role is often not used, because it is not integrated into the legislation or public policy enacted by those who must manage risk to prevent disasters from occurring. Not only here and now, but also everywhere, whenever decisions are made on disaster risk reduction, we must call for the role of geology to be taken into account. And we must note that in several countries including Spain, the study of geology is being slighted in both universities and secondary education. If the discipline of geology disappears from formal education, there would be serious consequences. This warning has already been issued once and again, for instance in the 2007 Quarterly Natural Sciences Newsletter in relation to Katrina and The Tsunami in the Indian Ocean. There, the fact that knowledge of geoscience may be indispensable for attenuating the effects of natural disasters and that knowledge of geoscience benefits society always is clearly stated. And this necessarily includes generating and makings the best possible use of legislation and public policy where daily decisions are made both on risk management and everything that managing threats involves. The role of geology and geologists is essential and must be reinforced. But, we cannot forgive that is necessary to form of the professional of geology in law and ethical principles. And of course a deontological approach should be maintained. The role of

  20. Planetary Data Archiving Plan at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Iku; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Yukio; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Imamura, Takeshi; Sobue, Shinichi; Takashima, Takeshi; Terazono, Jun-Ya

    After the successful rendezvous of Hayabusa with the small-body planet Itokawa, and the successful launch of Kaguya to the moon, Japanese planetary community has gotten their own and full-scale data. However, at this moment, these datasets are only available from the data sites managed by each mission team. The databases are individually constructed in the different formats, and the user interface of these data sites is not compatible with foreign databases. To improve the usability of the planetary archives at JAXA and to enable the international data exchange smooth, we are investigating to make a new planetary database. Within a coming decade, Japan will have fruitful datasets in the planetary science field, Venus (Planet-C), Mercury (BepiColombo), and several missions in planning phase (small-bodies). In order to strongly assist the international scientific collaboration using these mission archive data, the planned planetary data archive at JAXA should be managed in an unified manner and the database should be constructed in the international planetary database standard style. In this presentation, we will show the current status and future plans of the planetary data archiving at JAXA.

  1. An online planetary exploration tool: ;Country Movers;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, Mátyás; Hargitai, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Results in astrogeologic investigations are rarely communicated towards the general public by maps despite the new advances in planetary spatial informatics and new spatial datasets in high resolution and more complete coverage. Planetary maps are typically produced by astrogeologists for other professionals, and not by cartographers for the general public. We report on an application designed for students, which uses cartography as framework to aid the virtual exploration of other planets and moons, using the concepts of size comparison and travel time calculation. We also describe educational activities that build on geographic knowledge and expand it to planetary surfaces.

  2. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  3. Planetary climates (princeton primers in climate)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingersoll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.

  4. Why did you decide to become a Geoscience Major: A Critical Incident Study for the Development of Recruiting Programs for Inspiring Interests in the Geosciences Amongst Pre-College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Levine, R.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Velasco, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Anecdotally, it is often stated that the majority of students that enter the geosciences usually do so sometime after their initial entrance into college. With the objective of providing concrete and useful information for individuals developing programs for inspiring interest in the Geosciences amongst pre-college students and trying to increase the number of freshman Geoscience majors, we conducted a critical incident study. Twenty-two students, who were undergraduate or graduate Geoscience majors, were asked, "Why did you decide to major in the Geosciences?" in a series of interviews. Their responses were then used to identify over 100 critical incidents, each of which described a specific behavior that was causally responsible for a student's choice to major in Geoscience. Using these critical incidents, we developed a preliminary taxonomy that is comprised of three major categories: Informal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., outdoor experiences, family involvement), Formal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., academic experiences, program participation) and a Combined Informal and Formal Exposure (e.g., media exposure). Within these three main categories we identified thirteen subcategories. These categories and subcategories, describe, classify, and provide concrete examples of strategies that were responsible for geosciences career choices. As a whole, the taxonomy is valuable as a new, data-based guide for designing geosciences recruitment programs for the pre-college student population.

  5. Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences through National Dissemination of the AMS Online Weather Studies Distance Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Porter, W. A.; Moran, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Our nation faces a serious challenge in attracting young people to science and science-related careers (including teaching). This is particularly true for members of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology and is especially acute in the number of minority college students majoring in the geosciences. A formidable obstacle in attracting undergraduates to the geosciences is lack of access, that is, no opportunity to enroll in an introductory geoscience course simply because none is offered at their college or university. Often introductory or survey courses are a student's first exposure to the geosciences. To help alleviate this problem, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) through its Education Program developed and implemented nationally an introductory weather and climate course, Online Weather Studies, which can be added to an institution's menu of general education course offerings. This highly successful course will be offered at 130 colleges and universities nationwide, including 30 minority-serving institutions, 20 of which have joined the AMS Online Weather Studies Diversity Program during 2002. The AMS encourages course adoption by more institutions serving large numbers of minority students through support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) and Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement-National Dissemination (CCLI-ND) programs. Online Weather Studies is an innovative, 12- to 15-week introductory college-level, online distance-learning course on the fundamentals of atmospheric science. Learner-formatted current weather data are delivered via the Internet and coordinated with investigations keyed to the day's weather. The principal innovation of Online Weather Studies is that students learn about weather as it happens in near real-time-a highly motivational learning experience. The AMS Education Program designed and services this course and

  6. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  7. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  8. Volcanic eruption crisis and the challenges of geoscience education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyono, E.; Liliasari, Tjasyono, B.; Madlazim

    2016-02-01

    The study aims was to describe of the profile of geoscience education conducted at the institution of teacher education for answer challenges of volcanic eruption crisis in Indonesia. The method used is descriptive analysis based on result of test and interview to 31 students of physics pre-service teachers about volcanoes through field study. The results showed that the students have a low understanding of volcanic material and there are several problems associated with the volcanoes concept. Other facts are geoscience learning does not support to the formation of geoscience knowledge and skills, dominated by theoretical studies and less focused on effort to preparing students towards disasters particularly to the volcanic eruption. As a recommendation, this require to restructuring geoscience education so as relevant with the social needs. Through courses accordingly, we can greatly help student's physics prospective teacher to improve their participations to solve problems of volcanic eruption crisis in the society.

  9. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  10. The Best and the Brightest in Geosciences: Broadening Representation in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience research in government agencies and universities across the US is anchored by data collection from field and lab experiments. In these settings, the composition and the culture of the environment can be less welcoming for individuals from groups that are traditionally underrepresented in the geosciences. Ongoing efforts to address diversity and inclusion in the field and lab include top-down approaches that provide support and training for established geoscience leaders and bottom-up approaches that offer research internships and fellowships for students. To achieve success, effective strategies for broadening representation in the field must be developed and shared across the geosciences community to advance scientific innovation and create opportunities for success.

  11. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  12. The Nördlingen-Ries Geopark and nearby museums as a natural teaching laboratory for Geoscience students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Kaka, SanLinn; Kaminski, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    The hypervelocity impact of an asteroid in southern Germany around 15 million years ago not only caused an environmental catastrophe, but it also created a scenario that provides us with a world-class natural laboratory for teaching the basic Principles of Geology. The combination of museum visits and observation of rock outcrops enables the student to reinforce or rediscover the basic principles of physical and historical Geology that are presented in first- or second-year Geoscience courses. At KFUPM, our visit to the Ries Geopark begins at the Ries Crater Museum in Nördlingen, where students review knowledge learned in their Physical Geology course: the Nebular Theory, origin of the solar system, and the classification of meteorites based on real examples. Students then learn the stages of impact crater formation, shock metamorphism, and the products of impact crater formation such as tectites, impact breccia and suevite. Students also become familiar with the Mesozoic stratigraphy of Southern Germany, reviewing basic principals of stratigraphy. Visits to local outcrops reinforce the knowledge gained at the Museum. A visit to the nearby Solnhofen Museum and quarries provides insight into the nature of the late Jurassic animals that lived at the edge of the Tethys Sea, reinforcing many topics learned during their second-year Paleontology course, such as taphonomy, and the idea of a death assemblage. At the Museum of the Geosciences Department of the University of Tübingen, the students become familiar with Mesozoic ammonoids as part of their second-year Paleontology course. A visit to the Urwelt Museum and quarry in Holzmaden explores animal life during the Early Jurassic, stratigraphic principles as presented on the museum's "geological staircase", and the origin of petroleum source rocks. The museum houses spectacular examples of Early Jurassic marine reptiles. All knowledge gained in the Jurassic of southern Germany enriches the students' understanding of

  13. Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, David; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Meyer, Charles; Trombka, Jacob; Freund, Friedemann; Economou, Thanasis; Yen, Albert; Kim, Soon Sam; Treiman, Allan H.; Blake, David; hide

    1996-01-01

    We identify the chemical elements and element ratios that should be analyzed to address many of the issues identified by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). We determined that most of these issues require two sensitive instruments to analyze the necessary complement of elements. In addition, it is useful in many cases to use one instrument to analyze the outermost planetary surface (e.g. to determine weathering effects), while a second is used to analyze a subsurface volume of material (e.g., to determine the composition of unaltered planetary surface material). This dual approach to chemical analyses will also facilitate the calibration of orbital and/or Earth-based spectral observations of the planetary body. We determined that in many cases the scientific issues defined by COMPLEX can only be fully addressed with combined packages of instruments that would supplement the chemical data with mineralogic or visual information.

  14. An ecological compass for planetary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  15. Planning for planetary protection : challenges beyond Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Andrea P.; Cutts, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes the technical challenges to planetary protection for these targets of interest and outlines some of the considerations, particularly at the system level, in designing an appropriate technology investment strategy for targets beyond Mars.

  16. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  17. Subsurface Prospecting by Planetary Drones, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program innovates subsurface prospecting by planetary drones to seek a solution to the difficulty of robotic prospecting, sample acquisition, and sample...

  18. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  19. 3D Visualization for Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Larsen, K.; Brain, D.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed visualization tools for viewing planetary orbiters and science data in 3D for both Earth and Mars, using the Cesium Javascript library, allowing viewers to visualize the position and orientation of spacecraft and science data.

  20. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).

  1. Electron densities in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanghellini, L.; Kaler, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Electron densities for 146 planetary nebulae have been obtained for analyzing a large sample of forbidden lines by interpolating theoretical curves obtained from solutions of the five-level atoms using up-to-date collision strengths and transition probabilities. Electron temperatures were derived from forbidden N II and/or forbidden O III lines or were estimated from the He II 4686 A line strengths. The forbidden O II densities are generally lower than those from forbidden Cl III by an average factor of 0.65. For data sets in which forbidden O II and forbidden S II were observed in common, the forbidden O II values drop to 0.84 that of the forbidden S II, implying that the outermost parts of the nebulae might have elevated densities. The forbidden Cl II and forbidden Ar IV densities show the best correlation, especially where they have been obtained from common data sets. The data give results within 30 percent of one another, assuming homogeneous nebulae. 106 refs

  2. Infrared observations of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, G.S.; Baines, K.H.; Bergstralh, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research in to obtain infrared data on planetary atmospheres which provide information on several aspects of structure and composition. Observations include direct mission real-time support as well as baseline monitoring preceding mission encounters. Besides providing a broader information context for spacecraft experiment data analysis, observations will provide the quantitative data base required for designing optimum remote sensing sequences and evaluating competing science priorities. In the past year, thermal images of Jupiter and Saturn were made near their oppositions in order to monitor long-term changes in their atmospheres. Infrared images of the Jovian polar stratospheric hot spots were made with IUE observations of auroral emissions. An exploratory 5-micrometer spectrum of Uranus was reduced and accepted for publication. An analysis of time-variability of temperature and cloud properties of the Jovian atomsphere was made. Development of geometric reduction programs for imaging data was initiated for the sun workstation. Near-infrared imaging observations of Jupiter were reduced and a preliminary analysis of cloud properties made. The first images of the full disk of Jupiter with a near-infrared array camera were acquired. Narrow-band (10/cm) images of Jupiter and Saturn were obtained with acousto-optical filters

  3. Artificial Intelligence in planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2017-10-01

    The field of exoplanetary spectroscopy is as fast moving as it is new. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain. This is true for both: the data analysis of observations as well as the theoretical modelling of their atmospheres.Issues of low signal-to-noise data and large, non-linear parameter spaces are nothing new and commonly found in many fields of engineering and the physical sciences. Recent years have seen vast improvements in statistical data analysis and machine learning that have revolutionised fields as diverse as telecommunication, pattern recognition, medical physics and cosmology.In many aspects, data mining and non-linearity challenges encountered in other data intensive fields are directly transferable to the field of extrasolar planets. In this conference, I will discuss how deep neural networks can be designed to facilitate solving said issues both in exoplanet atmospheres as well as for atmospheres in our own solar system. I will present a deep belief network, RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition), able to learn to recognise exoplanetary spectra and provide artificial intelligences to state-of-the-art atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Furthermore, I will present a new deep convolutional network that is able to map planetary surface compositions using hyper-spectral imaging and demonstrate its uses on Cassini-VIMS data of Saturn.

  4. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  5. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  6. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  7. EarthConnections: Integrating Community Science and Geoscience Education Pathways for More Resilient Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    To develop a diverse geoscience workforce, the EarthConnections collective impact alliance is developing regionally focused, Earth education pathways. These pathways support and guide students from engagement in relevant, Earth-related science at an early age through the many steps and transitions to geoscience-related careers. Rooted in existing regional activities, pathways are developed using a process that engages regional stakeholders and community members with EarthConnections partners. Together they connect, sequence, and create multiple learning opportunities that link geoscience education and community service to address one or more local geoscience issues. Three initial pilots are demonstrating different starting points and strategies for creating pathways that serve community needs while supporting geoscience education. The San Bernardino pilot is leveraging existing academic relationships and programs; the Atlanta pilot is building into existing community activities; and the Oklahoma Tribal Nations pilot is co-constructing a pathway focus and approach. The project is using pathway mapping and a collective impact framework to support and monitor progress. The goal is to develop processes and activities that can help other communities develop similar community-based geoscience pathways. By intertwining Earth education with local community service we aspire to increase the resilience of communities in the face of environmental hazards and limited Earth resources.

  8. AWG, Enhancing Professional Skills, Providing Resources and Assistance for Women in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, C.; Cruse, A. M.; AssociationWomen Geoscientists

    2011-12-01

    The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) was founded in 1977. AWG is an international organization, with ten chapters, devoted to enhancing the quality and level of participation of women in geosciences, and introducing women and girls to geoscience careers. Our diverse interests and expertise cover the entire spectrum of geoscience disciplines and career paths, providing unexcelled networking and mentoring opportunities to develop leadership skills. Our membership is brought together by a common love of earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences, and the desire to ensure rewarding opportunities for women in the geosciences. AWG offers a variety of scholarships, including the Chrysalis scholarship for women who are returning to school after a life-changing interruption, and the Sands and Takken awards for students to make presentations at professional meetings. AWG promotes professional development through workshops, an online bi-monthly newsletter, more timely e-mailed newsletters, field trips, and opportunities to serve in an established professional organization. AWG recognizes the work of outstanding women geoscientists and of outstanding men supporters of women in the geosciences. The AWG Foundation funds ten scholarships, a Distinguished Lecture Program, the Geologist-in-the-Parks program, Science Fair awards, and numerous Girl Scout programs. Each year, AWG sends a contingent to Congressional Visits Day, to help educate lawmakers about the unique challenges that women scientists face in the geoscience workforce.

  9. On the applicability of Benford's Law in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambridge, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Jackson, A.

    2009-12-01

    Benford's Law is a curious property of numerous datasets whereby the frequency distribution of the first digit (i.e. first non zero number from the left) follows a well defined logarithmic function, namely P_D = log_b(1+1/D), where D is the first digit and b is the base of the data. This was initially observed by Newcomb (1881) and later quantified and expanded by Benford (1938). The latter author first put forward a set of 20 distinct data sets with differing physical dimension and character which collectively obeyed this 1st digit law. The nature of each data is the most startling feature of all in that they range from physical properties of matter such as molecular weight and specific heat capacity through river areas and drainage rates to population numbers in the USA as well as American baseball league averages of 1936. A universal law of digits was proposed by Benford and in recent times has been widely accepted. Investigations into the nature and use of Benford's Law have continued in multiple fields. Mathematicians have more recently proven the correctness of this universal law of digits under general conditions and Nigrini (1992) has made use of it for uncovering anomalous data errors and fraud in accountancy practices. To date Benford's Law appears to have received no attention within the Geosciences. Here we demonstrate its widespread applicability for geophysical data sets as well as models derived from data of varying type and physical dimension. Specifically we verify Benford's Law holds for a geomagnetic Field model of the Earth (gufm1), Seismic models obtained from tomography (including mantle shear wave and regional body wave P and S models for various parts of the globe), and the GRACE gravity model up to degree 160. It would appear that Benford's Law has widespread applicability to geoscience data. Departures from Benford's Law are of interest as they seem to indicate changes in the local character of data, possibly due to fraud, error, or

  10. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  11. Migration-induced architectures of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Podlewska-Gaca, Edyta

    2012-06-01

    The recent increase in number of known multi-planet systems gives a unique opportunity to study the processes responsible for planetary formation and evolution. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mean-motion resonances, because they carry important information about the history of the planetary systems. At the early stages of the evolution, when planets are still embedded in a gaseous disc, the tidal interactions between the disc and planets cause the planetary orbital migration. The convergent differential migration of two planets embedded in a gaseous disc may result in the capture into a mean-motion resonance. The orbital migration taking place during the early phases of the planetary system formation may play an important role in shaping stable planetary configurations. An understanding of this stage of the evolution will provide insight on the most frequently formed architectures, which in turn are relevant for determining the planet habitability. The aim of this paper is to present the observational properties of these planetary systems which contain confirmed or suspected resonant configurations. A complete list of known systems with such configurations is given. This list will be kept by us updated from now on and it will be a valuable reference for studying the dynamics of extrasolar systems and testing theoretical predictions concerned with the origin and the evolution of planets, which are the most plausible places for existence and development of life.

  12. Lessons learned from planetary science archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, J.; Grayzeck, E.

    2006-01-01

    The need for scientific archiving of past, current, and future planetary scientific missions, laboratory data, and modeling efforts is indisputable. To quote from a message by G. Santayama carved over the entrance of the US Archive in Washington DC “Those who can not remember the past are doomed to repeat it.” The design, implementation, maintenance, and validation of planetary science archives are however disputed by the involved parties. The inclusion of the archives into the scientific heritage is problematic. For example, there is the imbalance between space agency requirements and institutional and national interests. The disparity of long-term archive requirements and immediate data analysis requests are significant. The discrepancy between the space missions archive budget and the effort required to design and build the data archive is large. An imbalance exists between new instrument development and existing, well-proven archive standards. The authors present their view on the problems and risk areas in the archiving concepts based on their experience acquired within NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA’s Planetary Science Archive (PSA). Individual risks and potential problem areas are discussed based on a model derived from a system analysis done upfront. The major risk for a planetary mission science archive is seen in the combination of minimal involvement by Mission Scientists and inadequate funding. The authors outline how the risks can be reduced. The paper ends with the authors view on future planetary archive implementations including the archive interoperability aspect.

  13. Improving Scientific Writing in Undergraduate Geosciences Degrees Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; Collins, G. S.; Craig, L.

    2016-12-01

    In the British educational system, students specialise early. Often geoscience undergraduates have not taken a class that requires extended writing since they were sixteen years old. This can make it difficult for students to develop the written skills necessary for a geoscience degree, which often has assessments in the form of essays and reports. To improve both the writing and editing skills of our undergraduates we have introduced a peer review system, in which seniors review the work of first year students. At Imperial College London we set written coursework in every year of the degree. Communication is taught and assessed in many courses. There are two major modules with substantial written components that bookend the undergraduate degree at Imperial; the freshmen all write an assessed essay, while all seniors take 'Science Communication', a course that aims to prepare them for a range of possible careers. In the 2015-16 academic year we linked these courses by introducing a modified form of peer marking and instruction. Seniors had to complete reviews of draft first year essays for credit in Science Communication. These reviews are completed for the department 'journal' and introduce the first and fourth years to the nature of peer review. Seniors learn how to critically, but kindly, evaluate the work of other students, and are also prepared for potentially submitting their senior theses to journals. Reviews were managed by volunteer seniors, who acted as associate editors. They allocated anonymous reviewers and wrote decision letters, which were sent to the freshmen before their final assessed essay submission. Ultimately the fourth year reviews were formally assessed and graded by members of staff, as were the revised and resubmitted first year essays. Feedback for both courses has improved since the introduction of student reviews of essays. The markers of the freshman essay have also commented on the improvement in the standard of the writing and a

  14. Using Google Streetview Panoramic Imagery for Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Google Streetview is a feature of Google Maps and Google Earth that allows viewers to switch from map or satellite view to 360° panoramic imagery recorded close to the ground. Most panoramas are recorded by Google engineers using special cameras mounted on the roofs of cars. Bicycles, snowmobiles, and boats have also been used and sometimes the camera has been mounted on a backpack for off-road use by hikers and skiers or attached to scuba-diving gear for "Underwater Streetview (sic)." Streetview panoramas are linked together so that the viewer can change viewpoint by clicking forward and reverse buttons. They therefore create a 4-D touring effect. As part of the GEODE project ("Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education"), we are experimenting with the use of Streetview imagery for geoscience education. Our web-based test application allows instructors to select locations for students to study. Students are presented with a set of questions or tasks that they must address by studying the panoramic imagery. Questions include identification of rock types, structures such as faults, and general geological setting. The student view is locked into Streetview mode until they submit their answers, whereupon the map and satellite views become available, allowing students to zoom out and verify their location on Earth. Student learning is scaffolded by automatic computerized feedback. There are lots of existing Streetview panoramas with rich geological content. Additionally, instructors and members of the general public can create panoramas, including 360° Photo Spheres, by stitching images taken with their mobiles devices and submitting them to Google for evaluation and hosting. A multi-thousand-dollar, multi-directional camera and mount can be purchased from DIY-streetview.com. This allows power users to generate their own high-resolution panoramas. A cheaper, 360° video camera is soon to be released according to geonaute.com. Thus there are opportunities for

  15. Geoscience data visualization and analysis using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Vicki; Carbotte, Suzanne; Ryan, William; Chan, Samantha

    2013-04-01

    Increased availability of geoscience data resources has resulted in new opportunities for developing visualization and analysis tools that not only promote data integration and synthesis, but also facilitate quantitative cross-disciplinary access to data. Interdisciplinary investigations, in particular, frequently require visualizations and quantitative access to specialized data resources across disciplines, which has historically required specialist knowledge of data formats and software tools. GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) is a free online data visualization and analysis tool that provides direct quantitative access to a wide variety of geoscience data for a broad international interdisciplinary user community. While GeoMapApp provides access to online data resources, it can also be packaged to work offline through the deployment of a small portable hard drive. This mode of operation can be particularly useful during field programs to provide functionality and direct access to data when a network connection is not possible. Hundreds of data sets from a variety of repositories are directly accessible in GeoMapApp, without the need for the user to understand the specifics of file formats or data reduction procedures. Available data include global and regional gridded data, images, as well as tabular and vector datasets. In addition to basic visualization and data discovery functionality, users are provided with simple tools for creating customized maps and visualizations and to quantitatively interrogate data. Specialized data portals with advanced functionality are also provided for power users to further analyze data resources and access underlying component datasets. Users may import and analyze their own geospatial datasets by loading local versions of geospatial data and can access content made available through Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Map Services (WMS). Once data are loaded in GeoMapApp, a variety options are provided to export data and/or 2D/3D

  16. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  17. DC Rocks! Using Place-Based Learning to Introduce Washington DC's K-12 Students to the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Mattietti, G. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Washington DC area has interesting geology and a multitude of agencies that deal with the geosciences, yet K-12 public school students in DC, most of whom are minorities, have limited exposure to the geosciences. Geoscience agencies in the DC area have a unique opportunity to address this by introducing the geosciences to local students who otherwise may not have such an opportunity, by highlighting the geology in the students' "backyard," and by leveraging partnerships among DC-based geoscience-related agencies. The USGS and George Mason University are developing a project called DC Rocks, which will give DC's students an exciting introduction into the world of geoscience with place-based learning opportunities that will make geoscience relevant to their lives and their futures. Both the need in DC and the potential for lasting impact are great; the geosciences have the lowest racial diversity of all the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, 89% of students in DC public schools are minorities, and there is no dedicated geoscience curriculum in DC. DC Rocks aims to give these students early exposure to the earth sciences, and encourage them to consider careers in the profession. DC Rocks will work with partner agencies to apply several methods that are recommended by researchers to increase the participation of minority students in the geosciences, including providing profoundly positive experiences that spark interest in the geosciences (Levine et al., 2007); increasing students' sense of belonging in the geosciences (Huntoon, et al, 2016); and place-based teaching practices that emphasize the study of local sites (Semken, 2005), such as DC's Rock Creek Park. DC Rocks will apply these methods by coordinating local geoscientists and resources to provide real-world examples of the geosciences' impact on students' lives. Through the DC Rocks website, educators will be able to request geoscience-related resources such as class presentations by

  18. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  19. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  20. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of the footprint locations of various higher-resolution data sets. Once our group, or any group, performs these data conversions the KML can be made available on the Web, where anyone can download it and begin using it in Google Earth (or any other geospatial browser), just like a Web page. Lucian Plesea at JPL offers several KML basemaps (MDIM, colorized MDIM, MOC composite, THEMIS day time infrared, and both grayscale and colorized MOLA). We have created TES Thermal Inertia maps, and a THEMIS night time infrared overlay, as well. Many data sets for Mars have already been converted to KML. We provide coverage polygons overlaid on the globe, whose icons can be clicked on and lead to the full PDS data URL. We have built coverage maps for the following data sets: MOC narrow angle, HRSC imagery and DTMs, SHARAD tracks, CTX, and HiRISE. The CRISM team is working on providing their coverage data via publicly-accessible KML. The MSL landing site process is also providing data for potential landing sites via KML. The Google Earth client and KML allow anyone to contribute data for everyone to see via the Web. The Earth sciences community is already utilizing KML and Google Earth in a variety of ways as a geospatial browser, and we hope that the planetary sciences community will do the same. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data

  1. Dust Dynamics Near Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Joshua; Hughes, Anna; Grund, Chris

    Observations of a lunar "horizon glow" by several Surveyor spacecraft in the 1960s opened the study of the dynamics of charged dust particles near planetary surfaces. The surfaces of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies in the solar system (asteroids, and other moons) are directly exposed to the solar wind and ionizing solar ultraviolet radiation, resulting in a time-dependent electric surface potential. Because these same objects are also exposed to bombardment by micrometeoroids, the surfaces are usually characterized by a power-law size distribution of dust that extends to sub-micron-sized particles. Individual particles can acquire a charge different from their surroundings leading to electrostatic levitation. Once levitated, particles may simply return to the surface on nearly ballistic trajectories, escape entirely from the moon or asteroid if the initial velocity is large, or in some cases be stably levitated for extended periods of time. All three outcomes have observable consequences. Furthermore, the behavior of charged dust near the surface has practical implications for planned future manned and unmanned activities on the lunar surface. Charged dust particles also act as sensitive probes of the near-surface plasma environment. Recent numerical modeling of dust levitation and transport show that charged micron-sized dust is likely to accumulate in topographic lows such as craters, providing a mechanism for the creation of dust "ponds" observed on the asteroid 433 Eros. Such deposition can occur when particles are supported by the photoelectron sheath above the dayside and drift over shadowed regions of craters where the surface potential is much smaller. Earlier studies of the lunar horizon glow are consistent with those particles being on simple ballistic trajectories following electrostatic launching from the surface. Smaller particles may be accelerated from the lunar surface to high altitudes consistent with observations of high altitude

  2. Role Models and Mentors in Mid-Pipeline Retention of Geoscience Students, Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, A. E.; Kalczynski, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Undergraduate minority students retained enthusiasm for majoring in the geosciences by a combination of working with advanced minority mentors and role models as well as serving as role models for middle and high school students in Geoscience Education programs in Newark, NJ. An academic year program to interest 8-10th grade students from the Newark Public schools in the Geosciences employs minority undergraduate students from Rutgers University and Essex Community College as assistants. There is an academic year program (Geoexplorers) and a science festival (Dinosaur Day) at the Newark Museum that employs Rutgers University students and a summer program that employs Rutgers and Essex Community College students. All students are members of the Garden State LSAMP and receive any needed academic support from that program. The students receive mentoring from minority graduate students, project personnel and participating Newark Public School teachers, many of whom are from minority groups. The main factor in success and retention, however, is their role as authorities and role models for the K-12 students. The assistants are respected and consulted by the K-12 students for their knowledge and authority in the geosciences. This positive feedback shows them that they can be regarded as geoscientists and reinforces their self-image and enthusiasm. It further reinforces their knowledge of Geoscience concepts. It also binds the assistants together into a self-supporting community that even extends to the non-participating minority students in the Rutgers program. Although the drop-out rate among minority Geoscience majors was high (up to 100%) prior to the initiation of the program, it has dropped to 0% over the past 3 years with 2 participants now in PhD programs and 2 others completing MS degrees this year. Current students are seriously considering graduate education. Prior to this program, only one minority graduate from the program continued to graduate school in the

  3. Lessons Learned for Recruiting and Retaining Native Hawaiians in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. A.; Brock, L.; Levine, R.; Spencer, L.; Wai, B.; Puniwai, N.

    2008-12-01

    Many Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island (NHPI) college students are unaware of the majors or career possibilities within geoscience disciplines. This notably can be seen by the low number of NHPI students who graduate with a bachelor's degree in an ocean or Earth science-related field within the University of Hawaii (UH) System. To help address this disparity, the Ka'Imi'Ike Program, which is funded through the Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) Program at NSF, was started at the University of Hawaii at Manoa to attract and support NHPI students in the geosciences. A key component of the program is the recruiting of NHPI students to disciplines in the geosciences through linking geoscience concepts with their culture and community. This includes a 3-week Explorations in the Geosciences summer institute that introduces incoming freshmen and current UH sophomores to the earth, weather, and ocean sciences via hands-on field and lab experiences. Ka'Imi'Ike also provides limited support for current geoscience majors through scholarships and internship opportunities. Results from student journals and pre- and post- questionnaires given to students during the summer institute have shown the program to be successful in increasing student interest and knowledge of the geoscience disciplines. Demonstrating the links between scientific thought and NHPI culture has been crucial to peaking the students' interest in the geosciences. The results also show that there is a need to include more specifics related to local career options, especially information that can be shared with the students' family and community as our data show that parents play a formidable role in the career path a student chooses. Moreover, in order to provide a more contiguous pipeline of support for NHPI students, Ka'Imi'Ike is beginning to network its students from the summer institute to other programs, such as the C-MORE Scholars Program, which offer undergraduate research

  4. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and

  5. Public Engagement with the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Shupla, Christine; Smith Hackler, Amanda; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Joseph, Emily C. S.

    2016-10-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's (LPI) public engagement programs target audiences of all ages and backgrounds; in 2016 LPI has expanded its programs to reach wider, more diverse audiences. The status, resources, and findings of these programs, including evaluation results, will be discussed in this poster. LPI's Cosmic Explorations Speaker Series (CESS) is an annual public speaker series to engage the public in space science and exploration. Each thematic series includes four to five presentations held between September and May. Past series' titles have included "Science" on the Silver Screen, The Universe is Out to Get Us and What We Can (or Can't) Do About It, and A User's Guide to the Universe: You Live Here. Here's What You Need to Know. While the presentations are available online after the event, they are now being livestreamed to be accessible to a broader national, and international, audience. Sky Fest events, held four to five times a year, have science content themes and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. Themes include both planetary and astronomy topics as well as planetary exploration topics (e.g., celebrating the launch or landing of a spacecraft). Elements of the Sky Fest program are being conducted in public libraries serving audiences underrepresented in STEM near LPI. These programs take place as part of existing hour-long programs in the library. During this hour, young people, typically 6-12 years old, move through three stations where they participate in hands-on activities. Like Sky Fest, these programs are thematic, centered on one over-arching topic such as the Moon or Mars. Beginning in Fall 2016, LPI will present programs at a revitalized park in downtown Houston. Facilities at this park will enable LPI to bring both the Sky Fest and CESS programs into the heart of Houston, which is one of the most diverse cities in the US and the world.

  6. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  7. Turning Planetary Theory Upside Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The discovery of nine new transiting exoplanets is announced today at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting (NAM2010). When these new results were combined with earlier observations of transiting exoplanets astronomers were surprised to find that six out of a larger sample of 27 were found to be orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star - the exact reverse of what is seen in our own Solar System. The new discoveries provide an unexpected and serious challenge to current theories of planet formation. They also suggest that systems with exoplanets of the type known as hot Jupiters are unlikely to contain Earth-like planets. "This is a real bomb we are dropping into the field of exoplanets," says Amaury Triaud, a PhD student at the Geneva Observatory who, with Andrew Cameron and Didier Queloz, leads a major part of the observational campaign. Planets are thought to form in the disc of gas and dust encircling a young star. This proto-planetary disc rotates in the same direction as the star itself, and up to now it was expected that planets that form from the disc would all orbit in more or less the same plane, and that they would move along their orbits in the same direction as the star's rotation. This is the case for the planets in the Solar System. After the initial detection of the nine new exoplanets [1] with the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP, [2]), the team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile, along with data from the Swiss Euler telescope, also at La Silla, and data from other telescopes to confirm the discoveries and characterise the transiting exoplanets [3] found in both the new and older surveys. Surprisingly, when the team combined the new data with older observations they found that more than half of all the hot Jupiters [4] studied have orbits that are misaligned with the rotation axis of their parent stars. They even found that six exoplanets in this

  8. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  9. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  10. An Integrative and Collaborative Approach to Creating a Diverse and Computationally Competent Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. L.; Kar, A.; Gomez, R.

    2015-12-01

    A partnership between Fort Valley State University (FVSU), the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin, and the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) is engaging computational geoscience faculty and researchers with academically talented underrepresented minority (URM) students, training them to solve grand challenges . These next generation computational geoscientists are being trained to solve some of the world's most challenging geoscience grand challenges requiring data intensive large scale modeling and simulation on high performance computers . UT Austin's geoscience outreach program GeoFORCE, recently awarded the Presidential Award in Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring, contributes to the collaborative best practices in engaging researchers with URM students. Collaborative efforts over the past decade are providing data demonstrating that integrative pipeline programs with mentoring and paid internship opportunities, multi-year scholarships, computational training, and communication skills development are having an impact on URMs developing middle skills for geoscience careers. Since 1997, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program at FVSU and its collaborating universities have graduated 87 engineers, 33 geoscientists, and eight health physicists. Recruited as early as high school, students enroll for three years at FVSU majoring in mathematics, chemistry or biology, and then transfer to UT Austin or other partner institutions to complete a second STEM degree, including geosciences. A partnership with the Integrative Computational Education and Research Traineeship (ICERT), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Site at TACC provides students with a 10-week summer research experience at UT Austin. Mentored by TACC researchers, students with no previous background in computational science learn to use some of the world's most powerful high performance

  11. NSF-Sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education: outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, S.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education made major progress toward developing a collective community vision for the geosciences. A broad spectrum of the geoscience education community, ~200 educators from research universities/four and two year colleges, focused on preparation of undergraduates for graduate school and future geoscience careers, pedagogy, use of technology, broadening participation/retention of underrepresented groups, and preparation of K-12 science teachers. Participants agreed that key concepts, competencies and skills learned throughout the curriculum were more important than specific courses. Concepts included understanding Earth as complex, dynamic system, deep time, evolution of life, natural resources, energy, hazards, hydrogeology, surface processes, Earth materials and structure, and climate change. Skills/competencies included ability to think spatially and temporally, reason inductively and deductively, make and use indirect observations, engage in complex open, coupled systems thinking, and work with uncertainty, non-uniqueness, and incompleteness, as well as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and ability to think like a scientist and continue to learn. Successful ways of developing these include collaborative, integrative projects involving teams, interdisciplinary projects, fieldwork and research experiences, as well as flipped classrooms and integration and interactive use of technology, including visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis of real data. Wider adoption of proven, effective best practices is our communities' main pedagogical challenge, and we focused on identifying implementation barriers. Preparation of future teachers in introductory and general geoscience courses by incorporating Next Generation Science Standards and using other sciences/math to solve real world geoscience problems should help increase diversity and number of future geoscientists and

  12. Sustainable, Full-Scope Nuclear Fission Energy at Planetary Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petroski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total energy-utilized. To achieve such “planetary scale sustainability”, this nuclear energy system integrates three nascent technologies: uranium extraction from seawater, manifestly safe breeder reactors, and deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste. In addition to these technological components, it also possesses the sociopolitical quality of manifest safety, which involves engineering to a very high degree of safety in a straightforward manner, while concurrently making the safety characteristics of the resulting nuclear systems continually manifest to society as a whole. Near-term aspects of this nuclear system are outlined, and representative parameters given for a system of global scale capable of supplying energy to a planetary population of 10 billion people at a per capita level enjoyed by contemporary Americans, i.e., of a type which might be seen a half-century hence. In addition to being sustainable from a resource standpoint, the described nuclear system is also sustainable with respect to environmental and human health impacts, including those resulting from severe accidents.

  13. Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real

  14. Engaging Audiences in Planetary Science Through Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Mason, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.

    2017-12-01

    One way to share compelling stories is through visuals. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), in collaboration with Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and Space Science Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, has been working with planetary scientists to reach and engage audiences in their research through the use of visualizations. We will share how images and animations have been used in multiple mediums, including the planetarium, Science on a Sphere, the hyperwall, and within apps. Our objectives are to provide a tool that planetary scientists can use to tell their stories, as well as to increase audience awareness of and interest in planetary science. While scientists are involved in the selection of topics and the development of the visuals, LPI and partners seek to increase the planetary science community's awareness of these resources and their ability to incorporate them into their own public engagement efforts. This presentation will share our own resources and efforts, as well as the input received from scientists on how education and public engagement teams can best assist them in developing and using these resources, and disseminating them to both scientists and to informal science education venues.

  15. X-ray observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein satellite was used to observe 19 planetary nebulae and X-ray emission was detected from four planetary nebulae. The EXOSAT satellite observed 12 planetary nebulae and five new sources were detected. An Einstein HRI observation shows that NGC 246 is a point source, implying that the X-rays are from the central star. Most of the detected planetary nebulae are old and the X-rays are observed during the later stage of planetary nebulae/central star evolution, when the nebula has dispersed sufficiently and/or when the central star gets old and the heavy elements in the atmosphere settle down due to gravitation. However in two cases where the central star is sufficiently luminous X-rays were observed, even though they were young nebulae; the X-radiation ionizes the nebula to a degree, to allow negligible absorption in the nebula. Temperature T x is obtained using X-ray flux and optical magnitude and assuming the spectrum is blackbody. T x agrees with Zanstra temperature obtained from optical Helium lines. (author)

  16. The Role of NASA's Planetary Data System in the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effort underway in NASA's planetary science community is the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mapsit/). MAPSIT is a community assessment group organized to address a lack of strategic spatial data planning for space science and exploration. Working with MAPSIT, a new initiative of NASA and USGS is the development of a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) that builds on extensive knowledge on storing, accessing, and working with terrestrial spatial data. PSDI is a knowledge and technology framework that enables the efficient discovery, access, and exploitation of planetary spatial data to facilitate data analysis, knowledge synthesis, and decision-making. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) archives >1.2 petabytes of digital data resulting from decades of planetary exploration and research. The PDS charter focuses on the efficient collection, archiving, and accessibility of these data. The PDS emphasis on data preservation and archiving is complementary to that of the PSDI initiative because the latter utilizes and extends available data to address user needs in the areas of emerging technologies, rapid development of tailored delivery systems, and development of online collaborative research environments. The PDS plays an essential PSDI role because it provides expertise to help NASA missions and other data providers to organize and document their planetary data, to collect and maintain the archives with complete, well-documented and peer-reviewed planetary data, to make planetary data accessible by providing online data delivery tools and search services, and ultimately to ensure the long-term preservation and usability of planetary data. The current PDS4 information model extends and expands PDS metadata and relationships between and among elements of the collections. The PDS supports data delivery through several node services, including the Planetary Image Atlas (https

  17. InTeGrate: Transforming the Teaching of Geoscience and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockstein, D.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Castendyk, D.; Egger, A. E.; Gosselin, D. C.; Iverson, E. A.; Matson, P. A.; MacGregor, J.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Nevle, R. J.; Oches, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Wiese, K.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is an NSF-funded community project to improve geoscience literacy and build a workforce that can apply geoscience principles to address societal issues. Three workshops offered this year by InTeGrate and its partner, On the Cutting Edge, addressed strategies for bringing together geoscience and sustainability within geoscience courses and programs, in interdisciplinary courses and programs, and in courses and programs in other disciplines or schools including arts and humanities, health science, and business. Participants in all workshops described the power of teaching geoscience in the context of sustainability and the utility of this approach in engaging students with geoscience, including student populations not traditionally represented in the sciences. Faculty involved in both courses and programs seek to teach important skills including the ability to think about systems and to make connections between local observations and challenges and global phenomena and issues. Better articulation of these skills, including learning outcomes and assessments, as well as documenting the relationship between these skills and employment opportunities were identified as important areas for further work. To support widespread integration of geoscience and sustainability concepts, these workshops initiated collections describing current teaching activities, courses, and programs. InTeGrate will continue to build these collections in collaboration with On the Cutting Edge and Building Strong Geoscience Departments, and through open contributions by individual faculty and programs. In addition, InTeGrate began developing new teaching modules and courses. Materials for use in introductory geoscience and environmental science/studies courses, distance learning courses, and courses for education majors are being developed and tested by teams of faculty drawn from at least three institutions, including several members from two-year colleges. An assessment team is

  18. Information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Susan Ward

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience educators use a variety of resources and resource formats in their classroom teaching to facilitate student understanding of concepts and processes that define subject areas considered in the realm of geoscience. In this study of information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators, the researcher found that participants preferred visual media such as personal photographic and digital images, as well as published figures, animations, and cartoons, and that participants bypassed their academic libraries to meet these information needs. In order to investigate the role of information in developing introductory geoscience course and instruction, a grounded theory study was conducted through a qualitative paradigm with an interpretive approach and naturalistic inquiry. The theoretical and methodological framework was constructivism and sense-making. Research questions were posited on the nature of geoscience subject areas and the resources and resource formats used in conveying geoscience topics to science and non-science majors, as well as educators' preferences and concerns with curriculum and instruction. The underlying framework was to investigate the place of the academic library and librarian in the sense-making, constructivist approach of geoscience educators. A purposive sample of seven geoscience educators from four universities located in mid-western United States was identified as exemplary teachers by department chairpersons. A triangulation of data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, document reviews, and classroom observations. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which included coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Contextual factors were identified and a simple model resulted showing the role of information in teaching for these participants. While participants developed lectures and demonstrations using intrapersonal knowledge and personal collections, one barrier

  19. Proposed Grand Challenges in Geoscience Education Research: Articulating a Community Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.; St John, K. K.; Teasdale, R.; Ryker, K.; Riggs, E. M.; Pyle, E. J.; Petcovic, H. L.; McNeal, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Macdonald, H.; Kastens, K.; Cervato, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fourteen ago the Wingspread Project helped establish geoscience education research (GER) as an important research field and highlighted major research questions for GER at the time. More recently, the growth and interest in GER is evident from the increase in geoscience education research articles, the establishment of the NAGT GER Division, the creation of the GER Toolbox, an increase in GER graduate programs, and the growth of tenure-eligible GER faculty positions. As an emerging STEM education research field, the GER community is examining the current state of their research and considering the best course forward so that it can have the greatest collective impact on advancing teaching and learning in the geosciences. As part of an NSF-funded effort to meet this need, 45 researchers drafted priority research questions, or "Grand Challenges", that span 10 geoscience education research themes. These include research on: students' conceptual understanding of the solid and the fluid Earth, K-12 teacher preparation, teaching about Earth in the context of societal problems, access and success of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, spatial and temporal reasoning, quantitative reasoning and use of models, instructional strategies to improve geoscience learning, students' self-regulated learning, and faculty professional development and institutional change. For each theme, several Grand Challenges have been proposed; these have undergone one round of peer-review and are now ready for the AGU community to critically examine the proposed Grand Challenges and make suggestions on strategies for addressing them: http://nagt.org/nagt/geoedresearch/grand_challenges/feedback.html. We seek perspectives from geoscience education researchers, scholars, and reflective educators. It is our vision that the final outcomes of this community-grounded process will be a published guiding framework to (1) focus future GER on questions of high interest to the geoscience education

  20. Geoscience Education and Cognition Research at George Mason University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattietti, G. K.; Peters, E. E.; Verardo, S.

    2009-12-01

    Cognition research in Geoscience is the focus of a small group of faculty from the College of Science and the College of Education and Human Development at George Mason University. We approached this research when we were involved in an Institution-wide effort to assess critical thinking, one of the competencies mandated for evaluation by the State Council of Higher Education of Virginia. Our group started spontaneously and informally from personal interests and enthusiasm for what and how our students are learning about Geology and in general about science. We want to understand what our students bring to the course, their attitude towards science, their knowledge of the scientific enterprise and preconceived ideas—and what our students take away from the course, beyond the course content. We believe that, with the support of cognitive science, we can improve the learning experience and therefore enhance the learning outcomes for science and non-science majors alike. Our Institution offers introductory Physical and Historical Geology classes populated primarily by non-science-major undergraduates. Geology lectures range in size from 90 to over 220 students per session per semester, with laboratory sessions averaging 27 students per session. With this large student population, it is necessary to use research tools that give us valuable information about student cognition, while being efficient in terms of time use and logistics. Some examples of our work include critical readings on Geoscience topics, surveys on students’ understanding of science as a way of knowing, exercises with built-in self-efficacy assessments, and concept mapping. The common denominator among these tools is that they are calibrated to address one or more of the higher levels in the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain, which form a complex assessment of student learning processes. These tools, once refined, can provide us with a better view of how our students learn in

  1. Global Geoscience Initiatives From Windows to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R.; Gardiner, L.; Lagrave, M.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Foster, S. Q.

    2006-12-01

    The Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu) Earth and space science educational program and web site has an extensive international presence. The web site reaches a vast user audience, having served more than 124 million page views across approximately 14 million user sessions in the past year. About 44% of these user sessions originated from domains outside of the United States. The site, which contains roughly 7,000 pages originally offered in English, is being translated into Spanish. This effort, begun in 2003, is now approximately 80% complete. Availability in a second major language has dramatically increased use of the site both in the U.S.A. and abroad; about 29% (4.1 million) of the annual user sessions visit Spanish-language portions of the site. In September 2005 we began distributing a monthly electronic newsletter for teachers that highlights features on the web site as well as other geoscience programs and events of relevance to educators. We currently have more than 4,400 subscribers, 33.6% of whom are outside of the United States. We are actively seeking news and information about other programs of relevance to this audience to distribute via our newsletter. We have also begun to solicit information (tips, anecdotes, lesson plans, etc.) from geoscience teachers around the world to share via this newsletter. Finally, Windows to the Universe participated in the Education and Outreach efforts of the MILAGRO scientific field campaign in Mexico in March of 2006. MILAGRO was a collaborative, multi-agency, international campaign to conduct a coordinated study of the extent and effects of pollutants emitted by a "mega-city" (in this case Mexico City) in order to understand the impacts of vast urban environments on global climate modeling. We enlisted several scientists involved with MILAGRO to write "Postcards from the Field" about their ongoing research during the project; these electronic "postcards" were distributed, in English and Spanish, via

  2. Emerging Geoscience Education Research at the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. M.; Harris, S.; Wieman, C.; Gilley, B.; Lane, E.; Caulkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research (GER) in UBC’s Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences (EOS) began due to a well funded 5-yr Faculty of Science project called the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI). This initiative takes an evidence-based, scientific approach to improving education by 1) establishing what students should learn; 2) scientifically measuring what students are learning; 3) adapting instruction and curricula using effective technologies and pedagogical research; and 4) disseminating and adopting what works. The presentation will discuss how this initiative has fostered a growing GER presence within our Department. CWSEI funding has enabled the EOS Department to hire 4 full-time Science Teaching and Learning Fellows (STLFs) who work directly with faculty to optimize courses and curricula. Much of the effort goes into developing active learning opportunities and rigorous ways to measure student learning and attitudes. Results serve as feedback for both students and instructors. Over 10 research projects have so far been initiated as a result of course and curriculum transformation. Examples include studies about: student attitudes towards Earth and Ocean Sciences; the effects of multiple instructors in courses; links between student in-class engagement and pedagogy; how certain instructional interventions promote metacognition; and others. Also, many modified courses use pre- and post-testing to measure learning gains. One undergraduate honors thesis, about assessing conceptual understanding of geological time, has been completed. Keys to fostering GER in our setting include: (1) faculty commitment to change, based on funding from CWSEI, (2) full-time Earth scientists (STLFs) who catalyze and support change, and (3) support from CWSEI science education experts. Specifically: - STLFs are trained Earth scientists but were not initially science education experts. Continuous support from CWSEI has been crucial for building expertise about how

  3. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  4. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  5. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  6. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  7. Examining the Professional Development Experiences and Non-Technical Skills Desired for Geoscience Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Ricci, J.; Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2014-12-01

    Professional development experiences, such as internships, research presentations and professional network building, are becoming increasingly important to enhance students' employability post-graduation. The practical, non-technical skills that are important for succeeding during these professional development experiences, such as public speaking, project management, ethical practices and writing, transition well and are imperative to the workplace. Thereby, graduates who have honed these skills are more competitive candidates for geoscience employment. Fortunately, the geoscience community recognizes the importance of these professional development opportunities and the skills required to successfully complete them, and are giving students the chance to practice non-technical skills while they are still enrolled in academic programs. The American Geosciences Institute has collected data regarding students' professional development experiences, including the preparation they receive in the corresponding non-technical skills. This talk will discuss the findings of two of AGI's survey efforts - the Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the Geoscience Careers Master's Preparation Survey (NSF: 1202707). Specifically, data highlighting the role played by internships, career opportunities and the complimentary non-technical skills will be discussed. As a practical guide, events informed by this research, such as AGI's professional development opportunities, networking luncheons and internships, will also be included.

  8. Accessible Earth: Enhancing diversity in the Geosciences through accessible course design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. A.; Lamb, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The tradition of field-based instruction in the geoscience curriculum, which culminates in a capstone geological field camp, presents an insurmountable barrier to many disabled students who might otherwise choose to pursue geoscience careers. There is a widespread perception that success as a practicing geoscientist requires direct access to outcrops and vantage points available only to those able to traverse inaccessible terrain. Yet many modern geoscience activities are based on remotely sensed geophysical data, data analysis, and computation that take place entirely from within the laboratory. To challenge the perception of geoscience as a career option only for the non-disabled, we have created the capstone Accessible Earth Study Abroad Program, an alternative to geologic field camp for all students, with a focus on modern geophysical observation systems, computational thinking, data science, and professional development.In this presentation, we will review common pedagogical approaches in geosciences and current efforts to make the field more inclusive. We will review curricular access and inclusivity relative to a wide range of learners and provide examples of accessible course design based on our experiences in teaching a study abroad course in central Italy, and our plans for ongoing assessment, refinement, and dissemination of the effectiveness of our efforts.

  9. 3D for Geosciences: Interactive Tangibles and Virtual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Kitsch, N.; Rosado, G.; Thompson, Z.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Point cloud processing provides a method of studying and modelling geologic features relevant to geoscience systems and processes. Here, software including Skanect, MeshLab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL are used in conjunction with 3D scanning hardware, including a Structure scanner and a Kinect camera, to create and analyze point cloud images of small scale topography, karst features, tunnels, and structures at high resolution. This project successfully scanned internal karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as an external waterfall feature. For comparison purposes, multiple scans of the same object were merged into single object files both automatically, using commercial software, and manually using open source libraries and code. Files with format .ply were manually converted into numeric data sets to be analyzed for similar regions between files in order to match them together. We can assume a numeric process would be more powerful and efficient than the manual method, however it could lack other useful features that GUI's may have. The digital models have applications in mining as efficient means of replacing topography functions such as measuring distances and areas. Additionally, it is possible to make simulation models such as drilling templates and calculations related to 3D spaces. Advantages of using methods described here for these procedures include the relatively quick time to obtain data and the easy transport of the equipment. With regard to openpit mining, obtaining 3D images of large surfaces and with precision would be a high value tool by georeferencing scan data to interactive maps. The digital 3D images obtained from scans may be saved as printable files to create physical 3D-printable models to create tangible objects based on scientific information, as well as digital "worlds" able to be navigated virtually. The data, models, and algorithms explored here can be used to convey complex scientific ideas to a range of

  10. Strategic Planning for Interdisciplinary Science: a Geoscience Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan, D.; Harbor, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University has engaged in a continuous strategic planning exercise for several years, including annual retreats since 1997 as an integral part of the process. The daylong Saturday retreat at the beginning of the fall semester has been used to flesh out the faculty hiring plan for the coming year based on the prior years' plans. The finalized strategic plan is built around the choice of three signature areas, two in disciplinary fields, (i) geodynamics and active tectonics, (ii) multi-scale atmospheric interactions and one interdisciplinary area, (iii) atmosphere/surface interactions. Our experience with strategic planning and the inherently interdisciplinary nature of geoscience helped us recently when our School of Science, which consists of seven departments, announced a competition for 60 new faculty positions that would be assigned based on the following criteria, listed in order of priority - (i) scientific merit and potential for societal impact, (ii) multidisciplinary nature of topic - level of participation and leveraging potential, (iii) alignment with Purdue's strategic plan - discovery, learning, engagement, (iv) existence of critical mass at Purdue and availability of faculty and student candidate pools, (v) corporate and federal sponsor interest. Some fifty white papers promoting diverse fields were submitted to the school and seven were chosen after a school-wide retreat. The department fared exceedingly well and we now have significant representation on three of the seven school areas of coalescence - (i) climate change, (ii) computational science and (iii) science education research. We are now in the process of drawing up hiring plans and developing strategies for allocation and reallocation of resources such as laboratory space and faculty startup to accommodate the 20% growth in faculty strength that is expected over the next five years.

  11. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  12. Online Experiential Learning: Effective Applications for Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Students today are rarely satisfied with a one-size-fits-all educational experience. The rapid changing landscape of the web and other technologies are breaking down communicationand geographic barries. More students are increasingly turning to the web for quality education that fits into their lives. As a result, higher education institutions are expanding their offerings through online courses. Nonetheless, online learning brings challenges as well as a fresh opportunityfor exploring practices not present in traditional higher education programs, particularly in the sciences. We are in a unique position to empower students to make strategic academic and professional decisions in global terms. Online learning, supportedwith hands-on and minds-on activities, actively engages student with critical thinking skills and higher level learning. This presentation will showcase examples from a series of geoscience and environmental science courses currently offered fully online at SUNY Empire State College (ESC). Taking advantage of the proliferation of tools currently available for online learning management systems, we will explore how we approach course developent to create an interactive learning environment. Students learn through case studies, group projects and understanding real-world issues while learning concepts. Particular focus will be given to an international collaboration with the Tecnologico de Monterrey, Chihuahua Campus. This collaboration took place during the Spring of 2015 with students from the fully-online, lower-level Geology and the Environment course at ESC and the upper-level, face-to-face Mobile Programming course in Mexico. Ultimately, the goal of this presentation is to show faculty members and afministrators the pedagogical principles and approach used with the expectation that it could help support development of online learning opportunities at their institutions.

  13. Some Strategies From SOARS for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.; Calhoun, A.

    2006-12-01

    The mission of SOARS® is to broaden participation in the geosciences by increasing the number of Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, and first-generation college students who enroll and succeed in graduate school in the atmospheric and related sciences. This mission contributes to national goals of developing a diverse, internationally competitive, and globally engaged workforce of scientists and engineers. SOARS is a multiyear undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program that uses three strategies: a strong learning community, a multidimensional mentoring program, and experience in research. Our presentation will describe SOARS' strategies in more detail, with an eye toward how such strategies might be adapted for other programs. To do this, we will draw upon recent research that documents how these strategies can be successfully implemented, including: - A survey of over 124 higher-education based STEM programs - A workshop report from the American Chemical Society emphasizing cooperation between industry and academia - An independent ethnographic study of the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Science (SOARS®) program, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) In the 11 years since SOARS' founding, 104 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 16 are still enrolled as undergraduates, and 60 have gone on to purse graduate school in STEM. Overall, this represents a success rate 91%. Of the 35 SOARS participants who have entered the workforce, 26 are in STEM related disciplines. Four SOARS participants have already earned their PhD, and additional 17 are in PhD programs. Seventeen protégés have earned Master's and entered the workforce, and 17 more protégés are enrolled in Master's programs.

  14. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  15. A project-based geoscience curriculum: select examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.; Kelso, P. R.; White, R. J.; Rexroad, C. B.

    2007-12-01

    Principles of constructivist educational philosophy serve as a foundation for the recently completed National Science Foundation sponsored undergraduate curricular revision undertaken by the Geology Department of Lake Superior State University. We integrate lecture and laboratory sessions utilizing active learning strategies that focus on real-world geoscience experiences and problems. In this presentation, we discuss details of three research-like projects that require students to access original data, process and model the data using appropriate geological software, interpret and defend results, and disseminate results in reports, posters, and class presentations. The projects are from three upper division courses, Carbonate Systems, Sequence Stratigraphy, and Geophysical Systems, where teams of two to four students are presented with defined problems of durations ranging from a few weeks to an entire semester. Project goals and location, some background information, and specified dates and expectations for interim and final written and oral reports are provided to students. Some projects require the entire class to work on one data set, some require each team to be initially responsible for a portion of the project with teams ultimately merging data for interpretation and to arrive at final conclusions. Some projects require students to utilize data from appropriate geological web sites such as state geological surveys. Others require students to design surveys and utilize appropriate instruments of their choice for field data collection. Students learn usage and applications of appropriate geological software in compiling, processing, modeling, and interpreting data and preparing formal reports and presentations. Students uniformly report heightened interest and motivation when engaged in these projects. Our new curriculum has resulted in an increase in students" quantitative and interpretive skills along with dramatic improvement in communication and

  16. Data assimilation techniques and modelling uncertainty in geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available "You cannot step into the same river twice". Perhaps this ancient quote is the best phrase to describe the dynamic nature of the earth system. If we regard the earth as a several mixed systems, we want to know the state of the system at any time. The state could be time-evolving, complex (such as atmosphere or simple and finding the current state requires complete knowledge of all aspects of the system. On one hand, the Measurements (in situ and satellite data are often with errors and incomplete. On the other hand, the modelling cannot be exact; therefore, the optimal combination of the measurements with the model information is the best choice to estimate the true state of the system. Data assimilation (DA methods are powerful tools to combine observations and a numerical model. Actually, DA is an interaction between uncertainty analysis, physical modelling and mathematical algorithms. DA improves knowledge of the past, present or future system states. DA provides a forecast the state of complex systems and better scientific understanding of calibration, validation, data errors and their probability distributions. Nowadays, the high performance and capabilities of DA have led to extensive use of it in different sciences such as meteorology, oceanography, hydrology and nuclear cores. In this paper, after a brief overview of the DA history and a comparison with conventional statistical methods, investigated the accuracy and computational efficiency of two main classical algorithms of DA involving stochastic DA (BLUE and Kalman filter and variational DA (3D and 4D-Var, then evaluated quantification and modelling of the errors. Finally, some of DA applications in geosciences and the challenges facing the DA are discussed.

  17. BCube: A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, S. S.; Pearlman, J.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    EarthCube is an NSF initiative that aims to transform the conduct of research through the creation of community-guided cyberinfrastructure enabling the integration information and data across the geosciences. Following an initial phase of concept and community development activities, NSF has made awards for the development of cyberinfrastructure 'building blocks.' In this talk we describe the goals and methods for one of these projects - BCube, for Brokering Building Blocks. BCube addresses the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the introduction of brokering technologies. Brokers, as information systems middleware, have existed for many years and are found in diverse domains and industries such as financial systems, business-to-business interfaces, medicine and the automotive industry, to name a few. However, the emergence of brokers in science is relatively new and is now being piloted with great promise in cyberinfrastructure and science communities in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere. Brokers act as intermediaries between information systems that implement well-defined interfaces, providing a bridge between communities using different specifications. The BCube project is helping to build a truly cross-disciplinary, global platform for data providers, cyberinfrastructure developers, and data users to make data more available and interoperable through a brokering framework. Building on the GEOSS Discover and Access Broker (DAB), BCube will develop new modules and services including * Expanded semantic brokering * Business Model support for work flows * Automated metadata generation * Automated linking to services discovered via web crawling * Plug and play for most community service buses * Credential passing for seamless access to data * Ranking of search results from brokered catalogs Because facilitating cross-discipline research involves cultural and well as technical challenges, BCube is also

  18. Ecoacoustic Music for Geoscience: Sonic Physiographies and Sound Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The author describes specific ecoacoustic applications in his original compositions, Sonic Physiography of a Time-Stretched Glacier (2015), Catalog of Roughness (2017), Sound Cast of Matanuska Glacier (2016) and Ecoacoustic Concerto (Eagle Rock) (2014). Ecoacoustic music uses technology to map systems from nature into music through techniques such as sonification, material amplification, and field recording. The author aspires for this music to be descriptive of the data (as one would expect from a visualization) and also to function as engaging and expressive music/sound art on its own. In this way, ecoacoustic music might provide a fitting accompaniment to a scientific presentation (such as music for a science video) while also offering an exemplary concert hall presentation for a dedicated listening public. The music can at once support the communication of scientific research, and help science make inroads into culture. The author discusses how music created using the data, sounds and methods derived from earth science can recast this research into a sonic art modality. Such music can amplify the communication and dissemination of scientific knowledge by broadening the diversity of methods and formats we use to bring excellent scientific research to the public. Music can also open the public's imagination to science, inspiring curiosity and emotional resonance. Hearing geoscience as music may help a non-scientist access scientific knowledge in new ways, and it can greatly expand the types of venues in which this work can appear. Anywhere music is played - concert halls, festivals, galleries, radio, etc - become a venue for scientific discovery.

  19. Syndication of the earth system: the future of geoscience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Scott M.; Hanson, Howard P.

    2003-01-01

    Current global change policy debate reverberates around the polarized extremes of civilization-level cooperation through treaties as a mitigation tactic, on the one hand, and a wait-and-see approach that may lead to a climatic tragedy of the commons, on the other. Meanwhile, energy technology research is rapidly generating a perception that it will be possible to tune the earth system via carbon sequestration and other types of biogeochemical engineering. The consequences of this potential for planetary management, based on provincial self-interest, include the transition of the earth sciences into a security industry involving proprietary scientific knowledge bases of biogeochemical cycling and the evolution of a climate-design brokerage dominated by military/industrial interests. As the dominant political powers perceive the potential for planetary engineering and consider implementation, the global economy will adjust to exploit new opportunities, perceptions of which will be determined by the quality of system simulations. The growth of a viable international climate-design community will profoundly influence the trajectory of the earth system by providing either the illusion or the reality of predictability. Although this process will be chaotic at first, the probability of stabilization will ultimately be enhanced because the vast resources of the military/industrial sector will become involved. These concepts are disturbingly familiar in that they acknowledge the pervasion of competition and conflict in human technological affairs. However, they are consistent with approaches used in thermodynamics, ecological energetics, behavioral evolution, economics, and interdisciplinary climate science to describe collectively the evolution of the earth system. This paper argues that the perception that the climate can be regulated inexpensively will create an economic driving force for international cartel-style management of the total earth system. That is, the earth

  20. Testing geoscience data visualization systems for geological mapping and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Huffman, J. N.; Forsberg, A. S.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Dickson, J. L.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Traditional methods of planetary geological mapping have relied on photographic hard copy and light-table tracing and mapping. In the last several decades this has given way to the availability and analysis of multiple digital data sets, and programs and platforms that permit the viewing and manipulation of multiple annotated layers of relevant information. This has revolutionized the ability to incorporate important new data into the planetary mapping process at all scales. Information on these developments and approaches can be obtained at http://astrogeology.usgs. gov/ Technology/. The processes is aided by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (see http://astrogeology. usgs.gov/Technology/) and excellent analysis packages (such as ArcGIS) that permit co-registration, rapid viewing, and analysis of multiple data sets on desktop displays (see http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ webgis/). We are currently investigating new technological developments in computer visualization and analysis in order to assess their importance and utility in planetary geological analysis and mapping. Last year we reported on the range of technologies available and on our application of these to various problems in planetary mapping. In this contribution we focus on the application of these techniques and tools to Venus geological mapping at the 1:5M quadrangle scale. In our current Venus mapping projects we have utilized and tested the various platforms to understand their capabilities and assess their usefulness in defining units, establishing stratigraphic relationships, mapping structures, reaching consensus on interpretations and producing map products. We are specifically assessing how computer visualization display qualities (e.g., level of immersion, stereoscopic vs. monoscopic viewing, field of view, large vs. small display size, etc.) influence performance on scientific analysis and geological mapping. We have been exploring four different environments: 1) conventional

  1. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiligman, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous workers have found a statistical correlation between the projected directions of the interstellar magnetic field and the major axes of planetary nebulae. This result has been examined theoretically using a numerical hydromagnetic model of a cold plasma nebula expanding into a uniform vacuum magnetic field, with nebular gas accreting on the surface. It is found that magnetic pressure alone is probably not sufficient to shape most planetary nebulae to the observed degree. Phenomena are discussed which could amplify simple magnetic pressure, alter nebular morphology and account for the observed correlation. (author)

  2. Vibration behavior optimization of planetary gear sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Shakeri Aski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method focused on planetary gear vibration reduction by means of tip relief profile modifications. A nonlinear dynamic model is used to study the vibration behavior. In order to investigate the optimal radius and amplitude, Brute Force method optimization is used. One approach in optimization is straightforward and requires considerable computation power: brute force methods try to calculate all possible solutions and decide afterwards which one is the best. Results show the influence of optimal profile on planetary gear vibrations.

  3. Tips and Tools for Teaching Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N. M.

    2011-10-01

    The poster will describe handson exercises with demonstrations, clicker questions and discussion to demonstrate how to help students understand planets on a deeper conceptual level. We'll also discuss ways to take the latest discoveries beyond "wow" and turn them into teachable moments. The goal is to give modern strategies for teaching planetary science, emphasizing physical concepts and comparative principles. All will be given digital copies of video clips, demonstration descriptions, clicker questions, web links and powerpoint slidesets on recent planetary science discoveries.

  4. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  5. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  6. Linking research, education and public engagement in geoscience: Leadership and strategic partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud and aerosol feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty in understanding and predicting Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013), and are the focus of multiple ongoing research studies. Clouds are a challenge because of their extreme variability and diversity. This is also what makes them interesting to people. Clouds may be the only essential climate variable with an Appreciation Society (https://cloudappreciationsociety.org/). As a result, clouds led me into a multi-decade effort to engage a wider public in observing and understanding our planet. A series of experiences in the mid-1990's led to a meeting with educators that resulted in the creation of the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line Project (S'COOL), which I directed for about 2 decades, and which engaged students around the world in ground truth observation and data analysis for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instruments. Beginning around 2003, I developed a contrail observation protocol for the GLOBE Program to serve a similar function for additional audiences. Starting in 2004, I worked with an interdisciplinary team to launch the MY NASA DATA Project, an effort to make the vast trove of NASA Earth Science data actually usable in K-12 classrooms and student projects. Later I gained key experiences around strategic partnerships as I worked from 2008 onward with tri-agency partners at NOAA and NSF to integrate activities around climate change education. Currently I serve as Program Scientist for Education & Communication in the Earth Science Division at NASA, where I have the privilege to oversee and guide these and related activities in education and public engagement around Earth system science. As someone who completed advanced degrees in aerospace engineering without ever taking an Earth science class, this ongoing engagement is very important to me. Understanding Earth processes should be integral to how all people choose to live on our planet. In my experience

  7. Build It, But Will They Come? A Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure Baseline Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the earth as a system requires integrating many forms of data from multiple fields. Builders and funders of the cyberinfrastructure designed to enable open data sharing in the geosciences risk a key failure mode: What if geoscientists do not use the cyberinfrastructure to share, discover and reuse data? In this study, we report a baseline assessment of engagement with the NSF EarthCube initiative, an open cyberinfrastructure effort for the geosciences. We find scientists perceive the need for cross-disciplinary engagement and engage where there is organizational or institutional support. However, we also find a possibly imbalanced involvement between cyber and geoscience communities at the outset, with the former showing more interest than the latter. This analysis highlights the importance of examining fields and disciplines as stakeholders to investments in the cyberinfrastructure supporting science.

  8. DOE/OBES/Geosciences initiative on radioactive-waste isolation in mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The Geosciences Program within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences supports fundamental research of scientific importance and of technological relevance in the energy field. The present document describes an ongoing scientific effort on the geoscience aspects of the emplacement of radioactive waste in a mined repository. Basic research in geochemical transport, rock mechanics, geodynamics and hydrologic modelings is needed to improve understanding of geoscience processes influenced by the introduction of mechanical and thermal stresses and by the introduction of new chemical and radioactive species to the subsurface. Laboratory and in-situ data are required for scaling, modeling, and predicting parameters most relevant to locating, developing, constructing, and operating geologic radioactive waste repositories. Testing and development of high resolution surface and borehole geophysical methods are needed for subsurface characterization. Special emphasis is given to the role of fractures because they control flow and are sites for geochemical interactions

  9. Virtual tours as a new teaching tool in geoscience: an example from the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Antoine; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Nomade, Jérome

    2013-04-01

    Since almost two decades, numerical tools allowed to spread the science to the people at large, worldwide. Within a few minutes, it is now easy to find a detailed course on one technical or scientific topic. A teacher can lead students to online contents (created by his/her own or by others) to complement his/her own course, with videos, maps or any other content that would remain accessible for the students a long time after the course itself. In geosciences, many national and international institutions provide real time monitoring of the Earth (e.g. seismicity, climate, volcanisms...) and / or scientific content based on active research or more mature results. There is little doubt that this new scientific content is a great step forward for the students and the researchers alike. Geosciences (and especially geology), however, usually require field observations and in situ measurements, and a good student curriculum cannot be achieved without a significant amount of walking, observations, and questions answered on the field. We, as geologists, all experienced days and days of sun, dust and pouring rain... Most of the universities provide the students with field courses that allow them to (try to) apply what they have learnt in the universities' buildings. However, these few days (often reduced to cut the costs and fit teachers' schedules) may not be sufficient given the complexity of the area visited and the possible lack of some parts of the teacher's explanations for various reasons. It is therefore important to build a virtual suite to the field itself to provide a cost-free support available year round, to eventually achieve or complete the field course. The new images technologies now offer amazing visualization capabilities to "show" the field in an interactive fashion. For instance, a few tens of pictures taken with a good SRL camera equipped with an ultra wide angle lens permit to build a 360° panorama with no deformation of a point of interest. Moreover

  10. Dynamic Reconfiguration in Planetary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In taking into account the ways in which material and social realms are constitutively entangled within organizations, it is rhetorically tempting to say that technologies and social structures reconfigure each other. But what does it mean to reconfigure? How does one "figure" the other and how do...... we fully embrace a mutually constitutive relationship when examining fluid relations? This paper delves into these questions by exploring how physical, social, material, technological, and organizational arrangements dynamically reconfigure each other in the duration of organizational practice. Using...... be gained by focusing attention on the dynamic reconfigurations between social and material realms. In so doing, we call attention to the ways in which current sociomaterial perspectives have difficulty articulating the shifting, figural, asymmetric and dynamic negotiations between people, social structures...

  11. SMALL PLANETARY SATELLITE COLORS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include published colors of small planetary satellites published up through December 2003. Small planetary satellites are defined as all...

  12. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinska, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  13. Standards-Based Open-Source Planetary Map Server: Lunaserv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, N. M.; Silva, V. H.; Bowley, K. S.; Lanjewar, K. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Lunaserv is a planetary capable Web Map Service developed by the LROC SOC. It enables researchers to serve their own planetary data to a wide variety of GIS clients without any additional processing or download steps.

  14. Creating and maintaining a successful geoscience pathway from 2YC to 4YC for Native Hawaiian Students: First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, M.; Eschenberg, A.; McCoy, F. W.; McManus, M. A.; Lee, K.; DeLay, J. K.; Taylor, S. V.; Dire, J.; Krupp, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the Fall of 2015, the two four year (4YC) institutions within the University of Hawaii (UH) system offering baccalaureate degrees in geosciences enrolled only six Native Hawaiian (NH) students out of a total of 194 students in geoscience degree programs. This percentage (3%) of NH students enrolled in geosciences is far lower than the percentage of NH students enrolled at any single institution in the UH system, which ranges from 14 to 42%. At the same time, only six (3%) of the 194 students enrolled in geoscience baccalaureate programs were transfer students from the UH community colleges. Of these six transfer students, three were NH. This reflects the need for increased transfer of NH in the geosciences from two year (2YC) to 4YC. In the Fall of 2015, UH Manoa's (UHM) School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) accounted for only 0.14% of transfer students from UH community colleges. This compares to 5% in the UHM School of Engineering and 27% in the UHM College of Arts and Sciences. As part of the first year of a multi-institutional five-year NSF TCUP-PAGE (Tribal Colleges and Universities Program - PArtnerships for Geoscience Education) award, we review our first steps and strategies for building a successful and sustainable geoscience transfer pathway for Native Hawaiian and community college students into the three undergraduate geoscience programs (Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and Geology & Geophysics) within SOEST.

  15. Video diaries on social media: Creating online communities for geoscience research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, V.

    2013-12-01

    Making video clips is an engaging way to learn and teach geoscience. As smartphones become increasingly common, it is relatively straightforward for students to produce ';video diaries' by recording their research and learning experience over the course of a science module. Instead of keeping the video diaries for themselves, students may use the social media such as Facebook for sharing their experience and thoughts. There are some potential benefits to link video diaries and social media in pedagogical contexts. For example, online comments on video clips offer useful feedback and learning materials to the students. Students also have the opportunity to engage in geoscience outreach by producing authentic scientific contents at the same time. A video diary project was conducted to test the pedagogical potential of using video diaries on social media in the context of geoscience outreach, undergraduate research and teaching. This project formed part of a problem-based learning module in field geophysics at an archaeological site in the UK. The project involved i) the students posting video clips about their research and problem-based learning in the field on a daily basis; and ii) the lecturer building an online outreach community with partner institutions. In this contribution, I will discuss the implementation of the project and critically evaluate the pedagogical potential of video diaries on social media. My discussion will focus on the following: 1) Effectiveness of video diaries on social media; 2) Student-centered approach of producing geoscience video diaries as part of their research and problem-based learning; 3) Learning, teaching and assessment based on video clips and related commentaries posted on Facebook; and 4) Challenges in creating and promoting online communities for geoscience outreach through the use of video diaries. I will compare the outcomes from this study with those from other pedagogical projects with video clips on geoscience, and

  16. The Evolution of Building a Diverse Geosciences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Houlton, Heather; Leahy, P. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1960s, the United States has had numerous systematic efforts to support diversity in all parts of society. The American Geosciences Institute has had active ongoing research and diversity promotion programs in the geosciences since 1972. Over this time, the drivers and goals of promoting a diverse discipline have evolved, including in the scope and definition of diversity. The success of these efforts have been mixed, largely driven by wildly different responses by specific gender and racial subsets of the population. Some critical cultural barriers have been solidly identified and mitigation approaches promoted. For example, the use of field work in promotion of geoscience careers and education programs is viewed as a distinct negative by many African American and Hispanic communities as it equates geoscience as non-professional work. Similarly, efforts at improving gender diversity have had great success, especially in the private sector, as life-balance policies and mitigations of implicit biases have been addressed. Yet success in addressing some of these cultural and behavioral issues has also started to unveil other overarching factors, such as the role of socio-economic and geographic location. Recent critical changes in the definition of diversity that have been implemented will be discussed. These include dropping Asian races as underrepresented, the introduction of the multiracial definition, evolution of the nature of gender, and the increased awareness of persons with disabilities as a critical diverse population. This has been coupled with dramatic changes in the drivers for promoting diversity in the geosciences in the U.S. from a moral and ethical good to one of economic imperative and recognizing the way to access the best talent in the population as the U.S. rapidly approaches being a majority minority society. These changes are leading to new approaches and strategies, for which we will highlight specific programmatic efforts both by AGI

  17. Broadening Pathways to Geosciences with an Integrated Program at The University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G.; Munson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Low participation of under-represented minorities (URM) in the geosciences is an acute issue at the University of Michigan (U-M), where the number of undergraduate URM students majoring in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) is typically 5% of total majors. The goal of our project is to substantially increase the number and success rate of underrepresented minorities majoring in EES at U-M. We are pursuing this goal with five primary objectives: (i) inspire and recruit high schools seniors to pursue geoscience at U-M, especially through hands-on experiences including field trips; (ii) establish infrastructure to support students interested in geosciences through the critical juncture between high school and college; (iii) increase the number of URM students transferring from community college; (iv) develop student interest in geosciences through research and field experiences; (v) expose students to career opportunities in the geosciences. To accomplish these objectives we are leveraging existing programs, including Earth Camp, Foundations for Undergraduate Teaching: Uniting Research and Education (FUTURE), M-Sci, and college academic advisors. Throughout our interactions with students from high-school through college, we expose them to career opportunities in the geosciences, including private industry, academia, and government agencies. Evaluation of the program revealed three main conclusions: (i) the program increased student interest in pursuing an earth science degree; (ii) participating students showed a marked increase in awareness about the various opportunities that are available with an earth science degree including pathways to graduate school and earth science careers; (iii) field trips were the most effective route for achieving outcomes (i) and (ii).

  18. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  19. Planetary sciences and exploration: An Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of impact craters records in the Indian shield have also been pursued and led to ... and emission of X-rays from planets as well as analytical modelling of martian ionosphere and ... Meteorite; moon; solar activity; solar system; martian atmosphere; planetary .... face layers of any meteorite reaching the earth, one.

  20. Keplerian planetary orbits in multidimensional Euclidian spaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that together, laid the foundation for classical three dimensional mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. Kepler's laws of planetary motion are also three scientific laws describing the ...

  1. Allowed planetary orbits in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintr, P.; Perinova, V.; Luks, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new law of the Titius-Bode type for planetary distances from the Sun is proposed. These distances for each planet are determined using appropriate nodal circle of a vibrating membrane. Regularities in the distribution of bodies in the solar system and in the systems of giant planets and some exoplanets are pointed out

  2. SPEX: the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, J. H. H.; Snik, F.; Stam, D. M.; Smit, J. M.; van Harten, G.; Keller, C. U.; Verlaan, A. L.; Laan, E. C.; ter Horst, R.; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S. G.; Voors, R.

    2017-11-01

    We present SPEX, the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration, which is a compact, robust and low-mass spectropolarimeter designed to operate from an orbiting or in situ platform. Its purpose is to simultaneously measure the radiance and the state (degree and angle) of linear polarization of sunlight that has been scattered in a planetary atmosphere and/or reflected by a planetary surface with high accuracy. The degree of linear polarization is extremely sensitive to the microphysical properties of atmospheric or surface particles (such as size, shape, and composition), and to the vertical distribution of atmospheric particles, such as cloud top altitudes. Measurements as those performed by SPEX are therefore crucial and often the only tool for disentangling the many parameters that describe planetary atmospheres and surfaces. SPEX uses a novel, passive method for its radiance and polarization observations that is based on a carefully selected combination of polarization optics. This method, called spectral modulation, is the modulation of the radiance spectrum in both amplitude and phase by the degree and angle of linear polarization, respectively. The polarization optics consists of an achromatic quarter-wave retarder, an athermal multiple-order retarder, and a polarizing beam splitter. We will show first results obtained with the recently developed prototype of the SPEX instrument, and present a performance analysis based on a dedicated vector radiative transport model together with a recently developed SPEX instrument simulator.

  3. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations...

  4. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  5. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  6. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons